12345...1020...

A Potential Dark Matter Signature Has Been Seen in The … – Lifeboat Foundation (blog)

NASAs Fermi Telescope has looked at the gamma-ray emission of M31, the Andromeda Galaxy, and discovered the largest fraction of this powerful radiation comes from the core of the galaxy, very much like in our own Milky Way. The international team of researchers has considered this signature as potential indirect evidence of dark matter.

Some theoretical models predict gamma-ray emissions when dark matter particles interact with each other. Dark matter doesnt like interacting at all, it doesnt form clumps or clouds, so these gamma-ray signals might only happen in dense regions, like at the core of galaxies.

We expect dark matter to accumulate in the innermost regions of the Milky Way and other galaxies, which is why finding such a compact signal is very exciting, said lead scientist Pierrick Martin, an astrophysicist at the National Center for Scientific Research and the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology in Toulouse, France, in a statement. M31 will be a key to understanding what this means for both Andromeda and the Milky Way.

More here:

A Potential Dark Matter Signature Has Been Seen in The … – Lifeboat Foundation (blog)

Fermi finds possible dark matter ties in Andromeda galaxy – Phys.org – Phys.Org

February 21, 2017 by Claire Saravia The gamma-ray excess (shown in yellow-white) at the heart of M31 hints at unexpected goings-on in the galaxy’s central region. Scientists think the signal could be produced by a variety of processes, including a population of pulsars or even dark matter. Credit: NASA/DOE/Fermi LAT Collaboration and Bill Schoening, Vanessa Harvey/REU program/NOAO/AURA/NSF

NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has found a signal at the center of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy that could indicate the presence of the mysterious stuff known as dark matter. The gamma-ray signal is similar to one seen by Fermi at the center of our own Milky Way galaxy.

Gamma rays are the highest-energy form of light, produced by the universe’s most energetic phenomena. They’re common in galaxies like the Milky Way because cosmic rays, particles moving near the speed of light, produce gamma rays when they interact with interstellar gas clouds and starlight.

Surprisingly, the latest Fermi data shows the gamma rays in Andromedaalso known as M31are confined to the galaxy’s center instead of spread throughout. To explain this unusual distribution, scientists are proposing that the emission may come from several undetermined sources. One of them could be dark matter, an unknown substance that makes up most of the universe.

“We expect dark matter to accumulate in the innermost regions of the Milky Way and other galaxies, which is why finding such a compact signal is very exciting,” said lead scientist Pierrick Martin, an astrophysicist at the National Center for Scientific Research and the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology in Toulouse, France. “M31 will be a key to understanding what this means for both Andromeda and the Milky Way.”

A paper describing the results will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal.

Another possible source for this emission could be a rich concentration of pulsars in M31’s center. These spinning neutron stars weigh as much as twice the mass of the sun and are among the densest objects in the universe. One teaspoon of neutron star matter would weigh a billion tons on Earth. Some pulsars emit most of their energy in gamma rays. Because M31 is 2.5 million light-years away, it’s difficult to find individual pulsars. To test whether the gamma rays are coming from these objects, scientists can apply what they know about pulsars from observations in the Milky Way to new X-ray and radio observations of Andromeda.

The video will load shortly

Now that Fermi has detected a similar gamma-ray signature in both M31 and the Milky Way, scientists can use this information to solve mysteries within both galaxies. For example, M31 emits few gamma rays from its large disk, where most stars form, indicating fewer cosmic rays roaming there. Because cosmic rays are usually thought to be related to star formation, the absence of gamma rays in the outer parts of M31 suggests either that the galaxy produces cosmic rays differently, or that they can escape the galaxy more rapidly. Studying Andromeda may help scientists understand the life cycle of cosmic rays and how it is connected to star formation.

“We don’t fully understand the roles cosmic rays play in galaxies, or how they travel through them,” said Xian Hou, an astrophysicist at Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Kunming, China, also a lead scientist in this work. “M31 lets us see how cosmic rays behave under conditions different from those in our own galaxy.”

The similar discovery in both the Milky Way and M31 means scientists can use the galaxies as models for each other when making difficult observations. While Fermi can make more sensitive and detailed observations of the Milky Way’s center, its view is partially obscured by emission from the galaxy’s disk. But telescopes view Andromeda from an outside vantage point impossible to attain in the Milky Way.

“Our galaxy is so similar to Andromeda, it really helps us to be able to study it, because we can learn more about our galaxy and its formation,” said co-author Regina Caputo, a research scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “It’s like living in a world where there’s no mirrors but you have a twin, and you can see everything physical about the twin.”

While more observations are necessary to determine the source of the gamma-ray excess, the discovery provides an exciting starting point to learn more about both galaxies, and perhaps about the still elusive nature of dark matter.

“We still have a lot to learn about the gamma-ray sky,” Caputo said. “The more information we have, the more information we can put into models of our own galaxy.”

Explore further: No trace of dark matter in gamma-ray background

Researchers from the University of Amsterdam’s (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. By making use of more than six years …

A University of Oklahoma team has detected for the first time the most luminous gamma-ray emission from a galaxythe merging galaxy Arp 220 is the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy to Earth, and it reveals the hidden …

A newly discovered dwarf galaxy orbiting our own Milky Way has offered up a surpriseit appears to be radiating gamma rays, according to an analysis by physicists at Carnegie Mellon, Brown, and Cambridge universities. The …

Bursts of gamma rays from the center of our galaxy are not likely to be signals of dark matter but rather other astrophysical phenomena such as fast-rotating stars called millisecond pulsars, according to two new studies, …

(Phys.org) — Gamma-ray photons seen emanating from the center of the Milky Way galaxy are consistent with the intriguing possibility that dark-matter particles are annihilating each other in space, according to research …

The SLAC-built Large Area Telescope (LAT), the main instrument of theFermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has been studying the gamma-ray sky for almost four years. During that time, the LAT has identified hundreds of gamma-ray …

NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has found a signal at the center of the neighboring Andromeda galaxy that could indicate the presence of the mysterious stuff known as dark matter. The gamma-ray signal is similar to …

ESA’s XMM-Newton has found a pulsar the spinning remains of a once-massive star that is a thousand times brighter than previously thought possible.

A team led from the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias (IAC) has found the most precise way ever to measure the rate at which stars form in galaxies using their radio emission at 1-10 Gigahertz frequency range.

The dynamical properties of these asteroids, observed spectroscopiccally for the first time using the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS, suggest a possible common origin and give a clue to the existence of a planet beyond Pluto, the …

New planetary formation models from Carnegie’s Alan Boss indicate that there may be an undiscovered population of gas giant planets orbiting around Sun-like stars at distances similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn. His work …

(Phys.org)A pair of researchers with the Physical Research Laboratory in India studying data sent back from NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) probe has found possible evidence of the development of …

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

All sources of radiation are due to the motion of charge. Dark Matter?

M31 is 2.537 million light years away. What I see in that image coming from the center of the largest galaxy in our immediate group with three times as many stars as in our own Milky Way and over twice its size, is a high concentration of energy coming from a relatively small field of view which instruments have compacted into an image that fits on top of this article. I don’t think that there is a precedent for DM being a candidate for why it looks like this to us and any physicist would be hard-pressed to describe the mechanism whereby this would be the case, as we have no empirical evidence to back this idea up. The comparative ray curve for the two probably shows a steeper curve as the size of a galaxy increases and on the cosmic scale, M31 is relatively close to us.

Odd, isn’t it? In the 1930’s Dark Matter godfather Fritz Zwicky used just the reverse logic for locating accumulations of DM. His hypothesis was that we should expect that DM would exist in giant enveloping halos surrounding Spiral Galaxies, ostensibly functioning as a counter gravitational force preventing the spiral & radial arms from imploding into the central hub.

So now what do we have? Just the reverse hypothesis. So now what does Pierrick Martin think prevents Spiral Galaxies from imploding if the DM is concentrated in the “innermost regions of the Milky Way”, a spiral galaxy. I guess he forgot to read Zwicky’s paper.

Anyone interested in Dark Matter (DM) should Google “Emergent Gravity” (EG) and see if observations fit with in that theoretical framework. The compartmentalization of the Gama sources to the core of the galaxies certainly does imply the space/time curvature is steeper, and more energetic, it also implies the link EG has to 3D spacetime curvature. The obvious is the concentration of gravity to major wells, like the center of galaxies, implicates DM or in the case of EG a more energetic compacted quantum distribution of space.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Original post:

Fermi finds possible dark matter ties in Andromeda galaxy – Phys.org – Phys.Org

Life’s building blocks found on dwarf planet Ceres – Fox News

The dwarf planet Ceres keeps looking better and better as a possible home for alien life.

NASA’s Dawn spacecraft has spotted organic molecules the carbon-containing building blocks of life as we know it on Ceres for the first time, a study published Feb. 16 in the journal Science reports.

