AI holds the potential to replace humans for tactical tasks in military operations beyond current applications such as navigation assistance. For example, in the US, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) recently held the final round of its AlphaDogfight Trials where an algorithm controllinga simulated F-16 fighter was pitted against an Air Force pilot in virtual aerial combat. The algorithm won by 5-0. So what does this mean for the future of military operations?
The agencys deputy director remarked that these tools are now ready for weapons systems designers to be in the toolbox. At first glance, the dogfight shows that an AI-enabled air combat would provide tremendous military advantage including the lack of survival instincts inherent to humans, the ability to consistently operate with high acceleration stress beyond the limitations of the human body and high targeting precision.
The outcome of these trials, however, does not mean that this technology is ready for deployment in the battlefield. In fact, an array of considerations must be taken into account prior to their deployment and use namely the ability to adapt in real-life combat situations, physical limitations and legal compliance.
First, as with all technologies, the performance of an algorithm in its testing environment is bound to differ from real-life applications such as in the case of cluster munitions. For instance, Google Health developed an algorithm to help with diabetic retinopathy screening. While the algorithms accuracy rate in the lab was over 90 per cent, it did not perform well out of the lab because the algorithm was used to high-quality scans in its training, it rejected more than a fifth of the real-life scans which were deemed as being below the quality threshold required. As a result, the process ended up being as time-consuming and costly if not more so than traditional screening.
Similarly, virtual environments akin to the AlphaDogfight Trials do not reflect the extent of risks, hazards and unpredictability of real-life combat. In the dogfight exercise, for example, the algorithm had full situational awareness and was repeatedly trained to the rules, parameters and limitations of its operating environment. But, in a real-life dynamic andbattlefield, the list of variables is long and will inevitably fluctuate: visibility may be poor, extreme weather could affect operations and the performance of aircraft and the behaviour and actions of adversarieswill be unpredictable.
Every single eventuality would need to be programmed in line with the commanders intent in an ever-changing situation or it would drastically affect the performance of algorithms including in target identification and firing precision.
Another consideration relates to the limitations of the hardware that AI systems depend on. Algorithms depend on hardware to operate equipment such as sensors and computer systems each of which are constrained by physical limitations. These can be targeted by an adversary, for example, through electronic interference to disrupt the functioning of the computer systems which the algorithms are operating from.
Hardware may also be affected involuntarily. For instance, a pilotless aircraft controlled by an algorithm can indeed undergo higher accelerations, and thus, higher g-force than the human body can endure. However, the aircraft in itself is also subject to physical limitations such as acceleration limits beyond which parts of the aircraft, such as its sensors, may be severely damaged which in turn affects the algorithms performance and, ultimately, mission success. It is critical that these physical limitations are factored into the equation when deploying these machines especially when they so heavily rely on sensors.
Another major, and perhaps the greatest, consideration relates to the ability to rely on machines for legal compliance. The DARPA dogfight exclusively focused on the algorithms ability to successfully control the aircraft and counter the adversary, however, nothing indicates its ability to ensure that strikes remain within the boundaries of the law.
In an armed conflict, the deployment and use of such systems in the battlefield are not exempt from international humanitarian law (IHL) and most notably its customary principles of distinction, proportionality and precautions in attack. It would need to be able to differentiate between civilians, combatants and military objectives, calculate whether its attacks will be proportionate against the set military objective and live collateral damage estimates and take the necessary precautions to ensure the attacks remain within the boundaries of the law including the ability to abort if necessary. This would also require the machine to have the ability to stay within the rules of engagement for that particular operation.
It is therefore critical to incorporate IHL considerations from the conception and throughout the development and testing phases of algorithms to ensure the machines are sufficiently reliable for legal compliance purposes.
It is also important that developers address the 'black box' issue whereby the algorithms calculations are so complex that it is impossible for humans to understand how it came to its results. It is not only necessary to address the algorithms opacity to improve the algorithms performance over time, it is also key for accountability and investigation purposes in cases of incidents and suspected violations of applicable laws.
Algorithms are becoming increasingly powerful and there is no doubt that they will confer tremendous advantages to the military. Over-hype, however, must be avoided at the expense of the machines reliability on the technical front as well as for legal compliance purposes.
The testing and experimentation phases are key during which developers will have the ability to fine-tune the algorithms. Developers must, therefore, be held accountable for ensuring the reliability of machines by incorporating considerations pertaining to performance and accuracy, hardware limitations as well as legal compliance. This could help prevent incidents in real life that result from overestimating of the capabilities of AI in military operations.
