University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

The University of Hawaii system, (formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as U.H.), is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States. All schools of the University of Hawaii system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The U.H. system’s main administrative offices are located on the property of the University of Hawaii at Mnoa in Honolulu CDP.[3][4][5]

The University of Hawaii at Mnoa, founded as a land grant college under the terms of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts (known as “land-grant colleges” of public state universities especially in the West and Mid-West) in the United States, is the flagship institution of the University of Hawaii system. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific Studies, Astronomy, East Asian Languages and Literature, Asian Studies, Comparative Philosophy, Marine Science, Second Language Studies, along with Botany, Engineering, Ethnomusicology, Geophysics, Law, Business, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Medicine. The second-largest institution is the University of Hawaii at Hilo on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, with over 3,000 students. The smaller University of Hawaii-West Oahu in Kapolei primarily serves students who reside on Honolulu’s western and central suburban communities. The University of Hawaii Community College system comprises four community colleges island campuses on O’ahu and one each on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. The schools were created to improve accessibility of courses to more Hawaii residents and provide an affordable means of easing the transition from secondary school/high school to college for many students. University of Hawaii education centers are located in more remote areas of the State and its several islands, supporting rural communities via distance education.

In accordance with Article X, Section 6 of the Hawaii State Constitution, the University of Hawaii system is governed by a Board of Regents, composed of 15 unpaid members who are nominated by a Regents Candidate Advisory Council, appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the state legislature. The Board oversees all aspects of governance for the university system, including its internal structure and management. The board also appoints, evaluates, and if necessary removes the President of the University of Hawaii.[8]

The University’s governing board includes a current student appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve a two-year term as a full voting regent. The practice of appointing a student to the Board was approved by the Hawaii State Legislature in 1997.

Alumni of the University of Hawaii system include many notable persons in various walks of life. Senator Daniel Inouye and Tammi Duckworth both are veterans of the US military who were injured during in the line of duty then later entered government service. Bette Midler and Georgia Engel are successful entertainers on the national stage. President Barack Obama’s parents, Barack Obama, Sr., and S. Ann Dunham, and half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, also earned degrees from the Mnoa campus, where his parents met in a Russian language class. His mother earned three degrees from the University of Hawaii including a Ph.D. in anthropology.

The University of Hawaii system has had many faculty members of note. Many were visiting faculty or came after they won major awards like Nobel Laureate Dr. Georg von Bksy. Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, principal investigator of the research group that developed a method of cloning from adult animal cells, is still on the faculty.

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Department of Lithospheric Research Home

Department of Lithospheric Research

The Department of Lithospheric Research deals with all aspects of the geological investigation of Earth’s lithosphere. Main fields of interest are the petrological, geochemical and geochronological characterisation of plutonic, ophiolitic, and metamorphic rock units of the continental and oceanic crust, respectively. Our investigations are thereby focused on the Alpine orogeny. Other topics of interest are the investigation of geochemical and metasomatic processes in the upper sub-continental mantle in South America and Siberia, the investigation of meteorite impacts on Earth and their influence on the environment, the investigation of meteorites, and the archaeometrical characterisation of artefacts.

Head: Rainer Abart



Impact Research

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Space research – Wikipedia

Space research is scientific studies carried out using scientific equipment in outer space. It includes the use of space technology for a broad spectrum of research disciplines, including Earth science, materials science, biology, medicine, and physics. The term includes scientific payloads everywhere from deep space to low Earth orbit, and is frequently defined to include research in the upper atmosphere using sounding rockets and high-altitude balloons. Space science and space exploration involve the study of outer space itself, which is only part of the broader field of space research. Major Space Research Agencies in the World.

For centuries, the Chinese had been using rockets for ceremonial and military purposes. But it wasnt until the latter-half of the 20th Century where rockets were developed to overcome Earths gravity. Such advances were made simultaneously in three countries by three scientists. In Russia, Konstantin Tsiolkovski, in the United States was Robert Goddard, and in Germany was Hermann Oberth.

After the end of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union created their own missile programs and space research emerged as a field of scientific investigation based on the advancing rocket technology. In 1948-1949 detectors on V-2 rocket flights detected x-rays from the Sun.[1]Sounding rockets proved useful for studies of the structure of the upper atmosphere. As higher altitudes were reached, the field of space physics emerged with studies of aurorae, the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Notable as the start of satellite-based space research is the detection of the Van Allen radiation belt by Explorer 1 in 1958, four months after the launch of the first satellite, Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957. In the following year space planetology emerged with a series of lunar probes, e.g. the first photographs of the far side of the Moon by Luna 3 in 1959.