And these organics appear to be native, likely forming on Ceres rather than arriving via asteroid or comet strikes, study team members said. [Photos: Dwarf Planet Ceres, the Solar System’s Largest Asteroid]

“Because Ceres is a dwarf planet that may still preserve internal heat from its formation period and may even contain a subsurface ocean, this opens the possibility that primitive life could have developed on Ceres itself,” Michael Kppers, a planetary scientist based at the European Space Astronomy Centre just outside Madrid, said in an accompanying “News and Views” article in the same issue of Science.

“It joins Mars and several satellites of the giant planets in the list of locations in the solar system that may harbor life,” added Kppers, who was not involved in the organics discovery.

The $467 million Dawn mission launched in September 2007 to study Vesta and Ceres, the two largest objects in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Dawn circled the 330-mile-wide Vesta from July 2011 through September 2012, when it departed for Ceres , which is 590 miles across. Dawn arrived at the dwarf planet in March 2015, becoming the first spacecraft ever to orbit two different bodies beyond the Earth-moon system.

During its time at Ceres, Dawn has found bizarre bright spots on crater floors, discovered a likely ice volcano 2.5 miles tall and helped scientists determine that water ice is common just beneath the surface , especially near the dwarf planet’s poles.

The newly announced organics discovery adds to this list of achievements. The carbon-containing molecules which Dawn spotted using its visible and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument are concentrated in a 385-square-mile area near Ceres’ 33-mile-wide Ernutet crater, though there’s also a much smaller patch about 250 miles away, in a crater called Inamahari.

And there could be more such areas; the team surveyed only Ceres’ middle latitudes, between 60 degrees north and 60 degrees south.

“We cannot exclude that there are other locations rich in organics not sampled by the survey, or below the detection limit,” study lead author Maria Cristina De Sanctis, of the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Space Planetology in Rome, told Space.com via email.

Dawn’s measurements aren’t precise enough to nail down exactly what the newfound organics are, but their signatures are consistent with tar-like substances such as kerite and asphaltite, study team members said.

“The organic-rich areas include carbonate and ammoniated species, which are clearly Ceres’ endogenous material, making it unlikely that the organics arrived via an external impactor,” co-author Simone Marchi, a senior research scientist at the Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado, said in a statement .

In addition, the intense heat generated by an asteroid or comet strike likely would have destroyed the organics, further suggesting that the molecules are native to Ceres, study team members said.

The organics might have formed via reactions involving hot water, De Sanctis and her colleagues said. Indeed, “Ceres shows clear signatures of pervasive hydrothermal activity and aqueous alteration,” they wrote in the new study .

Such activity likely would have taken place underground. Dawn mission scientists aren’t sure yet how organics generated in the interior could make it up to the surface and leave the signatures observed by the spacecraft.

“The geological and morphological settings of Ernutet are still under investigation with the high-resolution data acquired in the last months, and we do not have a definitive answer for why Ernutet is so special,” De Sanctis said.

It’s already clear, however, that Ceres is a complex and intriguing world one that astrobiologists are getting more and more excited about.

“In some ways, it is very similar to Europa and Enceladus,” De Sanctis said, referring to ocean-harboring moons of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively.

“We see compounds on the surface of Ceres like the ones detected in the plume of Enceladus,” she added. “Ceres’ surface can be considered warmer with respect to the Saturnian and Jovian satellites, due to [its] distance from the sun. However, we do not have evidence of a subsurface ocean now on Ceres, but there are hints of subsurface recent fluids.”

Follow Mike Wall on Twitter @michaeldwall and Google+ . Follow us @Spacedotcom , Facebook or Google+ . Originally published on Space.com .

View original post here:

Life’s building blocks found on dwarf planet Ceres – Fox News

Nasa’s Dawn finds key ingredients for alien life on dwarf planet Ceres – Expat Newswire

Home Desporto Nasas Dawn finds key ingredients for alien life on dwarf planet Ceres

The spacecraft contains a Viable or InfraRed Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) that is able to detect organic materials on the planets surface. The discovery was made by the Dawn mission, which has previously found evidence of water ice at the planets poles and carbonate minerals, that appear to be responsible for the mysterious bright spots on the surface.NASAs Dawn spacecraft recently detected organic-rich areas on Ceres. Dr Simone Marchi, from the Southwest Research Institute, and an author of the study, said: This discovery of a locally high concentration of organics is intriguing, with broad implications for the astrobiology community. With this new finding Dawn has shown that Ceres contains key ingredients for life. The material was found near a almost 50-km-wide crater in the planets northern hemisphere. Kim Kardashian Goes Platinum Blonde Again & Flaunts Major Cleavage So shaken is the mother of two, she said she struggles to even speak about what happened. The second time she went blonde it was a wig . The exact compounds cant be identified but they do match tar-like minerals such as kerite or asphaltite. Organic compounds are volatile and would be easily destroyed by the intense heat of an asteroid impact. The compounds wouldnt have survived such a powerful, high-heat impact, the study says, but its not fully understood how exactly they moved from inside the planet to the surface. Ceres was formed about 4.5 billion years ago.Put Ceres down on the list of places in the solar system that could have once harbored life or may be hiding it now, alongside Mars, Titan, Enceladus, Europa and some other far-out locales. The dwarf planet is also believed to have an under-surface ocean.The discovery indicates that the starting material in the solar system contained the essential elements, or the building blocks, for life, Russell said. New origami-inspired shield deflects handgun bullets When expanded which takes only five seconds it can provide cover for officers and stop bullets from several types of handguns. Kevlar fabric is very flexible, but it is susceptible to fraying and abrasion, whilst also being sensitive to sunlight and water. At around 600 miles across, Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt found between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. Such a find would also snatch away the title of Coolest Dwarf Planet from Pluto, dealing that plucky iceball yet another degrading blow. Instead, scientists think the asteroids core continues to be hot, retaining some of the heat from its formative days, and this heat interacts with other materials within the asteroid to create the organic compounds.We can not exclude that there are other locations rich in organics not sampled by the survey, or below the detection limit, study lead author Maria Cristina De Sanctis, of the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Space Planetology in Rome, told Space.com via email. The addition of organic material makes the dwarf planet a promising environment for prebiotic chemistry.Composite image of the area around Ernutet Crater. Dawn spacecraft data show a region around the Ernutet crater where organic concentrations have been discovered (labeled a through f). Teenage boy badly hurt after shark attack off Australian coast He was quickly hauled onto a boat where a tourniquet was applied to his leg to stem heavy bleeding which left him unconscious. Ballantyne called Dickson an awesome person and also someone who cares about his friends and family. This is the first clear detection of organic molecules from orbit on a main belt body, said researcher Maria Cristina De Sanctis from the National Institute of Astrophysics in Rome. Indeed, Ceres shows clear signatures of pervasive hydrothermal activity and aqueous adjustment, they wrote in the new study. The finding helped researchers explain that water ice existed beneath the surface of the dwarf planet, especially in the regions near the planets poles.

Go here to see the original:

Nasa’s Dawn finds key ingredients for alien life on dwarf planet Ceres – Expat Newswire

Former Mikado resident named candidate for Canadian Space Agency astronaut – Kamsack Times

Tim Haltigin, the former Canora area resident who is in the running to become a Canadian astronaut, credits much of his journey to the Canora Composite School, his fellow students and their teachers.

Tim is one of a special group of young people fostered by CCS teachers who had encouraged competition and achievement, his mother, Linda Osachoff, said last week when asked about her son having been named one of 70 astronaut candidates selected by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

Astronauts are modern-day explorers, said information on the CSA website. They courageously travel beyond the Earth to help acquire new scientific knowledge. Their courage and determination are an inspiration to many.

Despite their unique journeys, astronauts have a few things in common: an academic background in science or technology, excellent health and outstanding qualities and skills, the information said.

Born in Toronto, Haltigin was raised in Canora from nursery school until his graduation from CCS. Now living in Saint-Constant, Que., with his wife Melissa Triottier and two daughters, Nora, 5, and Sasha, 3, he obtained a bachelor of science degree in environmental geography from Concordia University, a masters degree in geography (fluvial geomorphology) from McGill University and a Ph.D in geography (periglacial geomorphology and comparative planetology) from McGill. He is the senior mission scientist for planetary exploration for the CSA.

Readers of the Courier read about Haltigin in September when he was about to take part in the first NASA-led mission that will bring asteroid material to Earth. Heis part of the team which launched the satellite Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) on September 8 in order to take a sample of matter from the asteroid Bennu. The satellite consists of a camera system named OCAMS, a thermal emission spectrometer named OTES, a visible and infrared spectrometer known as OVIRS, an X-ray named REXIS, and the laser altimeter known as OLA, of which Haltigin is the mission manager.

The satellite will reach the asteroid in July of 2018 and use OLA to measure the shape and surface of the asteroid, which is 492 metres in diameter and spins like a top, according to Haltigin. The laser altimeter will take about a billion different measurements in order to find an area that is safe for the spacecraft to take a sample. Once an acceptable spot is found, the satellite will collect between 60g and two kg of dust and small fragments from the surface of the asteroid and should return with the sample in September of 2023.

