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Bruce Swartz Self Taught Astronomer & Planetary …

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possibly the light blocked by some of the Moon being present and in line with Earth, giving us possibly a glimpse of some everyday visitors in and around our Sun. Maybe this craft was lit up by the extra light in deep space seen from here of course. Any other country could go without seeing this depending on how much light is in their line of view. .

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A S T E R O I D W I T H A N U M B E R (6) reflecting back to us. Great moments captured.

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200 Spam Threatswow I thought I was More Important Then That. They Must Have Slow Connections. You Got It Or You Dont Boys. Like My New Technique? Just Wait More To Come Tomorrow.

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This is right inside of the white areas that are always so bright and hard for telescope and cameras to reach the surface. More then 300 000 detailed scanned photos of the moon were taken by Space Stations and nobody found any structures? That is where you have to wonder about who gets to say what is up there. Amateur Astronomers are gaining more and more viewers on a large scale. Only a matter of time until this website gets noticed. As hard the attempts of idiots trying to hide this beautiful truth. You will never succeed. I am here to see that this is so. I remained without ads and the ones here you will see and many of you already know that I am being kept on idol. Out of the mainstreams and in darkness. I know the world will wake up very soon and it will be a very beautiful thing. It does not have to be apocalyptic just because that is what was written. Onwards I say and here is to another year of amazing discoveries. I just hope I wont be alone to enjoy them. Thanks to those who stick around. Thanks for the support.

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I was always in this to show the World what is up there in Space and on the Moon. No matter how much traffic I will get on my website. No matter how many people try to take me down. I will continue to create videos like the entire World was listening. Why? The World was lied too. Who would I be to find out some of the truth and not share with all my brothers and sisters. We live in a world of jealous people. If you enjoy the way I clarify the surface help me by sharing the word around everyone. I will appreciate it.

SINUS IRIDUM{ MASSIVE RIDGE LINES AND WALLS EXPOSED

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Mirrors can do a lot. It can also make us believe it is on fire. Mirrors look like fire when lights reflect onto them. When the Rulers Of The World Set something Up It Is Always Made To Look Natural and to blend in with nature so at times we look for clues in the wrong areas. Mother nature will tell us what is going on. Just observe her. She aint alone lollll.

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Spacecraft With(Wings ends Lifted Upwards) Long Cylindrical Slim body and a High Tail. Notice It Displacing Plasma In The Corona As It Enters Top Left At 10 oclock And Exits Top Right At 2: Oclock. We Clearly See The Sun Was Touched As The Corona Flares Up For Us In The Video. Notice The Wing With Cylindrical Motor On The Wing Like A Standard Airplane At Any Airport That Transports People. As funny as it Sounds. I know what I see. I posted the asteroid or unknown celestial object I caught beside the sun a few weeks before. I got it live spiraling by the Sun. IF YOU HAVE GOOD EYES I WATCHED IT 20 TIMES AND I CLEARLY SEE THE FLARING UP BEFORE THE CRAFT ENTERS THE SUNS CORONA, THAT IT IS THE MOTOR ON THE CRAFTS WING THAT IS BURNING AS IT SEEMS IT COULD BE ITS PROPULSION ATTEMPTS BEFORE ENTERING THE SUN. SERIOUSLY LOOK!

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Bruce Swartz Self Taught Astronomer & Planetary …

Eve online planetary interaction

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EVE Online and the EVE logo are the registered trademarks of CCP hf. All rights are reserved worldwide. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. EVE Online, the EVE logo, EVE and all associated logos and designs are the intellectual property of CCP hf. All artwork, screenshots, characters, vehicles, storylines, world facts or other recognizable features of the intellectual property relating to these trademarks are likewise the intellectual property of CCP hf. CCP hf. has granted permission to [insert your name or site name] to use EVE Online and all associated logos and designs for promotional and information purposes on its website but does not endorse, and is not in any way affiliated with, [insert name or site name]. CCP is in no way responsible for the content on or functioning of this website, nor can it be liable for any damage arising from the use of this website.

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University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

The University of Hawaii system (formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as U.H.) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States. All schools of the University of Hawaii system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The U.H. system’s main administrative offices are located on the property of the University of Hawaii at Mnoa in Honolulu CDP.[3][4][5]

The University of Hawaii at Mnoa is the flagship institution of the University of Hawaii system. It was founded as a land-grant college under the terms of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific Studies, Astronomy, East Asian Languages and Literature, Asian Studies, Comparative Philosophy, Marine Science, Second Language Studies, along with Botany, Engineering, Ethnomusicology, Geophysics, Law, Business, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Medicine. The second-largest institution is the University of Hawaii at Hilo on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, with over 3,000 students. The smaller University of Hawaii-West Oahu in Kapolei primarily serves students who reside on Honolulu’s western and central suburban communities. The University of Hawaii Community College system comprises four community colleges island campuses on O’ahu and one each on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. The schools were created to improve accessibility of courses to more Hawaii residents and provide an affordable means of easing the transition from secondary school/high school to college for many students. University of Hawaii education centers are located in more remote areas of the State and its several islands, supporting rural communities via distance education.

In accordance with Article X, Section 6 of the Hawaii State Constitution, the University of Hawaii system is governed by a Board of Regents, composed of 15 unpaid members who are nominated by a Regents Candidate Advisory Council, appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the state legislature. The Board oversees all aspects of governance for the university system, including its internal structure and management. The board also appoints, evaluates, and if necessary removes the President of the University of Hawaii.[8]

The University’s governing board includes a current student appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve a two-year term as a full voting regent. The practice of appointing a student to the Board was approved by the Hawaii State Legislature in 1997.

Alumni of the University of Hawaii system include many notable persons in various walks of life. Senator Daniel Inouye and Tammy Duckworth both are veterans of the US military who were injured during in the line of duty then later entered government service. Bette Midler and Georgia Engel are successful entertainers on the national stage. President Barack Obama’s parents, Barack Obama, Sr., and S. Ann Dunham, and half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, also earned degrees from the Mnoa campus, where his parents met in a Russian language class. His mother earned three degrees from the University of Hawaii including a Ph.D. in anthropology.

The University of Hawaii system has had many faculty members of note. Many were visiting faculty or came after they won major awards like Nobel Laureate Dr. Georg von Bksy. Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, principal investigator of the research group that developed a method of cloning from adult animal cells, is still on the faculty.

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University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

INAF – IAPS Roma | Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia …

Non pi vincolate alla lunghezza donda del segnale che vogliono ricevere, le antenne ultracompatte descritte sullultimo numero di Nature Communications si basano su membrane risonanti a frequenze acustiche specifiche. Abbiamo chiesto un commento a Maura Sandri dellInaf di Bologna

Il cacciatore desopianeti di nuova generazione, erede di Harps, ha superato tutti i test preliminari. Stefano Cristiani (Inaf): A fine anno lo strumento vedr la prima luce in cielo, e noi scienziati speriamo finalmente, dopo sei anni di lavoro, di poter iniziare lo studio di pianeti extrasolari

Grazie ai pi potenti laser ottici e a raggi X a disposizione all’acceleratore di Stanford, in California, un gruppo di ricerca a guida tedesca ha ricreato in laboratorio le condizioni estreme che nellinterno di pianeti giganti ghiacciati come Nettuno e Urano possono portare alla produzione di diamanti da composti di carbonio

Affascinano lumanit sin dai tempi pi antichi, ma attorno alla formazione dei loro nuclei planetesimi primordiali, residui della formazione del Sole e dei pianeti ci sono ancora molte domande aperte. Un contributo fondamentale al loro studio lo ha dato la missione Rosetta dell’Esa

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INAF – IAPS Roma | Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia …

Homepage INAF English

On October 14th 2015, the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) appointed Professor Nicol D’Amico as President of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Full professor in Astrophysics at University of Cagliari, D’Amico has been previously director of the INAF Astronomical Observatory in Cagliari and the director of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) Project.

Below, the latest news on the president:

Read more here:

Homepage INAF English

Satellite Observations Could Help Forecast an Eruption’s End – Eos

Researchers studying past volcanic activity found they could retrospectively predict when outflows of molten rock would cease for about 40% of effusive eruptions, the kind that produces flowing lava.