The early space researchers obtained an important international forum with the establishment of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in 1958, which achieved an exchange of scientific information between east and west during the cold war, despite the military origin of the rocket technology underlying the research field.[2]

On April 12, 1961, Russian Lieutenant Yuri Gagarin was the first human to orbit Earth in Vostok 1. In 1961, US astronaut Alan Shepard was the first American in space. And on July 20, 1969, astronaut Neil Armstrong was the first human on the Moon. On April 19, 1971, the Soviet Union launched the Salyut 1, which was the first space station of any kind. On May 14, 1973, Skylab, the first American space station was launched using a modified Saturn V rocket.[3]

Space research includes the following fields of science:[4][5]

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite was a NASA-led mission launched on September 12, 1991. The 5,900lb. satellite was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-48 mission on 15 September 1991. It was the first multi-instrumented satellite to study various aspects of the Earths atmosphere and have a better understanding of photochemistry. After 14 years of service, the UARS finished its scientific career in 2005.[6]

The INTEGRAL is an operational space satellite launched by the European Space Agency in 2002. INTEGRAL provides insight into the most energetic forms of in space, such as black holes, neutron stars, and supernovas.[7] INTEGRAL also plays an important role in researching one of the most exotic and energetic phenomena that occurs in space, gamma-rays.

The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 and it sped humanity to one of its greatest advances to understand the universe. The discoveries made by the HTS have changed the way scientists look at the universe. It winded the amount of space theories as it sparked new ones. Among its many discoveries, the HTS played a key role in conjunction with other space agencies in the discovery of dark energy, a mysterious force that causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate. More than 10,000 articles have been published by Hubble data, and it has surpassed its expected lifetime.

The launch of the NASA-led GEMS mission is scheduled for November 2014.[8] The spacecraft will use an X-Ray telescope to measure the polarization of x-rays coming from black holes and neutron stars. It will also conduct research on remnants of supernovae stars that have exploded. Few experiments have been conducted in X-Ray polarization since the 1970s, and scientists expect GEMS will break new ground. Through GEMS, scientists will be able to improve their knowledge in black holes, in particular whether matter around a black hole is confined to a flat-disk, a puffed disk, or a squirting jet.

Salyut 1 was the first space station ever built. It was launched in April 19, 1971 by the Soviet Union. The first crew failed entry into the space station. The second crew was able to spend twenty-three days in the space station, but this achievement was quickly overshadowed since the crew died on reentry to Earth. Salyut 1 was intentionally deorbited six months into orbit since it prematurely ran out of fuel.[9]

Skylab was the first American space station. It was launched in May 19, 1973. It rotated through three crews of three during its operational time. Skylabs experiments confirmed coronal holes and were able to photograph eight solar flares.[10]

From 1986 to 2001, Russian space station Mir served as a permanent microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of outer space.

The International Space Station has played a key role in advances in space research. Since the arrival of Expedition 1 in November 2000, the station has been continuously occupied for 700851071040000000016years and 67days, having exceeded the previous record of almost ten years set by the Russian station Mir.[11] The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct tests in biology, physics, astronomy and many other fields.

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Education Landsat Science

Landsat Education offers a wide range of resources, including Landsat images, animations, K-14 classroom exercises, data tutorials, fact sheets, and more.

We encourage you to contact us with your questions and feedback and to share your ideas about using Landsat for learning and teaching.

Additionally, NASAWavelength.org is a digital collection of NASA Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels from elementary to college, to out-of-school programs. These resources, developed through funding of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD), have undergone a peer-review process through which educators and scientists ensure the content is accurate and useful in an educational setting. Use NASA Wavelength to quickly and easily locate resources, create your own collections within NASA Wavelength, connect them to other websites using atom feeds, and even share resources through social media.

How people use Landsat; understanding Landsat; how to get data; multimedia

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Education Landsat Science

Eve online planetary interaction


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Planetary science – Wikipedia

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science,[1] but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.[1] Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology.

There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science. Observational research can involve a combination of space exploration, predominantly with robotic spacecraft missions using remote sensing, and comparative, experimental work in Earth-based laboratories. The theoretical component involves considerable computer simulation and mathematical modelling.

Planetary scientists are generally located in the astronomy and physics or Earth sciences departments of universities or research centres, though there are several purely planetary science institutes worldwide. There are several major conferences each year, and a wide range of peer-reviewed journals.

The history of planetary science may be said to have begun with the Ancient Greek philosopher Democritus, who is reported by Hippolytus as saying

The ordered worlds are boundless and differ in size, and that in some there is neither sun nor moon, but that in others, both are greater than with us, and yet with others more in number. And that the intervals between the ordered worlds are unequal, here more and there less, and that some increase, others flourish and others decay, and here they come into being and there they are eclipsed. But that they are destroyed by colliding with one another. And that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and all water.[2]

In more modern times, planetary science began in astronomy, from studies of the unresolved planets. In this sense, the original planetary astronomer would be Galileo, who discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, the mountains on the Moon, and first observed the rings of Saturn, all objects of intense later study. Galileo’s study of the lunar mountains in 1609 also began the study of extraterrestrial landscapes: his observation “that the Moon certainly does not possess a smooth and polished surface” suggested that it and other worlds might appear “just like the face of the Earth itself”.[3]

Advances in telescope construction and instrumental resolution gradually allowed increased identification of the atmospheric and surface details of the planets. The Moon was initially the most heavily studied, as it always exhibited details on its surface, due to its proximity to the Earth, and the technological improvements gradually produced more detailed lunar geological knowledge. In this scientific process, the main instruments were astronomical optical telescopes (and later radio telescopes) and finally robotic exploratory spacecraft.

