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Neuron-integrated nanotubes to repair nerve fibers – Phys.org – Phys.Org

June 27, 2017 Scientists have proven that these nanomaterials may regulate the formation of synapses, specialized structures through which the nerve cells communicate, and modulate biological mechanisms, such as the growth of neurons, as part of a self-regulating process. Credit: Pixabay

Carbon nanotubes exhibit interesting characteristics rendering them particularly suited to the construction of special hybrid devices consisting of biological issue and synthetic material. These could re-establish connections between nerve cells at the spinal level that were lost due to lesions or trauma. This is the result of research published in the scientific journal Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine conducted by a multi-disciplinary team comprising SISSA (International School for Advanced Studies), the University of Trieste, ELETTRA Sincrotrone and two Spanish institutions, Basque Foundation for Science and CIC BiomaGUNE.

Researchers have investigated the possible effects on neurons of interactions with carbon nanotubes. Scientists have proven that these nanomaterials may regulate the formation of synapses, specialized structures through which the nerve cells communicate, and modulate biological mechanisms such as the growth of neurons as part of a self-regulating process. This result, which shows the extent to which the integration between nerve cells and these synthetic structures is stable and efficient, highlights possible uses of carbon nanotubes as facilitators of neuronal regeneration or to create a kind of artificial bridge between groups of neurons whose connection has been interrupted. In vivo testing has already begun.

“Interface systems, or, more generally, neuronal prostheses, that enable an effective re-establishment of these connections are under active investigation,” says Laura Ballerini (SISSA). “The perfect material to build these neural interfaces does not exist, yet the carbon nanotubes we are working on have already proved to have great potentialities. After all, nanomaterials currently represent our best hope for developing innovative strategies in the treatment of spinal cord injuries.” These nanomaterials are used both as scaffolds, as supportive frameworks for nerve cells, and as interfaces transmitting those signals by which nerve cells communicate with each other.

Many aspects, however, still need to be addressed. Among them, the impact on neuronal physiology of the integration of these nanometric structures with the cell membrane. “Studying the interaction between these two elements is crucial, as it might also lead to some undesired effects, which we ought to exclude,” says Laura Ballerini. “If, for example, the mere contact provoked a vertiginous rise in the number of synapses, these materials would be essentially unusable.”

“This,” Maurizio Prato adds, “is precisely what we have investigated in this study where we used pure carbon nanotubes.”

The results of the research are extremely encouraging: “First of all, we have proved that nanotubes do not interfere with the composition of lipids, of cholesterol in particular, which make up the cellular membrane in neurons. Membrane lipids play a very important role in the transmission of signals through the synapses. Nanotubes do not seem to influence this process, which is very important.”

The research has also highlighted the fact that the nerve cells growing on the substratum of nanotubes via this interaction develop and reach maturity very quickly, eventually reaching a condition of biological homeostasis. “Nanotubes facilitate the full growth of neurons and the formation of new synapses. This growth, however, is not indiscriminate and unlimited. We proved that after a few weeks, a physiological balance is attained. Having established the fact that this interaction is stable and efficient is an aspect of fundamental importance.”

Laura Ballerini says, “We are proving that carbon nanotubes perform excellently in terms of duration, adaptability and mechanical compatibility with the tissue. Now, we know that their interaction with the biological material, too, is efficient. Based on this evidence, we are already studying the in vivo application, and preliminary results appear to be quite promising also in terms of recovery of the lost neurological functions.”

Explore further: A ‘bridge’ of carbon between nerve tissues

More information: Niccol Paolo Pampaloni et al, Sculpting neurotransmission during synaptic development by 2D nanostructured interfaces, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.nano.2017.01.020

A new material made of carbon nanotubes supports the growth of nerve fibers, bridging segregated neural explants and providing a functional re-connection. The study, which was coordinated by SISSA in Trieste, also observed …

A nanomaterial engineered by researchers at Duke can help regulate chloride levels in nerve cells that contribute to chronic pain, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury.

Research done by scientists in Italy and Switzerland has shown that carbon nanotubes may be the ideal “smart” brain material. Their results, published December 21 in the advance online edition of the journal Nature Nanotechnology, …

Nanotubes can be used for many things: electrical circuits, batteries, innovative fabrics and more. Scientists have noted, however, that nanotubes, whose structures appear similar, can actually exhibit different properties, …

Innovative graphene technology to buffer the activity of synapses this is the idea behind a recently-published study in the journal ACS Nano coordinated by the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste (SISSA) …

Using photoluminescent probes, researchers have devised a sensitive and selective way of detecting carbon nanotubes. Innovations in energy and electronics, together with traditional reinforcement composite products, will …

Building transient electronics is usually about doing something to make them stop working: blast them with light, soak them with acid, dunk them in water.

Researchers have developed a novel platform to more accurately detect and identify the presence and severity of peanut allergies, without directly exposing patients to the allergen, according to a new study published in the …

Scientists have found a way to make carbon both very hard and very stretchy by heating it under high pressure. This “compressed glassy carbon”, developed by researchers in China and the US, is also lightweight and could potentially …

After radiation treatment, dying cancer cells spit out mutated proteins into the body. Scientists now know that the immune system can detect these proteins and kill cancer in other parts of the body using these protein markers …

Nanotechnology is creating new opportunities for fighting disease from delivering drugs in smart packaging to nanobots powered by the world’s tiniest engines.

Biomedical engineers have built simple machines out of DNA, consisting of arrays whose units switch reversibly between two different shapes.

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Neuron-integrated nanotubes to repair nerve fibers – Phys.org – Phys.Org

Yale University, Cambridge scientists discover process they hope will lead to cure for MS – West Hartford News

NEW HAVEN >> Scientists from Yale University and the University of Cambridge in England have teamed up to develop a potential cure for multiple sclerosis.

Its the first treatment that addresses the disease by disarming the immune cells that have turned against the bodys nerve cells, rather than simply suppressing them. An autoimmune disease, MS begins when parts of the bodys immune system, rather than fighting off disease, begin to attack healthy cells.

Su Metcalfe, senior research associate in the University of Cambridge Clinical School, discovered the molecular process that stops the attack on the protective myelin sheath around nerves in the brain and central nervous system. Its that destruction of myelin that causes MS.

Tarek Fahmy, associate professor of biomedical engineering and of immunobiology in the Yale School of Engineering and Applied Science, created the delivery system that brings Metcalfes treatment to the site of the disease.

