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New nano approach could cut dose of leading HIV treatment in half – Science Daily

New nano approach could cut dose of leading HIV treatment in half
Science Daily
The healthy volunteer trial, conducted by the collaborative nanomedicine research programme led by Pharmacologist Professor Andrew Owen and Materials Chemist Professor Steve Rannard, and in collaboration with the St Stephen's AIDS Trust at the …

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New nano approach could cut dose of leading HIV treatment in half – Science Daily

Nano-size revolution is getting bigger – InDaily

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An explosion of nanotechnology research and development is occurring as newly identified forms of carbon, including graphene, carbon nanotubes and nano-diamonds, pave the way for new products and industries.

Innovations are snowballing in fields as diverse as medicine to clean energy.

Using ever more technology to manipulate and control structures at the nanoscale, scientists and engineers around the world are also looking to develop more effective medicines, longer lasting batteries for our mobile devices (including cars) and greener energy generation as well as many other applications that will benefit from big advances in small things.

We are on the cusp of nanotechnology being useful and used right across the economy and its very exciting.

Once considered science fiction, nanotech now plays a big part in our everyday life, from the materials used in computer chips and increasingly compact electronics to your phone display and the comfortable soles of running shoes.

Well before scientists understood what an atom was let alone a nanoparticle, Venetian artisans were working at nano-particle scale about 1500 years ago by treating gold in glass to generate unique visual effects.

The discipline of nanotechnology took off in the mid-1990s when the ability to see or more correctly image surfaces and particles in the range of 1-100nm (about 1/10,000 the width of a human hair) became possible.

From a practical point of view, nanotechnology is all about the way molecules arrange with each other to form a higher order structure in much the same way as bricks and glass can be organised to make a house.

We can do this by design, where we use advanced lithography to make computer chips, or we can start to design the molecules or sub-structures so that they can organise themselves.

We can also leverage the observation that the properties of materials can also change when particles become very small.

A very visible example is the transparent sunscreens that we use on a regular basis. Gone are the days when the most effective sunscreen, zinc cream, was white (or vividly coloured as it became).

Zinc oxide has the inherent ability to absorb dangerous ultraviolet light but if the particles are large, they also scatter visible light, making it appear white.By making the particles smaller, they no longer scatter light and become transparent to the human eye in a relatively simple optical trick.

In another example, gold is normally considered to be a very stable, inert material but very small gold particles have interesting catalytic properties and may lead to an economic route to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.

In addition, like many small metal and semiconducting materials, gold also changes colour to red and blue when they are very small, rather than their more familiar gold colour, which can make provide interesting optical effects from security printing to the detection of fingerprints on difficult surfaces.

Professor David Lewis leads the Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology (CNST) at Flinders where researchers work with industry under the State Government assisted NanoConnect program.

NanoConnect aims to help companies understand how the best materials and nanotechnology can help them in their processes.

The CNST, and other nanotech experts such as Professor Amanda Ellis, are leading research efforts in a number of nano fields, including making DNA nanostructures for a range of applications from bio-sensing to genotyping as well as integrating piezoelectric (energy harvesting) polymers into carbon-based energy storage devices.

Synthetic and biomaterial based polymer membranes incorporating nanotech advances are also being developed for uses such as water and gas purification.

Read more about nanotechnology and other research at Flinders in the Universitys 50th anniversary publication, The Investigator Transformed.

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Nano-size revolution is getting bigger – InDaily

New Technique Cuts HIV Treatment in Half – Controlled Environments Magazine

Successful results of a University of Liverpool-led trial that utilized nanotechnology to improve drug therapies for HIV patients has been presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, a leading annual conference of HIV research, clinical practice, and progress.

The healthy volunteer trial, conducted by the collaborative nanomedicine research program led by Pharmacologist Professor Andrew Owen and Materials Chemist Professor Steve Rannard, and in collaboration with the St Stephens AIDS Trust at the Chelsea & Westminster Hospital in London, examined the use of nanotechnology to improve the delivery of drugs to HIV patients. The results were from two trials which are the first to use orally dosed nanomedicine to enable HIV therapy optimization.

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. By developing smaller pills that are better for patients and less expensive to manufacture, this evolving discipline has the potential to dramatically change medical science and is already having an impact in a number of clinically used therapies and diagnostics worldwide.

Currently, the treatment of HIV requires daily oral dosing of HIV drugs, and chronic oral dosing has significant complications that arise from the high pill burden experienced by many patients across populations with varying conditions leading to non-adherence to therapies.

Recent evaluation of HIV patient groups has shown a willingness to switch to nanomedicine alternatives if benefits can be shown. Research efforts by the Liverpool team have focused on the development of new oral therapies, using Solid Drug Nanoparticle (SDN) technology which can improve drug absorption into the body, reducing both the dose and the cost per dose and enabling existing healthcare budgets to treat more patients.

The trial results confirmed the potential for a 50 percent dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic exposure, using a novel approach to formulation of two drugs: efavirenz (EFV) and, lopinavir (LPV). EFV is the current WHO-recommended preferred regimen, with 70 percent of adult patients on first-line taking an EFV-based HIV treatment regimen in low- and middle-income countries.

The trial is connected to the Universitys ongoing work as part of the multinational consortium OPTIMIZE, a global partnership working to accelerate access to simpler, safer and more affordable HIV treatment. Funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, OPTIMIZE is led by the Wits Reproductive Health & HIV Institute in Johannesburg, South Africa, and includes the interdisciplinary Liverpool team, Columbia University, Mylan Laboratories, and the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP). OPTIMIZE is supported by key partners including UNITAID and the South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC).

Benny Kottiri, USAIDs Office of HIV/AIDS Research Division Chief, says, The potential applications for HIV treatment are incredibly promising. By aligning efforts, these integrated investments offer the potential to reduce the doses required to control the HIV virus even further, resulting in real benefits globally. This would enable the costs of therapy to be reduced which is particularly beneficial for resource-limited countries where the burden of disease is highest.

Source: University of Liverpool

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New Technique Cuts HIV Treatment in Half – Controlled Environments Magazine

Nominations invited for $250,000 Kabiller Prize in Nanoscience and … – Northwestern University NewsCenter

EVANSTON – Northwestern Universitys International Institute for Nanotechnology (IIN) is now accepting nominations for two prestigious international prizes: the $250,000 Kabiller Prize in Nanoscience and Nanomedicine and the $10,000 Kabiller Young Investigator Award in Nanoscience and Nanomedicine.

The deadline for nominations is May 15, 2017. Details are available on the IIN website.

Our goal is to recognize the outstanding accomplishments in nanoscience and nanomedicine that have the potential to benefit all humankind, said David G. Kabiller, a Northwestern trustee and alumnus. He is a co-founder of AQR Capital Management, a global investment management firm in Greenwich, Connecticut.

The two prizes, awarded every other year, were established in 2015 through a generous gift from Kabiller. Current Northwestern-affiliated researchers are not eligible for nomination until 2018 for the 2019 prizes.

The Kabiller Prize the largest monetary award in the world for outstanding achievement in the field of nanomedicine celebrates researchers who have made the most significant contributions to the field of nanotechnology and its application to medicine and biology.

The Kabiller Young Investigator Award recognizes young emerging researchers who have made recent groundbreaking discoveries with the potential to make a lasting impact in nanoscience and nanomedicine.

The IIN at Northwestern University is a hub of excellence in the field of nanotechnology, said Kabiller, chair of the IIN executive council and a graduate of Northwesterns Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences and Kellogg School of Management. As such, it is the ideal organization from which to launch these awards recognizing outstanding achievements that have the potential to substantially benefit society.

Nanoparticles for medical use are typically no larger than 100 nanometers comparable in size to the molecules in the body. At this scale, the essential properties (e.g., color, melting point, conductivity, etc.) of structures behave uniquely. Researchers are capitalizing on these unique properties in their quest to realize life-changing advances in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease.

Nanotechnology is one of the key areas of distinction at Northwestern, said Chad A. Mirkin, IIN director and George B. Rathmann Professor of Chemistry in Weinberg. We are very grateful for Davids ongoing support and are honored to be stewards of these prestigious awards.

An international committee of experts in the field will select the winners of the 2017 Kabiller Prize and the 2017 Kabiller Young Investigator Award and announce them in September.

The recipients will be honored at an awards banquet Sept. 27 in Chicago. They also will be recognized at the 2017 IIN Symposium, which will include talks from prestigious speakers, including 2016 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry Ben Feringa, from the University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

The winner of the inaugural Kabiller Prize, in 2015, was Joseph DeSimone the Chancellors Eminent Professor of Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the William R. Kenan Jr. Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University and of Chemistry at UNC-Chapel Hill.

DeSimone was honored for his invention of particle replication in non-wetting templates (PRINT) technology that enables the fabrication of precisely defined, shape-specific nanoparticles for advances in disease treatment and prevention. Nanoparticles made with PRINT technology are being used to develop new cancer treatments, inhalable therapeutics for treating pulmonary diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and asthma, and next-generation vaccines for malaria, pneumonia and dengue.

Warren Chan, professor at the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering at the University of Toronto, was the recipient of the inaugural Kabiller Young Investigator Award, also in 2015. Chan and his research group have developed an infectious disease diagnostic device for a point-of-care use that can differentiate symptoms.

In total, the IIN represents and unites more than $1 billion in nanotechnology infrastructure, research and education. These efforts, plus those of many other groups, have helped transition nanomedicine from a laboratory curiosity to life-changing technologies that are positively impacting the world.

The IIN houses numerous centers and institutes, including the Ronald and JoAnne Willens Center for Nano Oncology, an NIH Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, an Air Force Center of Excellence for Advanced Bioprogrammable Nanomaterials, and the Convergence Science & Medicine Institute.