The Solar System has now been relatively well-studied, and a good overall understanding of the formation and evolution of this planetary system exists. However, there are large numbers of unsolved questions,[4] and the rate of new discoveries is very high, partly due to the large number of interplanetary spacecraft currently exploring the Solar System.

This is both an observational and a theoretical science. Observational researchers are predominantly concerned with the study of the small bodies of the Solar System: those that are observed by telescopes, both optical and radio, so that characteristics of these bodies such as shape, spin, surface materials and weathering are determined, and the history of their formation and evolution can be understood.

Theoretical planetary astronomy is concerned with dynamics: the application of the principles of celestial mechanics to the Solar System and extrasolar planetary systems.

The best known research topics of planetary geology deal with the planetary bodies in the near vicinity of the Earth: the Moon, and the two neighbouring planets: Venus and Mars. Of these, the Moon was studied first, using methods developed earlier on the Earth.

Geomorphology studies the features on planetary surfaces and reconstructs the history of their formation, inferring the physical processes that acted on the surface. Planetary geomorphology includes study of several classes of surface feature:

The history of a planetary surface can be deciphered by mapping features from top to bottom according to their deposition sequence, as first determined on terrestrial strata by Nicolas Steno. For example, stratigraphic mapping prepared the Apollo astronauts for the field geology they would encounter on their lunar missions. Overlapping sequences were identified on images taken by the Lunar Orbiter program, and these were used to prepare a lunar stratigraphic column and geological map of the Moon.

One of the main problems when generating hypotheses on the formation and evolution of objects in the Solar System is the lack of samples that can be analysed in the laboratory, where a large suite of tools are available and the full body of knowledge derived from terrestrial geology can be brought to bear. Fortunately, direct samples from the Moon, asteroids and Mars are present on Earth, removed from their parent bodies and delivered as meteorites. Some of these have suffered contamination from the oxidising effect of Earth’s atmosphere and the infiltration of the biosphere, but those meteorites collected in the last few decades from Antarctica are almost entirely pristine.

The different types of meteorite that originate from the asteroid belt cover almost all parts of the structure of differentiated bodies: meteorites even exist that come from the core-mantle boundary (pallasites). The combination of geochemistry and observational astronomy has also made it possible to trace the HED meteorites back to a specific asteroid in the main belt, 4 Vesta.

The comparatively few known Martian meteorites have provided insight into the geochemical composition of the Martian crust, although the unavoidable lack of information about their points of origin on the diverse Martian surface has meant that they do not provide more detailed constraints on theories of the evolution of the Martian lithosphere.[5] As of July 24, 2013 65 samples of Martian meteorites have been discovered on Earth. Many were found in either Antarctica or the Sahara Desert.

During the Apollo era, in the Apollo program, 384 kilograms of lunar samples were collected and transported to the Earth, and 3 Soviet Luna robots also delivered regolith samples from the Moon. These samples provide the most comprehensive record of the composition of any Solar System body beside the Earth. The numbers of lunar meteorites are growing quickly in the last few years [6] as of April 2008 there are 54 meteorites that have been officially classified as lunar. Eleven of these are from the US Antarctic meteorite collection, 6 are from the Japanese Antarctic meteorite collection, and the other 37 are from hot desert localities in Africa, Australia, and the Middle East. The total mass of recognized lunar meteorites is close to 50kg.

Space probes made it possible to collect data in not only the visible light region, but in other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. The planets can be characterized by their force fields: gravity and their magnetic fields, which are studied through geophysics and space physics.

Measuring the changes in acceleration experienced by spacecraft as they orbit has allowed fine details of the gravity fields of the planets to be mapped. For example, in the 1970s, the gravity field disturbances above lunar maria were measured through lunar orbiters, which led to the discovery of concentrations of mass, mascons, beneath the Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris and Humorum basins.

If a planet’s magnetic field is sufficiently strong, its interaction with the solar wind forms a magnetosphere around a planet. Early space probes discovered the gross dimensions of the terrestrial magnetic field, which extends about 10 Earth radii towards the Sun. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles, streams out and around the terrestrial magnetic field, and continues behind the magnetic tail, hundreds of Earth radii downstream. Inside the magnetosphere, there are relatively dense regions of solar wind particles, the Van Allen radiation belts.

Geophysics includes seismology and tectonophysics, geophysical fluid dynamics, mineral physics, geodynamics, mathematical geophysics, and geophysical surveying.