Developing a method to predict when a volcano will erupt has long remained out of reach. Less studied, but also important for public safety, is forecasting when eruptions will end, a feat that has proven equally elusive.

Now researchers are using satellite data to test a 1981 theory that lava flowforming eruptions follow a predictable pattern, and they have confirmed the pattern in many cases. Whats more, they find that using the theoretical model and observations from space as their guides, they can predict with considerable accuracy when those pattern-fitting eruptions will stop.

I actually didnt think it would work at all. I was happily surprised that it made sense and could be used.I actually didnt think it would work at all, said Estelle Bonny, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Hawaii at Mnoa who is affiliated with the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) and is the first author of a recent paper about the findings. She said that she had suspected the model was too simple for a complex natural process, but I was happily surprised that it made sense and could be used.

Effusive eruptions, characterized by lava flows, can go on and on. It might only be a couple of days, but it can also be a year, Bonny said. For people who live nearby, knowing when it will end can be important to knowing if they have to evacuate and, if they do evacuate, when they will be able to go back home.

British volcanologist Geoff Wadge came up with the 1981 theory that the rate of flow in an effusive eruption would follow an asymmetrical curve: an early cascade of lava, followed by a gradual decline.

Back then, measuring the rate of discharge involved difficult and dangerous field work, and scientists might get only one or two measurements per eruption. However, since 2000, instruments aboard NASAs Terra and Aqua satellites have taken infrared thermal measurements of active volcanoes four times a day, from which researchers readily calculate discharge rates. Now were lucky to have way more data sets than he had, Bonny said. We wanted to use this [abundance] of data to see if the theory still makes sense.

In a paper published online in June in the Bulletin of Volcanology, she and her adviser, Robert Wright, associate director of HIGP, looked at 104 effusive eruptions that took place at 34 different volcanoes over the past 15 years. Of these, 32 eruptions followed the asymmetrical Wadge curve, with an early peak and gradually slowing flow. Eight more were double-pulse eruptions: two initial bursts, followed by the same slow decline. Thirteen others she described as half Wadge: an early peak, followed by a slow flow that continues for a long time.

The remaining 51 eruptions followed no pattern at all. Its not perfect, Bonny said. Sometimes it doesnt show the trend, but sometimes it does.About halfway through the eruption you could have a good prediction.

For eruptions that did follow the model, the scientists found that they could use satellite data to forecast in retrospect when eruptions would end.

It took 3 days worth of observations to predict that the December 2005 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise on Reunion Island would last for 9 daysit ended up stopping on the 10th day.

The model also worked for longer volcanic activity, like the eruption of the Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka, Russia, that began in March 2011. Bonny found that the longer she observed the volcano, the more accurate her prediction became. After 102 days of observations, the model predicted that the eruption would end after 210 days, just 2 days shy of the actual duration of 212 days. About halfway through the eruption you could have a good prediction, she said. The prediction didnt change significantly after the halfway point.

What about eruptions that dont fit the pattern? The team didnt look at explosive eruptions. Those blasts generally offer little mystery about when they will end; most of the action typically ceases after that first, powerful bang.

Among the remaining lava-exuding eruptions the team investigated, Bonny found that the model could still predict double-pulse eruptions simply by resetting the curve at the second peak of the eruption.

However, she and Wright found that the model could predict endings for neither the half Wadge nor random-pattern eruptions. Nonetheless, Bonny said that applying the model to satellite measurements of such eruptions can still yield valuable insights. In about the same amount of time that it would take to forecast an eruptions duration, observers can figure out what type of eruption theyre dealing with, she noted.

Ben Kennedy, a volcanologist at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, said that the Hawaii team took the kind of space-based observing, data analysis, and modeling that represents the future of volcanology and applied those tools to a practical, public safety problem.

A massive part of the impact is the duration of the [eruption]; this affects all sorts of critical hazard management decisions.This paper is answering the right questions, Kennedy said. Hazard managers need to know what are the likely impacts of the event. A massive part of the impact is the duration of the [eruption]; this affects all sorts of critical hazard management decisions.

Although the study reaffirmed that every eruption is different, it also made significant steps toward classifying effusive eruptions, he said. It seems about 50% are behaving in a predictable way. And about 30% are behaving in a way that will allow accurate predictions during the eruption of when it might end.

For Bonny, thats the next step. So far, she has produced only retrospective predictions, but she is now making plans to test the model on volcanic eruptions in real timemaybe on a volcano close to home. Bonny said that a future eruption of the island of Hawaiis Klauea volcano, which has threatened nearby towns with lava flows in the past, would be a good case study for the modeling method.

Ilima Loomis (email: [emailprotected]), Freelance Journalist

See original here:

Satellite Observations Could Help Forecast an Eruption’s End – Eos

Homepage INAF English

On October 14th 2015, the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) appointed Professor Nicol D’Amico as President of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Full professor in Astrophysics at University of Cagliari, D’Amico has been previously director of the INAF Astronomical Observatory in Cagliari and the director of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) Project.

Below, the latest news on the president:

Read this article:

Homepage INAF English

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

The University of Hawaii system (formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as U.H.) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States. All schools of the University of Hawaii system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The U.H. system’s main administrative offices are located on the property of the University of Hawaii at Mnoa in Honolulu CDP.[3][4][5]

The University of Hawaii at Mnoa is the flagship institution of the University of Hawaii system. It was founded as a land-grant college under the terms of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific Studies, Astronomy, East Asian Languages and Literature, Asian Studies, Comparative Philosophy, Marine Science, Second Language Studies, along with Botany, Engineering, Ethnomusicology, Geophysics, Law, Business, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Medicine. The second-largest institution is the University of Hawaii at Hilo on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, with over 3,000 students. The smaller University of Hawaii-West Oahu in Kapolei primarily serves students who reside on Honolulu’s western and central suburban communities. The University of Hawaii Community College system comprises four community colleges island campuses on O’ahu and one each on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. The schools were created to improve accessibility of courses to more Hawaii residents and provide an affordable means of easing the transition from secondary school/high school to college for many students. University of Hawaii education centers are located in more remote areas of the State and its several islands, supporting rural communities via distance education.

In accordance with Article X, Section 6 of the Hawaii State Constitution, the University of Hawaii system is governed by a Board of Regents, composed of 15 unpaid members who are nominated by a Regents Candidate Advisory Council, appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the state legislature. The Board oversees all aspects of governance for the university system, including its internal structure and management. The board also appoints, evaluates, and if necessary removes the President of the University of Hawaii.[8]

The University’s governing board includes a current student appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve a two-year term as a full voting regent. The practice of appointing a student to the Board was approved by the Hawaii State Legislature in 1997.

Alumni of the University of Hawaii system include many notable persons in various walks of life. Senator Daniel Inouye and Tammy Duckworth both are veterans of the US military who were injured during in the line of duty then later entered government service. Bette Midler and Georgia Engel are successful entertainers on the national stage. President Barack Obama’s parents, Barack Obama, Sr., and S. Ann Dunham, and half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, also earned degrees from the Mnoa campus, where his parents met in a Russian language class. His mother earned three degrees from the University of Hawaii including a Ph.D. in anthropology.

The University of Hawaii system has had many faculty members of note. Many were visiting faculty or came after they won major awards like Nobel Laureate Dr. Georg von Bksy. Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, principal investigator of the research group that developed a method of cloning from adult animal cells, is still on the faculty.

View original post here:

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

INAF – IAPS Roma | Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia …

Uno studio su Pnas rivela come, in seguito al catastrofico impatto dellasteroide responsabile per lestinzione dei dinosauri, il nostro pianeta pass pi di due anni avviluppato da fitte nubi di cenere, capaci di bloccare la luce del Sole e impedire i processi di fotosintesi: un cataclisma ecologico che caus lestinzione di moltissime specie animali

Neanche un mese passato dalla pubblicazione di una ricerca che ha individuato acqua in (relativa) abbondanza nel mantello lunare. Ora la nuova analisi di una particolare roccia lunare, soprannominata Rusty Rock per la presenza superficiale di sali metallici, ribadisce invece che la Luna deve avere perso acqua e composti volatili allepoca in cui era []

Secondo i calcoli di Stampede2 e Pleiades, due supercomputer operativi allo Austin’s Texas Advanced Computing Center e alla Nasa, la tanto attesa eclissi del 21 agosto dovrebbe avere questo aspetto

Ecco come un’insipida zuppetta didrogeno diventa il nostro universo. Vi proponiamo, con il consenso dell’autrice, Patrizia Caraveo dellInaf Iasf di Milano, un articolo, pubblicato domenica scorsa sul Sole24Ore, sui temi affrontati nel libro La Storia del dove di Tommaso Maccacaro e Claudio Tartari

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INAF – IAPS Roma | Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia …

Satellite Observations Could Help Forecast an Eruption’s End – Eos

Researchers studying past volcanic activity found they could retrospectively predict when outflows of molten rock would cease for about 40% of effusive eruptions, the kind that produces flowing lava.