As the senior mission scientist for planetary exploration with the CSA, I get to work helping Canada find new and different ways to understand the evolution of objects in the solar system, he said, adding that he gets to plan Canadian contributions to future missions, and to design and run student exercises that help train the next generation of Canadian planetary scientists and engineers.

Becoming an astronaut represents two of the values I hold most dear: the constant pursuit of knowledge and using that knowledge to inspire those around you, he said. Essentially, the job description is to learn how to do awesome things and then share it with people afterwards.

I have always loved taking on new and exciting challenges, whether in science, sports, or music. Not only have I benefitted greatly from all of the experience I’ve gained, but I’ve particularly appreciated the opportunities I’ve had to share my work and hopefully help out a few people along the way.

Astronauts are modern-day explorers, the CSA website says. They courageously travel beyond the Earth to help discover new scientific knowledge. Their courage and determination are an inspiration to many. Their unique experience helps advance scientific research and technology development.

Canada’s active astronauts support space missions in progress and prepare for a future mission by taking extensive training, it said. They mainly work at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. However, they return to Canada periodically to participate in various activities and encourage young Canadians to pursue their education in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).

Growing up at the time he did, most boys had wanted to be a superhero or a space guy, his mother said. He was interested, in the way lots of young people are: with boundless enthusiasm.

Tim showed a lot of qualities at a young age, she said. He was focused; academically, in sports and in music. He was a team player with friends and family.

Osachoff said that the first time she had noticed an interest that could have led to his desire to become an astronaut was one time when he had come home from university in Montreal and he had stood aside, with his head looking straight up at the beautiful winter sky for about 15 minutes.

But, it had started with his interest in water and geography, which opened many channels, she said, shaking her head at the thought of the many theses that she had been asked to proofread for her son.

Hisfirst research had focused on the study of malaria, but eventually he had decided to switch degrees to geography, and studied rivers and trout habitats.

While completing his masters degree, some friends of his entered a contest held by the European Space Agency. Teams were instructed to determine how scientists could find water on Mars, and Haltigins friends asked him to join in. Their team eventually travelled to Barcelona, Spain for the finals, and the professor organizing the team asked Haltigin if hed like to pursue a PhD on the nature of Mars.

He then did research up north, Osachoff said, referringto her sons research that had led him to make nine expeditions beyond the Arctic Circle in order to compare the conditions of the land and climate to Mars. The expeditions were funded by the CSA, which allowed him to make contact with people involved in space research, and just before graduating, he decided to apply for work in the agency.

Asked how his grandparents, the late Evelyn and Bill Osachoff, might have received the news of their grandsons pursuits, Linda said that they had been very close to him and were a part of his upbringing.

Tim had qualities early that indicated that he would be able to do anything he had wanted, she said, adding that her son remains very humble and thanks his blessings for his opportunities.

Having spoken to her son recently, Linda said that he had told her that no matter what happens, he has become a better person with the self examination, rigorous training, both mental and physical, and for having met many peers across the country.

Asked how she feels, thinking that one day she may very well be looking at the sky, knowing that her son is out there beyond the Earth, and Linda said she vacillates between pride and panic.

After all, that is the final frontier, she said, adding that she was reminded that at a recent family get-together around a bonfire, Tim had his daughter on his lap and together they were looking at the sky. He was pointing out to her the satellites and the International Space Station as they had moved across the sky.

When Tim had asked his mother for advice regarding his possible selection as an astronaut, Linda said she had told him to remember the music festivals.

Focus on your unique skills, dont over prepare and save the thunder for the final performance, she had told him.

Tim is a great communicator. Hes down to earth, a sound guy and a joker, she said, adding that as he works with the CSA, he will be on speaking tours.

Osachoff is currently the CEO of Crossroads Credit Union in Canora. She and her husband Alfredo Converso operate La Compangna Bed and Breakfast near Mikado.

View post:

Former Mikado resident named candidate for Canadian Space Agency astronaut – Kamsack Times

Former resident named candidate for Canadian Space Agency astronaut – Canora Courier

Tim Haltigin, the former Canora area resident who is in the running to become a Canadian astronaut, credits much of his journey to the Canora Composite School, his fellow students and their teachers.

Tim is one of a special group of young people fostered by CCS teachers who had encouraged competition and achievement, his mother, Linda Osachoff, said last week when asked about her son having been named one of 70 astronaut candidates selected by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

Astronauts are modern-day explorers, said information on the CSA website. They courageously travel beyond the Earth to help acquire new scientific knowledge. Their courage and determination are an inspiration to many.

Despite their unique journeys, astronauts have a few things in common: an academic background in science or technology, excellent health and outstanding qualities and skills, the information said.

Born in Toronto, Haltigin was raised in Canora from nursery school until his graduation from CCS. Now living in Saint-Constant, Que., with his wife Melissa Triottier and two daughters, Nora, 5, and Sasha, 3, he obtained a bachelor of science degree in environmental geography from Concordia University, a masters degree in geography (fluvial geomorphology) from McGill University and a Ph.D in geography (periglacial geomorphology and comparative planetology) from McGill. He is the senior mission scientist for planetary exploration for the CSA.

Readers of the Courier read about Haltigin in September when he was about to take part in the first NASA-led mission that will bring asteroid material to Earth. Heis part of the team which launched the satellite Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) on September 8 in order to take a sample of matter from the asteroid Bennu. The satellite consists of a camera system named OCAMS, a thermal emission spectrometer named OTES, a visible and infrared spectrometer known as OVIRS, an X-ray named REXIS, and the laser altimeter known as OLA, of which Haltigin is the mission manager.

The satellite will reach the asteroid in July of 2018 and use OLA to measure the shape and surface of the asteroid, which is 492 metres in diameter and spins like a top, according to Haltigin. The laser altimeter will take about a billion different measurements in order to find an area that is safe for the spacecraft to take a sample. Once an acceptable spot is found, the satellite will collect between 60g and two kg of dust and small fragments from the surface of the asteroid and should return with the sample in September of 2023.

As the senior mission scientist for planetary exploration with the CSA, I get to work helping Canada find new and different ways to understand the evolution of objects in the solar system, he said, adding that he gets to plan Canadian contributions to future missions, and to design and run student exercises that help train the next generation of Canadian planetary scientists and engineers.

Becoming an astronaut represents two of the values I hold most dear: the constant pursuit of knowledge and using that knowledge to inspire those around you, he said. Essentially, the job description is to learn how to do awesome things and then share it with people afterwards.

I have always loved taking on new and exciting challenges, whether in science, sports, or music. Not only have I benefitted greatly from all of the experience I’ve gained, but I’ve particularly appreciated the opportunities I’ve had to share my work and hopefully help out a few people along the way.

Astronauts are modern-day explorers, the CSA website says. They courageously travel beyond the Earth to help discover new scientific knowledge. Their courage and determination are an inspiration to many. Their unique experience helps advance scientific research and technology development.

Canada’s active astronauts support space missions in progress and prepare for a future mission by taking extensive training, it said. They mainly work at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. However, they return to Canada periodically to participate in various activities and encourage young Canadians to pursue their education in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering and mathematics).

Growing up at the time he did, most boys had wanted to be a superhero or a space guy, his mother said. He was interested, in the way lots of young people are: with boundless enthusiasm.

Tim showed a lot of qualities at a young age, she said. He was focused; academically, in sports and in music. He was a team player with friends and family.

Osachoff said that the first time she had noticed an interest that could have led to his desire to become an astronaut was one time when he had come home from university in Montreal and he had stood aside, with his head looking straight up at the beautiful winter sky for about 15 minutes.

But, it had started with his interest in water and geography, which opened many channels, she said, shaking her head at the thought of the many theses that she had been asked to proofread for her son.

Hisfirst research had focused on the study of malaria, but eventually he had decided to switch degrees to geography, and studied rivers and trout habitats.

While completing his masters degree, some friends of his entered a contest held by the European Space Agency. Teams were instructed to determine how scientists could find water on Mars, and Haltigins friends asked him to join in. Their team eventually travelled to Barcelona, Spain for the finals, and the professor organizing the team asked Haltigin if hed like to pursue a PhD on the nature of Mars.

He then did research up north, Osachoff said, referringto her sons research that had led him to make nine expeditions beyond the Arctic Circle in order to compare the conditions of the land and climate to Mars. The expeditions were funded by the CSA, which allowed him to make contact with people involved in space research, and just before graduating, he decided to apply for work in the agency.

Asked how his grandparents, the late Evelyn and Bill Osachoff, might have received the news of their grandsons pursuits, Linda said that they had been very close to him and were a part of his upbringing.

Tim had qualities early that indicated that he would be able to do anything he had wanted, she said, adding that her son remains very humble and thanks his blessings for his opportunities.