Multiple sclerosis is a devastating disease that can attack people as young as 30, slowly reducing their brain volume, Metcalfe said. Theyre looking forward to 40 years of slowly getting worse, she said. Its a horrible disease and it costs the global economy $100 billion a year.

According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, there are more than 2.3 million cases worldwide, but the society doesnt provide an estimate of U.S. cases because doctors are not required to report new cases. There are a wide variety of symptoms, including fatigue, numbness and tingling muscles, slurred speech, walking difficulties and muscle spasms.

Among the cells in the immune system are T lymphocytes, or T cells. One of their functions is to produce molecules called cytokines, which specialize in alerting immune system cells to infection, cancer or any foreign intrusion in the body, Fahmy said. The immune cells then rush to the site to fight the disease, he said.

However, T cells can go awry and turn from fighting disease to attacking the bodys own cells. In these disease states the T cells make an error whose root cause is still an enigma to scientists and clinicians, Fahmy said. If this happens, then these malfunctioned T cells will produce cytokines that bring in more T cells to the site and the illness cascade of events begins.

He said the same process also is involved in other autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and lupus.

Metcalfe said that in 2005 she discovered that another cytokine, called leukemia inhibitory factor, or LIF, regulates the immune response to stop autoimmune attack. The molecule controls a switch that turns the T cells from destroyers to protectors. The way LIF acts on T cells was a critical discovery, she said.

That was a world first, and we discovered that theres a binary switch in the cell so the cell can either become tolerant or aggressive and that switch is operated by LIF, Metcalfe said.

LIF comes in and cuts off the signal that calls in more T cells, Fahmy said.

The challenge to getting LIF to the diseased site was that it is a short-lived molecule. It breaks down within 20 minutes, Metcalfe said. So a way had to be found to deliver it to the T cells. Thats where Fahmys engineering expertise came in.

Fahmy confronted two issues in addition to LIFs delicate nature. One is to avoid having LIF turn off the immune properties of cells throughout the body, the way chemotherapy attacks both healthy and cancerous cells. It has to be targeted to those areas and it has to be a long-lasting signal as well, Fahmy said.

A third factor is we need a high concentration of LIF in that area, he said. The question then becomes, how do you get a high amount of nullifying molecules to the area thats affected and to have those LIF molecules sustained over a long period of time.

Fahmys solution was to create a nanoparticle, one ten-thousandth the width of a human hair follicle (100 to 200 nanometers), which carries the LIF molecules to the T cell like a truck carrying cargo. He used the same material used in soluble stitches and coated it with a protein that only binds to those immune cells that are attacking the rogue T cells. Then, the nanoparticle was loaded with LIF molecules and freeze-dried.

When theyre exposed to water again, they start degrading and as they degrade they release the LIF, Fahmy said. So its like a new drug, except its using older materials, combining them together. Im very hopeful that this is going to work like how natural processes in the body work.

Fahmy said the nanoparticle delivery method is important because, given alone by itself, this drug LIF is a very toxic drug if administered to people without a delivery apparatus. Using the nanoparticle, the amount of LIF that needs to be delivered is 10,000-fold lower than if it were given directly.

Metcalfe and Fahmy have formed a company called LIFNano, which will bring their treatment to clinical trials by 2020. Im committed, Metcalfe said. Ive given my whole career, switched it over to treat patients.

Ive just received 1 million pounds from the U.K. government to do pre-clinical, pre-regulatory work. Part of that million pounds is going to Yale. So Yale remains very closely involved alongside and were continuing this synergistic value in taking this nano-medicine approach to treat patients, she said.

Metcalfe and Fahmy hope their therapy, treating the cells with a naturally occurring molecule, will eventually replace the standard treatment of giving immune-suppressant drugs, which carry their own risks.

This really is a whole new field of study that we call immune-engineering, and it promises to change how therapy will happen for cancer and autoimmune diseases, Fahmy said.

Theres nothing specific controlling the root cause of disease, which is what were doing, and in addition were repairing the myelin and protecting the nerves and theres nothing out there today that protects the nerves, Metcalfe said.

She said she has been at Cambridge her whole career and working to understand what controls lymphocytes and I found LIF. Its been a long journey.

Call Ed Stannard at 203-680-9382.

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Yale University, Cambridge scientists discover process they hope will lead to cure for MS – West Hartford News

Nanomedicine Global Market Outlook,Research,Trends and Forecast to 2023 – Digital Journal

WiseGuyReports.Com Publish a New Market Research Report On – Nanomedicine Global Market Outlook,Research,Trends and Forecast to 2023.

This press release was orginally distributed by SBWire

New York, NY — (SBWIRE) — 06/19/2017 — Overview: Nanomedicine is an offshoot of nanotechnology, and refers to highly-specific medical intervention at the molecular scale for curing diseases or repairing damaged tissues. Nanomedicine uses nano-sized tools for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of disease, and to gain increased understanding of the complex underlying pathophysiology of the disease. It involves three nanotechnology areas of diagnosis, imaging agents, and drug delivery with nanoparticles in the 11,000 nm range, biochips, and polymer therapeutics.

The majority of nanomedicines used now allow oral drug delivery and its demand is increasing significantly. Although these nanovectors are designed to translocate across the gastrointestinal tract, lung, and bloodbrain barrier, the amount of drug transferred to the organ is lower than 1%; therefore improvements are challenging. Nanomedicines are designed to maximize the benefit/risk ratio, and their toxicity must be evaluated not only by sufficiently long term in vitro and in vivo studies, but also pass multiple clinical studies.

The major drivers of the nanomedicine market include its application in various therapeutic areas, increasing R&D studies about nanorobots in this segment, and significant investments in clinical trials by the government as well as private sector. The Oncology segment is the major therapeutic area for nanomedicine application, which comprised more than 35% of the total market share in 2016. A major focus in this segment is expected to drive the growth of the nanomedicine market in the future.

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Market Analysis: The “Global Nanomedicine Market” is estimated to witness a CAGR of 17.1% during the forecast period 20172023. The nanomedicine market is analyzed based on two segments therapeutic applications and regions.

Regional Analysis: The regions covered in the report are the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the World (ROW). The Americas is set to be the leading region for the nanomedicine market growth followed by Europe. The Asia Pacific and ROW are set to be the emerging regions. Japan is set to be the most attractive destination and in Africa, the popularity and the usage of various nano-drugs are expected to increase in the coming years. The major countries covered in this report are the US, Germany, Japan, and Others.

