Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a computer program or a machine to think and learn. It is also a field of study which tries to make computers "smart". They work on their own without being encoded with commands. John McCarthy came up with the name "artificial intelligence" in 1955.
In general use, the term "artificial intelligence" means a programme which mimics human cognition. At least some of the things we associate with other minds, such as learning and problem solving can be done by computers, though not in the same way as we do. Andreas Kaplan and Michael Haenlein define AI as a systems ability to correctly interpret external data, to learn from such data, and to use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation.
An ideal (perfect) intelligent machine is a flexible agent which perceives its environment and takes actions to maximize its chance of success at some goal or objective. As machines become increasingly capable, mental faculties once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition. For example, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an exemplar of "artificial intelligence": it is just a routine technology.
At present we use the term AI for successfully understanding human speech, competing at a high level in strategic game systems (such as Chess and Go), self-driving cars, and interpreting complex data. Some people also consider AI a danger to humanity if it continues to progress at its current pace.
An extreme goal of AI research is to create computer programs that can learn, solve problems, and think logically. In practice, however, most applications have picked on problems which computers can do well. Searching data bases and doing calculations are things computers do better than people. On the other hand, "perceiving its environment" in any real sense is way beyond present-day computing.
AI involves many different fields like computer science, mathematics, linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, and philosophy. Eventually researchers hope to create a "general artificial intelligence" which can solve many problems instead of focusing on just one. Researchers are also trying to create creative and emotional AI which can possibly empathize or create art. Many approaches and tools have been tried.
Borrowing from the management literature, Kaplan and Haenlein classify artificial intelligence into three different types of AI systems: analytical, human-inspired, and humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence generating cognitive representation of the world and using learning based on past experience to inform future decisions. Human-inspired AI has elements from cognitive as well as emotional intelligence, understanding, in addition to cognitive elements, also human emotions considering them in their decision making. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and social intelligence), able to be self-conscious and self-aware in interactions with others.
The first appearance of artificial intelligence is in Greek myths, like Talos of Crete or the bronze robot of Hephaestus. Humanoid robots were built by Yan Shi, Hero of Alexandria, and Al-Jazari. Sentient machines became popular in fiction during the 19th and 20th centuries with the stories of Frankenstein and Rossum's Universal Robots.
Formal logic was developed by ancient Greek philosophers and mathematicians. This study of logic produced the idea of a computer in the 19th and 20th century. Mathematician Alan Turing's theory of computation said that any mathematical problem could be solved by processing 1's and 0's. Advances in neurology, information theory, and cybernetics convinced a small group of researchers that an electronic brain was possible.
AI research really started with a conference at Dartmouth College in 1956. It was a month long brainstorming session attended by many people with interests in AI. At the conference they wrote programs that were amazing at the time, beating people at checkers or solving word problems. The Department of Defense started giving a lot of money to AI research and labs were created all over the world.
Unfortunately, researchers really underestimated just how hard some problems were. The tools they had used still did not give computers things like emotions or common sense. Mathematician James Lighthill wrote a report on AI saying that "in no part of the field have discoveries made so far produced the major impact that was then promised". The U.S and British governments wanted to fund more productive projects. Funding for AI research was cut, starting an "AI winter" where little research was done.
AI research revived in the 1980s because of the popularity of expert systems, which simulated the knowledge of a human expert. By 1985, 1 billion dollars were spent on AI. New, faster computers convinced U.S. and British governments to start funding AI research again. However, the market for Lisp machines collapsed in 1987 and funding was pulled again, starting an even longer AI winter.
AI revived again in the 90s and early 2000s with its use in data mining and medical diagnosis. This was possible because of faster computers and focusing on solving more specific problems. In 1997, Deep Blue became the first computer program to beat chess world champion Garry Kasparov. Faster computers, advances in deep learning, and access to more data have made AI popular throughout the world. In 2011 IBM Watson beat the top two Jeopardy! players Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings, and in 2016 Google's AlphaGo beat top Go player Lee Sedol 4 out of 5 times.