Having spoken to her son recently, Linda said that he had told her that no matter what happens, he has become a better person with the self examination, rigorous training, both mental and physical, and for having met many peers across the country.

Asked how she feels, thinking that one day she may very well be looking at the sky, knowing that her son is out there beyond the Earth, and Linda said she vacillates between pride and panic.

After all, that is the final frontier, she said, adding that she was reminded that at a recent family get-together around a bonfire, Tim had his daughter on his lap and together they were looking at the sky. He was pointing out to her the satellites and the International Space Station as they had moved across the sky.

When Tim had asked his mother for advice regarding his possible selection as an astronaut, Linda said she had told him to remember the music festivals.

Focus on your unique skills, dont over prepare and save the thunder for the final performance, she had told him.

Tim is a great communicator. Hes down to earth, a sound guy and a joker, she said, adding that as he works with the CSA, he will be on speaking tours.

Osachoff is currently the CEO of Crossroads Credit Union in Canora. She and her husband Alfredo Converso operate La Compangna Bed and Breakfast near Mikado.

The rest is here:

Former resident named candidate for Canadian Space Agency astronaut – Canora Courier

Ceres Just Got A Lot More Interesting to Astrobiologists – Air & Space Magazine

Ahuna Mons, shown in this simulated view as it might appear to someone standing on the surface of Ceres, is thought to be an ice volcano. (NASA/JPL-Caltech/UCLA/MPS/DLR/IDA/PSI)

airspacemag.com 3 hours ago

Maria de Sanctis from the Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology in Rome and her colleagues report in todays issue of Science that theyve found organic compounds on Ceres. Whats more, the organics originated on the dwarf planet itself, rather than arriving with an impacting comet or asteroid. The findings are based on their spectral analysis of about 1,000 square kilometers close to a crater called Ernutet on the objects surface. NASAs Dawn spacecraft is currently in orbit around Ceres, the largest body in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Water ice and organics were already known to be present there, but learning that they are indigenousformed most likely by hydrothermal activityis critical. When we consider that Ceres has clay minerals, carbonate rocks, and salts on or near its surface, the environment is similar to the one that prevailed on Earth some four billion years ago. In fact, organic compounds, plus energy, plus building blocks such as clay could make Ceres crust conducive to the origin of life.

Ceres appears to be a rather unique case study of a hybrid between a terrestrial planet and an icy moon, which might have been warmer and friendlier to life a long time ago. How far might chemistry have evolved toward biology before it was frozen in place? The spectral similarity of the detected organics to ones found in carbonaceous chondrites suggest that we may find some intriguingly complex molecules if we send a probe to Ceres for a closer look.

If the dwarf planet has a subsurface ocean as some have speculated, the existence of life today is not out of the question. In this scenario, hydrothermal energy would likely power volcanoes that push liquid water from deep below onto the surface of Ceres. If so, we might find molecules consistent with biology on the surface.

Since Ceres is closer than any other high-priority astrobiological target besides Mars, and is not exposed to huge radiation fluxes like Europa is, sending a lander there would be relatively quick and easy. Indeed, Ceres may very well become one of the new favorite targets for astrobiologists.

Like this article? SIGN UP for our newsletter

Dirk Schulze-Makuch is a Professor at the Technical University Berlin, Germany and Adjunct Professor at Arizona State University and Washington State University. He has published seven books related to astrobiology and planetary habitability.

Updates, newsletters and special offers

Enter your email address

Sign up

More:

Ceres Just Got A Lot More Interesting to Astrobiologists – Air & Space Magazine

Strong Evidence of Extraterrestrial Artificial Surface Interventions Found On Mars, According To New Study – Collective Evolution

We’re creating a positive news network. We need your help.

A new study published in theJournal of Space Exploration titled The Mounds of Cydonia: Elegant Geology, or Tetrahedral Geometry and Reactions of Pythagoras and Dirac?has added to the already robust evidence pointing toartificial surface interventions on Mars. The main premise of the article is that these structures, if indeed artificial, provide an elegant and concise way for an intelligent species to transmit to another intelligence evidence that it understands the basics of tetrahedral geometry, prime numbers, and the quantum mechanics of the electrons spin, thereby giving additional evidence for the possibility of intelligent intervention.

In 1976, the United States sent a pair of space probes, known as Viking 1 and Viking 2, to Mars. Viking 1 was launched on August 20th, 1975, and Viking 2was launched in September of the same year. Both probesphotographed the surface of Mars from orbit, and one studied the planet from the surface. Since then, more pictures have been taken, and this particular study is based on high resolution images from the ESA Mars express and NASA orbiter HiRise cameras, and deals with the structures thathave been found in the Cyndonia region of Mars.

An initial analysis, published in theJournal of Scientific Explorationin 1999, was conducted by Dr. Horace Crater, a physics professor at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI), alongside Professor Stanley V. McDaniel. During this time,only the 1976 Viking photos were available, taken from many kilometres above the surface of the planet, with a resolution of 47 metres per pixel. In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) rephotographed the same area at a much better resolution, confirming the existence of the mounds as well as the tight, precise mound layout.

The recent paper, published inSpace Exploration, andalso authored by Horace Crater alongsideProfessor Stanley V. McDaniel, the Founder ofThe Society for Planetary SETI Research.

McDaniel andAnanda Sirisena,reinforces the strange configuration by comparing three datasets. The resolution of the ESA 2006 photos is 13.7 metres per pixel and that of NASAs MRO HiRise 2014 images is 5 metres per pixel. This is compared to the original 47m per pixel Viking shots. Presented below are the mounds from all three spacecraft, showing clearly the parallel lines and right-angled triangles formed by their layout. Is there a message implicit in this ground plan?

Below is a set of slides sent to me by one of the authors that he commonly uses in his presentations to elaborate on the uniqueness of the layout and it implications.

Be sure to check out the details in the actual studyfor an in-depth analysis and more photos of why this geology and these mathematicalmeasurements are so intriguing.

As Viking 1 spacecraft was circling the planet, it spotted the shadowy likeness of a human face. An enormous head nearly two miles from end to end seemed to be staring back at the cameras from a region of the Red Planet called Cydonia. Apyramid structure was also seen. This will be the main topic of this article.

As a quick side note here, for years weve been made to believe that Mars is a dry and arid planet, completely devoid of life, but thats just not the case. Mars actually used to be an Earth-like planet, with giant oceans and extensivegreenery. The soil is moist and wet, and there is a very high likelihood that some type of life exists within the interior of Mars today. You can watch that full press conference HERE.

The question to ask here is, did NASA know this information from the Viking data in 1976? According to multiple insiders who have worked for the agency, NASA is not always honest,and we are only being told this now because they believe we are ready toprocess and accept these facts. For example, Bob Dean, a retiredUnited States Army Command Sergeant Major who also served at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) of NATO as an intelligence analyst, gave a lecture on footage and photos that had been erased and kept hidden for decades:

Ladies and gentlemen, my government, NASA, which many of us in the United States say stands forNever A Straight Answer,proceeded to erase 40 rolls of film of the Apollo Program the flight to the Moon, the flight around the Moon, the landings on the Moon, the walking guys here and there. They erased, for Christs sake, 40 rolls of film of those events. Now were talking about several thousand individual frames that were taken that the so-called authorities determined that you did not have a right to see. Oh, they were disruptive, socially unacceptable, politically unacceptable. Ive become furious. Im a retired Command Sergeant Major. I was never famous for having a lot of patience.

You can watch the full lectureHERE.

He is one of multiple people accusing NASA of doing this. The Russian government did the same last year. You can read more about that here.

Above, youll see the original picture taken by Viking which, as you can imagine, created quite the buzz when the world got to see it. To the left, you can see a closeup of the face, as well as a pyramid in close proximity, taken by Viking. To the right, you will see the original picture taken by NASA,straight from their website in 1976. Above the picture to your left and right you will see three different images which, according to NASA, are clearer versions of the pictures taken with improved instruments.In their original caption of the picture, NASA described it as a huge rock formation . . . which resembles a human head . . . formed by shadows giving the illusion of eyes, nose and mouth. The authors reasoned it would be a good way to engage the public and attract attention to Mars.

Well, according to multiple insiders with extensive backgrounds, this is not the case, and NASA lied about the images and data they collected, as well as fudged data and images. Based on thesetestimonies, among others, the photos released in 1998 and 2001 were meant to debunk rumours and put the issue to rest.

Dr. John Brandenburg

The picture above, which includes the pyramid, was taken from a lecture given by Dr. John Brandenburg (atthe 26:46 mark). Any scientist who publicly shares information that challenges commonly held belief systems, as well as whats been put out by mainstream media, will always come under public scrutiny and ridicule. But when you have worked on space plasma technologies, nuclear fusion, and advanced space propulsion, and invented the Microwave Electro-Thermal plasma thruster using water propellant for space propulsion,you deserve to be taken seriously.