Go here to see the original:
- The Next Generation Of Artificial Intelligence - Forbes - October 16th, 2020
- St. Louis Is Grappling With Artificial Intelligence's Promise And Potential Peril - St. Louis Public Radio - October 16th, 2020
- Looper column: Artificial intelligence, humanity and the future - SouthCoastToday.com - October 16th, 2020
- For artificial intelligence to flourish, governments need to think ahead about its responsible use - Firstpost - October 16th, 2020
- MediFind Selected as Finalist for Best in Artificial Intelligence in the Shorty Social Good Awards - The Wellsboro Gazette - October 16th, 2020
- The relentless threat of artificial intelligence taking our jobs away - Mint - October 16th, 2020
- Will artificial intelligence technology change the dairy industry - positivelyosceola.com - October 16th, 2020
- Penn Medicine researchers use artificial intelligence to identify early signs of Alzheimer's Disease - Express Computer - October 16th, 2020
- Futurism Reinforces Its Next-Gen Business Commerce Platform With Advanced Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Capabilities - Yahoo Finance - October 16th, 2020
- SparkCognition Advances the Science of Artificial Intelligence with 85 Patents - PRNewswire - October 16th, 2020
- Dont Be Afraid, BMW Promises To Keep Artificial Intelligence (AI) On A Tight Leash With These 7 Principles - CarScoops - October 16th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence in Government: Global Markets 2020-2025 - ResearchAndMarkets.com - Business Wire - August 31st, 2020
- Import Screening Pilot Unleashes the Power of Data - FDA.gov - August 31st, 2020
- Supercharge vegetation management and outage prediction with artificial intelligence - Utility Dive - August 31st, 2020
- Automation, artificial intelligence to be central in the post-Covid world - Economic Times - August 31st, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence Is the Next Top Gun - Bloomberg - August 31st, 2020
- Defense Innovation Unit Teaching Artificial Intelligence to Detect Cancer - Department of Defense - August 31st, 2020
- Toward a machine learning model that can reason about everyday actions - MIT News - August 31st, 2020
- How Artificial Intelligence is changing the way we search and find online - ITProPortal - August 31st, 2020
- TikTok Assets Cant Be Sold Without Chinas Approval - Bloomberg - August 31st, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence in Oil and Gas Market Global Size, Growth and Demand 2020 to 2030 - The News Brok - August 31st, 2020
- U of I to lead two of seven new national artificial intelligence institutes - University of Illinois News - August 31st, 2020
- Holocaust survivors will be able to share their stories after death thanks to a new project - 60 Minutes - CBS News - August 31st, 2020
- Funding boost for artificial intelligence in NHS to speed up diagnosis of deadly diseases - GOV.UK - August 31st, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence Identifies 80,000 Spiral Galaxies Promises More Astronomical Discoveries in the Future - SciTechDaily - August 31st, 2020
- Is Artificial intelligence the Future of IT Help Desk? - Analytics Insight - August 10th, 2020
- Experts Are Divided Over Future Of Artificial Intelligence But Agree On Its Growing Impact - Outlook India - August 10th, 2020
- "Artificial Intelligence Will Make Medicine Better in the Long Run" - Biophotonics.World - August 10th, 2020
- How machine learning and artificial intelligence can drive clinical innovation - PharmaLive - August 10th, 2020
- Top Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Investments in July 2020 - Analytics Insight - August 10th, 2020
- Job interviews: Recruiters are using artificial intelligence to analyse what you say to find the right hire - TechRepublic - August 10th, 2020
- The next frontier of human-robot relationships is building trust - Scroll.in - August 8th, 2020
- Game-Changing Artificial Intelligence Solution by PhotoShelter to Revolutionize Social Media Workflow as Premier Lacrosse League Returns to the Field... - August 8th, 2020
- How Artificial Intelligence is Helping to Fight against Coronavirus in India? - Analytics Insight - August 8th, 2020
- BLOG: How to capitalise on the Artificial Intelligence theme - Your Money - Your Money - August 8th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence and Its Partners - Modern Diplomacy - August 8th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence isnt destroying jobs, its making them more inclusive - The Globe and Mail - August 8th, 2020
- RadNet and Hologic Announce Collaboration to Advance the Development of Artificial Intelligence Tools in Breast Health - GlobeNewswire - August 7th, 2020
- COVID-19 Impacts: Artificial Intelligence-as-a-Service (AIaaS) Market Will Accelerate at a CAGR of Over 48% Through 2020-2024|Growing Adoption of... - August 7th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence in Business: The New Normal in Testing Times - Analytics Insight - August 7th, 2020