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Nominations invited for $250,000 Kabiller Prize in Nanoscience and … – Northwestern University NewsCenter

New nano approach could cut dose of leading HIV treatment in half – Phys.Org

February 21, 2017 Credit: University of Liverpool

Successful results of a University of Liverpool-led trial that utilised nanotechnology to improve drug therapies for HIV patients has been presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle, a leading annual conference of HIV research, clinical practice and progress.

The healthy volunteer trial, conducted by the collaborative nanomedicine research programme led by Pharmacologist Professor Andrew Owen and Materials Chemist Professor Steve Rannard, and in collaboration with the St Stephen’s AIDS Trust at the Chelsea & Westminster Hospital in London, examined the use of nanotechnology to improve the delivery of drugs to HIV patients. The results were from two trials which are the first to use orally dosed nanomedicine to enable HIV therapy optimisation.

Manipulation of matter

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. Nanomedicine is the application of nanotechnology to the prevention and treatment of disease in the human body. By developing smaller pills that are better for patients and less expensive to manufacture, this evolving discipline has the potential to dramatically change medical science and is already having an impact in a number of clinically used therapies and diagnostics worldwide.

Currently, the treatment of HIV requires daily oral dosing of HIV drugs, and chronic oral dosing has significant complications that arise from the high pill burden experienced by many patients across populations with varying conditions leading to non-adherence to therapies.

Developing new therapies

Recent evaluation of HIV patient groups have shown a willingness to switch to nanomedicine alternatives if benefits can be shown. Research efforts by the Liverpool team have focused on the development of new oral therapies, using Solid Drug Nanoparticle (SDN) technology which can improve drug absorption into the body, reducing both the dose and the cost per dose and enabling existing healthcare budgets to treat more patients.

The trial results confirmed the potential for a 50 percent dose reduction while maintaining therapeutic exposure, using a novel approach to formulation of two drugs: efavirenz (EFV) and, lopinavir (LPV). EFV is the current WHO-recommended preferred regimen, with 70% of adult patients on first-line taking an EFV-based HIV treatment regimen in low- and middle-income countries.

The trial is connected to the University’s ongoing work as part of the multinational consortium OPTIMIZE, a global partnership working to accelerate access to simpler, safer and more affordable HIV treatment. Funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development, OPTIMIZE is led by the Wits Reproductive Health & HIV Institute in Johannesburg, South Africa, and includes the interdisciplinary Liverpool team, Columbia University, Mylan Laboratories and the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP). OPTIMIZE is supported by key partners including UNITAID and the South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC).

Potential applications

Benny Kottiri, USAID’s Office of HIV/AIDS Research Division Chief, said: “The potential applications for HIV treatment are incredibly promising. By aligning efforts, these integrated investments offer the potential to reduce the doses required to control the HIV virus even further, resulting in real benefits globally. This would enable the costs of therapy to be reduced which is particularly beneficial for resource-limited countries where the burden of disease is highest.”

Explore further: New nanomedicine approach aims to improve HIV drug therapies

More information: The presentation is available online: http://www.croiwebcasts.org/console/player/33376?mediaType=slideVideo&

Cells within our bodies divide and change over time, with thousands of chemical reactions occurring within each cell daily. This makes it difficult for scientists to understand what’s happening inside. Now, tiny nanostraws …

Drugs disguised as viruses are providing new weapons in the battle against cancer, promising greater accuracy and fewer side effects than chemotherapy.

DNA, the stuff of life, may very well also pack quite the jolt for engineers trying to advance the development of tiny, low-cost electronic devices.

The precise control of electron transport in microelectronics makes complex logic circuits possible that are in daily use in smartphones and laptops. Heat transport is of similar fundamental importance and its control is …

A new technique using liquid metals to create integrated circuits that are just atoms thick could lead to the next big advance for electronics.

The ability of small intestine cells to absorb nutrients and act as a barrier to pathogens is “significantly decreased” after chronic exposure to nanoparticles of titanium dioxide, a common food additive found in everything …

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New nano approach could cut dose of leading HIV treatment in half – Phys.Org

Israel launches two nano-satellites – Arutz Sheva

The satellites are launched

Science Ministry spokesman

Two Israeli nano-satellites were successfully launched into space from India at 6am Wednesday, using a launcher from the Indian Space Research Organization.

The new nano-satellites are the size of milk cartons, allowing Israeli researchers better navigation and easy information access.

One of the satellites belongs to Ben Gurion University and will provide Israel with high-resolution photos. The BGUSAT is equipped with cameras able to detect climate trends and changes, and has a small chip allowing it to function like a larger satellite. The BGUSAT weighs 11 pounds (5 kg).

The second satellite belongs to SpacePharma, the Israeli company which first developed nano-satellites. This satellite has a mini-lab on board which conducts four experiments, some of which investigate the effect of zero gravity on different substances. The experiments are controlled by the researchers via a direct application on their smartphones. The automatic system allows the researchers to change the experiments as necessary, as well as receive data on radiation, temperature, and more. The SpacePharma satellite weights 9.92 lbs (4.5 kg) and is equipped with a camera which can take microscopic pictures.

A record 101 other satellites from around the globe left the same launcher together with the Israeli satellites. All of the satellites entered an orbit 310.75 miles (500 kilometers) high within minutes after launch.

88 of the other satellites launched on the PSLV launcher belong to a US company, three of them belong to India, and the others belong to Kazakhstan, Holland, Switzerland, and the United Arab Emirates.

Launched together, the 102 satellites weighed 1,378 kilograms. India’s three satellites were released at a lower orbit, but the other 97 will orbit together with the Israeli satellites at a height of 310.75 miles (500 kilometers) from Earth.

The launcher traveled at a speed of 16780.6 mph (27,000 km per hour), which is forty times faster than the average airplane.

The Israeli satellites will serve researchers from Israel and around the world, providing information for climate research and medicine. Science, Technology and Space Minister Ofir Akunis (Likud) said, “We are proud to see how Israeli research has launched. We are proud of the Israeli researchers who developed these two small satellites, which will help us advance medical and environmental research for the sake of all humanity.”

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Israel launches two nano-satellites – Arutz Sheva

Research briefs: diagnostic imaging – Medical Physics Web (subscription)

Automated system classifies skin cancers

Skin cancer, the most common human malignancy, is usually diagnosed visually and then confirmed with follow-up biopsies and histological tests. Automated classification of skin lesions is desirable but challenging because such lesions vary greatly in appearance. Now, researchers from Stanford University have devised a deep-learning algorithm that can classify skin cancers from images. They trained the algorithm using a dataset of 129,450 clinical images representing more than 2000 different skin diseases. In tests on clinical images, the algorithm could diagnose the most common and the most deadly types of skin cancer malignant carcinomas and melanomas, respectively with equivalent performance to a group of 21 board-certified dermatologists (Nature 542 115).

“We made a very powerful machine learning algorithm that learns from data,” said Andre Esteva, co-lead author of the paper and a graduate student in the Thrun lab. “Instead of writing into computer code exactly what to look for, you let the algorithm figure it out.” The authors note that the system has yet to be validated in a real-world clinical setting, but has extensive potential to affect primary care. They also hope to make the algorithm smartphone compatible in the near future. “My main eureka moment was when I realized just how ubiquitous smartphones will be,” added Esteva. “Everyone will have a supercomputer in their pockets with a number of sensors in it, including a camera. What if we could use it to visually screen for skin cancer? Or other ailments?”

Researchers at the University of Michigan Medical School have designed a portable cancer diagnostic system that enables faster and more accurate diagnosis of brain tumours in the operating room. Typically, after removing the tumour, the surgeon must wait 30 to 40 minutes while the tissue is sent to a pathology lab for processing, sectioning, staining, mounting and interpretation. This can delay decision-making in the operating room, while tissue processing can introduce artefacts. Instead, the Michigan researchers have developed a stimulated Raman histology (SRH) system that can provide fast analysis of fresh brain tumour samples in the operating room, with no sample processing or staining required (Nature Biomedical Engineering 1 0027).

SRH is based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, using a fibre-laser-based microscope. The technology produces images that are virtually coloured to highlight cellular and architectural features and are almost indistinguishable from traditionally stained samples. The researchers imaged tissue from 101 neurosurgical patients using the new approach and conventional methods. Both produced accurate results but SRH was much faster. Neuropathologists given 30 samples, processed via SRH or traditional methods, were equally likely to make a correct diagnosis with either sample. The team has also built a machine learning process that could predict brain tumour subtype with 90% accuracy. “By achieving excellent image quality in fresh tissues, we’re able to make a diagnosis during surgery,” said first author Daniel Orringer. “Our technique may disrupt the intraoperative diagnosis process in a great way, reducing it from a 30-minute process to about three minutes. Initially, we developed this technology as a means of helping surgeons detect microscopic tumour, but we found the technology was capable of much more than guiding surgery.”

A research team headed up at the Center for Nanomedicine in the Republic of Korea has developed the Nano MRI Lamp a platform based on an MRI contrast that only “switches on” in the presence of the targeted disease. The Nano MRI Lamp technology combines two magnetic materials: a superparamagnetic quencher (magnetic nanoparticle) and a paramagnetic enhancer (MRI contrast agent). When the two materials are separated by more than 7nm, the MRI signal is on, whereas when they are placed closer than 7nm, the signal is switched off. The researchers named this approach magnetic resonance tuning (Nature Materials doi: 10.1038/nmat4846).

The team tested the Nano MRI Lamp’s performance by detecting the presence of MMP-2, an enzyme that can induce tumour metastasis, in mice with cancer. They connected the two magnetic materials with a linker, bringing them close together and switching the MRI signal off. In the presence of cancer, the MMP-2 cleaves this linker, separating the materials and switching the MRI signal on. The resulting MR image thus indicated the location of the tumour, with the signal brightness correlated with MMP-2 concentration in the cancerous tissue. “The current contrast agent is like using a flashlight during a sunny day: its effect is limited. Instead, this new technology is like using a flash light at night and therefore more useful,” explained team leader Jinwoo Cheon.