Developing a method to predict when a volcano will erupt has long remained out of reach. Less studied, but also important for public safety, is forecasting when eruptions will end, a feat that has proven equally elusive.

Now researchers are using satellite data to test a 1981 theory that lava flowforming eruptions follow a predictable pattern, and they have confirmed the pattern in many cases. Whats more, they find that using the theoretical model and observations from space as their guides, they can predict with considerable accuracy when those pattern-fitting eruptions will stop.

I actually didnt think it would work at all. I was happily surprised that it made sense and could be used.I actually didnt think it would work at all, said Estelle Bonny, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Hawaii at Mnoa who is affiliated with the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) and is the first author of a recent paper about the findings. She said that she had suspected the model was too simple for a complex natural process, but I was happily surprised that it made sense and could be used.

Effusive eruptions, characterized by lava flows, can go on and on. It might only be a couple of days, but it can also be a year, Bonny said. For people who live nearby, knowing when it will end can be important to knowing if they have to evacuate and, if they do evacuate, when they will be able to go back home.

British volcanologist Geoff Wadge came up with the 1981 theory that the rate of flow in an effusive eruption would follow an asymmetrical curve: an early cascade of lava, followed by a gradual decline.

Back then, measuring the rate of discharge involved difficult and dangerous field work, and scientists might get only one or two measurements per eruption. However, since 2000, instruments aboard NASAs Terra and Aqua satellites have taken infrared thermal measurements of active volcanoes four times a day, from which researchers readily calculate discharge rates. Now were lucky to have way more data sets than he had, Bonny said. We wanted to use this [abundance] of data to see if the theory still makes sense.

In a paper published online in June in the Bulletin of Volcanology, she and her adviser, Robert Wright, associate director of HIGP, looked at 104 effusive eruptions that took place at 34 different volcanoes over the past 15 years. Of these, 32 eruptions followed the asymmetrical Wadge curve, with an early peak and gradually slowing flow. Eight more were double-pulse eruptions: two initial bursts, followed by the same slow decline. Thirteen others she described as half Wadge: an early peak, followed by a slow flow that continues for a long time.

The remaining 51 eruptions followed no pattern at all. Its not perfect, Bonny said. Sometimes it doesnt show the trend, but sometimes it does.About halfway through the eruption you could have a good prediction.

For eruptions that did follow the model, the scientists found that they could use satellite data to forecast in retrospect when eruptions would end.

It took 3 days worth of observations to predict that the December 2005 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise on Reunion Island would last for 9 daysit ended up stopping on the 10th day.

The model also worked for longer volcanic activity, like the eruption of the Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka, Russia, that began in March 2011. Bonny found that the longer she observed the volcano, the more accurate her prediction became. After 102 days of observations, the model predicted that the eruption would end after 210 days, just 2 days shy of the actual duration of 212 days. About halfway through the eruption you could have a good prediction, she said. The prediction didnt change significantly after the halfway point.

What about eruptions that dont fit the pattern? The team didnt look at explosive eruptions. Those blasts generally offer little mystery about when they will end; most of the action typically ceases after that first, powerful bang.

Among the remaining lava-exuding eruptions the team investigated, Bonny found that the model could still predict double-pulse eruptions simply by resetting the curve at the second peak of the eruption.

However, she and Wright found that the model could predict endings for neither the half Wadge nor random-pattern eruptions. Nonetheless, Bonny said that applying the model to satellite measurements of such eruptions can still yield valuable insights. In about the same amount of time that it would take to forecast an eruptions duration, observers can figure out what type of eruption theyre dealing with, she noted.

Ben Kennedy, a volcanologist at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, said that the Hawaii team took the kind of space-based observing, data analysis, and modeling that represents the future of volcanology and applied those tools to a practical, public safety problem.

A massive part of the impact is the duration of the [eruption]; this affects all sorts of critical hazard management decisions.This paper is answering the right questions, Kennedy said. Hazard managers need to know what are the likely impacts of the event. A massive part of the impact is the duration of the [eruption]; this affects all sorts of critical hazard management decisions.

Although the study reaffirmed that every eruption is different, it also made significant steps toward classifying effusive eruptions, he said. It seems about 50% are behaving in a predictable way. And about 30% are behaving in a way that will allow accurate predictions during the eruption of when it might end.

For Bonny, thats the next step. So far, she has produced only retrospective predictions, but she is now making plans to test the model on volcanic eruptions in real timemaybe on a volcano close to home. Bonny said that a future eruption of the island of Hawaiis Klauea volcano, which has threatened nearby towns with lava flows in the past, would be a good case study for the modeling method.

Ilima Loomis (email: [emailprotected]), Freelance Journalist

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Satellite Observations Could Help Forecast an Eruption’s End – Eos

Bruce Swartz Self Taught Astronomer & Planetary …

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You have been put in a queue and all your spam will not be seen by anyone. Sorry. This I.P ADDRESS is Blocked and you can no longer come back. thanks for stopping by.

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A S T E R O I D W I T H A N U M B E R (6) reflecting back to us. Great moments captured.

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200 Spam Threatswow I thought I was More Important Then That. They Must Have Slow Connections. You Got It Or You Dont Boys. Like My New Technique? Just Wait More To Come Tomorrow.

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This is right inside of the white areas that are always so bright and hard for telescope and cameras to reach the surface. More then 300 000 detailed scanned photos of the moon were taken by Space Stations and nobody found any structures? That is where you have to wonder about who gets to say what is up there. Amateur Astronomers are gaining more and more viewers on a large scale. Only a matter of time until this website gets noticed. As hard the attempts of idiots trying to hide this beautiful truth. You will never succeed. I am here to see that this is so. I remained without ads and the ones here you will see and many of you already know that I am being kept on idol. Out of the mainstreams and in darkness. I know the world will wake up very soon and it will be a very beautiful thing. It does not have to be apocalyptic just because that is what was written. Onwards I say and here is to another year of amazing discoveries. I just hope I wont be alone to enjoy them. Thanks to those who stick around. Thanks for the support.

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I was always in this to show the World what is up there in Space and on the Moon. No matter how much traffic I will get on my website. No matter how many people try to take me down. I will continue to create videos like the entire World was listening. Why? The World was lied too. Who would I be to find out some of the truth and not share with all my brothers and sisters. We live in a world of jealous people. If you enjoy the way I clarify the surface help me by sharing the word around everyone. I will appreciate it.

SINUS IRIDUM{ MASSIVE RIDGE LINES AND WALLS EXPOSED

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Mirrors can do a lot. It can also make us believe it is on fire. Mirrors look like fire when lights reflect onto them. When the Rulers Of The World Set something Up It Is Always Made To Look Natural and to blend in with nature so at times we look for clues in the wrong areas. Mother nature will tell us what is going on. Just observe her. She aint alone lollll.

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Spacecraft With(Wings ends Lifted Upwards) Long Cylindrical Slim body and a High Tail. Notice It Displacing Plasma In The Corona As It Enters Top Left At 10 oclock And Exits Top Right At 2: Oclock. We Clearly See The Sun Was Touched As The Corona Flares Up For Us In The Video. Notice The Wing With Cylindrical Motor On The Wing Like A Standard Airplane At Any Airport That Transports People. As funny as it Sounds. I know what I see. I posted the asteroid or unknown celestial object I caught beside the sun a few weeks before. I got it live spiraling by the Sun. IF YOU HAVE GOOD EYES I WATCHED IT 20 TIMES AND I CLEARLY SEE THE FLARING UP BEFORE THE CRAFT ENTERS THE SUNS CORONA, THAT IT IS THE MOTOR ON THE CRAFTS WING THAT IS BURNING AS IT SEEMS IT COULD BE ITS PROPULSION ATTEMPTS BEFORE ENTERING THE SUN. SERIOUSLY LOOK!