Continue reading here:
- Integrating Artificial Intelligence in Treatment Planning - Imaging Technology News - July 8th, 2020
- Viz.ai Named to Forbes AI 50 List of Most Promising Artificial Intelligence Companies - Yahoo Finance - July 8th, 2020
- COVID-19 Impact and Recovery Analysis | Artificial Intelligence (AI) Market In BFSI Sector 2019-2023 | Focus On Autonomous Banking to Boost Growth |... - July 8th, 2020
- COVID-19 and Artificial Intelligence: How the pandemic has re-ignited a focus on the software - Savannah Morning News - July 8th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence: worth the hype? - BusinessCloud - July 8th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence Powered COVID-19 Diagnosis Tool to Seek Lung Scan Images from India - The Weather Channel - July 8th, 2020
- How Artificial Intelligence Could Lead to Better Investment Decisions - Barron's - July 8th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence should be used to augment human creativity - not replace it - Bizcommunity.com - July 8th, 2020
- LI startup predicts where COVID-19 will spike - Newsday - July 8th, 2020
- Forums held ahead of World Artificial Intelligence Conference - Chinadaily USA - July 8th, 2020
- VeChain Is Attending the World Artificial Intelligence Conference 2020 Hosted - AiThority - July 8th, 2020
- ContractPodAi and Bowmans Partner to Bring Artificial Intelligence-Powered Contract Management to the African Market - Business Wire - July 8th, 2020
- The Amalgamation of Human Brain and Artificial Intelligence - Analytics Insight - July 8th, 2020
- The main beneficiaries of artificial intelligence success are IT departments themselves - ZDNet - July 8th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence isn't all about the Terminator, tech sceptics are warned - Mirror Online - July 8th, 2020
- How Machine Learning Will Impact the Future of Software Development and Testing - ReadWrite - July 8th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence (AI) Definition - Investopedia - May 31st, 2020
- The Temptations Of Artificial Intelligence Technology And The Price Of Admission - Forbes - May 31st, 2020
- Artificial intelligence offers a chance to optimize COVID-19 treatment in international partnership - Vanderbilt University News - May 31st, 2020
- Reality Check: The Benefits of Artificial Intelligence - AiThority - May 31st, 2020
- Thanks To Renewables And Machine Learning, Google Now Forecasts The Wind - Forbes - May 31st, 2020
- Artificial intelligence is hopelessly biased - and that's how it will stay - TechRadar India - May 31st, 2020
- Top Artificial Intelligence Trends that will Change the Decade - Analytics Insight - May 31st, 2020
- Art and artifice - The Indian Express - May 31st, 2020
- The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Ethical Hacking | EC-Council Official Blog - EC-Council Blog - May 31st, 2020
- Microsoft is cutting dozens of MSN news production workers and replacing them with artificial intelligence - Seattle Times - May 31st, 2020
- Artificial intelligence software improves accuracy, doubles speed in evaluating CT scans of advanced cancer - UAB News - May 31st, 2020
- Coronavirus tests the value of artificial intelligence in medicine - FierceHealthcare - May 31st, 2020
- The Use of Artificial Intelligence by Investment Advisers: Considerations Based on an Advisers Fiduciary Duties - JD Supra - May 31st, 2020
- Lecturer in Artificial Intelligence for Digital Infrastructures job with UNIVERSITY OF BRISTOL | 208485 - Times Higher Education (THE) - May 31st, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence (AI) Market to Reach USD 202.57 Billion by 2026; Rising Demand for Cloud-based Applications to Aid Growth: Fortune Business... - May 31st, 2020
- Walmart Employees Are Out to Show Its Anti-Shoplifting AI Doesn't Work - WIRED - May 31st, 2020
- How artificial intelligence is keeping time-critical shipments on track during pandemic - FreightWaves - May 31st, 2020
- Coronavirus Update: Recent FTC Guidance on the Use of Artificial Intelligence and Algorithms in the Age of COVID-19 - Government Contracts Legal Forum - May 31st, 2020
- COVID-19 Impact: A Mix of Challenges and Opportunities | Artificial Intelligence-as-a-Service (AIaaS) Market 2020-2024 | Growing Adoption of Cloud... - May 31st, 2020
- IIT-Ropar and TSW Launch a PG Programme in Artificial Intelligence - THE WEEK - May 31st, 2020
- MS in Artificial Intelligence | Artificial Intelligence - May 19th, 2020