This is the case with Dr. John Brandenburg. Hehas also worked for the government with top-secret security clearances on various projects. He worked on the Rocket Plume Regolith Interactions on the Moon and Mars, Vortex theory of Rocket engine design, and the combined Sakharov-Kaluza-Klein theory of Field Unification for purposes of space propulsion and Mars science.

Brandenburg was alsothe Deputy Manager of the Clementine Mission to the Moon,which was part of a joint space project between the Ballistic Missile Defence Organization (BMDO) and NASA. The mission discovered water at the Moons poles in 1994. (Source: page 16 of 18)(source)(source)

He currently works as a consultant to Morningstar Applied Physics. Here is one of his latest research endeavours. Brandenburg also works as a part time instructor of astronomy, physics, and mathematics at Madison College, and other learning institutions in Madison, Wisconsin.

Heres what he had to say:

Someone complained to me, John, why do you have to bring Cydonia into this? And I said, because I can read a map. . . . Heres whats at Cydonia Mensa. Theres the face on Mars, theres the D & M pyramid. . . . Here it is in a second shot, this was taken July 25th, this was taken 30 days later, the government was apparently doing a follow-up investigation. These two pictures (pictures above to your left) tell you everything you need to know about whats at Cydonia Mensa (region of Mars). If you see on a planet that used to be Earth-like, a carved human face and a pyramid within 5 km of each other . . . it doesnt take a rocket scientist to figure out what this all means, you can connect the dots. . . . I mean sometimes, and I can tell you as a scientist and Ive seen other scientists do this, if youre cornered, youre just brazing it out, you hold up a picture of a buffalo and insist that its a dog.

You can watch his entire lecture, or read THIS article we recently published on it to get his main points.

Dr Brain OLeary

Dr. Brian OLeary was a NASA astronaut, and a member of the sixth group of astronauts selected by NASA in 1967. After this, he was recruited by Carl Sagan to teach at Cornell University in the late 1960s, where he researched and lectured in the Department of Astronomy and Physics. After Cornell, he taught physics, astronomy, and science policy assessment at various academic institutions, including the University of California Berkeley, Hampshire College, and finishing off at Princeton University from 1976 to 1981. After that, he went on to Washington, where he would become an advisor to various political leaders, presidential candidates, and the United States Congress. OLeary was also a member of theAmerican Association for the Advancement of Science, as well as secretary of the American Geophysical Unions Planetology Section. Furthermore, he was the team leader of the Asteroidal Resources Group for NASAs Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements. He was a founding board member of the International Association for New Science as well as founding president of the New Energy Movement.

OLeary was always skeptical about Mars, and there are several others within these circles who were as well. I will be focusing on three.

He had some interesting things to say during alive interview with Kerry Cassidy of Project Camelot(view full live interview here, read transcript of video here).OLeary and Carl Sagan were close for a number of years, but had a falling out when OLeary decided to leave Cornell.

In the interview, he remarked:It was One very cold snowy day in May, I landed in Syracuse, and there was a horizontal blizzard in May and I said:Thats it for upstate New York. And Carl thought that was very frivolous. Because, of course, he was kind of an empire-builder kind of guy; and he also had a huge ego.

After he left, OLeary started to examine some of Carls work. He said that the famous Face in Cydonia on Mars photographed by Viking in 1975, this enormous formation (about a mile across) resembled a human face and created a major buzz at the time was tampered with by Sagan before being releasedto the public: It was very, very disappointing to me, because not only was Carl wrong, he also fudged data. He published a picture of the Face inParade Magazine, a popular article, saying that the Facewas just a natural formation, but he doctored the picture to make it not look like a face.

At this time,Sagan and OLeary were arguably the worlds two leading experts on Mars, and they entered into manydisagreements over that face. This rift was made clear inOLearys publication in 1998, Carl Sagan & I: On Opposite Sides of Mars. It can be found inThe Case for the Face: Scientists Examine the Evidence for Alien Artifacts on Mars, eds. Stanley V. McDaniel and Monica Rix Paxson. Kempton, IL: Adventures Unlimited Press.

InMay of 1990, OLeary releaseda paper titled Analysis of Images of the Face on Mars and Possible Intelligent Originwhich only further demonstrated his skepticism. It was published in the Journal of the British Interplanetary Society,Vol.43 No.5.

OLeary also went on the record and stated:

I began to realize, just directly from the scientific point of view, not only hearsay, that this man was colluding with NASA, that there might be more to this than before. . . .Carl was on a committee with a number of notable people. There was a report issued by the Brookings Institution in 1961 and thats about when I knew Carl, during those years; the 60s mostly was when I worked closely with him that he and this other group said:Well, if any ETs ever showed up on the Earth, it has to be covered up. Thats the only way were going to be able to manage this, because if we cant, then it would be too much of a culture shock.

Quite a shocking statement from someone of Brians stature, isnt it? In the interview, he goes on to say that Carl and his colleagues recommended that the governments cover up the UFO phenomenon, and that hebelieves this provided justification for the ongoing coverup.

When it comes to Mars, as mentioned earlier in the article, Sagan was a big debunker of the face, publishing multiple works stating that it was not a face, there were no pyramids, and that these are allthe stuff of conspiracy theories.

Whats interesting here is that not only does OLeary mention Sagan and his relationship with him, but so does Dr. John Brandenburg. In the lecture he gave, cited earlier in the article, Brandenburg also mentionsthat he was in contact with Sagan, that he sent Sagan the images of Mars with an analysis of the Face and Pyramids, and thatit was clear that thats what they were. The response from Sagan to Brandenburg? I never received them.

Dr. Norman Burgrun

Amechanical engineer, Dr. Bergrun has worked forAmes Research Laboratory, NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), andLockheed Missiles and Space Company, now known as Lockheed Martin. He thenwent on to foundBergrun Engineering and Research. Obviously, he is another qualified individual with an impressive background. You can view some of his publications for NASA, where he worked for more than a decade,here.

In THIS interview, Bergrun accuses that agency of garbling photos and fudging data, as well as the face that was found in Mars in 1976.

We live in an age where more and more people are waking up to the secrecy that plagues our planet. Ten years ago, if you were to mention that we are being watched throughvarious high tech means, it would have been unbelievable, but thanks to people like Edward Snowden, we know this to be true.

Its unfortunate to realize that so many facts about our world are kept hidden from us, supposedly for the sake of national security, but its quite evident that there are also special interests at stake, and secrecy is used to preserve and uphold these interests, whatever they may be.

Today we have many whistleblowers with verified credentials from various agencies and branches of government who are spilling the beans on several different topics, as well as other evidence to corroborate and back up what the say. Our website is full of examples; the ones presented in this article representjust a select few.

While witness testimony is not always deemed credible,when you have up to, arguably, more than one thousand qualified people coming forward, it becomes difficult to ignore.

Today, in 2016, its important to keep an open mind, because information will keep emerging that threatens the belief systems of many. Too often we completely shut down any chance of even entertaining this type of information, and thats done out of fear. When weve been shielded from the truth for so long it can indeed be scary, and sometimes downright unbelievable, to wake up to the truth.

Secrecy is a great way for the establishment to keep us in line and prevent the human race from growing, expanding, and exploring, but our consciousness is shifting. We are becoming more aware, more curious, and more passionate about creating a better human experience for the entire race. We are constantly distracted with our own lives, trying to put food on the table and make it through another work week, having our minds, thoughts, and wants programmed into our brains through mass marketing, butmany people are no longer resonating with this type of human experience.

Its time to start asking the bigger questions. Its time for the human race to leave its infancy and grow into adulthood, and transparency is the first step. Proper progress cannot be made if a civilization tries to move forward blindly, unconscious of the true nature of reality.

Thanks for reading.

Read more:

Strong Evidence of Extraterrestrial Artificial Surface Interventions Found On Mars, According To New Study – Collective Evolution

Homepage INAF English

On October 14th 2015, the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) appointed Professor Nicol D’Amico as President of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Full professor in Astrophysics at University of Cagliari, D’Amico has been previously director of the INAF Astronomical Observatory in Cagliari and the director of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) Project.