Therapeutic Application Analysis: Nanomedicines are used as fluorescent markers for diagnostic and screening purposes. Moreover, nanomedicines are introducing new therapeutic opportunities for a large number of agents that cannot be used effectively as conventional oral formulations due to poor bioavailability. The therapeutic areas for nanomedicine application are Oncology, Cardiovascular, Neurology, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-infectives, and various other areas. Globally, the industry players are focusing significantly on R&D to gain approval for various clinical trials for future nano-drugs to be commercially available in the market. The FDA should be relatively prepared for some of the earliest and most basic applications of nanomedicine in areas such as gene therapy and tissue engineering. The more advanced applications of nanomedicine will pose unique challenges in terms of classification and maintenance of scientific expertise.

Key Players: Merck & Co. Inc., Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Gilead Sciences Inc., Novartis AG, Amgen Inc., Pfizer Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Sanofi, Nanobiotix SA, UCB SA and other predominate & niche players.

Competitive Analysis: At present, the nanomedicine market is at a nascent stage but, a lot of new players are entering the market as it holds huge business opportunities. Especially, big players along with the collaboration with other SMBs for clinical trials of nanoparticles and compounds are coming with new commercial targeted drugs in the market and they are expecting a double-digit growth in the upcoming years. Significant investments in R&D in this market are expected to increase and collaborations, merger & acquisition activities are expected to continue.

Benefits: The report provides complete details about the usage and adoption rate of nanomedicines in various therapeutic verticals and regions. With that, key stakeholders can know about the major trends, drivers, investments, vertical player’s initiatives, government initiatives towards the nanomedicine adoption in the upcoming years along with the details of commercial drugs available in the market. Moreover, the report provides details about the major challenges that are going to impact on the market growth. Additionally, the report gives the complete details about the key business opportunities to key stakeholders to expand their business and capture the revenue in the specific verticals to analyze before investing or expanding the business in this market.

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Table Of Contents Major Key Points

1 Industry Outlook 10 1.1 Industry Overview 10 1.2 Industry Trends 11 1.3 PEST Analysis 12

2 Report Outline 12 2.1 Report Scope 12 2.2 Report Summary 13 2.3 Research Methodology 14 2.4 Report Assumptions 14

3 Market Snapshot 16 3.1 Total Addressable Market (TAM) 16 3.2 Segmented Addressable Market (SAM) 16 3.3 Related Markets 17 3.3.1 mHealth Market 17 3.3.2 Healthcare Analytics Market 18

4 Market Outlook 18 4.1 Overview 18 4.2 Regulatory Bodies and Standards 19 4.3 Government Spending and Initiatives 19 4.4 Porter 5 (Five) Forces 21

5 Market Characteristics 22 5.1 Evolution 22 5.2 Ecosystem 25 5.2.1 Regulatory Process 25 5.2.2 Clinical Trials 25 5.2.3 Pricing and Reimbursement 26 5.3 Market Segmentation 28 5.4 Market Dynamics 28 5.4.1 Drivers 29 5.4.1.1 Emergence of nanorobotics 29 5.4.1.2 Applications and advantages of nanomedicine in various healthcare segments 29 5.4.1.3 Reasonable investments in R&D 30 5.4.1.4 Increased support from governments 30 5.4.2 Restraints 31 5.4.2.1 Long approval process and stringent regulations 31 5.4.2.2 Problems regarding nanoscale manufacturing 31 5.4.2.3 Risks related to nanomedicines 31 5.4.2.4 Undefined regulatory standards 31 5.4.3 Opportunities 32 5.4.3.1 Aging population with chronic care needs 32 5.4.3.2 Population and income growth in emerging countries 32 5.4.4 DRO Impact Analysis 33

6 Trends, Roadmap and Projects 34 6.1 Market Trends and Impact 34 6.2 Technology Roadmap 35

7 Types: Market Size and Analysis 36 7.1 Overview 36 7.2 Global Nanomedicine Market in Oncology Segment 37 7.3 Global Nanomedicine Market in Cardiovascular Segment 38 7.4 Global Nanomedicine Market in Neurology Segment 39 7.5 Global Nanomedicine Market in Anti-inflammatory Segment 39 7.6 Global Nanomedicine Market in Anti-infective Segment 40 7.7 Global Nanomedicine Market in Other Therapeutic Areas 41

8 Trending Nanomedicines 42 8.1 Overview 42 8.2 Abraxane 43 8.3 Alimta 43 8.4 Eligard 44 8.5 Copaxone 44 8.6 Rapamune 44 8.7 Neulasta 45 8.8 Cimzia 45 8.9 AmBisome 46 8.10 Mircera 46 8.11 Pegasys 46 8.12 Emend 47 8.13 Renagel 47 8.14 Ritalin 47

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Nanomedicine Global Market Outlook,Research,Trends and Forecast to 2023 – Digital Journal

2017 Forecast – Asia Pacific Nanomedicine Market, Industry Size and Share to 2023 – Digital Journal

Global Market Research Report on Nanomedicine Market 2017 is a professional and in-depth complete study on the current state of the Nanomedicine worldwide.

This press release was orginally distributed by SBWire

Deerfield Beach, FL — (SBWIRE) — 06/19/2017 — Latest industry research report on Nanomedicine Market. Nanomedicine is the applied branch of nanotechnology. Application of nanomedicines ranges from nonmaterial to nanoelectronic and in the near future, it could possibly expand to molecular nanotechnology. Biological, pharmaceutical and medical research organizations (CROs) are largely benefitted by the exceptional properties of nonmaterial and exploit it for various applications including diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The Asia pacific nanomedicine market is majorly driven by advancement in nanomedicine technologies, government initiatives, growing investment in research funding, better understanding of technical know-how and a high prevalence of chronic diseases.

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However, the cost of materials used in nanotechnology study along with the insufficient regulatory framework can pose a major restrain for the growth of the Asia pacific nanomedicines market. Presence of high growth opportunities in nanomedicines would provide significant benefits to emerging economies such as India and China due to the impending healthcare needs in this location.

The Asia Pacific nanomedicine market is segmented into two categories such as application and geography.

BY APPLICATION

Cardiovascular Oncology Anti-Inflammatory Anti-Infective Neurology Others

BY GEOGRAPHY

China Japan India Australia Others

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2017 Forecast – Asia Pacific Nanomedicine Market, Industry Size and Share to 2023 – Digital Journal

Keeping up with Biotech: an Ongoing Evolution – MedReps

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To be effective at any job takes a considerable amount of preparation, study, and skill. When it comes to biotech sales jobs, that could be an understatement.