The first-in-human application of a PET radiotracer designed to identify both early and metastatic prostate cancer has been reported by a USChina research team. The new tracer is a Ga-68-labelled peptide BBN-RGD agent that targets both gastrin-releasing peptide receptor and integrin v3, both of which are overexpressed in prostate cancer cells. The study included 13 patients with prostate cancer (four newly diagnosed and nine post-therapy) and five healthy volunteers. PET/CT using Ga-68-BBN-RGD detected 20 bone lesions in seven patients, either with primary prostate cancer or after radical prostatectomy. No adverse side effects were found during the procedure and two-week follow-up, demonstrating the safety of the radiotracer (J. Nucl. Med. 58 228).

“Compounds capable of targeting more than one biomarker have the ability of binding to both early and metastatic stages of prostate cancer, creating the possibility for a more prompt and accurate diagnostic profile for both primary and the metastatic tumours,” explained senior investigator Xiaoyuan Chen, from the Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine at NIBIB. Looking ahead, Chen says that Ga-68-BBN-RGD could play a role in staging and detecting prostate cancer and provide guidance for internal radiation therapy, using the same peptide labelled with therapeutic radionuclides. He points out that larger-scale clinical investigations are warranted.

MSOM offers 3D in vivo skin mapping Raman imaging steps closer to the clinic Multifunctional bubbles image and treat PET helps quantify bone metastases response

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Research briefs: diagnostic imaging – Medical Physics Web (subscription)

Global Nanomedicine Market Is Primarily Driven by an Increase in the Rate of Investments Made Into It – Digital Journal

Transparency Market Research Report Added “Nanomedicine Market – Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share,Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 – 2019”

This press release was orginally distributed by SBWire

Albany, NY — (SBWIRE) — 02/14/2017 — The global nanomedicine market will exhibit a CAGR of 12.3% within a forecast period of 2013 to 2019. The market was valued at US$78.54 bn in 2012 and is expected to reach US$177.60 bn before the end of 2019, according to a research report released by market intelligence firm, Transparency Market Research. The report, titled “Nanomedicine Market – Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2013 – 2019,” holds vital data on this market for to help the market stakeholders in strategic planning in the near future.

Download PDF Brochure: http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/sample/sample.php?flag=S&rep_id=1753

According to the data given in the report, the global nanomedicine market is primarily driven by an increase in the rate of investments made into it. These investments are coming in the form of government support and collaborations within the healthcare industry. Most of the investments are made to improve the research and development efforts in the global nanomedicine market.The high rate of investments is being made to complement the rising prevalence of chronic diseases, which is increasing the number of patients with unresolved medical requirements.

Major restraints on the global nanomedicine market, as stated in the report, are the high costs associated with the development of effective nanomedicine, along with the overall insufficiency of framework in terms of regulatory guidance.The future of the global nanomedicine market could rely on a growing trend of identifying new applications in nanomedicine, along with its increasing scope of use in emerging economies.

The report provides a segmented analysis of the global nanomedicine market in terms of applications and geography.In terms of applications, the global nanomedicine market was led by the oncology segment in 2012, when it held nearly 38.0% of the market. Oncology holds a high percentage of nanomedicine use in the commercialized sense, allowing it to hold the largest share in the global nanomedicine market. The report, however, states that the oncology segment will lose market share to the cardiovascular segment, which is growing at the fastest rate due to an increasing population of geriatric citizens around the world.

The regional analysis of the global nanomedicine market provided in the report reveals Asia Pacific to exhibit the fastest CAGR of 14.6% between 2013 and 2019. This region owes its rapid growth rate to the increase in awareness of the benefits of nanomedicine usage in the treatment of chronic diseases. This is more relevant to China and India, where the growing rate of diagnosis of chronic illnesses, coupled with the increase in healthcare expenditure and collaborative efforts, is promoting the use of nanomedicine.

Till 2012, the global nanomedicine market was led by North America owing to the highly advanced infrastructure and services present in the healthcare industry. The report suggests that North America will maintain its dominance over the global nanomedicine market for the given forecast period.

The key players in the global nanomedicine market are Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals Inc., UCB SA, Nanosphere Inc., Pfizer Inc., GE Healthcare, Merck & Co. Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Mallinckrodt plc, Celgene Corporation, Abbott Laboratories, and CombiMatrix Corp.

About Transparency Market Research Transparency Market Research (TMR) is a global market intelligence company providing business information reports and services. The company’s exclusive blend of quantitative forecasting and trend analysis provides forward-looking insight for thousands of decision makers. TMR’s experienced team of analysts, researchers, and consultants use proprietary data sources and various tools and techniques to gather and analyze information.

Contact Us Transparency Market Research State Tower, 90 State Street, Suite 700 Albany, NY 12207 United States Tel: +1-518-618-1030 USA – Canada Toll Free: 866-552-3453 Email: sales@transparencymarketresearch.com Website: http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/global-nanomedicine-market/release-766924.htm

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Global Nanomedicine Market Is Primarily Driven by an Increase in the Rate of Investments Made Into It – Digital Journal

Nanomedical Devices Industry Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2027 – Satellite PR News (press release)

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Nanomedical Devices Industry Size, Application Analysis, Regional Outlook, Competitive Strategies and Forecast to 2027

Market Research Future

PUNE, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA, February 14, 2017 /EINPresswire.com/ Market Highlights Till now, around 250 nanomedicine products are being tested or used in humans. According to experts, the long-term impact of nanomedicinal products on human health and the environment is still not certain. During the last 10 years, there has been steep growth in development of devices that integrate nanomaterials or other nanotechnology. Enhancement of in vivo imaging and testing has been a highly popular area of research, followed by bone substitutes and coatings for implanted devices. The market for Nano-Medical Devices is booming.

Ask for your specific company profile and country level customization on report. Request a Sample Report @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/sample_request/1236

Segmentation Global Nano-Medical Devices Market has been segmented on the basis of types which comprises of Implantable Biosensors, Implantable cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICD), Implantable drug delivery system and others. On the basis of applications, the market is segmented into Disease indication, Drug release regulation, controlling fast or irregular heartbeat, consistent drug delivery and others. On the basis of end users, market is segmented into Hospitals, clinics, research institutes and others.

Key Players Stryker Corporation (U.S.) Medtronic (Ire) 3M Company (U.S.) St. Jude Medical, Inc. (U.S.) PerkinElmer, Inc. (U.S.) Starkey Hearing Technologies Smith & Nephew plc.

Regional Analysis of Nano-Medical devices Market: Globally North America is the largest market for Nano medical devices. The North American market for nanomedical devices is expected to grow at a CAGR of XX% and is expected to reach at US$ XXX Million by the end of the forecasted period. Europe is the second-largest market for Nano-Medical Devices which is expected to grow at a CAGR of XX%. Asia is the fastest growing market in the segment.

Taste the market data and market information presented through more than 85 market data tables and figures spread in 130 numbers of pages of the project report. Avail the in-depth table of content TOC & market synopsis on Global Nanomedical Devices Market Research Report- Forecast To 2027

Brief TOC of Global Nano-Medical Devices Market 1 Executive Summary 2 Scope of the Report 2.1 Market Definition 2.2 Scope of the Study 2.3 Markets Structure

3 Market Research Methodology 3.1 Research Process 3.2 Secondary Research 3.3 Primary Research 3.4 Forecast Model

4 Market Landscape 5 Industry Overview of Global Nano-Medical Devices Market 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Growth Drivers 5.3 Impact analysis 5.4 Market Challenges Continued.

Browse full Nano-Medical Devices Market @ https://www.marketresearchfuture.com/reports/nanomedical-devices-market

Study Objectives of Nanomedical devices Market: To provide detailed analysis of the market structure along with forecast for the next 10 years of the various segments and sub-segments of the nanomedical devices Market To provide insights about factors affecting the market growth To analyze the nanomedical devices Market based on various factors- price analysis, supply chain analysis, porters five force analysis etc. To provide historical and forecast revenue of the market segments and sub-segments with respect to four main geographies and their countries- Americas, Europe, Asia, and Rest of World. To provide country level analysis of the market with respect to the current market size and future prospective To provide country level analysis of the market for segments by types, by applications, by end users and sub-segments. To provide overview of key players and their strategic profiling in the market, comprehensively analyzing their core competencies, and drawing a competitive landscape for the market

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Nanomedical Devices Industry Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2027 – Satellite PR News (press release)

Scientists Devise New Platform to Overcome the Limits of MRI Contrast Agents – Scicasts (press release) (blog)

Daejeon, Korea (Scicasts) A research team led by CHEON Jinwoo at the Center for Nanomedicine, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), developed the Nano MRI Lamp: A new technology platform that tunes the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals “ON” only in the presence of the targeted disease.

Published in Nature Materials, this study can overcome the limitations of existing MRI contrast agents.

MRI is an increasingly popular non-invasive technique for diagnosis and, importantly, does not use harmful radiation. Some tissues show a natural contrast on MRI, but for some specific types of imaging, patients are administered a MRI contrast agent to enhance the difference between the target area and the rest of the body. “Typical MRI contrast agents, like gadolinium, are injected in an “ON” state and distributed across the whole biological system with relatively large background signal,” explains Director Cheon. “We found a new principle to switch the MRI contrast agent “ON” only in the location of the target.” IBS scientists discovered how to switch the signal ON/OFF by using the Nano MRI Lamp.

The Nano MRI Lamp technology consists of two magnetic materials: A quencher (magnetic nanoparticle) and an enhancer (MRI contrast agent). The switch is due to the distance between the two. When the two materials are at a critical distance, farther than 7 nanometers (nm), the MRI signal is “ON”, whereas when they are placed closer than 7 nm, the MRI signal is “OFF”. The researchers named this phenomenon Magnetic REsonance Tuning (MRET), which is analogous to the powerful optical sensing technique called Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET).