- What is Artificial Intelligence? | Azure Blog and Updates ... - May 19th, 2020
- What Are the Advantages of Artificial Intelligence ... - May 19th, 2020
- AI Tutorial | Artificial Intelligence Tutorial - Javatpoint - May 19th, 2020
- It's Called Artificial Intelligencebut What Is Intelligence? - WIRED - May 19th, 2020
- Powering the Artificial Intelligence Revolution - HPCwire - May 19th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence is struggling to cope with how the world has changed - ZDNet - May 19th, 2020
- An AI future set to take over post-Covid world - The Indian Express - May 19th, 2020
- A New Way To Think About Artificial Intelligence With This ETF - MarketWatch - May 19th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence-based imaging reconstruction may lead to incorrect diagnoses, experts caution - Radiology Business - May 19th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence in the Covid Frontline - Morningstar - May 19th, 2020
- Patent Analytics Market to Reach USD 1,668.4 Million by 2027; Integration of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence to Spur Business... - May 19th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence in Cancer: How Is It Used in Practice? - Cancer Therapy Advisor - May 19th, 2020
- Five Important Subsets of Artificial Intelligence - Analytics Insight - May 19th, 2020
- Ethical artificial intelligence: Could Switzerland take the lead? - swissinfo.ch - May 19th, 2020
- The Future of Artificial Intelligence: Edge Intelligence - Analytics Insight - May 19th, 2020
- 5 Ways Artificial Intelligence Is Changing Architecture - May 15th, 2020
- Keysight Validates Artificial Intelligence (AI) and ... - May 15th, 2020
- What Is Artificial Intelligence? Examples and News in 2019 ... - May 15th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence (AI) Is Nothing Without Humans - E3zine.com - May 15th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence is helping seniors who are isolated during the coronavirus pandemic - WXYZ - May 15th, 2020
- ValleyML is launching a Machine Learning and Deep Learning Boot Camp from July 14th to Sept 10th and AI Expo Series from Sept 21st to Nov 19th 2020.... - May 15th, 2020
- TSA Issues Road Map to Tackle Insider Threat With Artificial Intelligence - Nextgov - May 15th, 2020
- The Expanding Role Of Artificial Intelligence In Tax - Forbes - May 15th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence: Technology Of The Future - Forbes India - May 15th, 2020
- SparkCognition and Milize to Offer Automated Machine Learning Solutions for Financial Institutions to the APAC Region - PRNewswire - May 15th, 2020
- Alpha Modus Allowed 2nd Patent Leveraging Artificial Intelligence for Monitoring and Analyzing Consumer Behavior - Yahoo Finance - May 15th, 2020
- Tesla : Artificial Intelligence - the .AI domain is on the rise - marketscreener.com - May 15th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence Can Only Help Architecture if We Ask the Right Questions - ArchDaily - May 15th, 2020
- Fighting COVID-19: Artificial Intelligence community to help citizens and the healthcare system - Canada NewsWire - May 15th, 2020
- Understanding the Four Types of Artificial Intelligence - May 9th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence Facts for Kids - May 9th, 2020
- 4 Main Types of Artificial Intelligence - G2 - May 9th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence project lets Holocaust survivors ... - May 9th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence Market by Size, Share, Analysis ... - May 9th, 2020
- A.I. Artificial Intelligence movie review (2001) | Roger Ebert - May 9th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence is Evolving to Process the World Like Humans - Interesting Engineering - May 9th, 2020
- Drug research turns to artificial intelligence in COVID-19 fight - Business in Vancouver - May 9th, 2020
- Women wanted: Why now could be a good time for women to pursue a career in AI - CNBC - May 9th, 2020
- Artificial Intelligence Used to Identify Light Sources With Far Fewer Measurements - Unite.AI - May 9th, 2020
- The Impending Artificial Intelligence Revolution in Healthcare - Op-Ed - HIT Consultant - May 9th, 2020
- COVID-19 identification in X-ray images by Artificial intelligence - News Anyway - May 9th, 2020
- Is artificial intelligence the answer to the care sector amid COVID-19? - Descrier - May 9th, 2020
- Artificial intelligence - Wikipedia - April 26th, 2020