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Hi man. I saw the many attempts youve done in helping me get back on track. Youve been around trying to get the old crew back and I Was told by a member of the website that your really going to bat for me and I just want to say thank you brother.

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Tres content de voir mes ami(e) de la France. Bienvenue tous le mondes. Je parle aussi tres bien le francais et jespere que si vous avez des questions, genez vous pas de me demander quoi que ce soit. Jai trouver des structures sur la lune et la NASA son pas tres content. Jai les preuves qui faut pour convaincre le mondes entiers que la Lune est Habite par des humains ou par des extra terrestres. Dur a envaler vous dites? Regarder pour vous memes. Aider moi La France passer ce messages a tous le mondes qui recherche la verite. VERITAS! Nos yeux son pas fait pour voir de la couleur en espaces mais je vous assure que la lune a beaucoup de couleurs. Les Longueur donde ces le secrete pour voir ce que nos yeux voit pas en temps normale. les LONGEUR DONDES INFRA ROUGE ET ULTRA VIOLET nous pouvons pas voir sans aide de filtrage ou de filtre. Interresants tu dit? Jai tous les preuves.

Constructed Crater With City

Ce site web restera toujours cache dans les ombrages et ces a vous de passer le mot. Ceci est vrai et tous les structures que jai trouver son vrai aussi. Merci de prendre le temps de partager.

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Bruce Swartz Self Taught Astronomer & Planetary …

Satellite Observations Could Help Forecast an Eruption’s End – Eos

Researchers studying past volcanic activity found they could retrospectively predict when outflows of molten rock would cease for about 40% of effusive eruptions, the kind that produces flowing lava.

Developing a method to predict when a volcano will erupt has long remained out of reach. Less studied, but also important for public safety, is forecasting when eruptions will end, a feat that has proven equally elusive.

Now researchers are using satellite data to test a 1981 theory that lava flowforming eruptions follow a predictable pattern, and they have confirmed the pattern in many cases. Whats more, they find that using the theoretical model and observations from space as their guides, they can predict with considerable accuracy when those pattern-fitting eruptions will stop.

I actually didnt think it would work at all. I was happily surprised that it made sense and could be used.I actually didnt think it would work at all, said Estelle Bonny, a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Hawaii at Mnoa who is affiliated with the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) and is the first author of a recent paper about the findings. She said that she had suspected the model was too simple for a complex natural process, but I was happily surprised that it made sense and could be used.

Effusive eruptions, characterized by lava flows, can go on and on. It might only be a couple of days, but it can also be a year, Bonny said. For people who live nearby, knowing when it will end can be important to knowing if they have to evacuate and, if they do evacuate, when they will be able to go back home.

British volcanologist Geoff Wadge came up with the 1981 theory that the rate of flow in an effusive eruption would follow an asymmetrical curve: an early cascade of lava, followed by a gradual decline.

Back then, measuring the rate of discharge involved difficult and dangerous field work, and scientists might get only one or two measurements per eruption. However, since 2000, instruments aboard NASAs Terra and Aqua satellites have taken infrared thermal measurements of active volcanoes four times a day, from which researchers readily calculate discharge rates. Now were lucky to have way more data sets than he had, Bonny said. We wanted to use this [abundance] of data to see if the theory still makes sense.

In a paper published online in June in the Bulletin of Volcanology, she and her adviser, Robert Wright, associate director of HIGP, looked at 104 effusive eruptions that took place at 34 different volcanoes over the past 15 years. Of these, 32 eruptions followed the asymmetrical Wadge curve, with an early peak and gradually slowing flow. Eight more were double-pulse eruptions: two initial bursts, followed by the same slow decline. Thirteen others she described as half Wadge: an early peak, followed by a slow flow that continues for a long time.

The remaining 51 eruptions followed no pattern at all. Its not perfect, Bonny said. Sometimes it doesnt show the trend, but sometimes it does.About halfway through the eruption you could have a good prediction.

For eruptions that did follow the model, the scientists found that they could use satellite data to forecast in retrospect when eruptions would end.

It took 3 days worth of observations to predict that the December 2005 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise on Reunion Island would last for 9 daysit ended up stopping on the 10th day.

The model also worked for longer volcanic activity, like the eruption of the Kizimen volcano in Kamchatka, Russia, that began in March 2011. Bonny found that the longer she observed the volcano, the more accurate her prediction became. After 102 days of observations, the model predicted that the eruption would end after 210 days, just 2 days shy of the actual duration of 212 days. About halfway through the eruption you could have a good prediction, she said. The prediction didnt change significantly after the halfway point.

What about eruptions that dont fit the pattern? The team didnt look at explosive eruptions. Those blasts generally offer little mystery about when they will end; most of the action typically ceases after that first, powerful bang.

Among the remaining lava-exuding eruptions the team investigated, Bonny found that the model could still predict double-pulse eruptions simply by resetting the curve at the second peak of the eruption.

However, she and Wright found that the model could predict endings for neither the half Wadge nor random-pattern eruptions. Nonetheless, Bonny said that applying the model to satellite measurements of such eruptions can still yield valuable insights. In about the same amount of time that it would take to forecast an eruptions duration, observers can figure out what type of eruption theyre dealing with, she noted.

Ben Kennedy, a volcanologist at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, said that the Hawaii team took the kind of space-based observing, data analysis, and modeling that represents the future of volcanology and applied those tools to a practical, public safety problem.

A massive part of the impact is the duration of the [eruption]; this affects all sorts of critical hazard management decisions.This paper is answering the right questions, Kennedy said. Hazard managers need to know what are the likely impacts of the event. A massive part of the impact is the duration of the [eruption]; this affects all sorts of critical hazard management decisions.

Although the study reaffirmed that every eruption is different, it also made significant steps toward classifying effusive eruptions, he said. It seems about 50% are behaving in a predictable way. And about 30% are behaving in a way that will allow accurate predictions during the eruption of when it might end.

For Bonny, thats the next step. So far, she has produced only retrospective predictions, but she is now making plans to test the model on volcanic eruptions in real timemaybe on a volcano close to home. Bonny said that a future eruption of the island of Hawaiis Klauea volcano, which has threatened nearby towns with lava flows in the past, would be a good case study for the modeling method.

Ilima Loomis (email: [emailprotected]), Freelance Journalist

Continued here:

Satellite Observations Could Help Forecast an Eruption’s End – Eos

August 3, 2017 – LPOD

image by K.C. Pau, Hong Kong

Comparative planetology is a powerful approach to understanding processes on different worlds. It has been used since early observers compared lunar features to landforms on Earth. The first stage of such a comparison is simply noticing similarities in morphology. Here KC points out the curved shores of a small bay on the East coast of Hong Kong with the Bay of Rainbows on the Moon. KC does not imply that Sinus Iridum resulted from water erosion of less resistant rock, but the similarity of a lowland being surrounded on three sides and open on the fourth is striking. In fact, that is probably why Riccioli called it a sinus/bay about 360 years ago. If we look more closely we see that bays on Earth occur along interfaces of land and liquid. That is true on the Moon too, but we also notice that completed lunar bays (craters) occur away from interfaces of mare and highlands, but not on Earth. So we might conclude that different processes caused the three landward sides of the bay on the Earth and the Moon. But there is a similarity in that the sea sides have missing walls. Did erosion remove the sea sides of lunar bays? Maybe. Was it erosion by mare lavas that destroyed the western rim of Le Monnier or the northern rim of Letronne? Or were these simply craters that formed on the edges of basins that dipped (or faulted) down toward their centers? There is little evidence for lava erosion of crater rims, yet the walls of Flamsteed P and other craters in the maria are often missing. Looking at a beautiful bay in Hong Kong caused us to consider how bays form on Earth and Moon, and even though there are few similarities in the processes, the thinking has been informative.