Geodesy, also called geodetics, deals with the measurement and representation of the planets of the Solar System, their gravitational fields and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The science of geodesy has elements of both astrophysics and planetary sciences. The shape of the Earth is to a large extent the result of its rotation, which causes its equatorial bulge, and the competition of geologic processes such as the collision of plates and of vulcanism, resisted by the Earth’s gravity field. These principles can be applied to the solid surface of Earth (orogeny; Few mountains are higher than 10km (6mi), few deep sea trenches deeper than that because quite simply, a mountain as tall as, for example, 15km (9mi), would develop so much pressure at its base, due to gravity, that the rock there would become plastic, and the mountain would slump back to a height of roughly 10km (6mi) in a geologically insignificant time. Some or all of these geologic principles can be applied to other planets besides Earth. For instance on Mars, whose surface gravity is much less, the largest volcano, Olympus Mons, is 27km (17mi) high at its peak, a height that could not be maintained on Earth. The Earth geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth abstracted from its topographic features. Therefore, the Mars geoid is essentially the figure of Mars abstracted from its topographic features. Surveying and mapping are two important fields of application of geodesy.

The atmosphere is an important transitional zone between the solid planetary surface and the higher rarefied ionizing and radiation belts. Not all planets have atmospheres: their existence depends on the mass of the planet, and the planet’s distance from the Sun too distant and frozen atmospheres occur. Besides the four gas giant planets, almost all of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, and Mars) have significant atmospheres. Two moons have significant atmospheres: Saturn’s moon Titan and Neptune’s moon Triton. A tenuous atmosphere exists around Mercury.

The effects of the rotation rate of a planet about its axis can be seen in atmospheric streams and currents. Seen from space, these features show as bands and eddies in the cloud system, and are particularly visible on Jupiter and Saturn.

Planetary science frequently makes use of the method of comparison to give greater understanding of the object of study. This can involve comparing the dense atmospheres of Earth and Saturn’s moon Titan, the evolution of outer Solar System objects at different distances from the Sun, or the geomorphology of the surfaces of the terrestrial planets, to give only a few examples.

The main comparison that can be made is to features on the Earth, as it is much more accessible and allows a much greater range of measurements to be made. Earth analogue studies are particularly common in planetary geology, geomorphology, and also in atmospheric science.

Smaller workshops and conferences on particular fields occur worldwide throughout the year.

This non-exhaustive list includes those institutions and universities with major groups of people working in planetary science. Alphabetical order is used.

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Planetary science – Wikipedia

Earth on OLogy – AMNH

Earth is the dynamic planet that we call home. It formed over 4.5 billion years ago, and it has been changing ever since. Sometimes these changes happen very fast, like an earthquake or a volcanic eruption. But most changes happen so slowly we don’t notice them at all!

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Earth on OLogy – AMNH

Dawn Mission | Mission

Dawn delves into the unknown and achieves what’s never been attempted before. A mission in NASA’s Discovery Program, Dawn orbited and explored the giant protoplanet Vesta in 2011-2012, and now it is in orbit and exploring a second new world, dwarf planet Ceres.

Dawn’s goal is to characterize the conditions and processes of its earliest history by investigating in detail two of the largest protoplanets remaining intact since their formation. Ceres and Vesta reside in the main asteroid belt, the extensive region between Mars and Jupiter, along with many other smaller bodies. Each followed a very different evolutionary path, constrained by the diversity of processes that operated during the first few million years of solar system evolution. When Dawn visits Ceres and Vesta, the spacecraft steps us back in solar system time.

December 8 – Dawn Collecting Science Data in New Ceres Science Orbit

Dawn is healthy and making cosmic ray measurements in its new science orbit. (The November Dawn Journal explains the objective of these measurements.)

This sixth Ceres science orbit is elliptical, and navigators’ initial measurements show that it ranges in altitude between 4,670 miles (7,520 kilometers) and 5,810 miles (9,350 kilometers).

Want to know how far away Dawn is, or how fast it is traveling? These questions have multiple answers since the answer depends on what you use as a reference frame. Each simulation gives the answer to both of these questions with respect to the Sun, Ceres, Earth, and Vesta.

The Dawn spacecraft combines innovative state-of-the-art technologies pioneered by other recent missions with off-the-shelf components and, in some cases, spare parts and instrumentation left over from previous missions.

Dawn’s futuristic, hyper-efficient ion propulsion system allows Dawn to go into orbit around two different solar system bodies, a first for any spacecraft. Meeting the ambitious mission objectives would be impossible without the ion engines.