Below, the latest news on the president:

See the original post:

Homepage INAF English

Theoretical planetology – Wikipedia

Theoretical planetology, also known as theoretical planetary science[3] is a branch of planetary sciences that developed in the 20th century.[4]

Theoretical planetologists, also known as theoretical planetary scientists, use modelling techniques to develop an understanding of the internal structure of planets by making assumptions about their chemical composition and the state of their materials, then calculating the radial distribution of various properties such as temperature, pressure, or density of material across the planet’s internals.[4]

Theoretical planetologists also use numerical models to understand how the Solar System planets were formed and develop in the future, their thermal evolution, their tectonics, how magnetic fields are formed in planetary interiors, how convection processes work in the cores and mantles of terrestrial planets and in the interiors of gas giants, how their lithospheres deform, the orbital dynamics of planetary satellites, how dust and ice are transported on the surface of some planets (such as Mars), and how the atmospheric circulation takes place over a planet.[5]

Theoretical planetologists may use laboratory experiments to understand various phenomena analogous to planetary processes, such as convection in rotating fluids.[5]

Theoretical planetologists make extensive use of basic physics, particularly fluid dynamics and condensed matter physics, and much of their work involves interpretation of data returned by space missions, although they rarely get actively involved in them.[7]

Typically a theoretical planetologist will have to have had higher education in physics and theoretical physics, at PhD doctorate level.[9][10]

Because of the use of scientific visualisation animation, theoretical planetology has a relationship with computer graphics. Example movies exhibiting this relation are the 4-minute “The Origin of the Moon”[8]

One of the major successes of theoretical planetology is the prediction and subsequent confirmation of volcanism on Io.[1][2]

The prediction was made by Stanton J. Peale who wrote a scientific paper claiming that Io must be volcanically active that was published one week before Voyager 1 encountered Jupiter. When Voyager 1 photographed Io in 1979, his theory was confirmed.[2] Later photographs of Io by the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground also showed volcanoes on Io’s surface, and they were extensively studied and photographed by the Galileo orbiter of Jupiter from 1995-2003.

D. C. Tozer of University of Newcastle upon Tyne,[11] writing in 1974, expressed the opinion that “it could and will be said that theoretical planetary science is a waste of time” until problems related to “sampling and scaling” are resolved, even though these problems cannot be solved by simply collecting further laboratory data.[12]

Researchers working on theoretical planetology include:

Read more:

Theoretical planetology – Wikipedia

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

The University of Hawaii system, (formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as U.H.), is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States. All schools of the University of Hawaii system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The U.H. system’s main administrative offices are located on the property of the University of Hawaii at Mnoa in Honolulu CDP.[3][4][5]

The University of Hawaii at Mnoa, founded as a land grant college under the terms of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts (known as “land-grant colleges” of public state universities especially in the West and Mid-West) in the United States, is the flagship institution of the University of Hawaii system. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific Studies, Astronomy, East Asian Languages and Literature, Asian Studies, Comparative Philosophy, Marine Science, Second Language Studies, along with Botany, Engineering, Ethnomusicology, Geophysics, Law, Business, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Medicine. The second-largest institution is the University of Hawaii at Hilo on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, with over 3,000 students. The smaller University of Hawaii-West Oahu in Kapolei primarily serves students who reside on Honolulu’s western and central suburban communities. The University of Hawaii Community College system comprises four community colleges island campuses on O’ahu and one each on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. The schools were created to improve accessibility of courses to more Hawaii residents and provide an affordable means of easing the transition from secondary school/high school to college for many students. University of Hawaii education centers are located in more remote areas of the State and its several islands, supporting rural communities via distance education.

In accordance with Article X, Section 6 of the Hawaii State Constitution, the University of Hawaii system is governed by a Board of Regents, composed of 15 unpaid members who are nominated by a Regents Candidate Advisory Council, appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the state legislature. The Board oversees all aspects of governance for the university system, including its internal structure and management. The board also appoints, evaluates, and if necessary removes the President of the University of Hawaii.[8]

The University’s governing board includes a current student appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve a two-year term as a full voting regent. The practice of appointing a student to the Board was approved by the Hawaii State Legislature in 1997.

Alumni of the University of Hawaii system include many notable persons in various walks of life. Senator Daniel Inouye and Tammi Duckworth both are veterans of the US military who were injured during in the line of duty then later entered government service. Bette Midler and Georgia Engel are successful entertainers on the national stage. President Barack Obama’s parents, Barack Obama, Sr., and S. Ann Dunham, and half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, also earned degrees from the Mnoa campus, where his parents met in a Russian language class. His mother earned three degrees from the University of Hawaii including a Ph.D. in anthropology.

The University of Hawaii system has had many faculty members of note. Many were visiting faculty or came after they won major awards like Nobel Laureate Dr. Georg von Bksy. Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, principal investigator of the research group that developed a method of cloning from adult animal cells, is still on the faculty.

Read the original here:

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

Department of Lithospheric Research Home

Department of Lithospheric Research

The Department of Lithospheric Research deals with all aspects of the geological investigation of Earth’s lithosphere. Main fields of interest are the petrological, geochemical and geochronological characterisation of plutonic, ophiolitic, and metamorphic rock units of the continental and oceanic crust, respectively. Our investigations are thereby focused on the Alpine orogeny. Other topics of interest are the investigation of geochemical and metasomatic processes in the upper sub-continental mantle in South America and Siberia, the investigation of meteorite impacts on Earth and their influence on the environment, the investigation of meteorites, and the archaeometrical characterisation of artefacts.

Head: Rainer Abart

Petrology

GeoCosmoChronology

Impact Research

Follow this link:

Department of Lithospheric Research Home

Space research – Wikipedia

Space research is scientific studies carried out using scientific equipment in outer space. It includes the use of space technology for a broad spectrum of research disciplines, including Earth science, materials science, biology, medicine, and physics. The term includes scientific payloads everywhere from deep space to low Earth orbit, and is frequently defined to include research in the upper atmosphere using sounding rockets and high-altitude balloons. Space science and space exploration involve the study of outer space itself, which is only part of the broader field of space research. Major Space Research Agencies in the World.

For centuries, the Chinese had been using rockets for ceremonial and military purposes. But it wasnt until the latter-half of the 20th Century where rockets were developed to overcome Earths gravity. Such advances were made simultaneously in three countries by three scientists. In Russia, Konstantin Tsiolkovski, in the United States was Robert Goddard, and in Germany was Hermann Oberth.

After the end of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union created their own missile programs and space research emerged as a field of scientific investigation based on the advancing rocket technology. In 1948-1949 detectors on V-2 rocket flights detected x-rays from the Sun.[1]Sounding rockets proved useful for studies of the structure of the upper atmosphere. As higher altitudes were reached, the field of space physics emerged with studies of aurorae, the ionosphere and the magnetosphere. Notable as the start of satellite-based space research is the detection of the Van Allen radiation belt by Explorer 1 in 1958, four months after the launch of the first satellite, Sputnik 1 on October 4, 1957. In the following year space planetology emerged with a series of lunar probes, e.g. the first photographs of the far side of the Moon by Luna 3 in 1959.

The early space researchers obtained an important international forum with the establishment of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in 1958, which achieved an exchange of scientific information between east and west during the cold war, despite the military origin of the rocket technology underlying the research field.[2]

On April 12, 1961, Russian Lieutenant Yuri Gagarin was the first human to orbit Earth in Vostok 1. In 1961, US astronaut Alan Shepard was the first American in space. And on July 20, 1969, astronaut Neil Armstrong was the first human on the Moon. On April 19, 1971, the Soviet Union launched the Salyut 1, which was the first space station of any kind. On May 14, 1973, Skylab, the first American space station was launched using a modified Saturn V rocket.[3]

Space research includes the following fields of science:[4][5]

The Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite was a NASA-led mission launched on September 12, 1991. The 5,900lb. satellite was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-48 mission on 15 September 1991. It was the first multi-instrumented satellite to study various aspects of the Earths atmosphere and have a better understanding of photochemistry. After 14 years of service, the UARS finished its scientific career in 2005.[6]

The INTEGRAL is an operational space satellite launched by the European Space Agency in 2002. INTEGRAL provides insight into the most energetic forms of in space, such as black holes, neutron stars, and supernovas.[7] INTEGRAL also plays an important role in researching one of the most exotic and energetic phenomena that occurs in space, gamma-rays.

The Hubble Space Telescope was launched in 1990 and it sped humanity to one of its greatest advances to understand the universe. The discoveries made by the HTS have changed the way scientists look at the universe. It winded the amount of space theories as it sparked new ones. Among its many discoveries, the HTS played a key role in conjunction with other space agencies in the discovery of dark energy, a mysterious force that causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate. More than 10,000 articles have been published by Hubble data, and it has surpassed its expected lifetime.

The launch of the NASA-led GEMS mission is scheduled for November 2014.[8] The spacecraft will use an X-Ray telescope to measure the polarization of x-rays coming from black holes and neutron stars. It will also conduct research on remnants of supernovae stars that have exploded. Few experiments have been conducted in X-Ray polarization since the 1970s, and scientists expect GEMS will break new ground. Through GEMS, scientists will be able to improve their knowledge in black holes, in particular whether matter around a black hole is confined to a flat-disk, a puffed disk, or a squirting jet.

Salyut 1 was the first space station ever built. It was launched in April 19, 1971 by the Soviet Union. The first crew failed entry into the space station. The second crew was able to spend twenty-three days in the space station, but this achievement was quickly overshadowed since the crew died on reentry to Earth. Salyut 1 was intentionally deorbited six months into orbit since it prematurely ran out of fuel.[9]

Skylab was the first American space station. It was launched in May 19, 1973. It rotated through three crews of three during its operational time. Skylabs experiments confirmed coronal holes and were able to photograph eight solar flares.[10]

From 1986 to 2001, Russian space station Mir served as a permanent microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of outer space.