Smart sales reps know that its not enough to simply sell a biotech product anymore continually educating themselves is the only tangible way to keep up with the rapidly-changing landscape. Whether its a deeper understanding of the advanced products they sell and advertise, or researching trends and staying up-to-date on the very latest data available in the biotechnology field, keeping pace is an excellent way to become a trusted source of information and ideally, an effective salesperson.

Similarly, being able to discern specific data and predict where the industry is headed will make your biotech sales job much more valuable.

So what does biotechnology look like on the horizon and through 2017? There have been plenty of recent advancements that are leading to new discoveries.

Read on to learn what the experts are saying:

This new discipline combines pharmacology (the science of drugs) and genomics (the study of genes and their functions) and seeks to determine how a patients genetic profile affects his or her responses to particular medicines. While many drugs are essentially one size fits all, many unfortunately dont work the same way for everyone.

The ultimate goal of Pharmacogenomics is to develop tests that will predict which particular patient genetic profiles will benefit most from a given medicine, a model that is sometimes called personalized medicine, according to Amgen.

The company claims that advances made in DNA technology are the keys to personalized medicine. Developments like these promise to result in more effective, individualized healthcare, as well as help to further the gains already made in preventive medicine.

Immuno-oncology is a unique treatment method in which the bodys immune system is used to fight cancer. This approach targets healthy cells exclusively and makes them stronger. The idea is that the cells will become powerful enough to overtake dangerous cancer cells, in a sense, starving them of nutrients and stopping them from growing.

With traditional radiation treatment and chemotherapy methods, the intent is to target cancerous cells. However, good, healthy cells are collateral damage and also die in the process, ultimately weakening a patients immune system.

Immuno-oncology has exploded because theres been some success, said spokesman John Bonfiglio of TapImmune in a recent Investing News Network story, pointing to the rising sales of the drugs Herceptin and Perjeta. Medications like these essentially re-teach healthy cells to attack cancerous ones, allowing the body to fight the disease in a more natural way.

Immuno-oncology also represents a new paradigm of sorts for cancer treatment, and combination therapies are growing in popularity because they are effective. Bonfiglio also mentioned that single treatment methods are probably a thing of the past: Everyone realizes that no one drug is going to be the panacea for cancer. Instead, cancer is going to be fought with a combination of different therapies that do different things.

With one recent analysis estimating that Alzheimers will account for one-fourth of Medicare spending in 2040, the U.S. will have a challenging time funding the astronomical costs associated with the disease in the coming years. Similarly, the pharmaceutical industry has had no effective response yet, according to Forbes.

While billions of dollars have been invested in drugs that are supposed to help remove the buildup of proteins thought to gum up memory and cognition as we age, there have been a few encouraging signs of support for alternative approaches.

For example, San Francisco-basedAnnexon Biosciences, raised $44 million to build on research that suggests that effective treatment for Alzheimers could include preventing the immune system from removing synapses in the brain that are needed for neuronal function.

Also, a recent study conducted by EIP Pharma revealed promising news: cognition and memory were improved in a set of patients with mild Alzheimers symptoms after taking an old anti-inflammatory drug.

Gene therapy:while still in experimental stages, gene therapy involves inserting new, functional genes into the cells of patients to replace damaged or defective ones. This type of treatment has grown greatly since the first clinical trial, nearly 30 years ago.

Stem cells: the goal of stem cell therapy is to replace dead tissue with new, healthy tissue. Grown in a lab, stem cells are unspecialized cells that mature into different types of functional cells that are then surgically implanted into patients.

Nanomedicine:Nanomedicine aims to manipulate individual molecules and structures on an atomic level. An example of this is nanoshells, or metallic lenses, which change infrared light into heat energy, destroying the cancer cells.

Synthetic Biology: is the design and construction of entirely new biologicalentities such as enzymes, genetic circuits, and cells or the redesign of existingbiological systems by manipulating or isolating particular components.

The truth is plain to see: theres never a dull moment when it comes to the science of biotechnology. Its a world of constant flux, rapidly evolving with every single advancement and is challenging, no doubt.

Its also quite exciting and can be very rewarding for anyone involved. Sales reps that are fortunate enough to have biotech sales jobs are quite aware of this fact, which is just one of the ways that make a job in biotechnology very attractive.

Additionally, the industrys best sales reps excel in their career field because they keep up with the biotechnology industry and are able to anticipate where the field is headed next. Are you ready to challenge yourself and make your mark in biotech? Get started today!

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Keeping up with Biotech: an Ongoing Evolution – MedReps

Editor’s choice: recent research highlights from the International Journal of Nanomedicine – Dove Medical Press

Farooq A Shiekh,1 Abdul-Rahman M Abu-Izzah,2 Vivian J Lee,2 Syed Mudassar1

1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS), Srinagar, India; 2Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, the Netherlands Is nanomedicine really less harmful? Evaluation of: Thakkar A, Chenreddy S, Thio A, Khamas W, Wang J, Prabhu S. Preclinical systemic toxicity evaluation of chitosan-solid lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated aspirin and curcumin in combination with free sulforaphane in BALB/c mice. Int J Nanomedicine. 2016;11:32653276. Nanomedicine1 has increasingly received a tremendous attention over the past two decades as a potential multidimensional field, developing nano-applications that are transforming a host of medical products and services,2,3 including drug delivery4 and health-monitoring devices, and the possibility of gaining new insights about undruggable targets and treatment through atomic-scale precision is increasing rapidly.5 Although it is uncertain as to which of the new delivery platforms will become the most effective and useful, it is certain that many new approaches will be investigated in the years to come.4,6

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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Editor’s choice: recent research highlights from the International Journal of Nanomedicine – Dove Medical Press

Researcher awarded grant for HIV/AIDS drug study – FIU News

Rahul Dev Jayant, PhD

Rahul Dev Jayant, assistant professor in the Department of Immunology, has received a $25,000 grant from The Campbell Foundation in Ft. Lauderdale to continue his research on sustained-release nanoformulation to deliver antiretroviral (ARV) medication for patients living with HIV/AIDS.

Using FIU patented nanotechnology, Jayant, a researcher at the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicines Center for Personalized Nanomedicine, has successfully integrated Tenofovir, an antiretroviral drug used to fight HIV, into a long-active nanoformulation thatcan release the medication for up to one week.