Dawn’s mission to Vesta and Ceres is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Dawn is a project of the directorate’s Discovery Program, managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. UCLA is responsible for overall Dawn mission science. Orbital ATK, Inc., of Dulles, Virginia, designed and built the spacecraft. JPL is managed for NASA by the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. The framing cameras were provided by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Gottingen, Germany, with significant contributions by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, and in coordination with the Institute of Computer and Communication Network Engineering, Braunschweig. The visible and infrared mapping spectrometer was funded and coordinated by the Italian Space Agency and built by SELEX ES, with the scientific leadership of the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, Italy, and is operated by the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Rome, Italy. The gamma ray and neutron detector was built by Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and is operated by the Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

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Reference Systems and Planetology


The Operational Direction “Reference Systems and Planetology” contributes to the elaboration of reference systems and timescales, integrates Belgium in the international reference frames, and studies the interior, rotation, dynamics, and crustal deformation of the Earth and other terrestrial planets and moons of our solar system. We actively participate in the development of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, such as GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) observation networks and their scientific products. The Operational Direction is responsible for the accurate realization of time in Belgium and participates in the international time scale UTC using GNSS time transfer. It is also involved in the Solar and Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE) where GNSS observations are used to monitor the Earth’s ionosphere and troposphere. The operational direction has a long history of research in geodesy, in particular in the astronomical and geophysical causes of rotation variations of the Earth. Additionally to the planet Earth, we have extended our research in geodesy and geophysics to the other terrestrial planets Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and to the moons of the solar system planets. The operational direction is involved in current and upcoming planetary missions and actively contributes to the development of new missions.

La Direction Oprationnelle Systmes de rfrence et Plantologie contribue l’laboration de systmes de rfrence et dchelles de temps, intgre la Belgique dans les repres de rfrence internationaux, et dans les tudes de l’intrieur de la Terre, de sa rotation, de sa dynamique et de ses dformations crustales aux niveaux local, rgional et global, ainsi que celles des autres plantes telluriques et des lunes de notre systme solaire. Nous participons activement au dveloppement des rseaux d’observations du Systme Global de Navigation par Satellites (GNSS, comme GPS, GLONASS et GALILEO) et de leurs produits scientifiques. La Direction Oprationnelle est responsable de la ralisation de lheure prcise en Belgique et participe l’chelle de temps internationale UTC utilisant le transfert de temps par GNSS. Elle est galement implique dans le Centre d’Excellence Terrestre et Solaire (STCE) o les observations GNSS sont utilises pour surveiller l’ionosphre de la Terre et la troposphre. La Direction Oprationnelle a dj quelques dcennies d’exprience en godsie et en particulier dans l’tude des causes astronomiques et gophysiques des variations de la rotation de la Terre. En plus de nos recherches en godsie et gophysique de la Terre, nous avons tendu nos recherches aux autres plantes terrestres Mars, Vnus et Mercure, et aux lunes des plantes du systme solaire. La Direction Oprationnelle est implique dans des missions plantaires actuelles et venir et contribue activement au dveloppement de nouvelles missions.

De operationele directie “Referentiesystemen en Planetologie” werkt mee aan de ontwikkeling van referentiesystemen en tijdschalen, integreert Belgi in de internationale referentiesystemen, en bestudeert de inwendige structuur, de rotatie, de dynamica en de korstvervorming van de Aarde en andere aardse planeten en manen van ons zonnestelsel. We nemen actief deel aan de ontwikkeling van waarnemingsnetwerken en wetenschappelijke producten van Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS, zoals GPS, GLONASS en Galileo). De operationele directie is verantwoordelijk voor de nauwkeurige realisatie van de tijd in Belgi en participeert in de internationale tijdschaal UTC met behulp van GNSS-tijdsoverdracht. Ze is ook betrokken bij het Solar and Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE) waar GNSS-waarnemingen worden gebruikt om de ionosfeer en troposfeer van de Aarde te bestuderen. De operationele directie heeft een decennialange ervaring in de geodesie, in het bijzonder in de studie van de astronomische en geofysische oorzaken van rotatieveranderingen van de Aarde. Naast ons onderzoek in de geodesie en geofysica van de Aarde bestuderen we ook de andere aardse planeten Mars, Venus en Mercurius, en manen van de planeten van ons zonnestelsel. De operationele directie neemt deel aan huidige en toekomstige planetaire missies en draagt actief bij aan de ontwikkeling van nieuwe missies.

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Reference Systems and Planetology

Planetology: Unlocking the Secrets of the Solar System

Thomas D. Jones, PhD, is a scientist, author, pilot, and veteran NASA astronaut. In more than eleven years with NASA, he flew on four space shuttle missions to Earth orbit. On his last flight, Dr. Jones led three spacewalks to install the centerpiece of the International Space Station, the American Destiny laboratory. He has spent fifty-three days working and living in space.

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Planetology: Unlocking the Secrets of the Solar System

What does planetology mean? – Definitions.net

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What does planetology mean? – Definitions.net

Earth Dynamics Observatory at the University of Arizona

Earth System Remote Sensing/Earth Dynamics Observatory University of Arizona Cluster Hire Announcement

The University of Arizona announces coordinated hiring of five tenure-track or tenured faculty positions in Earth system remote sensing to establish the Earth Dynamics Observatory (EDO) to respond to global challenges in Earth and environmental science, planetary science, and hazards and resource assessment.