The International Space Station has played a key role in advances in space research. Since the arrival of Expedition 1 in November 2000, the station has been continuously occupied for 700851071040000000016years and 67days, having exceeded the previous record of almost ten years set by the Russian station Mir.[11] The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct tests in biology, physics, astronomy and many other fields.

Read the original here:

Space research – Wikipedia

Education Landsat Science

Landsat Education offers a wide range of resources, including Landsat images, animations, K-14 classroom exercises, data tutorials, fact sheets, and more.

We encourage you to contact us with your questions and feedback and to share your ideas about using Landsat for learning and teaching.

Additionally, NASAWavelength.org is a digital collection of NASA Earth and space science resources for educators of all levels from elementary to college, to out-of-school programs. These resources, developed through funding of the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD), have undergone a peer-review process through which educators and scientists ensure the content is accurate and useful in an educational setting. Use NASA Wavelength to quickly and easily locate resources, create your own collections within NASA Wavelength, connect them to other websites using atom feeds, and even share resources through social media.

How people use Landsat; understanding Landsat; how to get data; multimedia

See original here:

Education Landsat Science

Eve online planetary interaction

Materials

EVE Online and the EVE logo are the registered trademarks of CCP hf. All rights are reserved worldwide. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. EVE Online, the EVE logo, EVE and all associated logos and designs are the intellectual property of CCP hf. All artwork, screenshots, characters, vehicles, storylines, world facts or other recognizable features of the intellectual property relating to these trademarks are likewise the intellectual property of CCP hf. CCP hf. has granted permission to [insert your name or site name] to use EVE Online and all associated logos and designs for promotional and information purposes on its website but does not endorse, and is not in any way affiliated with, [insert name or site name]. CCP is in no way responsible for the content on or functioning of this website, nor can it be liable for any damage arising from the use of this website.

See more here:

Eve online planetary interaction

Planetary science – Wikipedia

Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them. It studies objects ranging in size from micrometeoroids to gas giants, aiming to determine their composition, dynamics, formation, interrelations and history. It is a strongly interdisciplinary field, originally growing from astronomy and earth science,[1] but which now incorporates many disciplines, including planetary geology (together with geochemistry and geophysics), cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, oceanography, hydrology, theoretical planetary science, glaciology, and exoplanetology.[1] Allied disciplines include space physics, when concerned with the effects of the Sun on the bodies of the Solar System, and astrobiology.

There are interrelated observational and theoretical branches of planetary science. Observational research can involve a combination of space exploration, predominantly with robotic spacecraft missions using remote sensing, and comparative, experimental work in Earth-based laboratories. The theoretical component involves considerable computer simulation and mathematical modelling.

Planetary scientists are generally located in the astronomy and physics or Earth sciences departments of universities or research centres, though there are several purely planetary science institutes worldwide. There are several major conferences each year, and a wide range of peer-reviewed journals.

The history of planetary science may be said to have begun with the Ancient Greek philosopher Democritus, who is reported by Hippolytus as saying

The ordered worlds are boundless and differ in size, and that in some there is neither sun nor moon, but that in others, both are greater than with us, and yet with others more in number. And that the intervals between the ordered worlds are unequal, here more and there less, and that some increase, others flourish and others decay, and here they come into being and there they are eclipsed. But that they are destroyed by colliding with one another. And that some ordered worlds are bare of animals and plants and all water.[2]

In more modern times, planetary science began in astronomy, from studies of the unresolved planets. In this sense, the original planetary astronomer would be Galileo, who discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, the mountains on the Moon, and first observed the rings of Saturn, all objects of intense later study. Galileo’s study of the lunar mountains in 1609 also began the study of extraterrestrial landscapes: his observation “that the Moon certainly does not possess a smooth and polished surface” suggested that it and other worlds might appear “just like the face of the Earth itself”.[3]

Advances in telescope construction and instrumental resolution gradually allowed increased identification of the atmospheric and surface details of the planets. The Moon was initially the most heavily studied, as it always exhibited details on its surface, due to its proximity to the Earth, and the technological improvements gradually produced more detailed lunar geological knowledge. In this scientific process, the main instruments were astronomical optical telescopes (and later radio telescopes) and finally robotic exploratory spacecraft.

The Solar System has now been relatively well-studied, and a good overall understanding of the formation and evolution of this planetary system exists. However, there are large numbers of unsolved questions,[4] and the rate of new discoveries is very high, partly due to the large number of interplanetary spacecraft currently exploring the Solar System.

This is both an observational and a theoretical science. Observational researchers are predominantly concerned with the study of the small bodies of the Solar System: those that are observed by telescopes, both optical and radio, so that characteristics of these bodies such as shape, spin, surface materials and weathering are determined, and the history of their formation and evolution can be understood.

Theoretical planetary astronomy is concerned with dynamics: the application of the principles of celestial mechanics to the Solar System and extrasolar planetary systems.

The best known research topics of planetary geology deal with the planetary bodies in the near vicinity of the Earth: the Moon, and the two neighbouring planets: Venus and Mars. Of these, the Moon was studied first, using methods developed earlier on the Earth.

Geomorphology studies the features on planetary surfaces and reconstructs the history of their formation, inferring the physical processes that acted on the surface. Planetary geomorphology includes study of several classes of surface feature:

The history of a planetary surface can be deciphered by mapping features from top to bottom according to their deposition sequence, as first determined on terrestrial strata by Nicolas Steno. For example, stratigraphic mapping prepared the Apollo astronauts for the field geology they would encounter on their lunar missions. Overlapping sequences were identified on images taken by the Lunar Orbiter program, and these were used to prepare a lunar stratigraphic column and geological map of the Moon.

One of the main problems when generating hypotheses on the formation and evolution of objects in the Solar System is the lack of samples that can be analysed in the laboratory, where a large suite of tools are available and the full body of knowledge derived from terrestrial geology can be brought to bear. Fortunately, direct samples from the Moon, asteroids and Mars are present on Earth, removed from their parent bodies and delivered as meteorites. Some of these have suffered contamination from the oxidising effect of Earth’s atmosphere and the infiltration of the biosphere, but those meteorites collected in the last few decades from Antarctica are almost entirely pristine.

The different types of meteorite that originate from the asteroid belt cover almost all parts of the structure of differentiated bodies: meteorites even exist that come from the core-mantle boundary (pallasites). The combination of geochemistry and observational astronomy has also made it possible to trace the HED meteorites back to a specific asteroid in the main belt, 4 Vesta.

The comparatively few known Martian meteorites have provided insight into the geochemical composition of the Martian crust, although the unavoidable lack of information about their points of origin on the diverse Martian surface has meant that they do not provide more detailed constraints on theories of the evolution of the Martian lithosphere.[5] As of July 24, 2013 65 samples of Martian meteorites have been discovered on Earth. Many were found in either Antarctica or the Sahara Desert.

During the Apollo era, in the Apollo program, 384 kilograms of lunar samples were collected and transported to the Earth, and 3 Soviet Luna robots also delivered regolith samples from the Moon. These samples provide the most comprehensive record of the composition of any Solar System body beside the Earth. The numbers of lunar meteorites are growing quickly in the last few years [6] as of April 2008 there are 54 meteorites that have been officially classified as lunar. Eleven of these are from the US Antarctic meteorite collection, 6 are from the Japanese Antarctic meteorite collection, and the other 37 are from hot desert localities in Africa, Australia, and the Middle East. The total mass of recognized lunar meteorites is close to 50kg.

Space probes made it possible to collect data in not only the visible light region, but in other areas of the electromagnetic spectrum. The planets can be characterized by their force fields: gravity and their magnetic fields, which are studied through geophysics and space physics.

Measuring the changes in acceleration experienced by spacecraft as they orbit has allowed fine details of the gravity fields of the planets to be mapped. For example, in the 1970s, the gravity field disturbances above lunar maria were measured through lunar orbiters, which led to the discovery of concentrations of mass, mascons, beneath the Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris and Humorum basins.

If a planet’s magnetic field is sufficiently strong, its interaction with the solar wind forms a magnetosphere around a planet. Early space probes discovered the gross dimensions of the terrestrial magnetic field, which extends about 10 Earth radii towards the Sun. The solar wind, a stream of charged particles, streams out and around the terrestrial magnetic field, and continues behind the magnetic tail, hundreds of Earth radii downstream. Inside the magnetosphere, there are relatively dense regions of solar wind particles, the Van Allen radiation belts.

Geophysics includes seismology and tectonophysics, geophysical fluid dynamics, mineral physics, geodynamics, mathematical geophysics, and geophysical surveying.