Now, with the generous help from The Campbell Foundation, we will be working toward the development of single-dose formulation that can release the ARV drugs up to one month, Jayant said.

Bill Venuti and Ken Rapkin (first and third from right) of The Campbell Foundation present the $25K check to the Immunology Department team.

Sustained release of antiretroviral medication has the potential to be a game changer for many people living with HIV/AIDS who may have trouble adhering to the daily pill dosing that current treatments require.

The Campbell Foundation has been funding cutting-edge research into a cure for HIV since its creation in 1995 by the late Richard Campbell Zahn, the chemist who developed Herpecin-L Lip Balm for the treatment of cold sores and fever blisters.

These fast-track grants to South Florida-based researchers show our Board of Directors ongoing commitment to addressing HIV/AIDS right here in our own backyard, said Campbell Foundation Trustee Bill Venuti.

If you’re new here, you may want to subscribe to our newsletter. Thanks for visiting!

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Researcher awarded grant for HIV/AIDS drug study – FIU News

Yale University, Cambridge scientists discover process they hope will lead to cure for MS – New Haven Register

NEW HAVEN >> Scientists from Yale University and the University of Cambridge in England have teamed up to develop a potential cure for multiple sclerosis.

Its the first treatment that addresses the disease by disarming the immune cells that have turned against the bodys nerve cells, rather than simply suppressing them. An autoimmune disease, MS begins when parts of the bodys immune system, rather than fighting off disease, begin to attack healthy cells.

Su Metcalfe, senior research associate in the University of Cambridge Clinical School, discovered the molecular process that stops the attack on the protective myelin sheath around nerves in the brain and central nervous system. Its that destruction of myelin that causes MS.

Tarek Fahmy, associate professor of biomedical engineering and of immunobiology in the Yale School of Engineering and Applied Science, created the delivery system that brings Metcalfes treatment to the site of the disease.

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Multiple sclerosis is a devastating disease that can attack people as young as 30, slowly reducing their brain volume, Metcalfe said. Theyre looking forward to 40 years of slowly getting worse, she said. Its a horrible disease and it costs the global economy $100 billion a year.

According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, there are more than 2.3 million cases worldwide, but the society doesnt provide an estimate of U.S. cases because doctors are not required to report new cases. There are a wide variety of symptoms, including fatigue, numbness and tingling muscles, slurred speech, walking difficulties and muscle spasms.

Among the cells in the immune system are T lymphocytes, or T cells. One of their functions is to produce molecules called cytokines, which specialize in alerting immune system cells to infection, cancer or any foreign intrusion in the body, Fahmy said. The immune cells then rush to the site to fight the disease, he said.

However, T cells can go awry and turn from fighting disease to attacking the bodys own cells. In these disease states the T cells make an error whose root cause is still an enigma to scientists and clinicians, Fahmy said. If this happens, then these malfunctioned T cells will produce cytokines that bring in more T cells to the site and the illness cascade of events begins.

He said the same process also is involved in other autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and lupus.

Metcalfe said that in 2005 she discovered that another cytokine, called leukemia inhibitory factor, or LIF, regulates the immune response to stop autoimmune attack. The molecule controls a switch that turns the T cells from destroyers to protectors. The way LIF acts on T cells was a critical discovery, she said.

That was a world first, and we discovered that theres a binary switch in the cell so the cell can either become tolerant or aggressive and that switch is operated by LIF, Metcalfe said.

LIF comes in and cuts off the signal that calls in more T cells, Fahmy said.

The challenge to getting LIF to the diseased site was that it is a short-lived molecule. It breaks down within 20 minutes, Metcalfe said. So a way had to be found to deliver it to the T cells. Thats where Fahmys engineering expertise came in.

Fahmy confronted two issues in addition to LIFs delicate nature. One is to avoid having LIF turn off the immune properties of cells throughout the body, the way chemotherapy attacks both healthy and cancerous cells. It has to be targeted to those areas and it has to be a long-lasting signal as well, Fahmy said.

A third factor is we need a high concentration of LIF in that area, he said. The question then becomes, how do you get a high amount of nullifying molecules to the area thats affected and to have those LIF molecules sustained over a long period of time.

Fahmys solution was to create a nanoparticle, one ten-thousandth the width of a human hair follicle (100 to 200 nanometers), which carries the LIF molecules to the T cell like a truck carrying cargo. He used the same material used in soluble stitches and coated it with a protein that only binds to those immune cells that are attacking the rogue T cells. Then, the nanoparticle was loaded with LIF molecules and freeze-dried.

When theyre exposed to water again, they start degrading and as they degrade they release the LIF, Fahmy said. So its like a new drug, except its using older materials, combining them together. Im very hopeful that this is going to work like how natural processes in the body work.

Fahmy said the nanoparticle delivery method is important because, given alone by itself, this drug LIF is a very toxic drug if administered to people without a delivery apparatus. Using the nanoparticle, the amount of LIF that needs to be delivered is 10,000-fold lower than if it were given directly.

Metcalfe and Fahmy have formed a company called LIFNano, which will bring their treatment to clinical trials by 2020. Im committed, Metcalfe said. Ive given my whole career, switched it over to treat patients.

Ive just received 1 million pounds from the U.K. government to do pre-clinical, pre-regulatory work. Part of that million pounds is going to Yale. So Yale remains very closely involved alongside and were continuing this synergistic value in taking this nano-medicine approach to treat patients, she said.

Metcalfe and Fahmy hope their therapy, treating the cells with a naturally occurring molecule, will eventually replace the standard treatment of giving immune-suppressant drugs, which carry their own risks.

This really is a whole new field of study that we call immune-engineering, and it promises to change how therapy will happen for cancer and autoimmune diseases, Fahmy said.

Theres nothing specific controlling the root cause of disease, which is what were doing, and in addition were repairing the myelin and protecting the nerves and theres nothing out there today that protects the nerves, Metcalfe said.

She said she has been at Cambridge her whole career and working to understand what controls lymphocytes and I found LIF. Its been a long journey.

Call Ed Stannard at 203-680-9382.

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Yale University, Cambridge scientists discover process they hope will lead to cure for MS – New Haven Register

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Conference On Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology

Could this scientist be on the verge of curing multiple sclerosis? – Coventry Telegraph

A Cambridge doctor could be on the verge of an incredible medical breakthrough that would transform thousands of lives.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition of the central nervous system where the coating around nerve fibres (called myelin) is damaged, causing a range of symptoms.