EDO will combine unique mission operations and planetary science capabilities of the internationally recognized Lunar and Planetary Lab with remote sensing research in leading natural science programs including Geosciences, Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, the School of Natural and Resources and the Environment, and the Institute of the Environment, with instrument development and calibration through UA’s renowned Colleges of Science, Optical Sciences, and Engineering. EDO faculty will contribute to interdisciplinary research and educational programs oriented around remote sensing and Earth and planetary change, with the goal of developing instruments, deploying missions, and leading new research in applications of remote sensing.

We welcome applications for the first five EDO positions focused in five areas. For all positions, scientists may seek appointments in one or several Departments and Colleges within the University, depending on the research areas and interests of the scientist and the promotion of mission- and science-oriented objectives of EDO.

Appointees will be expected to contribute to innovative and quality teaching, advising, and mentoring at the graduate and undergraduate level, provide opportunities for student engagement in research, internship, externship, and professional training, participate in service and outreach, and promote the UA’s goals for broad representation among its students and workforce. EDO is seeking individuals who promote diversity in research, education, and outreach, and who have experience with a variety of collaborative, teaching, and curricular perspectives.

At the University of Arizona, we value our inclusive climate because we know that diversity in experiences and perspectives is vital to advancing innovation, critical thinking, solving complex problems, and creating an inclusive academic community. We translate these values into action by seeking individuals who have experience and expertise working with diverse students, colleagues and constituencies. Because we seek a workforce with diverse perspectives and experiences, we encourage minorities, women, veterans, and individuals with disabilities to apply. As an Employer of National Service, we also welcome alumni of AmeriCorps, Peace Corps, and other national service programs.

Instrument/Mission Leadership:We seek a scientist with experience in instrument and/or mission development and leadership in Earth remote sensing to coordinate large-scale collaborative projects across a variety of platforms (airborne, UAV, satellite), methods (multi/hyperspectral, radar, laser, gravity, etc.), and applications (e.g., atmospheric composition/properties, Earth surface, land cover, sea-surface, cryosphere, groundwater, etc.). The position is open-rank. In addition to promoting interdisciplinary collaboration across campus and with federal, regional, and industry partners, the scientist will also contribute to training students and researchers in remote sensing, and serve remote-sensing related needs of regional resource stakeholders. Inquiries should be directed to Jonathan Overpeck, jto@email.arizona.edu. Candidates should apply for position number F20158.

Remote Sensing Land-Water-Climate/Geospatial Analysis: We seek a scientist with expertise in remote sensing, modeling, and data analysis to address challenges in land surface, water cycle, resource, and hazards assessment using active and passive source methods, multi- and hyperspectral data, LiDAR, and other technologies. Experience with advancedspatial-temporal modeling and geospatial analysis related to environmental change and water in arid environments is expected. The scientist will engage researchers and students in interdisciplinary research and student training across Earth and environmental programs and curricula, and lead and collaborate on federal, industry, and public projects. Inquiries should be directed to Stuart Marsh, smarsh@email.arizona.edu. Candidates should apply for position number F20163.

Atmospheric remote sensing: Observing systems, encompassing a wide range of platforms from ground-based to satellites and measurement instruments from radar to chemical sensors, are key in our ability to understand, predict, assess, and mitigate changes in the Earth system. We seek a scientist with expertise in atmospheric remote sensing especially in the following areas: (1) passive and active remote sensing of the atmosphere (e.g., precipitation, clouds, water vapor, aerosols, and trace gases); (2) development and application of remote sensing retrieval algorithms and methods; (3) algorithm development and application of dual-polarization Doppler radar measurements; and (4) data assimilation. Inquiries should be directed to Xubin Zeng, xubin@atmo.arizona.edu. Candidates should apply for position number F20162.

Comparative planetology: We seek a scientist in the field of remote sensing of planetary surfaces, atmospheres, and/or interiors with relevance to multiple planets (including exoplanets) or solar system objects and to astrobiology, to provide context for understanding the Earth. Experience in field and lab work and theory are also desirable. The scientist will have expertise in planetary science and observing techniques to a) develop instrumentation and techniques and lead experiments for planetary science (including Earth), and b) provide perspective on the implications for Earth of knowledge about other planets and vice versa. Inquiries should be directed to Tim Swindle, tswindle@lpl.arizona.edu. Candidates should apply for position number F20164.

Satellite Geodesy: We seek a scientist using modern space geodetic techniques to understand Earth properties across a range of geophysical, hazards, and resource applications. Examples include study of Earths gravity field, GPS, InSAR, and LiDAR imaging, radar altimetry, and other methods to probe Earths surface and interior to understand earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, plate tectonics, mantle flow, glacier dynamics, sea level, and/or Earths rotational dynamics. This scientist will develop collaborative explorations into interconnected solid and fluid Earth systems for basic science, increase our ability to monitor Earth changes for resources and hazards assessment, strengthen our ability to compete for funding from external agencies and industry, and help define scientific objectives of future missions. Inquiries should be directed to Rick Bennett, rb0@email.arizona.edu. Candidates should apply for position number F20165.