The researchers tested the Nano MRI Lamp for cancer diagnosis. They detected the presence of an enzyme that can induce tumour metastasis, MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) in mice with cancer. They connected the two magnetic materials with a linker that is naturally cleaved by MMP-2. Since the linker keeps the two materials close to each other, the MRI signal was “OFF”. However, in the presence of the cancer, the linker is cleaved by MMP-2, which cause the two materials to be separated and the MRI signal switched “ON”. Therefore, the MRI signal indicated the location of MMP-2, and the tumour. The scientists also found that the brightness of the MRI signal correlates with the concentration of MMP-2 in the cancerous tissue.

Most importantly, the Nano MRI Lamp remains switched off until it meets a biomarker associated with a specific disease, allowing higher sensitivity. “The current contrast agent is like using a flashlight during a sunny day: Its effect is limited. Instead, this new technology is like using a flash light at night and therefore more useful,” explains Cheon.

Beyond cancer diagnosis, the Nano MRI Lamp can, in principle, be applied to investigate a variety of biological events, such as enzymolysis, pH variation, protein-protein interactions, etc. IBS scientists expect that it would be useful for both in vitro and in vivo diagnostics.

“Although we still have a long way to go, we established the principle and believe that the MRET and Nano MRI Lamp can serve as a novel sensing principle to augment the exploration of a wide range of biological systems,” concludes Cheon. The research group is now working on developing safer and smarter multitasking contrast agents, which can simultaneously record and interpret multiple biological targets, and eventually allow a better understanding of biological processes and accurate diagnosis of diseases.

Article adapted from a Institute for Basic Science news release.

Publication: Distance-dependent magnetic resonance tuning as a versatile MRI sensing platform for biological targets. Jin-sil Choi et al. Nature Materials (February 06, 2017): Click here to view.

View post:

Scientists Devise New Platform to Overcome the Limits of MRI Contrast Agents – Scicasts (press release) (blog)

The First European Nanomedicine Mentoring Program Launches a New Edition – Apply to boost your project … – Cordis News

The Nanomedicine Translation Advisory Board (NanomedTAB) offers a free-of-charge mentoring program to promising nanomedicine teams and projects at any stage of development to assess, advise and accelerate their translation and get to commercial application faster and more reliably. To reach this objective, the TAB counts on 11 experts from the industry, specifically recruited for their diverse, extensive and complementary experience in the translation of innovative technologies for healthcare.

The fourth TABs round is now open to companies, public and private research entities, and other organisations leading nanomedicine innovative projects in Europe. Deadline for applications is 27th February 2017.

Selected projects in this round will be invited to attend the TAB-In Session, designed as 2-hour face-to-face meetings with the experts. These meetings will be organised on 4th April 2017 in London in the framework of the European Nanomedicine Meeting 2017 (http://www.britishsocietynanomedicine.org/enm-2017-conference1.html).

Applications to the TAB should be submitted through the following link: http://www.nanomedtab.eu/?apply.

Go here to see the original:

The First European Nanomedicine Mentoring Program Launches a New Edition – Apply to boost your project … – Cordis News

4th TAB-in Sessions during the European Nanomedicine Meeting 2017 in London – Cordis News

The fourth TABs round is now open to companies, public and private research entities, and other organisations leading nanomedicine innovative projects in Europe. Selected projects in this round will be invited to attend the TAB-In Session, designed as 2-hour face-to-face meetings with the experts and organised on 4th April 2017 in London in the framework of the European Nanomedicine Meeting 2017.

The current statistics of the cases supported by the TAB experts are very promising with 52 teams from 16 countries already having applied, and about half of them being currently benefiting from the experts continuous coaching.

Applications to the TAB should be submitted before 27th February 2017 through the following link: http://www.nanomedtab.eu/?apply.

Information about the European Nanomedicine Meeting 2017 can be found on the event’s website at http://www.britishsocietynanomedicine.org/enm-2017-conference1.html

Continued here:

4th TAB-in Sessions during the European Nanomedicine Meeting 2017 in London – Cordis News

Smarter MRI Diagnosis with Nano MRI Lamp – R & D Magazine

A research team led by CHEON Jinwoo at the Center for Nanomedicine, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), developed the Nano MRI Lamp: A new technology platform that tunes the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals “ON” only in the presence of the targeted disease. Published inNature Materials, this study can overcome the limitations of existing MRI contrast agents.

MRI is an increasingly popular non-invasive technique for diagnosis and, importantly, does not use harmful radiation. Some tissues show a natural contrast on MRI, but for some specific types of imaging, patients are administered a MRI contrast agent to enhance the difference between the target area and the rest of the body. “Typical MRI contrast agents, like gadolinium, are injected in an “ON” state and distributed across the whole biological system with relatively large background signal,” explains Director Cheon. “We found a new principle to switch the MRI contrast agent “ON” only in the location of the target.” IBS scientists discovered how to switch the signal ON/OFF by using the Nano MRI Lamp.

The Nano MRI Lamp technology consists of two magnetic materials: A quencher (magnetic nanoparticle) and an enhancer (MRI contrast agent). The switch is due to the distance between the two. When the two materials are at a critical distance, farther than 7 nanometers (nm), the MRI signal is “ON”, whereas when they are placed closer than 7 nm, the MRI signal is “OFF”. The researchers named this phenomenon Magnetic REsonance Tuning (MRET), which is analogous to the powerful optical sensing technique called Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET).

The researchers tested the Nano MRI Lamp for cancer diagnosis. They detected the presence of an enzyme that can induce tumor metastasis, MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) in mice with cancer. They connected the two magnetic materials with a linker that is naturally cleaved by MMP-2. Since the linker keeps the two materials close to each other, the MRI signal was “OFF”. However, in the presence of the cancer, the linker is cleaved by MMP-2, which cause the two materials to be separated and the MRI signal switched “ON”. Therefore, the MRI signal indicated the location of MMP-2, and the tumor. The scientists also found that the brightness of the MRI signal correlates with the concentration of MMP-2 in the cancerous tissue.

Most importantly, the Nano MRI Lamp remains switched off until it meets a biomarker associated with a specific disease, allowing higher sensitivity. “The current contrast agent is like using a flashlight during a sunny day: Its effect is limited. Instead, this new technology is like using a flash light at night and therefore more useful,” explains Cheon.

Beyond cancer diagnosis, the Nano MRI Lamp can, in principle, be applied to investigate a variety of biological events, such as enzymolysis, pH variation, protein-protein interactions, etc. IBS scientists expect that it would be useful for both in vitro and in vivo diagnostics.

“Although we still have a long way to go, we established the principle and believe that the MRET and Nano MRI Lamp can serve as a novel sensing principle to augment the exploration of a wide range of biological systems,” concludes Cheon. The research group is now working on developing safer and smarter multitasking contrast agents, which can simultaneously record and interpret multiple biological targets, and eventually allow a better understanding of biological processes and accurate diagnosis of diseases.

See original here:

Smarter MRI Diagnosis with Nano MRI Lamp – R & D Magazine

Japan Nanomedicine Industry Market Research Report 2017 – cHollywood News Portal (press release)

Ask a sample report, please email to:

lemon@qyresearchglobal.com or lemon@qyresearch.com

Report Summary

The Japan Nanomedicine Industry Market Research Report 2017 is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Nanomedicine industry.

The report provides a basic overview of the industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. The Nanomedicine market analysis is provided for the Japan markets including development trends, competitive landscape analysis, and key regions development status.

Development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and Bill of Materials cost structures are also analyzed. This report also states import/export consumption, supply and demand Figures, cost, price, revenue and gross margins.

The report focuses on Japan major leading industry players providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. The Nanomedicine industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new investment projects are assessed and overall research conclusions offered.

This report studies Nanomedicine focuses on top manufacturers in Japan market, with capacity, production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering:

Affilogic

LTFN

Bergmannstrost

Grupo Praxis

Biotechrabbit

Bracco

Materials ResearchCentre

Carlina technologies

ChemConnection

CIC biomaGUNE

CIBER-BBN

Contipro

Cristal Therapeutics

DTI

Endomagnetics

Fraunhofer ICT-IMM

Ask a sample or any question, please email to:

lemon@qyresearchglobal.com or lemon@qyresearch.com

Key Topics Covered:

Chapter One Industry Overview

Chapter Two Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Nanomedicine

Chapter Three Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis

Chapter Four Sales Analysis of Nanomedicine by Regions, Product Type, and Applications

Chapter Five Sales Revenue Analysis of Nanomedicine by Regions,Product Type, and Applications

Chapter Six Analysis of Nanomedicine Production, Supply, Sales and Demand Market Status 2010-2016

Chapter Seven Analysis of Nanomedicine Industry Key Manufacturers

Chapter Eight Price and Gross Margin Analysis

Chapter Nine Marketing Trader or Distributor Analysis of Nanomedicine

Chapter Ten Analysis of Nanomedicine Production, Supply, Sales and Demand Development Forecast 2017-2021

Chapter Eleven Industry Chain Suppliers of Nanomedicine with Contact Information

Chapter Twelve New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis of Nanomedicine

Chapter Thirteen Conclusion of the Japan Nanomedicine Industry Report 2017

Related Reports:

Global Nanomedicine Industry Market Research Report 2017

China Nanomedicine Industry Market Research Report 2017

Europe Nanomedicine Industry Market Research Report 2017

United States Nanomedicine Industry Market Research Report 2017

India Nanomedicine Industry Market Research Report 2017

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Germany/Korea/Australia/Brazil/Russia/India/Indonesia/ Malaysia/Saudi Arabia/Middle East/Europe/Asia/Asia-Pacific/Southeast Asia/North America/ Latin America/South America/AMER/EMEA/Africa etc Countries/Regions and Sales/Industry Versions Respectively

Thank you for your reading and interest in our report.