More than 100,000 people in the UK have MS. Symptoms usually start in your 20s and 30s and it affects almost three times as many women as men.

Once diagnosed, MS stays with you for life, but treatments and specialists can help you to manage the condition and its symptom.

Now hope is on the horizon…

Dr Su Metcalfe is sitting quietly reading through some documents in the lobby of the Judge Business School when I arrive for our interview.

It would be easy to walk right past her and not know you were in the presence of a woman who could be on the verge of curing multiple sclerosis.

MS, an auto-immune condition which affects 2.3million people around the world, attacks cells in the brain and the spinal cord, causing an array of physical and mental side effects including blindness and muscle weakness.

At the moment theres no cure, but Su and her company, LIFNano, hope to change that, reports the Cambridge News.

Some people get progressive MS, so go straight to the severe form of the disease, but the majority have a relapsing or remitting version, she says.

It can start from the age of 30, and theres no cure, so all you can do is suppress the immune response, but the drugs that do that have side effects, and you cant repair the brain.

The cost of those drugs is very high, and in the UK there are a lot of people who dont get treated at all.

But now a solution could be in sight thanks to Su, who has married one of the bodys cleverest functions with some cutting-edge technology. The natural side of the equation is provided by a stem cell particle called a LIF.

Su was working at the universitys department of surgery when she made her big breakthrough: I was looking to see what controls the immune response and stops it auto-attacking us, she explains.

I discovered a small binary switch, controlled by a LIF, which regulates inside the immune cell itself. LIF is able to control the cell to ensure it doesnt attack your own body but then releases the attack when needed.

That LIF, in addition to regulating and protecting us against attack, also plays a major role in keeping the brain and spinal cord healthy.

“In fact it plays a major role in tissue repair generally, turning on stem cells that are naturally occurring in the body, making it a natural regenerative medicine, but also plays a big part in repairing the brain when its been damaged.

So I thought, this is fantastic. We can treat auto-immune disease, and weve got something to treat MS, which attacks both the brain and the spinal cord.

“So you have a double whammy that can stop and reverse the auto-immunity, and also repair the damage caused in the brain.

Presumably Su, who has been in Cambridge since she was an undergraduate but retains a soft accent from her native Yorkshire, was dancing a jig of delight around her lab at this point, but she soon hit a snag; the LIF could only survive outside the cell for 20 minutes before being broken down by the body, meaning there was not enough time to deploy it in a therapy.

And this is where the technology, in the form of nano-particles, comes in.

They are made from the same material as soluble stitches, so theyre compatible with the body and they slowly dissolve, says Su.

We load the cargo of the LIF into those particles, which become the delivery device that slowly dissolve and deliver the LIF over five days.

“The nano-particle itself is a protective environment, and the enzymes that break it down cant access it.

“You can also decorate the surface of the particles with antibodies, so it becomes a homing device that can target specific parts of the brain, for example. So you get the right dose, in the right place, and at the right time.

The particles themselves were developed at Yale University, which is listed as co-inventor with Su on the IP. But LIFNano has the worldwide licence to deploy them, and Su believes we are on the verge of a step-change in medicine.

She says: Nano-medicine is a new era, and big pharma has already entered this space to deliver drugs while trying to avoid the side effects. The quantum leap is to actually go into biologics and tap into the natural pathways of the body.

Were not using any drugs, were simply switching on the bodys own systems of self-tolerance and repair. There arent any side effects because all were doing is tipping the balance.

“Auto-immunity happens when that balance has gone awry slightly, and we simply reset that.

“Once youve done that, it becomes self-sustaining and you dont have to keep giving therapy, because the body has its balance back.

LIFNano has already attracted two major funding awards, from drug firm Merck and the Governments Innovate UK agency.

Su herself is something of a novice when it comes to business, but has recruited cannily in the form of chairman Florian Kemmerich and ceo Oliver Jarry, both experienced operators in the pharma sector.

With the support of the Judge, the company hopes to attract more investment, with the aim of starting clinical trials in 2020.

The 2020 date is ambitious, but with the funding weve got and the funding were hoping to raise, it should be possible, says Su.

Weve got everything we need in place to make the nano-particles in a clinically compliant manner, its just a case of flicking the switch when we have the money.

“Were looking at VCs and big pharma, because they have a strong interest in this area.

Were doing all our pre-clinical work concurrently while bringing in the major funds the company needs to go forward in its own right.

Immune cells have been a big part of Sus career, and as we talk, her passion for her subject is obvious. I wanted to understand something that was so simple on one level but also so complex, she says.

The immune cell is the only single cell in the body that is its own unity, so it functions alone. Its probably one of the most powerful cells in the body because it can kill you, and if you havent got it you die because you havent got it.

And MS may just be the start for LIFNano.

MS is our key driver at the moment, but its going to be leading through to other major auto-immune disease areas, Su adds.

Psoriasis is high up on our list, and diabetes is another. Downstream there are all the dementias, because a LIF is a major health factor for the brain. So if we can get it into the brain we can start protecting against dementia.

Now that would be something.

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Could this scientist be on the verge of curing multiple sclerosis? – Coventry Telegraph

Brit scientist could be about to CURE multiple sclerosis and provide hope for millions – Mirror.co.uk

A British scientist could have made one of the most important medical breakthroughs of recent years.

Dr Su Metcalfe and her team at LIFNano believe they have found the cure for the devastating condition, multiple sclerosis .

More than 2.3million people globally are affected by the debilitating condition and symptoms include blindness and muscle weakness.

Dr Metcalfe told the Cambridge News : Some people get progressive MS, so go straight to the severe form of the disease, but the majority have a relapsing or remitting version, she says.

It can start from the age of 30, and theres no cure, so all you can do is suppress the immune response, but the drugs that do that have side effects, and you cant repair the brain. The cost of those drugs is very high, and in the UK there are a lot of people who dont get treated at all.

Dr Metcalfe and her team have combined one of the bodys cleverest functions with some cutting-edge technology. The natural side of the equation is provided by a stem cell particle called a LIF.

She was working at Cambridge Universitys department of surgery when she made her big breakthrough.

Dr Metcalfe said: I was looking to see what controls the immune response and stops it auto-attacking us, she explains.

I discovered a small binary switch, controlled by a LIF, which regulates inside the immune cell itself. LIF is able to control the cell to ensure it doesnt attack your own body but then releases the attack when needed.