Chuck Wood

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August 3, 2017 – LPOD

Astronomers identify oldest known asteroid family – Phys.Org

August 3, 2017 An artist’s impression of an asteroid breaking up. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was part of an international team that recently discovered a relatively unpopulated region of the main asteroid belt, where the few asteroids present are likely pristine relics from early in solar system history. The team used a new search technique that also identified the oldest known asteroid family, which extends throughout the inner region of the main asteroid belt.

The main belt contains vast numbers of irregularly shaped asteroids, also known as planetesimals, orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter. As improved telescope technology finds smaller and more distant asteroids, astronomers have identified clusters of similar-looking bodies clumped in analogous orbits. These familial objects are likely fragments of catastrophic collisions between larger asteroids eons ago. Finding and studying asteroid families allows scientists to better understand the history of main belt asteroids.

“By identifying all the families in the main belt, we can figure out which asteroids have been formed by collisions and which might be some of the original members of the asteroid belt,” said SwRI Astronomer Dr. Kevin Walsh, a coauthor of the online Science paper detailing the findings. “We identified all known families and their members and discovered a gigantic void in the main belt, populated by only a handful of asteroids. These relics must be part of the original asteroid belt. That is the real prize, to know what the main belt looked like just after it formed.”

Identifying the very oldest asteroid families, those billions of years old, is challenging, because over time, a family spreads out. As asteroids rotate in orbit around the Sun, their surfaces heat up during the day and cool down at night. This creates radiation that can act as a sort of mini-thruster, causing asteroids to drift widely over time. After billions of years, family members would be almost impossible to identify, until now. The team used a novel technique, searching asteroid data from the inner region of the belt for old, dispersed families. They looked for the “edges” of families, those fragments that have drifted the furthest.

“Each family member drifts away from the center of the family in a way that depends on its size, with small guys drifting faster and further than the larger guys,” said team leader Marco Delbo, an astronomer from the Observatory of Cote d’Azur in Nice, France. “If you look for correlations of size and distance, you can see the shapes of old families.”

“The family we identified has no name, because it is not clear which asteroid is the parent,” Walsh said. “This family is so old that it appears to have formed over 4 billion years ago, before the gas giants in the outer solar system moved into their current orbits. The giant planet migration shook up the asteroid belt, removing many bodies, possibly including the parent of this family.”

The team plans to apply this new technique to the entire asteroid belt to reveal more about the history of the solar system by identifying the primordial asteroids versus fragments of collisions. This research was supported by the French National Program of Planetology and the National Science Foundation. The resulting paper, “Identification of a primordial asteroid family constrains the original planetesimal population,” appears in the August 3, 2017, online edition of Science.

Explore further: Orbital motions of over 100,000 asteroids visualized

More information: M. Delbo’ el al., “Identification of a primordial asteroid family constrains the original planetesimal population,” Science (2017). science.sciencemag.org/lookup/ 1126/science.aam6036

Who knew asteroids could be so beautiful and mesmerizing? In 2008, a group of astronomers led by Alex Parker did a study of the size distribution of asteroid families using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Asteroid …

(Phys.org) Data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) have led to a new and improved family tree for asteroids in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Asteroids on the main belt, situated between Mars and Jupiter, move around the sun in quasi circular orbits, so they do not undergo the temperature changes which, in comets, produce the characteristic tails. Nevertheless, …

During an almost two-week search, NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission team activated the spacecraft’s MapCam imager and scanned part of the surrounding space for elusive Earth-Trojan asteroidsobjects that scientists believe may …

(Phys.org)Hundreds of thousands of asteroids are known to orbit our Sun at distances ranging from near the Earth to beyond Saturn. The most widely known collection of asteroids, the “main belt,” contains some of the largest …

Planetary Science Institute researchers Vishnu Reddy and Driss Takir studied the surface composition of near-Earth asteroid 2004 BL86 during its close flyby of Earth earlier this week.

A NASA mission designed to explore the stars in search of planets outside of our solar system is a step closer to launch, now that its four cameras have been completed by researchers at MIT.

On July 5, 2017, NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory watched an active regionan area of intense and complex magnetic fieldsrotate into view on the Sun. The satellite continued to track the region as it grew and eventually …

Spectacular sunsets and sunrises are enough to dazzle most of us, but to astronomers, dusk and dawn are a waste of good observing time. They want a truly dark sky.

The elemental composition of the Sun’s hot atmosphere known as the ‘corona’ is strongly linked to the 11-year solar magnetic activity cycle, a team of scientists from UCL, George Mason University and Naval Research Laboratory …

According to one longstanding theory, our Solar System’s formation was triggered by a shock wave from an exploding supernova. The shock wave injected material from the exploding star into a neighboring cloud of dust and gas, …

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was part of an international team that recently discovered a relatively unpopulated region of the main asteroid belt, where the few asteroids present are likely pristine relics from early …

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But we’re about to start messing with asteroids and comets in their Solar orbits, just for fun and education to start. We’ll probably be unable for decades to compute whether we’ve put this “pristine garden of eden” in the crosshairs.

It will be a good idea to start thinking as the landlords of this system how we can provide such a location.

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Astronomers identify oldest known asteroid family – Phys.Org

SwRI part of international team identifying primordial asteroids – Space Daily

Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was part of an international team that recently discovered a relatively unpopulated region of the main asteroid belt, where the few asteroids present are likely pristine relics from early in solar system history. The team used a new search technique that also identified the oldest known asteroid family, which extends throughout the inner region of the main asteroid belt.

The main belt contains vast numbers of irregularly shaped asteroids, also known as planetesimals, orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter. As improved telescope technology finds smaller and more distant asteroids, astronomers have identified clusters of similar-looking bodies clumped in analogous orbits.

These familial objects are likely fragments of catastrophic collisions between larger asteroids eons ago. Finding and studying asteroid families allows scientists to better understand the history of main belt asteroids.

“By identifying all the families in the main belt, we can figure out which asteroids have been formed by collisions and which might be some of the original members of the asteroid belt,” said SwRI Astronomer Dr. Kevin Walsh, a coauthor of the online Science paper detailing the findings.

“We identified all known families and their members and discovered a gigantic void in the main belt, populated by only a handful of asteroids. These relics must be part of the original asteroid belt. That is the real prize, to know what the main belt looked like just after it formed.”

Identifying the very oldest asteroid families, those billions of years old, is challenging, because over time, a family spreads out. As asteroids rotate in orbit around the Sun, their surfaces heat up during the day and cool down at night. This creates radiation that can act as a sort of mini-thruster, causing asteroids to drift widely over time.

After billions of years, family members would be almost impossible to identify, until now. The team used a novel technique, searching asteroid data from the inner region of the belt for old, dispersed families. They looked for the “edges” of families, those fragments that have drifted the furthest.

“Each family member drifts away from the center of the family in a way that depends on its size, with small guys drifting faster and further than the larger guys,” said team leader Marco Delbo, an astronomer from the Observatory of Cote d’Azur in Nice, France. “If you look for correlations of size and distance, you can see the shapes of old families.”

“The family we identified has no name, because it is not clear which asteroid is the parent,” Walsh said. “This family is so old that it appears to have formed over 4 billion years ago, before the gas giants in the outer solar system moved into their current orbits. The giant planet migration shook up the asteroid belt, removing many bodies, possibly including the parent of this family.”

The team plans to apply this new technique to the entire asteroid belt to reveal more about the history of the solar system by identifying the primordial asteroids versus fragments of collisions.

This research was supported by the French National Program of Planetology and the National Science Foundation. The resulting paper, “Identification of a primordial asteroid family constrains the original planetesimal population,” appears in the August 3, 2017, online edition of Science.

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SwRI part of international team identifying primordial asteroids – Space Daily

4 Mpx CMOS Camera – 3D PLUS

Overview

This instrument has been integrated using the 3D PLUS technology in order to be as compact as possible. It includes includes 4 stacked levels in a 3D cube with a reduced volume of 35x35x23 mm3. The top level contains the 2048×2048 pixels color CMOS image sensor which is the key element of the camera. Images are provided by the CMOS sensor through the 10 LVDS multiplexable output pairs that can be configured as 20 single-ended outputs increasing the number of single-ended outputs up to 33 signals.

An FPGA is integrated in themodule andcan store images in the volatile memory placedat the same level and perform preliminary image processing as averaging, adding, windowing etc

The 3DCM681 space camerais suitable to cover a wide range of scientific applications such as planetology, but also platforms or launchers monitoring and star trackers.