If you need the report or have any question, please feel free to contact me~O(_)O~

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Japan Nanomedicine Industry Market Research Report 2017 – cHollywood News Portal (press release)

New Nano MRI Lamp May Help Overcome Limitations in MRI Diagnosis – AZoNano

Written by AZoNanoFeb 7 2017

The Nano MRI Lamp consists of two magnetic materials: A quencher (magnetic nanoparticle) and an enhancer (MRI contrast agent). The MRI signal depends on the distance between the two materials. The enhancer produces a bright MRI signal only when it is at a critical distance of at least 7 nm away from the quencher. The signal is due to the rapid fluctuations of the electron spins of the enhancer. A fast flipping of the electron spins influences the water molecule, whose energy emission is detected as MRI signals. (CREDIT: IBS)

A new technology platform, the Nano MRI Lamp, is capable of tuning the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals “ON” only in the vicinity of the targeted disease. This platform was developed by a research team led by Cheon Jinwoo at the Center for Nanomedicine, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS).

This study can surpass the limitations of currently prevalent MRI contrast agents. The details of the research were published in Nature Materials.

MRI is a non-invasive method for diagnosis that is increasingly popular as it does not use destructive radiation. Certain tissues display a natural contrast on MRI, but for certain specific types of imaging, patients are given a MRI contrast agent to increase the difference between the target area and the rest of the body.

Typical MRI contrast agents, like gadolinium, are injected in an “ON” state and distributed across the whole biological system with relatively large background signal. We found a new principle to switch the MRI contrast agent “ON” only in the location of the target.

Cheon Jinwoo, IBS

IBS researchers discovered how to turn the signal ON/OFF using the Nano MRI Lamp.

The Nano MRI Lamp technology comprises of two magnetic materials: An enhancer (MRI contrast agent) and a quencher (magnetic nanoparticle). The switch is due to the distance between the two. When the two materials are positioned closer than 7 nm, the MRI signal is “OFF”, whereas when they are at a critical distance, beyond 7 nm, the MRI signal is “ON”.

The team christened this phenomenon Magnetic REsonance Tuning (MRET), which is similar to the powerful optical sensing method called Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET).

The Nano MRI Lamp was tested by the researchers to diagnose cancer. The presence of an enzyme that can stimulate tumor metastasis, MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) in mice with cancer was detected. The researchers connected the two magnetic materials using a linker that is naturally cleaved by MMP-2.

As the linker maintains the two materials close together, the MRI signal was “OFF”. However, when cancer was present, the linker is cleaved by MMP-2, which results in the two materials becoming separated and the MRI signal being switched “ON”. Thus, the MRI signal revealed the location of MMP-2, and the tumor. The researchers also discovered that the MRI signals brightness matches with the concentration of MMP-2 in the tumor.

Most notably, the Nano MRI Lamp stays on OFF mode until it meets a biomarker linked with a specific disease, thus allowing better sensitivity.

The current contrast agent is like using a flashlight during a sunny day: Its effect is limited. Instead, this new technology is like using a flash light at night and therefore more useful.

Cheon Jinwoo, IBS

In addition to cancer diagnosis, in theory the Nano MRI Lamp can be used to analyze a number of biological events, such as pH variation, enzymolysis, and protein-protein interactions. IBS researchers suppose that it would be practical for both in vivo and in vitro diagnostics.

Although we still have a long way to go, we established the principle and believe that the MRET and Nano MRI Lamp can serve as a novel sensing principle to augment the exploration of a wide range of biological systems.

Cheon Jinwoo, IBS

The research team is currently involved in developing smarter and safer multitasking contrast agents, which can record and interpret numerous biological targets at the same time, and ultimately allow a better comprehension of biological processes and accurate diagnosis of diseases.

Read more from the original source:

New Nano MRI Lamp May Help Overcome Limitations in MRI Diagnosis – AZoNano

IBS scientists develop Nano MRI Lamp for smarter diagnosis of … – News-Medical.net

A research team led by CHEON Jinwoo at the Center for Nanomedicine, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), developed the Nano MRI Lamp: A new technology platform that tunes the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals “ON” only in the presence of the targeted disease. Published in Nature Materials, this study can overcome the limitations of existing MRI contrast agents.

MRI is an increasingly popular non-invasive technique for diagnosis and, importantly, does not use harmful radiation. Some tissues show a natural contrast on MRI, but for some specific types of imaging, patients are administered a MRI contrast agent to enhance the difference between the target area and the rest of the body. “Typical MRI contrast agents, like gadolinium, are injected in an “ON” state and distributed across the whole biological system with relatively large background signal,” explains Director Cheon. “We found a new principle to switch the MRI contrast agent “ON” only in the location of the target.” IBS scientists discovered how to switch the signal ON/OFF by using the Nano MRI Lamp.

The Nano MRI Lamp technology consists of two magnetic materials: A quencher (magnetic nanoparticle) and an enhancer (MRI contrast agent). The switch is due to the distance between the two. When the two materials are at a critical distance, farther than 7 nanometers (nm), the MRI signal is “ON”, whereas when they are placed closer than 7 nm, the MRI signal is “OFF”. The researchers named this phenomenon Magnetic REsonance Tuning (MRET), which is analogous to the powerful optical sensing technique called Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET).

The researchers tested the Nano MRI Lamp for cancer diagnosis. They detected the presence of an enzyme that can induce tumor metastasis, MMP-2 (matrix metalloproteinase-2) in mice with cancer. They connected the two magnetic materials with a linker that is naturally cleaved by MMP-2. Since the linker keeps the two materials close to each other, the MRI signal was “OFF”. However, in the presence of the cancer, the linker is cleaved by MMP-2, which cause the two materials to be separated and the MRI signal switched “ON”. Therefore, the MRI signal indicated the location of MMP-2, and the tumor. The scientists also found that the brightness of the MRI signal correlates with the concentration of MMP-2 in the cancerous tissue.

Most importantly, the Nano MRI Lamp remains switched off until it meets a biomarker associated with a specific disease, allowing higher sensitivity. “The current contrast agent is like using a flashlight during a sunny day: Its effect is limited. Instead, this new technology is like using a flash light at night and therefore more useful,” explains Cheon.

Beyond cancer diagnosis, the Nano MRI Lamp can, in principle, be applied to investigate a variety of biological events, such as enzymolysis, pH variation, protein-protein interactions, etc. IBS scientists expect that it would be useful for both in vitro and in vivo diagnostics.

“Although we still have a long way to go, we established the principle and believe that the MRET and Nano MRI Lamp can serve as a novel sensing principle to augment the exploration of a wide range of biological systems,” concludes Cheon. The research group is now working on developing safer and smarter multitasking contrast agents, which can simultaneously record and interpret multiple biological targets, and eventually allow a better understanding of biological processes and accurate diagnosis of diseases.

View original post here:

IBS scientists develop Nano MRI Lamp for smarter diagnosis of … – News-Medical.net

Nanomedicine – Wikipedia

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology.[1] Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials and biological devices, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials (materials whose structure is on the scale of nanometers, i.e. billionths of a meter).

Functionalities can be added to nanomaterials by interfacing them with biological molecules or structures. The size of nanomaterials is similar to that of most biological molecules and structures; therefore, nanomaterials can be useful for both in vivo and in vitro biomedical research and applications. Thus far, the integration of nanomaterials with biology has led to the development of diagnostic devices, contrast agents, analytical tools, physical therapy applications, and drug delivery vehicles.

Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future.[2][3] The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging.[4] Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institutes of Health, including the funding in 2005 of a five-year plan to set up four nanomedicine centers.

Nanomedicine sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with a minimum of $3.8 billion in nanotechnology R&D being invested every year. Global funding for emerging nanotechnology increased by 45% per year in recent years, with product sales exceeding $1 trillion in 2013.[5] As the nanomedicine industry continues to grow, it is expected to have a significant impact on the economy.

Nanotechnology has provided the possibility of delivering drugs to specific cells using nanoparticles.

The overall drug consumption and side-effects may be lowered significantly by depositing the active agent in the morbid region only and in no higher dose than needed. Targeted drug delivery is intended to reduce the side effects of drugs with concomitant decreases in consumption and treatment expenses. Drug delivery focuses on maximizing bioavailability both at specific places in the body and over a period of time. This can potentially be achieved by molecular targeting by nanoengineered devices.[6][7] More than $65 billion are wasted each year due to poor bioavailability.[citation needed] A benefit of using nanoscale for medical technologies is that smaller devices are less invasive and can possibly be implanted inside the body, plus biochemical reaction times are much shorter. These devices are faster and more sensitive than typical drug delivery.[8] The efficacy of drug delivery through nanomedicine is largely based upon: a) efficient encapsulation of the drugs, b) successful delivery of drug to the targeted region of the body, and c) successful release of the drug.[citation needed]

Drug delivery systems, lipid-[9] or polymer-based nanoparticles,[10] can be designed to improve the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of the drug.[11][12][13] However, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nanomedicine is highly variable among different patients.[14] When designed to avoid the body’s defence mechanisms,[15] nanoparticles have beneficial properties that can be used to improve drug delivery. Complex drug delivery mechanisms are being developed, including the ability to get drugs through cell membranes and into cell cytoplasm. Triggered response is one way for drug molecules to be used more efficiently. Drugs are placed in the body and only activate on encountering a particular signal. For example, a drug with poor solubility will be replaced by a drug delivery system where both hydrophilic and hydrophobic environments exist, improving the solubility.[16] Drug delivery systems may also be able to prevent tissue damage through regulated drug release; reduce drug clearance rates; or lower the volume of distribution and reduce the effect on non-target tissue. However, the biodistribution of these nanoparticles is still imperfect due to the complex host’s reactions to nano- and microsized materials[15] and the difficulty in targeting specific organs in the body. Nevertheless, a lot of work is still ongoing to optimize and better understand the potential and limitations of nanoparticulate systems. While advancement of research proves that targeting and distribution can be augmented by nanoparticles, the dangers of nanotoxicity become an important next step in further understanding of their medical uses.[17]