That LIF, in addition to regulating and protecting us against attack, also plays a major role in keeping the brain and spinal cord healthy. In fact it plays a major role in tissue repair generally, turning on stem cells that are naturally occurring in the body, making it a natural regenerative medicine, but also plays a big part in repairing the brain when its been damaged.

So I thought, this is fantastic. We can treat auto-immune disease, and weve got something to treat MS, which attacks both the brain and the spinal cord. So you have a double whammy that can stop and reverse the auto-immunity, and also repair the damage caused in the brain.

But the breakthrough wasn’t over then, as the LIF could only survive outside the cell for 20 minutes before being broken down by the body, meaning there was not enough time to deploy it in a therapy. And this is where the technology, in the form of nano-particles, comes in.

Dr Metcalfe said: They are made from the same material as soluble stitches, so theyre compatible with the body and they slowly dissolve, says Su.

We load the cargo of the LIF into those particles, which become the delivery device that slowly dissolve and deliver the LIF over five days.

“The nano-particle itself is a protective environment, and the enzymes that break it down cant access it. You can also decorate the surface of the particles with antibodies, so it becomes a homing device that can target specific parts of the brain, for example. So you get the right dose, in the right place, and at the right time.

The particles themselves were developed at Yale University, which is listed as co-inventor with Dr Metcalfe on the IP. But LIFNano has the worldwide licence to deploy them, and Su believes we are on the verge of a step-change in medicine.

Dr Metcalfe said: Nano-medicine is a new era, and big pharma has already entered this space to deliver drugs while trying to avoid the side effects. The quantum leap is to actually go into biologics and tap into the natural pathways of the body.

Were not using any drugs, were simply switching on the bodys own systems of self-tolerance and repair. There arent any side effects because all were doing is tipping the balance.

“Auto-immunity happens when that balance has gone awry slightly, and we simply reset that. Once youve done that, it becomes self-sustaining and you dont have to keep giving therapy, because the body has its balance back.

LIFNano has already attracted two major funding awards, from drug firm Merck and the Governments Innovate UK agency.

Dr Metcalfe admits she is something of a novice when it comes to business, but has recruited cannily in the form of chairman Florian Kemmerich and ceo Oliver Jarry, both experienced operators in the pharma sector.

With the support of the Judge, the company hopes to attract more investment, with the aim of starting clinical trials in 2020.

She said: The 2020 date is ambitious, but with the funding weve got and the funding were hoping to raise, it should be possible.

Weve got everything we need in place to make the nano-particles in a clinically compliant manner, its just a case of flicking the switch when we have the money.

“Were looking at VCs and big pharma, because they have a strong interest in this area. Were doing all our pre-clinical work concurrently while bringing in the major funds the company needs to go forward in its own right.

Immune cells have been a big part of Dr Metcalfe’s career, and her passion for her subject is obvious. I wanted to understand something that was so simple on one level but also so complex, she says.

The immune cell is the only single cell in the body that is its own unity, so it functions alone. Its probably one of the most powerful cells in the body because it can kill you, and if you havent got it you die because you havent got it.

And MS may just be the start for LIFNano.

MS is our key driver at the moment, but its going to be leading through to other major auto-immune disease areas, she adds.

Psoriasis is high up on our list, and diabetes is another. Downstream there are all the dementias, because a LIF is a major health factor for the brain. So if we can get it into the brain we can start protecting against dementia.”

Read more here:

Brit scientist could be about to CURE multiple sclerosis and provide hope for millions – Mirror.co.uk

Nanomedicine Market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025 – PR Newswire (press release)

Solutions such as nanoformulations with triggered release for tailor-made pharmacokinetics, nanoparticles for local control of tumor in combination with radiotherapy, and functionalized nanoparticles for targeted in-vivo activation of stem cell production are anticipated to drive R&D, consequently resulting in revenue generation in the coming years.

Biopharmaceutical and medical devices companies are actively engaged in development of novel products as demonstrated by the increasingly growing partnerships between leading enterprises and nanomedicine startups.

Therapeutics accounted for the largest share of market revenue in 2016 owing to presence of nanoemulsions, nanoformulations, or nanodevices

These devices possess the ability to cross biological barriers. Moreover, presence of drugs such as Doxil, Abraxane, and Emend is attributive for higher revenue generation

Presence of substantial number of products manufactured through the use of microbial sources can be attributed for the largest share

In-vitro diagnostics is expected to witness lucrative progress as a result of R&D carried out in this segment

Asia Pacific is estimated to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period

Key players operating in this industry include Pfizer Inc., Ablynx NV, Nanotherapeutics Inc., Nanoviricides Inc., Abraxis Inc., Arrowhead Research Inc., Celgene Corporation, Bio-Gate AG, and Merck

Active expansion strategies are undertaken by a number of the major market entities in order to strengthen their position

North America dominated the industry in 2016, accounting for a 42% of total revenue

The global nanomedicine market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc.

Development of novel nanotechnology-based drugs and therapies is driven by the need to develop therapies that have fewer side effects and that are more cost-effective than traditional therapies, in particular for cancer.

Application of nanotechnology-based contrast reagents for diagnosis and monitoring of the effects of drugs on an unprecedented short timescale is also attributive drive growth in the coming years. Additionally, demand for biodegradable implants with longer lifetimes that enable tissue restoration is anticipated to influence demand.

As per the WHO factsheet, cancer is found to be one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with approximately 14 million new cases in 2012 and 8.2 million cancer-related deaths. Thus, demand for nanomedicine in order to curb such high incidence rate is expected to boost market progress during the forecast period.

Solutions such as nanoformulations with triggered release for tailor-made pharmacokinetics, nanoparticles for local control of tumor in combination with radiotherapy, and functionalized nanoparticles for targeted in-vivo activation of stem cell production are anticipated to drive R&D, consequently resulting in revenue generation in the coming years.

Biopharmaceutical and medical devices companies are actively engaged in development of novel products as demonstrated by the increasingly growing partnerships between leading enterprises and nanomedicine startups. For instance, in November 2015, Ablynx and Novo Nordisk signed a global collaboration and a licensing agreement for development and discovery of innovative drugs with multi-specific nanobodies. This strategic partnership is anticipated to rise the net annual sales of the products uplifting the market growth.

However, in contrary with the applications of nanotechnology, the entire process of lab to market approval is a tedious and expensive one with stringent regulatory evaluation involved thereby leading investors to remain hesitant for investments.