2048 (H) * 2048 (V) active pixels on 5.5m pitch

User-configurable FPGA

Frame rate:

12 frames/s @ full resolution (12-bit mode)

16 frames/s @ full resolution (10-bit mode)

Embedded 2x512Mb SDRAM and 8Gb NAND Flash

Integrated clock and Timing generator

Integrated Image Signal Processor

Programmable gain amplifier and offset regulation

13 general purpose signals

10 LVDS output pairs and 2 LVDS input pairs

Radiation Hardened design

TID > 40Krad(Si)

SEL LET > 60MeV.cm/mg

Space Qualified Technology

Worldwide delivery guarantee

Original post:

4 Mpx CMOS Camera – 3D PLUS

China Ramping Up Quest to Become a Space Science Superpower – Scientific American

Time seems to move faster at the National Space Science Center on the outskirts of Beijing. Researchers are rushing around this brand-new compound of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in anticipation of the launch of the nation’s first X-ray telescope. At mission control, a gigantic screen plays a looping video showcasing the country’s major space milestones. Engineers focus intently on their computer screens while a state television crew orbits the room with cameras, collecting footage for a documentary about China’s meteoric rise as a space power. The walls are festooned with motivational slogans. Diligent and meticulous, says one. No single failure in 10,000 trials, encourages another.

For director-general Wu Ji, this 19.4-hectare, 914-million-yuan (US$135-million) campus represents the coming of age of China’s space-science efforts. In the past few decades, Wu says, China has built the capacity to place satellites and astronauts in orbit and send spacecraft to the Moon, but it has not done much significant research from its increasingly lofty vantage point. Now, that is changing. As far as space science is concerned, he says, we are the new kid on the block.

China is rushing to establish itself as a leader in the field. In 2013, a 1.2-tonne spacecraft called Chang’e-3 landed on the Moon, delivering a rover that used ground-penetrating radar to measure the lunar subsurface with unprecedented resolution. China’s latest space lab, which launched in September 2016, carries more than a dozen scientific payloads. And four additional missions dedicated to astrophysics and other fields have been sent into orbit in the past two years, including a spacecraft that is conducting pioneering experiments in quantum communication.

These efforts, the work of the CAS and other agencies, have made an impact well beyond the country’s borders. The space-science programme in China is extremely dynamic and innovative, says Johann-Dietrich Wrner, director-general of the European Space Agency (ESA) in Paris. It’s at the forefront of scientific discovery. Eagerly anticipated missions in the coming decade include attempts to bring back lunar samples, a joint CASESA project to study space weather and ground-breaking missions to probe dark matter and black holes.

But despite the momentum, many researchers in China worry about the nation’s future in space science. On July 2, a Long March-5 rocket failed during the launch of a communications satellite, raising concerns about an upcoming Moon mission that will use a similar vehicle. And broader issues cloud the horizon. The international and domestic challenges are formidable, says Li Chunlai, deputy director at the CAS’s National Astronomical Observatories in Beijing and a senior science adviser on the country’s lunar program. China is often sidelined in international collaboration, and in recent years it has had to compete with the United States for partners because of a US law that prohibits NASA from working with China. Within China, the government has not conducted strategic planning for space science or provided long-term financial support. The question is not how well China has been doing, says Li. But how long this will last.

China’s entry into the space age started with a song. In 1970, the country’s first satellite transmitted the patriotic tune ‘The East is Red’ from low Earth orbit. But it was only after the cultural revolution ended in 1976 that the nation made serious progress towards establishing a strong presence in space. The first major milestone came in 1999 with the launch of Shenzhou-1, an uncrewed test capsule that marked the start of the human space-flight programme. Since then, the country has notched up a series of successes, including sending Chinese astronauts into orbit and launching two space labs.

China’s space programme has made tremendous advances in a short period of time, says Michael Moloney, who directs boards covering aerospace and space science at the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in Washington DC. And science has progressively become a bigger part of missions run by both the China National Space Administration (CNSA), which governs lunar and planetary exploration, and the China Manned Space Agency. The country’s newest space lab, Tiangong-2, for example, hosts a number of scientific payloads, including an advanced atomic clock and a $3.4-million detector called POLAR for the study of -ray bursts blasts of high-energy radiation from collapsing stars and other sources.

The country’s first lunar forays orbiters launched in 2007 and 2010 were more engineering demonstrations than scientific missions, but that changed with the first lander, Chang’e-3. The mission made China the third nation to accomplish a soft landing on the Moon. More importantly, Chang’e-3 touched down in an area that had never been studied up close. Radar measurements and geochemical analyses unveiled a complex history of volcanic eruptions that could have happened as recently as 2 billion years ago1. It has really helped to bridge the gap in our understanding of the Moon’s past and deep structure, says study leader Xiao Long, a planetary geologist at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan.

The results have captured the attention of planetary scientists in other countries. There is an urgent need to determine the precise age and composition of the Moon’s youngest volcanism, says James Head, a specialist in planetary exploration at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. This might soon be possible. As early as December, the Chang’e-5 spacecraft will launch on a mission to return samples from near Mons Rmker, a region known to host volcanic rocks much younger than those obtained from the Apollo landing sites. It would be a fantastic addition to lunar science, Head says.

The rising fortunes of Chinese space science have come in part from efforts by the CAS, which worked through the 2000s to convince China’s government to boost the scientific impact of its missions. The academy’s efforts were eventually rewarded with a pot of money: the five-year Strategic Priority Program on Space Science kicked off in 2011 and provided $510 million for the development of four science satellites.

One of the missions that has yielded early results and garnered worldwide attention is the $100-million Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS) mission. The spacecraft launched in August 2016 and has been testing a peculiar phenomenon called entanglement, in which the quantum states of particles are linked to each other even if the particles are far apart. Last month, the QUESS team reported that it had used the satellite to beam a pair of entangled photons to two ground stations spaced 1,200 kilometers apart2 far exceeding an earlier record of 144 kilometers (ref. 3).

The team is also using the satellite to test the possibility of establishing a quantum-communication channel between Graz, near Vienna, and Beijing. The aim is to transmit information securely by encrypting it with a key encoded in the states of photons. If successful, a global quantum-communication network will no longer be a science fiction, says Pan Jian-wei, a physicist at the CAS’s University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei and the mission’s principal investigator.

Researchers are also expecting great things from the $300-million Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). The detector, which launched in 2015, is the most cutting-edge equipment for picking up high-energy cosmic rays, says Martin Pohl, an astrophysicist at University of Geneva in Switzerland and a co-principal investigator of the mission.

DAMPE’s data could help to determine whether a surprising pattern in the abundance of high-energy electrons and positrons detected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station comes from dark matter or from astronomical sources such as pulsars, says Pohl, who also works on the AMS. Because DAMPE is more sensitive than the AMS to high-energy particles, Pohl says, it will make a significant contribution.

The dark-matter and quantum missions launched just before the CAS’s space-science funding expired. Scientists, including Wu, had to battle for continued support. The Chinese government has lately prioritized applied research, and it took intense lobbying for the better part of 2016 before researchers convinced the government to allocate an additional $730 million to the CAS for space science over the next five years. It was not without a fight, Wu says. But we’ve managed to pull it off.

The new plan, which began this year, funds a number of missions slated for launch in the 2020s, including China’s first solar exploration mission and a remote-sensing spacecraft to study Earth’s water cycle.

The CNSA and the China Manned Space Agency have also been ramping up their space-science efforts. One source of excitement is a $440-million X-ray telescope led by the CNSA, called Enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry (eXTP). Planned for launch by 2025, the mission is being financed in part by European partners and involves hundreds of scientists from 20 countries. It is designed to study matter under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism that can be found only in space in the interior of neutron stars or around black holes, for instance.

The most innovative aspect of the satellite is its ability to simultaneously measure with high precision the timing, energy distribution and polarization of X-ray signals, which will provide insight into a range of X-ray sources, says co-principal investigator Marco Feroci, an astrophysicist at the Institute of Space Astrophysics and Planetology in Rome. eXTP will also carry a wide-field telescope to hunt for unusual, transient signals. Once it finds a potentially interesting source, all the other instruments will be zoomed in that direction, says Zhang Shuangnan, an astrophysicist at the CAS’s Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing, who is leading the mission. It’s the total weapon for X-ray astronomy.