Nanoparticles can be used in combination therapy for decreasing antibiotic resistance or for their antimicrobial properties.[18][19][20] Nanoparticles might also used to circumvent multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms.[21]

Two forms of nanomedicine that have already been tested in mice and are awaiting human trials that will be using gold nanoshells to help diagnose and treat cancer,[22] and using liposomes as vaccine adjuvants and as vehicles for drug transport.[23][24] Similarly, drug detoxification is also another application for nanomedicine which has shown promising results in rats.[25] Advances in Lipid nanotechnology was also instrumental in engineering medical nanodevices and novel drug delivery systems as well as in developing sensing applications.[26] Another example can be found in dendrimers and nanoporous materials. Another example is to use block co-polymers, which form micelles for drug encapsulation.[10]

Polymeric nano-particles are a competing technology to lipidic (based mainly on Phospholipids) nano-particles. There is an additional risk of toxicity associated with polymers not widely studied or understood. The major advantages of polymers is stability, lower cost and predictable characterisation. However, in the patient’s body this very stability (slow degradation) is a negative factor. Phospholipids on the other hand are membrane lipids (already present in the body and surrounding each cell), have a GRAS (Generally Recognised As Safe) status from FDA and are derived from natural sources without any complex chemistry involved. They are not metabolised but rather absorbed by the body and the degradation products are themselves nutrients (fats or micronutrients).[citation needed]

Protein and peptides exert multiple biological actions in the human body and they have been identified as showing great promise for treatment of various diseases and disorders. These macromolecules are called biopharmaceuticals. Targeted and/or controlled delivery of these biopharmaceuticals using nanomaterials like nanoparticles and Dendrimers is an emerging field called nanobiopharmaceutics, and these products are called nanobiopharmaceuticals.[citation needed]

Another highly efficient system for microRNA delivery for example are nanoparticles formed by the self-assembly of two different microRNAs deregulated in cancer.[27]

Another vision is based on small electromechanical systems; nanoelectromechanical systems are being investigated for the active release of drugs. Some potentially important applications include cancer treatment with iron nanoparticles or gold shells.Nanotechnology is also opening up new opportunities in implantable delivery systems, which are often preferable to the use of injectable drugs, because the latter frequently display first-order kinetics (the blood concentration goes up rapidly, but drops exponentially over time). This rapid rise may cause difficulties with toxicity, and drug efficacy can diminish as the drug concentration falls below the targeted range.[citation needed]

Some nanotechnology-based drugs that are commercially available or in human clinical trials include:

Existing and potential drug nanocarriers have been reviewed.[38][39][40][41]

Nanoparticles have high surface area to volume ratio. This allows for many functional groups to be attached to a nanoparticle, which can seek out and bind to certain tumor cells. Additionally, the small size of nanoparticles (10 to 100 nanometers), allows them to preferentially accumulate at tumor sites (because tumors lack an effective lymphatic drainage system).[42] Limitations to conventional cancer chemotherapy include drug resistance, lack of selectivity, and lack of solubility. Nanoparticles have the potential to overcome these problems.[43]

In photodynamic therapy, a particle is placed within the body and is illuminated with light from the outside. The light gets absorbed by the particle and if the particle is metal, energy from the light will heat the particle and surrounding tissue. Light may also be used to produce high energy oxygen molecules which will chemically react with and destroy most organic molecules that are next to them (like tumors). This therapy is appealing for many reasons. It does not leave a “toxic trail” of reactive molecules throughout the body (chemotherapy) because it is directed where only the light is shined and the particles exist. Photodynamic therapy has potential for a noninvasive procedure for dealing with diseases, growth and tumors. Kanzius RF therapy is one example of such therapy (nanoparticle hyperthermia) .[citation needed] Also, gold nanoparticles have the potential to join numerous therapeutic functions into a single platform, by targeting specific tumor cells, tissues and organs.[44][45]

In vivo imaging is another area where tools and devices are being developed. Using nanoparticle contrast agents, images such as ultrasound and MRI have a favorable distribution and improved contrast. This might be accomplished by self assembled biocompatible nanodevices that will detect, evaluate, treat and report to the clinical doctor automatically.[citation needed]

The small size of nanoparticles endows them with properties that can be very useful in oncology, particularly in imaging. Quantum dots (nanoparticles with quantum confinement properties, such as size-tunable light emission), when used in conjunction with MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), can produce exceptional images of tumor sites. Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (quantum dots) glow when exposed to ultraviolet light. When injected, they seep into cancer tumors. The surgeon can see the glowing tumor, and use it as a guide for more accurate tumor removal.These nanoparticles are much brighter than organic dyes and only need one light source for excitation. This means that the use of fluorescent quantum dots could produce a higher contrast image and at a lower cost than today’s organic dyes used as contrast media. The downside, however, is that quantum dots are usually made of quite toxic elements.[citation needed]

Tracking movement can help determine how well drugs are being distributed or how substances are metabolized. It is difficult to track a small group of cells throughout the body, so scientists used to dye the cells. These dyes needed to be excited by light of a certain wavelength in order for them to light up. While different color dyes absorb different frequencies of light, there was a need for as many light sources as cells. A way around this problem is with luminescent tags. These tags are quantum dots attached to proteins that penetrate cell membranes. The dots can be random in size, can be made of bio-inert material, and they demonstrate the nanoscale property that color is size-dependent. As a result, sizes are selected so that the frequency of light used to make a group of quantum dots fluoresce is an even multiple of the frequency required to make another group incandesce. Then both groups can be lit with a single light source. They have also found a way to insert nanoparticles[46] into the affected parts of the body so that those parts of the body will glow showing the tumor growth or shrinkage or also organ trouble.[47]

Nanotechnology-on-a-chip is one more dimension of lab-on-a-chip technology. Magnetic nanoparticles, bound to a suitable antibody, are used to label specific molecules, structures or microorganisms. Gold nanoparticles tagged with short segments of DNA can be used for detection of genetic sequence in a sample. Multicolor optical coding for biological assays has been achieved by embedding different-sized quantum dots into polymeric microbeads. Nanopore technology for analysis of nucleic acids converts strings of nucleotides directly into electronic signatures.[citation needed]

Sensor test chips containing thousands of nanowires, able to detect proteins and other biomarkers left behind by cancer cells, could enable the detection and diagnosis of cancer in the early stages from a few drops of a patient’s blood.[48]Nanotechnology is helping to advance the use of arthroscopes, which are pencil-sized devices that are used in surgeries with lights and cameras so surgeons can do the surgeries with smaller incisions. The smaller the incisions the faster the healing time which is better for the patients. It is also helping to find a way to make an arthroscope smaller than a strand of hair.[49]

Research on nanoelectronics-based cancer diagnostics could lead to tests that can be done in pharmacies. The results promise to be highly accurate and the product promises to be inexpensive. They could take a very small amount of blood and detect cancer anywhere in the body in about five minutes, with a sensitivity that is a thousand times better than in a conventional laboratory test. These devices that are built with nanowires to detect cancer proteins; each nanowire detector is primed to be sensitive to a different cancer marker. The biggest advantage of the nanowire detectors is that they could test for anywhere from ten to one hundred similar medical conditions without adding cost to the testing device.[50] Nanotechnology has also helped to personalize oncology for the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. It is now able to be tailored to each individuals tumor for better performance. They have found ways that they will be able to target a specific part of the body that is being affected by cancer.[51]

Magnetic micro particles are proven research instruments for the separation of cells and proteins from complex media. The technology is available under the name Magnetic-activated cell sorting or Dynabeads among others. More recently it was shown in animal models that magnetic nanoparticles can be used for the removal of various noxious compounds including toxins, pathogens, and proteins from whole blood in an extracorporeal circuit similar to dialysis.[52][53] In contrast to dialysis, which works on the principle of the size related diffusion of solutes and ultrafiltration of fluid across a semi-permeable membrane, the purification with nanoparticles allows specific targeting of substances. Additionally larger compounds which are commonly not dialyzable can be removed.[citation needed]

The purification process is based on functionalized iron oxide or carbon coated metal nanoparticles with ferromagnetic or superparamagnetic properties.[54] Binding agents such as proteins,[53]antibodies,[52]antibiotics,[55] or synthetic ligands[56] are covalently linked to the particle surface. These binding agents are able to interact with target species forming an agglomerate. Applying an external magnetic field gradient allows exerting a force on the nanoparticles. Hence the particles can be separated from the bulk fluid, thereby cleaning it from the contaminants.[57][58]

The small size (

This approach offers new therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of systemic infections such as sepsis by directly removing the pathogen. It can also be used to selectively remove cytokines or endotoxins[55] or for the dialysis of compounds which are not accessible by traditional dialysis methods. However the technology is still in a preclinical phase and first clinical trials are not expected before 2017.[60]

Nanotechnology may be used as part of tissue engineering to help reproduce or repair or reshape damaged tissue using suitable nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors. Tissue engineering if successful may replace conventional treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants. Nanoparticles such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, molybdenum disulfide and tungsten disulfide are being used as reinforcing agents to fabricate mechanically strong biodegradable polymeric nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering applications. The addition of these nanoparticles in the polymer matrix at low concentrations (~0.2 weight%) leads to significant improvements in the compressive and flexural mechanical properties of polymeric nanocomposites.[61][62] Potentially, these nanocomposites may be used as a novel, mechanically strong, light weight composite as bone implants.[citation needed]

For example, a flesh welder was demonstrated to fuse two pieces of chicken meat into a single piece using a suspension of gold-coated nanoshells activated by an infrared laser. This could be used to weld arteries during surgery.[63] Another example is nanonephrology, the use of nanomedicine on the kidney.