- VIEW: Digitisation in pathology and the promise of artificial intelligence - CNBCTV18 - August 7th, 2020
- What It Means to Be Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence - Medium - August 7th, 2020
- Not so Artificial Intelligence When is AI really AI? - EFTM - August 3rd, 2020
- IMD to explore artificial intelligence to improve forecasting, predict extreme weather events - Firstpost - August 3rd, 2020
- Examples of Failure in Artificial Intelligence - ReadWrite - August 3rd, 2020
- IMD plans to use artificial intelligence in weather forecasting - The Financial Express - August 3rd, 2020
- MLOps: What You Need To Know - Forbes - August 3rd, 2020
- Postdoctoral Research Associate in Artificial Intelligence job with DURHAM UNIVERSITY | 215559 - Times Higher Education (THE) - August 3rd, 2020
- How do CEO's Succeed with Artificial Intelligence at their Workplace? - Analytics Insight - August 3rd, 2020
- The future of Artificial Intelligence and what it means to the Enterprise? - Analytics Insight - August 3rd, 2020
- Artificial intelligence helps lead decisions over Intelligent automation and - 401kTV - August 3rd, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence and civil liability. Who pays the damages? - Lexology - August 3rd, 2020
- The AI-boost: Using more artificial intelligence will boost GDP growth - The Financial Express - August 3rd, 2020
- $19.9B Artificial Intelligence in Retail Industry, 2027 - Rising Focus on Blockchain and Adoption of 5G Technology - Yahoo Finance - August 3rd, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence Loses Some Of Its Edginess, But Is Poised To Take Off - Forbes - July 31st, 2020
- How artificial intelligence is transforming the world in the current pandemic situation? - Geospatial World - July 31st, 2020
- The NBA will use artificial intelligence and a tap-to-cheer app feature to help fans stuck at home get in the game - CNN - July 31st, 2020
- Different Scopes Of Artificial Intelligence To Dive In With! - Inventiva - July 31st, 2020
- Gatling Exploration to use artificial intelligence to identify possible gold targets at the Larder project in Ontario - Proactive Investors USA &... - July 31st, 2020
- Elon Musk Thinks that Artificial Intelligence Will Be 'Vastly Smarter' Than Humans in 5 Years - News18 - July 31st, 2020
- Church body recommends restrictions on Artificial Intelligence - The Tablet - July 31st, 2020
- How the Coronavirus Pandemic Is Breaking Artificial Intelligence and How to Fix It - Gizmodo - July 31st, 2020
- Using artificial intelligence to smell the roses - UC Riverside - July 30th, 2020
- Shield AI Recognized As One of the Most Promising Artificial Intelligence Companies - PR Web - July 30th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence needs an update on ethics to be able to help humanity in times of crisis - Economic Times - July 30th, 2020
- Reshaping Artificial Intelligence with the Help of Affordances - Analytics Insight - July 29th, 2020
- WISeKey to Showcase its Cybersecurity Solutions for Artificial Intelligence Used in Drones and Robots at SIDO 2020 - GlobeNewswire - July 28th, 2020
- GPT-3: The Next Revolution in Artificial Intelligence - Analytics Insight - July 28th, 2020
- FLY AI: the role of artificial intelligence in aviation - Airport Technology - July 28th, 2020
- Four university experts use Artificial Intelligence to discover that children don't like going to school on Mondays in Milton Keynes - Milton Keynes... - July 28th, 2020
- UF Announces $70 Million Artificial Intelligence Partnership with NVIDIA - University of Florida - July 28th, 2020
- People are using artificial intelligence to help sort out their divorce. Would you? - The Conversation AU - July 28th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence Is the Hope 2020 Needs - Bloomberg - July 28th, 2020
- Top Five Data Privacy Issues that Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Startups Need to Know - insideBIGDATA - July 28th, 2020
- I Am a Model and I Know That Artificial Intelligence Will Eventually Take My Job - Vogue.com - July 28th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence in Manufacturing Market Worth $16.7 Billion by 2026 - Exclusive Report by MarketsandMarkets - PRNewswire - July 28th, 2020
- The Global Artificial Intelligence in Accounting Market is expected to grow from USD 884.99 Million in 2019 to USD 4,779.11 Million by the end of 2025... - July 28th, 2020
- Imint is the Swedish firm that gives Chinese smartphones an edge in video production - TechCrunch - July 26th, 2020
- UF students, get used to this topic: artificial intelligence - Tampa Bay Times - July 26th, 2020
- Odisha to use artificial intelligence in organisation audit in big way - The New Indian Express - July 26th, 2020