Work is also progressing on projects led by the China Manned Space Agency. One is a dark-matter detector that has 15 times the sensitivity of DAMPE; it’s set to be installed on China’s permanent space station, which is slated for completion by 2022. There are also plans for a $730-million optical telescope to orbit near the space station. With a field of view 300 times that of the Hubble telescope, it will produce survey data that could be ideal for studying dark matter and dark energy as well as hunting for exoplanets, says Gu Yidong, a physicist at the CAS’s Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization in Beijing and a senior science adviser to the China Manned Space Agency.

Such projects suggest that collaboration is strengthening between the CAS and China’s other agencies involved with space. And a similar spirit is reflected abroad. China’s space programme has become increasingly confident and outward looking, says Wrner. In the past, announcements were made only after a mission was successful; now, China routinely broadcasts launches as they happen. And Chinese scientists are increasingly reaching out to their international colleagues, building ties through small-scale partnerships.

Most major CAS-led missions have European partners, with collaborations initiated by researchers on both sides. But ESA hopes to establish high-level cooperation with the rising space power. In early 2015, ESA and the CAS issued a call for proposals for space-science missions. They selected a project called Solar Wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE), to be led jointly and funded with $53 million from each group. The agencies work intimately together at every stage of the development, says Wu.

ESA and China collaborated more than a decade ago on a project called Double Star to study magnetic storms, but it was a China-led mission. Through SMILE, the agencies are testing a new, more intimate cooperation model. It’s about building trust and bridges, so we could better understand each other, says Fabio Favata, head of strategy planning and coordination at ESA. Hopefully, this will open the way for larger-scale cooperation in the future.

A nation that is notably absent from China’s current list of collaborators is the United States. In the past, China contributed key components to NASA missions. But NASA is now forbidden from such collaboration by a US law passed in 2011, and as a result China is excluded from participation in the International Space Station. On board is a product of earlier collaboration between the United States, China and a number of other countries the AMS.

Representatives from NASA and Chinese agencies still visit each other regularly. But with no official cooperation possible, there may be some inevitable replication of effort. In March, STROBE-X (Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays) a project similar to China’s eXTP mission was selected by NASA for further study. STROBE-X could launch by 2030, some five years after eXTP. Having two very similar missions at the same time is not ideal, says Colleen Wilson-Hodge, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and a member of the STROBE-X team. I wish there were a way we could all work together rather than competing with each other.

For China’s space scientists, however, the main challenge is to convince their own government of the need for long-term investment. Zhang, the leader of several astrophysics missions including eXTP, refers to the situation as a constant state of zhaobu baoxi, which translates as not knowing where the next meal will come from. We’ll be safe for another five years, he says. But nobody knows what will happen afterwards.

Feats of engineering and exploration still get priority over science. The Chinese space station, for instance, has a budget of $14.5 billion. But even though Chinese President Xi Jinping has said that the station will be China’s national laboratory in space, there is no dedicated fund for the development of its scientific payloads. The station might support science as Tiangong-2 does, providing power and communications to various experiments. But there is also the danger, Zhang says, that it will be a house without furniture.

At China’s sprawling National Space Science Center, the furniture is new, and the air still smells of fresh paint. Having secured the next bout of funding, Wu looks relaxed as he settles into a big leather armchair behind his desk. He acknowledges the institutional flaws but is optimistic about the future. So far, so good, he says, glancing at the satellite models that line his shelves. We can’t expect things to change overnight.

This article is reproduced with permission and wasfirst publishedon July 27, 2017.

Continued here:

China Ramping Up Quest to Become a Space Science Superpower – Scientific American

China’s quest to become a space science superpower – Nature.com

VCG/Getty

This Long March-7 rocket carried a cargo craft to the Tiangong-2 space lab in April.

Time seems to move faster at the National Space Science Center on the outskirts of Beijing. Researchers are rushing around this brand-new compound of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) in anticipation of the launch of the nation’s first X-ray telescope. At mission control, a gigantic screen plays a looping video showcasing the country’s major space milestones. Engineers focus intently on their computer screens while a state television crew orbits the room with cameras, collecting footage for a documentary about China’s meteoric rise as a space power. The walls are festooned with motivational slogans. Diligent and meticulous, says one. No single failure in 10,000 trials, encourages another.

For director-general Wu Ji, this 19.4-hectare, 914-million-yuan (US$135-million) campus represents the coming of age of China’s space-science efforts. In the past few decades, Wu says, China has built the capacity to place satellites and astronauts in orbit and send spacecraft to the Moon, but it has not done much significant research from its increasingly lofty vantage point. Now, that is changing. As far as space science is concerned, he says, we are the new kid on the block.

China is rushing to establish itself as a leader in the field. In 2013, a 1.2-tonne spacecraft called Chang’e-3 landed on the Moon, delivering a rover that used ground-penetrating radar to measure the lunar subsurface with unprecedented resolution. China’s latest space lab, which launched in September 2016, carries more than a dozen scientific payloads. And four additional missions dedicated to astrophysics and other fields have been sent into orbit in the past two years, including a spacecraft that is conducting pioneering experiments in quantum communication.

These efforts, the work of the CAS and other agencies, have made an impact well beyond the country’s borders. The space-science programme in China is extremely dynamic and innovative, says Johann-Dietrich Wrner, director-general of the European Space Agency (ESA) in Paris. It’s at the forefront of scientific discovery. Eagerly anticipated missions in the coming decade include attempts to bring back lunar samples, a joint CASESA project to study space weather and ground-breaking missions to probe dark matter and black holes.

But despite the momentum, many researchers in China worry about the nation’s future in space science. On 2 July, a Long March-5 rocket failed during the launch of a communications satellite, raising concerns about an upcoming Moon mission that will use a similar vehicle. And broader issues cloud the horizon. The international and domestic challenges are formidable, says Li Chunlai, deputy director at the CAS’s National Astronomical Observatories in Beijing and a senior science adviser on the country’s lunar programme. China is often sidelined in international collaboration, and in recent years it has had to compete with the United States for partners because of a US law that prohibits NASA from working with China. Within China, the government has not conducted strategic planning for space science or provided long-term financial support. The question is not how well China has been doing, says Li. But how long this will last.

China’s entry into the space age started with a song. In 1970, the country’s first satellite transmitted the patriotic tune ‘The East is Red’ from low Earth orbit. But it was only after the cultural revolution ended in 1976 that the nation made serious progress towards establishing a strong presence in space. The first major milestone came in 1999 with the launch of Shenzhou-1, an uncrewed test capsule that marked the start of the human space-flight programme. Since then, the country has notched up a series of successes, including sending Chinese astronauts into orbit and launching two space labs (see ‘Earth orbit and beyond’).

After achieving major space-flight milestones, China has put more support behind missions with scientific aims.

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1970 China launches its first satellite, Dongfanghong-1 (pictured, above).

1999 The launch of the uncrewed Shenzhou-1 test capsule kicks off China’s human space-flight programme.

2003 Astronaut Yang Liwei flies aboard Shenzhou-5 on China’s first crewed mission to orbit.

2007 Chinas first lunar orbiter, Change-1, is launched.

2011 Chinas first space lab, Tiangong-1, reaches orbit.

2013 The lunar spacecraft Change-3 makes the countrys first soft landing on the Moon.

2015 The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) reaches Earths orbit.

2016 The Tiangong-2 space lab launches, carrying 14 science experiments.

2017 China launches its first X-ray telescope, the Hard X-Ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT).

2017 China plans to launch Change-5 (pictured, below) on a mission to bring lunar samples to Earth.

Liang Xu/Xinhua via ZUMA Wire

China’s space programme has made tremendous advances in a short period of time, says Michael Moloney, who directs boards covering aerospace and space science at the US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine in Washington DC. And science has progressively become a bigger part of missions run by both the China National Space Administration (CNSA), which governs lunar and planetary exploration, and the China Manned Space Agency. The country’s newest space lab, Tiangong-2, for example, hosts a number of scientific payloads, including an advanced atomic clock and a $3.4-million detector called POLAR for the study of -ray bursts blasts of high-energy radiation from collapsing stars and other sources.