Neuro-electronic interfacing is a visionary goal dealing with the construction of nanodevices that will permit computers to be joined and linked to the nervous system. This idea requires the building of a molecular structure that will permit control and detection of nerve impulses by an external computer. A refuelable strategy implies energy is refilled continuously or periodically with external sonic, chemical, tethered, magnetic, or biological electrical sources, while a nonrefuelable strategy implies that all power is drawn from internal energy storage which would stop when all energy is drained. A nanoscale enzymatic biofuel cell for self-powered nanodevices have been developed that uses glucose from biofluids including human blood and watermelons.[64] One limitation to this innovation is the fact that electrical interference or leakage or overheating from power consumption is possible. The wiring of the structure is extremely difficult because they must be positioned precisely in the nervous system. The structures that will provide the interface must also be compatible with the body’s immune system.[65]

Molecular nanotechnology is a speculative subfield of nanotechnology regarding the possibility of engineering molecular assemblers, machines which could re-order matter at a molecular or atomic scale. Nanomedicine would make use of these nanorobots, introduced into the body, to repair or detect damages and infections. Molecular nanotechnology is highly theoretical, seeking to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield and to propose an agenda for future inquiry. The proposed elements of molecular nanotechnology, such as molecular assemblers and nanorobots are far beyond current capabilities.[1][65][66][67] Future advances in nanomedicine could give rise to life extension through the repair of many processes thought to be responsible for aging. K. Eric Drexler, one of the founders of nanotechnology, postulated cell repair machines, including ones operating within cells and utilizing as yet hypothetical molecular machines, in his 1986 book Engines of Creation, with the first technical discussion of medical nanorobots by Robert Freitas appearing in 1999.[1]Raymond Kurzweil, a futurist and transhumanist, stated in his book The Singularity Is Near that he believes that advanced medical nanorobotics could completely remedy the effects of aging by 2030.[68] According to Richard Feynman, it was his former graduate student and collaborator Albert Hibbs who originally suggested to him (circa 1959) the idea of a medical use for Feynman’s theoretical micromachines (see nanotechnology). Hibbs suggested that certain repair machines might one day be reduced in size to the point that it would, in theory, be possible to (as Feynman put it) “swallow the doctor”. The idea was incorporated into Feynman’s 1959 essay There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom.[69]

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Nanomedicine – Wikipedia

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Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. It is the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

Related Journals of Nanotechnology Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Photonics and Nanostructures – Fundamentals and Applications

Nanobiotechnology is the application of nanotechnology to the life sciences: The technology encompasses precision engineering as well as electronics, and electromechanical systems as well as mainstream biomedical applications in areas as diverse as gene therapy, drug delivery and novel drug discovery techniques.

Related Journals of Nanobiotechnology Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Research Journal of Nanoscience and nanotechnology, Nature Nanotechnology Journal, Nanomaterials & Molecular Nanotechnology, Nature Nanotechnology, Nano Letters, Advanced Materials, Nano Today

A Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100nm, or structure having nano-scale repeat distance between the different phases that make up the material.

Related Journals of Nanocomposites

Journal of Nanomaterial and Nanotechnology, International Journal of Nanotechnology Impact Factor, Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Scripta Materialia, Nanoscale, Lab on a Chip – Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science & Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing

The Integrated Project Nanobiopharmaceutics aims at the development of innovative multidisciplinary approaches for the design, synthesis and evaluation of functionalised nano-carriers and nano-particle-based micro-carriers for the treatment of various diseases based on targeted, controlled delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins (biopharmaceutics).

Related Journals of Nanobiopharmaceutics Journal of Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, Journal of Nanobiomedical Impact Factor, Journal of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders, Journal of Homotopy and Related Structures, Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases

Nanoelectronics is one of the major technologies of Nanotechnology. It plays vital role in the field of engineering and electronics.

Related Journals of Nanoelectronics Journal of Nanotechnology and Electrophysics, Nano Research & Applications, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, International Journal of Nanotechnology Applications, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology.

Related Journals of Nanomedicine Nanomaterials & Molecular Nanotechnology, Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, International Journal of Nanomedicine, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, Journal of Nanomedicine Research, European Journal of Nanomedicine

Nanotoxicology is a branch of toxicology concerned with the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials, which can be divided into those derived from combustion processes (like diesel soot), manufacturing processes (such as spray drying or grinding) and naturally occurring processes (such as volcanic eruptions or atmospheric reactions).

Related Journals of Nanotoxicology Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology Journal Lists, Nano Journal Impact Factor, Microscale Thermophysical Engineering, Microelectronic Engineering, Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Nano-Micro Letters

Nanoengineering is the practice of engineering on the nanoscale. It derives its name from the nanometre, a unit of measurement equalling one billionth of a meter. Nanoengineering is largely a synonym for nanotechnology, but emphasizes the engineering rather than the pure science aspects of the field.

Related Journals of Nanoengineering Journal of Nanoresearch, Review in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nature Nanotechnology Journal, Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmaceutics and Nanotechnology, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, Nanotoxicology, Precision Engineering, Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology

The spontaneous association of molecules under equilibrium conditions into stable, structurally well-defined aggregates.

Related Journals of Nanofabrications Journal of Nanotechnology Impact Factor, Nanotechnology Journal Lists, Journal of Nano, Nanomaterials & Molecular Nanotechnology, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, International Journal of Nanomedicine, Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology

Nanofluidics is often defined as the study and application of fluid flow in and around nanosized objects.

Related Journals of Nanofluidics Research Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Nano Journal Impact Factor, Journal of Nanotechnology and Electrophysics, Journal of Bionanoscience, Nanotechnology, Science and Applications, Journal of Nanobiotechnology, Plasmonics, Biomedical Microdevices

Nanohedron aims to exhibit scientific images, with a focus on images depicting nanoscale objects. The work ranges from electron microscopy images of nanoscale materials to graphical renderings of molecules. Scientific images lying outside the realm of nanoscience such as algorithmic art or confocal microscopy images of cells will also be considered.

Related Journals of Nanohedron Biomicrofluidics, Nanotechnology Journal Lists, Nano Journal Impact Factor, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering

Nano Cars Into the robotics is new technology which is useful for designing robots. Difference in exisiting robotics and nano cars is this system works as nervous system where as in existing system stepper motors are used.

Related Journals of Nanocars Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanobiomedical Impact Factor, Review in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology,Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery, ACS Nano, Advanced Functional Materials, Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, Biomaterials, Small, Nano Research

Nanothermite, as the name suggests, is thermite in which the particles are so small that they are measured in nanometers is an ultra-fine-grained (UFG) variant of thermite that can be formulated to be explosive by adding gas-releasing substances.

Related Journals of Nanothermite Nanoscale Research Letters, Journal of Nanobiomedical Impact Factor, International Journal of Nanoscience, Microelectronics and Reliability, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, AIP Advances

A sequence of nanoscale C60 atoms arranged in a long thin cylindrical structure. Nanotubes are extremely strong mechanically and very pure conductors of electric current. Applications of the nanotube in nanotechnology include resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors.

Related Journals of Nanotubes Nanotechnology journals, Nature Nanotechnology Journal, Nano Journal Impact Factor, ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems, Science of Advanced Materials, Journal of Nanophotonics

Having an organization more complex than that of a molecule.

Realated Journals of Supramolecule Plasmonics, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, International Journal of Nanoscience, Journal of Nanobiomedical Impact Factor, Biomedical Microdevices, Biomicrofluidics, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology

Nanoionics is the study and application of phenomena, properties, effects and mechanisms of processes connected with fast ion transport (FIT) in all-solid-state nanoscale systems.

Related Journals of Nanoionics Journal of Nanoresearch, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, International Journal of Nanomedicine

Nanolithography is the branch of nanotechnology concerned with the study and application of fabricating nanometer-scale structures, meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between 1 and 100 nm.

Related Journals of Nanolithography International Journal of Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanotechnology Impact Factor, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, Nano Research, Scripta Materialia, Nanoscale, Lab on a Chip – Miniaturisation for Chemistry and Biology

Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometers in size. In nanotechnology, a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit with respect to its transport and properties. Particles are further classified according to diameter.

Related Journals of Nanoparticles Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, International Journal of Nanoscience, Journal of Nanomaterial and Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, Journal of Nanoparticles, International Journal of Nanoparticles,

Exploitation of biomaterials, devices or methodologies on the nanoscale.

Related Journals of Bionanoscience Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Journal of Nanobiomedical Impact Factor, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, Recent Patents in Nanotechnology, Journal of Bionanoscience, BioNanoScience, Nanomedicine, Nanotechnology, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials

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Nanobiotechnology – Wikipedia

Nanobiotechnology, bionanotechnology, and nanobiology are terms that refer to the intersection of nanotechnology and biology.[1] Given that the subject is one that has only emerged very recently, bionanotechnology and nanobiotechnology serve as blanket terms for various related technologies.

This discipline helps to indicate the merger of biological research with various fields of nanotechnology. Concepts that are enhanced through nanobiology include: nanodevices (such as biological machines), nanoparticles, and nanoscale phenomena that occurs within the discipline of nanotechnology. This technical approach to biology allows scientists to imagine and create systems that can be used for biological research. Biologically inspired nanotechnology uses biological systems as the inspirations for technologies not yet created.[2] However, as with nanotechnology and biotechnology, bionanotechnology does have many potential ethical issues associated with it.