Candidates can apply for all positions at http://www.uacareers.com, using the specific position numbers listed above.

Review of applications will begin 9 November 2015, and positions will remain open until filled.

Above: Photos of the Santa Catalina Mountains on Tucson’s northern edge (and links to photo sources). Left: Cathedral Pk from Sabino Canyon. Middle: Snow above Bear Canyon. Right the Santa Catalinas, from tucsonhikes.wordpress.com.

Last modified 12 September 2015

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Earth Dynamics Observatory at the University of Arizona

Planetology | Article about planetology by The Free Dictionary

The Geology of Mars provides an excellent introduction to the field of comparative planetology and should be a welcome addition to the bookshelf of planetary scientists. Comparative Planetology Distance Learning Course Outline Lucey of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology in Honolulu and his colleagues find that the crater floor, sampled in several places, has a slightly higher abundance of titanium and a significantly high er abundance of iron than the lunar crust does. The contract is for the provision of assistance for the definition, development and testing of digital subsystem of the instrument NO developed by the Institute for Research in Astrophysics and Planetology (IRAP) for the Solar Mission Orbiter of the ESA. After long scrutiny of the data, there it was, a slow but steady wind, releasing about 1 kg of plasma every second into the outer magnetosphere: this corresponds to almost 90 tonnes every day,” Dandouras of the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology in Toulouse, France, said. Here they introduce the field of planetology and present commentary on stunning out-of-this world images of Earth and its celestial neighbors from recent space probes. In addition, the principles behind propulsion systems, medical science and life support will be intertwined with basic research areas such as the structure of the galaxy, orbits, relativity and planetology. Exploiting GOCE data to the maximum, scientists from the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology in France, the French space agency CNES, the Institute of Earth Physics of Paris and Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, supported by ESA’s Earth Observation Support to Science Element, have been studying past measurements. Water in the small bodies of the solar system, comparative planetology and the search for life beyond the solar system, and growth of dust as the initial step toward planet formation comprise a small sample of the topics of individual chapters. The quality of these images from ChemCam is outstanding, and the mosaic image of the spectrometer analyses has been essential for scientific interpretation of the data,” said Sylvestre Maurice, Deputy Principal Investigator for ChemCam at France’s Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology (IRAP). Seeds continues to tackle such big topics as the scale of the cosmos, the sky and its cycles, the origins of modern astronomy, atmospheric telescopes, starlight and atoms, the sun, the family of stars, their formation and architecture and their deaths, neutron stars and black holes, the Milky Way and other galaxies, cosmology in the twenty-first century, the origin of the solar system, comparative planetology of the planets, meteorites, asteroids, comets, and the possibility that on other planets the residents are also asking “What are we? These results emphasise the importance of comparative planetology in modern planetary sciences: finding familiar geological features on alien worlds like Titan allows us to test the theories explaining their formation,” said Nicolas Altobelli, ESA’s Cassini-Huygens project scientist.

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Planetology | Article about planetology by The Free Dictionary

Activity: How Old

Key Words



terrestrial planet

outer planet


“New” Age Chart



Example for Mercury – for a person 20 years old on Earth: 20 x 365 = 7300 Earth days old 7300 / 88 (Earth days in Mercury’s year) = 83 The 20 Earth-year-old person would be 83 years old on Mercury!

Example for Jupiter – for a person 20 years old on Earth: 20 x 365 = 7300 Earth days old 12 Earth years x 365 Earth days/year = 4380 Earth days in one Jupiter year. 7300 / 4380 = 1.7 The 20 Earth-year-old person would be 1.7 years old on Jupiter!

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Activity: How Old

Unit 37: Short Talk – Planetology – 1-Language

Good morning everyone. My name is Professor Michael Andrews. On behalf of myself and my colleagues, I would like to welcome you to Extrasolar Planetology, which is a new class being offered by the Astronomy Department this year.

About twenty-five years ago, there was no solid proof that other planets existed beyond our solar system. Most astronomers at that time felt that planets had to be out there, but they could not see them or prove they were there. Why? Simply put, planets are small and space is vast. Imagine trying to see a pea with a telescope from a hundred miles away, and you’ll understand how hard it is to find planets that are light years distant.

Clearly, something changed, for we now have a class called Extrasolar Planetology. What changed? Well, mainly, instruments got better and sophisticated telescopes were put into space. As a result, astronomers began to find the proof that they had lacked before.

The very first good evidence for the existence of other planets came from observations of ‘wobbling’ stars. Using their high-tech instruments and space-based telescopes, astronomers found that some stars wobbled as they moved through space. What could be causing this the astronomers wondered? And then Eureka! The only likely explanation seemed to be that these stars were being affected by the gravity of unseen orbiting companions. In other words-planets!