The country’s first lunar forays orbiters launched in 2007 and 2010 were more engineering demonstrations than scientific missions, but that changed with the first lander, Chang’e-3. The mission made China the third nation to accomplish a soft landing on the Moon. More importantly, Chang’e-3 touched down in an area that had never been studied up close. Radar measurements and geochemical analyses unveiled a complex history of volcanic eruptions that could have happened as recently as 2 billion years ago1. It has really helped to bridge the gap in our understanding of the Moon’s past and deep structure, says study leader Xiao Long, a planetary geologist at the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan.

The results have captured the attention of planetary scientists in other countries. There is an urgent need to determine the precise age and composition of the Moon’s youngest volcanism, says James Head, a specialist in planetary exploration at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. This might soon be possible. As early as December, the Chang’e-5 spacecraft will launch on a mission to return samples from near Mons Rmker, a region known to host volcanic rocks much younger than those obtained from the Apollo landing sites. It would be a fantastic addition to lunar science, Head says.

The rising fortunes of Chinese space science have come in part from efforts by the CAS, which worked through the 2000s to convince China’s government to boost the scientific impact of its missions. The academy’s efforts were eventually rewarded with a pot of money: the five-year Strategic Priority Program on Space Science kicked off in 2011 and provided $510 million for the development of four science satellites.

One of the missions that has yielded early results and garnered worldwide attention is the $100-million Quantum Experiments at Space Scale (QUESS) mission. The spacecraft launched in August 2016 and has been testing a peculiar phenomenon called entanglement, in which the quantum states of particles are linked to each other even if the particles are far apart. Last month, the QUESS team reported that it had used the satellite to beam a pair of entangled photons to two ground stations spaced 1,200 kilometres apart2 far exceeding an earlier record of 144 kilometres (ref. 3).

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The European Space Agencys director-general, Johann-Dietrich Wrner, and Wu Ji, director-general of the National Space Science Center, discussed space science at a meeting in 2016.

The team is also using the satellite to test the possibility of establishing a quantum-communication channel between Graz, near Vienna, and Beijing. The aim is to transmit information securely by encrypting it with a key encoded in the states of photons. If successful, a global quantum-communication network will no longer be a science fiction, says Pan Jian-wei, a physicist at the CAS’s University of Science and Technology of China in Hefei and the mission’s principal investigator.

Researchers are also expecting great things from the $300-million Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE). The detector, which launched in 2015, is the most cutting-edge equipment for picking up high-energy cosmic rays, says Martin Pohl, an astrophysicist at University of Geneva in Switzerland and a co-principal investigator of the mission.

DAMPE’s data could help to determine whether a surprising pattern in the abundance of high-energy electrons and positrons detected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station comes from dark matter or from astronomical sources such as pulsars, says Pohl, who also works on the AMS. Because DAMPE is more sensitive than the AMS to high-energy particles, Pohl says, it will make a significant contribution.

The dark-matter and quantum missions launched just before the CAS’s space-science funding expired. Scientists, including Wu, had to battle for continued support. The Chinese government has lately prioritized applied research, and it took intense lobbying for the better part of 2016 before researchers convinced the government to allocate an additional $730 million to the CAS for space science over the next five years. It was not without a fight, Wu says. But we’ve managed to pull it off.

The new plan, which began this year, funds a number of missions slated for launch in the 2020s, including China’s first solar exploration mission and a remote-sensing spacecraft to study Earth’s water cycle.

The CNSA and the China Manned Space Agency have also been ramping up their space-science efforts. One source of excitement is a $440-million X-ray telescope led by the CNSA, called Enhanced X-ray Timing and Polarimetry (eXTP). Planned for launch by 2025, the mission is being financed in part by European partners and involves hundreds of scientists from 20 countries. It is designed to study matter under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism that can be found only in space in the interior of neutron stars or around black holes, for instance.

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The Double Star mission launched a pair of satellites in 2003 and 2004 to study Earth’s magnetosphere.

The most innovative aspect of the satellite is its ability to simultaneously measure with high precision the timing, energy distribution and polarization of X-ray signals, which will provide insight into a range of X-ray sources, says co-principal investigator Marco Feroci, an astrophysicist at the Institute of Space Astrophysics and Planetology in Rome. eXTP will also carry a wide-field telescope to hunt for unusual, transient signals. Once it finds a potentially interesting source, all the other instruments will be zoomed in that direction, says Zhang Shuangnan, an astrophysicist at the CAS’s Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing, who is leading the mission. It’s the total weapon for X-ray astronomy.

Work is also progressing on projects led by the China Manned Space Agency. One is a dark-matter detector that has 15 times the sensitivity of DAMPE; it’s set to be installed on China’s permanent space station, which is slated for completion by 2022. There are also plans for a $730-million optical telescope to orbit near the space station. With a field of view 300 times that of the Hubble telescope, it will produce survey data that could be ideal for studying dark matter and dark energy as well as hunting for exoplanets, says Gu Yidong, a physicist at the CAS’s Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization in Beijing and a senior science adviser to the China Manned Space Agency.

Such projects suggest that collaboration is strengthening between the CAS and China’s other agencies involved with space. And a similar spirit is reflected abroad. China’s space programme has become increasingly confident and outward looking, says Wrner. In the past, announcements were made only after a mission was successful; now, China routinely broadcasts launches as they happen. And Chinese scientists are increasingly reaching out to their international colleagues, building ties through small-scale partnerships.

Most major CAS-led missions have European partners, with collaborations initiated by researchers on both sides. But ESA hopes to establish high-level cooperation with the rising space power. In early 2015, ESA and the CAS issued a call for proposals for space-science missions. They selected a project called Solar Wind Magnetosphere Ionosphere Link Explorer (SMILE), to be led jointly and funded with $53 million from each group. The agencies work intimately together at every stage of the development, says Wu.

ESA and China collaborated more than a decade ago on a project called Double Star to study magnetic storms, but it was a China-led mission. Through SMILE, the agencies are testing a new, more intimate cooperation model. It’s about building trust and bridges, so we could better understand each other, says Fabio Favata, head of strategy planning and coordination at ESA. Hopefully, this will open the way for larger-scale cooperation in the future.

Xinhua via ZUMA Wire

Arriving in 2013, Chinas lunar rover Yutu carried out measurements of the Moons subsurface with ground-penetrating radar.

A nation that is notably absent from China’s current list of collaborators is the United States. In the past, China contributed key components to NASA missions. But NASA is now forbidden from such collaboration by a US law passed in 2011, and as a result China is excluded from participation in the International Space Station. On board is a product of earlier collaboration between the United States, China and a number of other countries the AMS.

Representatives from NASA and Chinese agencies still visit each other regularly. But with no official cooperation possible, there may be some inevitable replication of effort. In March, STROBE-X (Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays) a project similar to China’s eXTP mission was selected by NASA for further study. STROBE-X could launch by 2030, some five years after eXTP. Having two very similar missions at the same time is not ideal, says Colleen Wilson-Hodge, an astrophysicist at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, and a member of the STROBE-X team. I wish there were a way we could all work together rather than competing with each other.

For China’s space scientists, however, the main challenge is to convince their own government of the need for long-term investment. Zhang, the leader of several astrophysics missions including eXTP, refers to the situation as a constant state of zhaobu baoxi, which translates as not knowing where the next meal will come from. We’ll be safe for another five years, he says. But nobody knows what will happen afterwards.

Feats of engineering and exploration still get priority over science. The Chinese space station, for instance, has a budget of $14.5 billion. But even though Chinese President Xi Jinping has said that the station will be China’s national laboratory in space, there is no dedicated fund for the development of its scientific payloads. The station might support science as Tiangong-2 does, providing power and communications to various experiments. But there is also the danger, Zhang says, that it will be a house without furniture.

At China’s sprawling National Space Science Center, the furniture is new, and the air still smells of fresh paint. Having secured the next bout of funding, Wu looks relaxed as he settles into a big leather armchair behind his desk. He acknowledges the institutional flaws but is optimistic about the future. So far, so good, he says, glancing at the satellite models that line his shelves. We can’t expect things to change overnight.

Read the rest here:

China’s quest to become a space science superpower – Nature.com


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