The most important objectives that are frequently found in nanobiology involve applying nanotools to relevant medical/biological problems and refining these applications. Developing new tools, such as peptoid nanosheets, for medical and biological purposes is another primary objective in nanotechnology. New nanotools are often made by refining the applications of the nanotools that are already being used. The imaging of native biomolecules, biological membranes, and tissues is also a major topic for the nanobiology researchers. Other topics concerning nanobiology include the use of cantilever array sensors and the application of nanophotonics for manipulating molecular processes in living cells.[3]

Recently, the use of microorganisms to synthesize functional nanoparticles has been of great interest. Microorganisms can change the oxidation state of metals. These microbial processes have opened up new opportunities for us to explore novel applications, for example, the biosynthesis of metal nanomaterials. In contrast to chemical and physical methods, microbial processes for synthesizing nanomaterials can be achieved in aqueous phase under gentle and environmentally benign conditions. This approach has become an attractive focus in current green bionanotechnology research towards sustainable development.[4]

The terms are often used interchangeably. When a distinction is intended, though, it is based on whether the focus is on applying biological ideas or on studying biology with nanotechnology. Bionanotechnology generally refers to the study of how the goals of nanotechnology can be guided by studying how biological “machines” work and adapting these biological motifs into improving existing nanotechnologies or creating new ones.[5][6] Nanobiotechnology, on the other hand, refers to the ways that nanotechnology is used to create devices to study biological systems.[7]

In other words, nanobiotechnology is essentially miniaturized biotechnology, whereas bionanotechnology is a specific application of nanotechnology. For example, DNA nanotechnology or cellular engineering would be classified as bionanotechnology because they involve working with biomolecules on the nanoscale. Conversely, many new medical technologies involving nanoparticles as delivery systems or as sensors would be examples of nanobiotechnology since they involve using nanotechnology to advance the goals of biology.

The definitions enumerated above will be utilized whenever a distinction between nanobio and bionano is made in this article. However, given the overlapping usage of the terms in modern parlance, individual technologies may need to be evaluated to determine which term is more fitting. As such, they are best discussed in parallel.

Most of the scientific concepts in bionanotechnology are derived from other fields. Biochemical principles that are used to understand the material properties of biological systems are central in bionanotechnology because those same principles are to be used to create new technologies. Material properties and applications studied in bionanoscience include mechanical properties(e.g. deformation, adhesion, failure), electrical/electronic (e.g. electromechanical stimulation, capacitors, energy storage/batteries), optical (e.g. absorption, luminescence, photochemistry), thermal (e.g. thermomutability, thermal management), biological (e.g. how cells interact with nanomaterials, molecular flaws/defects, biosensing, biological mechanisms s.a. mechanosensing), nanoscience of disease (e.g. genetic disease, cancer, organ/tissue failure), as well as computing (e.g. DNA computing)and agriculture(target delivery of pesticides, hormones and fertilizers.[8] The impact of bionanoscience, achieved through structural and mechanistic analyses of biological processes at nanoscale, is their translation into synthetic and technological applications through nanotechnology.

Nano-biotechnology takes most of its fundamentals from nanotechnology. Most of the devices designed for nano-biotechnological use are directly based on other existing nanotechnologies. Nano-biotechnology is often used to describe the overlapping multidisciplinary activities associated with biosensors, particularly where photonics, chemistry, biology, biophysics, nano-medicine, and engineering converge. Measurement in biology using wave guide techniques, such as dual polarization interferometry, are another example.

Applications of bionanotechnology are extremely widespread. Insofar as the distinction holds, nanobiotechnology is much more commonplace in that it simply provides more tools for the study of biology. Bionanotechnology, on the other hand, promises to recreate biological mechanisms and pathways in a form that is useful in other ways.

Nanomedicine is a field of medical science whose applications are increasing more and more thanks to nanorobots and biological machines, which constitute a very useful tool to develop this area of knowledge. In the past years, researchers have done many improvements in the different devices and systems required to develop nanorobots. This supposes a new way of treating and dealing with diseases such as cancer; thanks to nanorobots, side effects of chemotherapy have been controlled, reduced and even eliminated, so some years from now, cancer patients will be offered an alternative to treat this disease instead of chemotherapy, which causes secondary effects such as hair loss, fatigue or nausea killing not only cancerous cells but also the healthy ones. At a clinical level, cancer treatment with nanomedicine will consist on the supply of nanorobots to the patient through an injection that will seek for cancerous cells leaving untouched the healthy ones. Patients that will be treated through nanomedicine will not notice the presence of this nanomachines inside them; the only thing that is going to be noticeable is the progressive improvement of their health.[9]

Nanobiotechnology (sometimes referred to as nanobiology) is best described as helping modern medicine progress from treating symptoms to generating cures and regenerating biological tissues. Three American patients have received whole cultured bladders with the help of doctors who use nanobiology techniques in their practice. Also, it has been demonstrated in animal studies that a uterus can be grown outside the body and then placed in the body in order to produce a baby. Stem cell treatments have been used to fix diseases that are found in the human heart and are in clinical trials in the United States. There is also funding for research into allowing people to have new limbs without having to resort to prosthesis. Artificial proteins might also become available to manufacture without the need for harsh chemicals and expensive machines. It has even been surmised that by the year 2055, computers may be made out of biochemicals and organic salts.[10]

Another example of current nanobiotechnological research involves nanospheres coated with fluorescent polymers. Researchers are seeking to design polymers whose fluorescence is quenched when they encounter specific molecules. Different polymers would detect different metabolites. The polymer-coated spheres could become part of new biological assays, and the technology might someday lead to particles which could be introduced into the human body to track down metabolites associated with tumors and other health problems. Another example, from a different perspective, would be evaluation and therapy at the nanoscopic level, i.e. the treatment of Nanobacteria (25-200nm sized) as is done by NanoBiotech Pharma.

While nanobiology is in its infancy, there are a lot of promising methods that will rely on nanobiology in the future. Biological systems are inherently nano in scale; nanoscience must merge with biology in order to deliver biomacromolecules and molecular machines that are similar to nature. Controlling and mimicking the devices and processes that are constructed from molecules is a tremendous challenge to face the converging disciplines of nanotechnology.[11] All living things, including humans, can be considered to be nanofoundries. Natural evolution has optimized the “natural” form of nanobiology over millions of years. In the 21st century, humans have developed the technology to artificially tap into nanobiology. This process is best described as “organic merging with synthetic.” Colonies of live neurons can live together on a biochip device; according to research from Dr. Gunther Gross at the University of North Texas. Self-assembling nanotubes have the ability to be used as a structural system. They would be composed together with rhodopsins; which would facilitate the optical computing process and help with the storage of biological materials. DNA (as the software for all living things) can be used as a structural proteomic system – a logical component for molecular computing. Ned Seeman – a researcher at New York University – along with other researchers are currently researching concepts that are similar to each other.[12]

DNA nanotechnology is one important example of bionanotechnology.[13] The utilization of the inherent properties of nucleic acids like DNA to create useful materials is a promising area of modern research. Another important area of research involves taking advantage of membrane properties to generate synthetic membranes. Proteins that self-assemble to generate functional materials could be used as a novel approach for the large-scale production of programmable nanomaterials. One example is the development of amyloids found in bacterial biofilms as engineered nanomaterials that can be programmed genetically to have different properties.[14]Protein folding studies provide a third important avenue of research, but one that has been largely inhibited by our inability to predict protein folding with a sufficiently high degree of accuracy. Given the myriad uses that biological systems have for proteins, though, research into understanding protein folding is of high importance and could prove fruitful for bionanotechnology in the future.

Lipid nanotechnology is another major area of research in bionanotechnology, where physico-chemical properties of lipids such as their antifouling and self-assembly is exploited to build nanodevices with applications in medicine and engineering.[15]

Meanwhile, nanotechnology application to biotechnology will also leave no field untouched by its groundbreaking scientific innovations for human wellness; the agricultural industry is no exception. Basically, nanomaterials are distinguished depending on the origin: natural, incidental and engineered nanoparticles. Among these, engineered nanoparticles have received wide attention in all fields of science, including medical, materials and agriculture technology with significant socio-economical growth. In the agriculture industry, engineered nanoparticles have been serving as nano carrier, containing herbicides, chemicals, or genes, which target particular plant parts to release their content.[16] Previously nanocapsules containing herbicides have been reported to effectively penetrate through cuticles and tissues, allowing the slow and constant release of the active substances. Likewise, other literature describes that nano-encapsulated slow release of fertilizers has also become a trend to save fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution through precision farming. These are only a few examples from numerous research works which might open up exciting opportunities for nanobiotechnology application in agriculture. Also, application of this kind of engineered nanoparticles to plants should be considered the level of amicability before it is employed in agriculture practices. Based on a thorough literature survey, it was understood that there is only limited authentic information available to explain the biological consequence of engineered nanoparticles on treated plants. Certain reports underline the phytotoxicity of various origin of engineered nanoparticles to the plant caused by the subject of concentrations and sizes . At the same time, however, an equal number of studies were reported with a positive outcome of nanoparticles, which facilitate growth promoting nature to treat plant.[17] In particular, compared to other nanoparticles, silver and gold nanoparticles based applications elicited beneficial results on various plant species with less and/or no toxicity.[18][19] Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) treated leaves of Asparagus showed the increased content of ascorbate and chlorophyll. Similarly, AgNPs-treated common bean and corn has increased shoot and root length, leaf surface area, chlorophyll, carbohydrate and protein contents reported earlier.[20] The gold nanoparticle has been used to induce growth and seed yield in Brassica juncea.[21]

This field relies on a variety of research methods, including experimental tools (e.g. imaging, characterization via AFM/optical tweezers etc.), x-ray diffraction based tools, synthesis via self-assembly, characterization of self-assembly (using e.g. MP-SPR, DPI, recombinant DNA methods, etc.), theory (e.g. statistical mechanics, nanomechanics, etc.), as well as computational approaches (bottom-up multi-scale simulation, supercomputing).

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Nanobiotechnology – Wikipedia

Clene Nanomedicine

elemental change in the therapeutic landscape

Clene has a new vision for a pharmaceutical future using therapeutic elements in clean, new nanoforms.

Clene is working to change the therapeutic landscape with Clean-Surface nanocrystals suspended in pharmaceutical-grade water.

Discover Clenes innovative approach to meet ongoing challenges in demyelinating, autoimmune, and oncologic diseases.

Meet the leaders of Clene who have made a mission of advancing the science and research of therapeutic nanomedicine.

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Clene Nanomedicine


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