And now, if you would please turn off the lights, I would like to show you some slides of a few of these wobbling stars.

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Unit 37: Short Talk – Planetology – 1-Language

MEMS: Comparative Planetology

The Modules goal is to understand the planets as individual worlds and as part of a larger family of the Solar System by studying their similarities and differences. The Module offers a look at what we know about our family of planets, and what we do not know. It also addresses what is currently known about the formation and evolution of the Solar System.


The Voyage Continues

Exploring Ice in the Solar System

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MEMS: Comparative Planetology

USGS Flagstaff Science Campus – Public Page

FSC History

The United States Geological Survey (USGS) Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) houses science centers and research teams of the USGS that have a diverse range of scientific expertise. The late Eugene Shoemaker established the Astrogeology Branch of the USGS in Flagstaff in 1963, as a research facility for the new science of planetary geology. Flagstaff’s clear air and high elevation made it a desirable location for telescope observations of the Moon and planets, and nearby Meteor Crater was a superb training ground for the Apollo astronauts. There and in the volcanic fields surrounding Flagstaff, astronauts tested equipment and were taught to look at the Moon through the eyes of a geologist.

While the initial focus of the FSC was lunar and planetary studies, other USGS groups began to migrate to the campus in the 1960s through the 1990s. Scientific collaboration among the various scientists located at the FSC provide one of the most unique USGS campuses in the country. The expertise of FSC scientists and collaboration opportunities provide the ability to address science issues related to water, ecosystems, climate and land-use change, energy and minerals, environmental health, and planetary exploration and study.

FSC staff provides outreach to other science organizations, schools, and to the general public. Scientists provide brown bag lectures on campus and other locations in Flagstaff. The public can take self-guided tours of FSC facilities and science displays. Also, FSC staff participates in Flagstaffs annual Festival of Science.

For more information about FSC outreach activities, please contact Greg Vaughan (gvaughan@usgs.gov, 928-556-7006)

The Flagstaff Remote Sensing Science Consortium (FRSSC, pronounced Frisk) includes scientists and other professionals at the USGS Flagstaff Science Campus (FSC) who develop and apply remote sensing techniques and methods in support of USGS science priorities and societal needs. Visit the FRSSC web page to learn more!

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USGS Flagstaff Science Campus – Public Page

Infrasound Laboratory, University of Hawaii

At the Infrasound Laboratory of the University of Hawaii, we use very sensitive microphones to listen to low-frequency sounds in the atmosphere. These sounds, known asinfrasoundbecause they are too low in frequency to be audible to the human ear, can carry through the atmosphere for thousands of kilometers.

At ISLA our primary mission is to operate listening stations as part of the International Monitoring System of theComprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. We also conduct research into acoustic source processes, propagation, instrumentation, signal and array processing, and software development.

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Infrasound Laboratory, University of Hawaii

Mystery of Ceres's Bright Spots Grows

New data from NASA’s Dawn spacecraft suggest varied origins for tantalizing gleams on the dwarf planet’s surface

The surface of the dwarf planet Ceres (shown here) has fewer large craters than researchers expected. Credit:NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA

Not all of the puzzling bright spots on the dwarf planet Ceres are alike. The closest-yet images of the gleams, taken from 45,000 kilometres away, suggest that at least two of the spots look different from one another when seen in infrared wavelengths.

The Hubble Space Telescope spied many of the bright spots from afar years ago, but the observations from NASA’sDawn spacecraftwhich began looping around Ceres on March 6are the first at close range. The images were released on April 13 in Vienna, Austria, at a meeting of the European Geosciences Union.

Scientists say that the bright spots may be related to ice exposed at the bottom of impact craters or from some kind of active geology. They glimmer tantalizingly in a new full-colour map of Ceres, obtained in February but released at the conference. The map uses false colours to tease out slight differences on the otherwise dark surface of Ceres.

This is the first idea of what the surface looks like, said Martin Hoffmann, a Dawn scientist from the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Gttingen, Germany.

Dawn is beginning to sharpen its view of the bright spots as it gets closer to Ceres. The new infrared images compare Spot 1, near Ceres’ equator, with a pair of bright spots collectively known as Spot 5. Some scientists have speculated that the latter could belinked to an icy plume.

Spot 1 appears darker in images from Dawn’s infrared spectrometer, said Federico Tosi, a Dawn scientist at the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology and the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics in Rome. That suggests that the area is cooler than the rest of the dwarf planet’s surface, supporting the idea that the spot is made of ice.

But for some reason Spot 5the brightest feature seen on Dawndoes not show up in infrared images. One possibility is that we still dont have enough resolution to see it in the proper way, said Tosi.

Dawn has also shown that some parts of Ceres are pockmarked by impact craters, while other regions seem smooth. So far there seem to be fewer large craters on Ceres than expected, says the mission’s principal investigator, Christopher Russell of the University of California, Los Angeles.

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Mystery of Ceres's Bright Spots Grows