Geodesy, also called geodetics, deals with the measurement and representation of the planets of the Solar System, their gravitational fields and geodynamic phenomena (polar motion in three-dimensional, time-varying space. The science of geodesy has elements of both astrophysics and planetary sciences. The shape of the Earth is to a large extent the result of its rotation, which causes its equatorial bulge, and the competition of geologic processes such as the collision of plates and of vulcanism, resisted by the Earth’s gravity field. These principles can be applied to the solid surface of Earth (orogeny; Few mountains are higher than 10km (6mi), few deep sea trenches deeper than that because quite simply, a mountain as tall as, for example, 15km (9mi), would develop so much pressure at its base, due to gravity, that the rock there would become plastic, and the mountain would slump back to a height of roughly 10km (6mi) in a geologically insignificant time. Some or all of these geologic principles can be applied to other planets besides Earth. For instance on Mars, whose surface gravity is much less, the largest volcano, Olympus Mons, is 27km (17mi) high at its peak, a height that could not be maintained on Earth. The Earth geoid is essentially the figure of the Earth abstracted from its topographic features. Therefore, the Mars geoid is essentially the figure of Mars abstracted from its topographic features. Surveying and mapping are two important fields of application of geodesy.

The atmosphere is an important transitional zone between the solid planetary surface and the higher rarefied ionizing and radiation belts. Not all planets have atmospheres: their existence depends on the mass of the planet, and the planet’s distance from the Sun too distant and frozen atmospheres occur. Besides the four gas giant planets, almost all of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, and Mars) have significant atmospheres. Two moons have significant atmospheres: Saturn’s moon Titan and Neptune’s moon Triton. A tenuous atmosphere exists around Mercury.

The effects of the rotation rate of a planet about its axis can be seen in atmospheric streams and currents. Seen from space, these features show as bands and eddies in the cloud system, and are particularly visible on Jupiter and Saturn.

Planetary science frequently makes use of the method of comparison to give greater understanding of the object of study. This can involve comparing the dense atmospheres of Earth and Saturn’s moon Titan, the evolution of outer Solar System objects at different distances from the Sun, or the geomorphology of the surfaces of the terrestrial planets, to give only a few examples.

The main comparison that can be made is to features on the Earth, as it is much more accessible and allows a much greater range of measurements to be made. Earth analogue studies are particularly common in planetary geology, geomorphology, and also in atmospheric science.

Smaller workshops and conferences on particular fields occur worldwide throughout the year.

This non-exhaustive list includes those institutions and universities with major groups of people working in planetary science. Alphabetical order is used.

Go here to read the rest:

Planetary science – Wikipedia

Earth on OLogy – AMNH

Earth is the dynamic planet that we call home. It formed over 4.5 billion years ago, and it has been changing ever since. Sometimes these changes happen very fast, like an earthquake or a volcanic eruption. But most changes happen so slowly we don’t notice them at all!

See the original post here:

Earth on OLogy – AMNH

Dawn Mission | Mission

Dawn delves into the unknown and achieves what’s never been attempted before. A mission in NASA’s Discovery Program, Dawn orbited and explored the giant protoplanet Vesta in 2011-2012, and now it is in orbit and exploring a second new world, dwarf planet Ceres.

Dawn’s goal is to characterize the conditions and processes of its earliest history by investigating in detail two of the largest protoplanets remaining intact since their formation. Ceres and Vesta reside in the main asteroid belt, the extensive region between Mars and Jupiter, along with many other smaller bodies. Each followed a very different evolutionary path, constrained by the diversity of processes that operated during the first few million years of solar system evolution. When Dawn visits Ceres and Vesta, the spacecraft steps us back in solar system time.

December 8 – Dawn Collecting Science Data in New Ceres Science Orbit

Dawn is healthy and making cosmic ray measurements in its new science orbit. (The November Dawn Journal explains the objective of these measurements.)

This sixth Ceres science orbit is elliptical, and navigators’ initial measurements show that it ranges in altitude between 4,670 miles (7,520 kilometers) and 5,810 miles (9,350 kilometers).

Want to know how far away Dawn is, or how fast it is traveling? These questions have multiple answers since the answer depends on what you use as a reference frame. Each simulation gives the answer to both of these questions with respect to the Sun, Ceres, Earth, and Vesta.

The Dawn spacecraft combines innovative state-of-the-art technologies pioneered by other recent missions with off-the-shelf components and, in some cases, spare parts and instrumentation left over from previous missions.

Dawn’s futuristic, hyper-efficient ion propulsion system allows Dawn to go into orbit around two different solar system bodies, a first for any spacecraft. Meeting the ambitious mission objectives would be impossible without the ion engines.

Dawn’s mission to Vesta and Ceres is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Dawn is a project of the directorate’s Discovery Program, managed by NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. UCLA is responsible for overall Dawn mission science. Orbital ATK, Inc., of Dulles, Virginia, designed and built the spacecraft. JPL is managed for NASA by the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. The framing cameras were provided by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Gottingen, Germany, with significant contributions by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin, and in coordination with the Institute of Computer and Communication Network Engineering, Braunschweig. The visible and infrared mapping spectrometer was funded and coordinated by the Italian Space Agency and built by SELEX ES, with the scientific leadership of the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Italian National Institute for Astrophysics, Italy, and is operated by the Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, Rome, Italy. The gamma ray and neutron detector was built by Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and is operated by the Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, Arizona.

More here:

Dawn Mission | Mission

Reference Systems and Planetology

English

The Operational Direction “Reference Systems and Planetology” contributes to the elaboration of reference systems and timescales, integrates Belgium in the international reference frames, and studies the interior, rotation, dynamics, and crustal deformation of the Earth and other terrestrial planets and moons of our solar system. We actively participate in the development of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, such as GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) observation networks and their scientific products. The Operational Direction is responsible for the accurate realization of time in Belgium and participates in the international time scale UTC using GNSS time transfer. It is also involved in the Solar and Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE) where GNSS observations are used to monitor the Earth’s ionosphere and troposphere. The operational direction has a long history of research in geodesy, in particular in the astronomical and geophysical causes of rotation variations of the Earth. Additionally to the planet Earth, we have extended our research in geodesy and geophysics to the other terrestrial planets Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and to the moons of the solar system planets. The operational direction is involved in current and upcoming planetary missions and actively contributes to the development of new missions.

La Direction Oprationnelle Systmes de rfrence et Plantologie contribue l’laboration de systmes de rfrence et dchelles de temps, intgre la Belgique dans les repres de rfrence internationaux, et dans les tudes de l’intrieur de la Terre, de sa rotation, de sa dynamique et de ses dformations crustales aux niveaux local, rgional et global, ainsi que celles des autres plantes telluriques et des lunes de notre systme solaire. Nous participons activement au dveloppement des rseaux d’observations du Systme Global de Navigation par Satellites (GNSS, comme GPS, GLONASS et GALILEO) et de leurs produits scientifiques. La Direction Oprationnelle est responsable de la ralisation de lheure prcise en Belgique et participe l’chelle de temps internationale UTC utilisant le transfert de temps par GNSS. Elle est galement implique dans le Centre d’Excellence Terrestre et Solaire (STCE) o les observations GNSS sont utilises pour surveiller l’ionosphre de la Terre et la troposphre. La Direction Oprationnelle a dj quelques dcennies d’exprience en godsie et en particulier dans l’tude des causes astronomiques et gophysiques des variations de la rotation de la Terre. En plus de nos recherches en godsie et gophysique de la Terre, nous avons tendu nos recherches aux autres plantes terrestres Mars, Vnus et Mercure, et aux lunes des plantes du systme solaire. La Direction Oprationnelle est implique dans des missions plantaires actuelles et venir et contribue activement au dveloppement de nouvelles missions.

De operationele directie “Referentiesystemen en Planetologie” werkt mee aan de ontwikkeling van referentiesystemen en tijdschalen, integreert Belgi in de internationale referentiesystemen, en bestudeert de inwendige structuur, de rotatie, de dynamica en de korstvervorming van de Aarde en andere aardse planeten en manen van ons zonnestelsel. We nemen actief deel aan de ontwikkeling van waarnemingsnetwerken en wetenschappelijke producten van Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS, zoals GPS, GLONASS en Galileo). De operationele directie is verantwoordelijk voor de nauwkeurige realisatie van de tijd in Belgi en participeert in de internationale tijdschaal UTC met behulp van GNSS-tijdsoverdracht. Ze is ook betrokken bij het Solar and Terrestrial Centre of Excellence (STCE) waar GNSS-waarnemingen worden gebruikt om de ionosfeer en troposfeer van de Aarde te bestuderen. De operationele directie heeft een decennialange ervaring in de geodesie, in het bijzonder in de studie van de astronomische en geofysische oorzaken van rotatieveranderingen van de Aarde. Naast ons onderzoek in de geodesie en geofysica van de Aarde bestuderen we ook de andere aardse planeten Mars, Venus en Mercurius, en manen van de planeten van ons zonnestelsel. De operationele directie neemt deel aan huidige en toekomstige planetaire missies en draagt actief bij aan de ontwikkeling van nieuwe missies.

View original post here:

Reference Systems and Planetology


12345...1020...