Further key findings from the report suggest: Therapeutics accounted for the largest share of market revenue in 2016 owing to presence of nanoemulsions, nanoformulations, or nanodevices

These devices possess the ability to cross biological barriers. Moreover, presence of drugs such as Doxil, Abraxane, and Emend is attributive for higher revenue generation

Presence of substantial number of products manufactured through the use of microbial sources can be attributed for the largest share

In-vitro diagnostics is expected to witness lucrative progress as a result of R&D carried out in this segment

Introduction of nano-enabled biomarkers, vectors and contrast agents with high-specificity and sensitivity are attributive for projected progress

Clinical cardiology is expected to witness the fastest growth through to 2025 owing to development in nano-functionalization and modification of surfaces for increased biocompatibility of implants in treatment of late thrombosis

Moreover, an abundance of research publications and patent filings from European region with a share of about 25% in nanomedicine-related publications is supportive for revenue generation from European economies

Asia Pacific is estimated to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period

Factors responsible include government and regulatory authorities that have implemented a framework to encourage R&D collaborations and framework extension.

Key players operating in this industry include Pfizer Inc., Ablynx NV, Nanotherapeutics Inc., Nanoviricides Inc., Abraxis Inc., Arrowhead Research Inc., Celgene Corporation, Bio-Gate AG, and Merck

Active expansion strategies are undertaken by a number of the major market entities in order to strengthen their position

North America dominated the industry in 2016, accounting for a 42% of total revenue

Read the full report: http://www.reportlinker.com/p04899216/Nanomedicine-Market-Analysis-By-Products-Therapeutics-Regenerative-Medicine-Diagnostics-By-Application-Clinical-Oncology-Infectious-diseases-By-Nanomolecule-Gold-Silver-Iron-Oxide-Alumina-Segment-Forecasts.html

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Nanomedicine Market is anticipated to reach USD 350.8 billion by 2025 – PR Newswire (press release)

Manufacturing the future of nanomedicine – Cordis News

EU-funded RNA-based therapy targets the direct cause of some neurodegenerative diseases, not just their symptoms.

Precision NanoSystem’s NanoAssemblr will use RNA-based therapeutics to stem disease producing proteins for conditions such as Parkinsons, Alzheimers and Huntingtons. These illnesses affect over seven million people across Europe, with a socio-economic burden previously estimated at around 130 billion euros per year.

Overcoming the barrier to RNA therapy

RNA is a molecule influential in the coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes, which includes the production of proteins responsible for disease. There has been much excitement at the prospect of co-opting this function (through messenger RNA – mRNA) to enable medicine to instruct the body to stop damage before it occurs. This is a relatively new field of medicine, only going back a couple of decades and considered safer and more cost-effective than alternative genetic manipulation options.

However, for these RNA modalities to reach their full potential, they first need to overcome the bodys defences, developed through billions of years of evolution. Protections such as lipid bilayers (forming a thin membrane) have served to keep the RNAs on the outside of cells from being able to easily get inside cells. Overcoming this armoury has remained, quite literally, a barrier to the widespread development of RNA therapeutics.

B-SMART has developed just such an effective delivery mechanism through the use of nanocarriers. These are transport modules small enough to cross the brain-cerebrospinal fluid barrier while also protecting the RNA enzymes against degradation.

As the B-SMART project coordinator, Professor Raymond Schiffelers, summarises in a recent Technology Networks article announcing the selection of the manufacturing platform, ‘RNA medicines are interesting because you can use what is essentially the same polynucleotide molecule to treat multiple diseases, just by changing the nucleotide sequence. Our goal is therefore to design modular nanoparticles capable of delivering a payload of therapeutic RNAs to the brain, allowing them to prevent the biosynthesis of harmful proteins at source.’

Out of the lab and into clinics

To increase effectiveness, the delivery mechanism required specific targeting using ligands (small molecules, ions or proteins), based on heavy chain-only nanobodies, which are smaller and more stable than conventional antibodies. The modular delivery system is being tested both in vitro and in vivo.

Taking advantage of knowledge gleaned form the multidisciplinary field of microfluidics, and key to getting B-SMARTs approach out of the lab and into a wide range of European therapeutic settings, is the development of a scalable and reproducible manufacturing process. Towards this end the benchtop NanoAssemblr platform will be in use in the eight laboratories involved in the project, across the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, the UK, Spain and Italy.

Professor Schiffelers further explains the selection of the Precision NanoSystems NanoAssemblr platform by saying, ‘This technology also allows you to accurately predict the particle size based on the mixing speed, PEG [polyether compounds] concentration and mixing ratios, which is a significant step forward. Equally importantly, it can be easily scaled to manufacture batch volumes sufficient for clinical trials’. The pre-clinical efficacy will be tested after local injection, nasal administration and systemic administration.

For more information, please visit project website

Excerpt from:

Manufacturing the future of nanomedicine – Cordis News

Rallying Point | HMS – Harvard Medical School (registration)

Harvard Medical School researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital have identified a surprising new role for the immune cells called macrophages: improving the effectiveness ofnanoparticle-deliveredcancer therapies.

In theirScience Translational Medicinereport, the investigators describe finding how appropriately timed radiation therapy can improve the delivery of cancernanomedicinesas much as 600 percent by attracting macrophages to tumor blood vessels, which results in a transient burst of leakage from capillaries into the tumor.

Get more HMS news here.

The field ofnanomedicinehas worked to improve selective drug delivery to tumors for over a decade, typically by engineering ever more advancednanomaterialsand often with mixed clinical success, said first authorMiles Miller, HMS instructor in radiology at Mass General. Rather than focusing on thenanoparticlesthemselves, we used in vivo microscopy to discover how to rewire the structure of the tumor itself to more efficiently accumulate a variety ofnanomedicinesalready in clinical use.

Encapsulating cancer drugs innanoparticlescan improve how a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted by extending a drugs presence in the circulatory system and avoiding the toxic solvents used in infusion chemotherapy.

But in clinical practice, delivering nanoencapsulated drugs into patients tumors has been challenging, largely because of known factors in the microenvironment of the tumor. High pressures within tumors and low permeability of tumor blood vessels limit the passage of drugs into tumor cells.

A 2015 study by Miller and his colleagues showed that tumor-associated macrophages can improve delivery of nanoparticle-based therapies to tumor cells, and radiation therapy is known to increase the permeability of tumor vessels. But exactly how these effects are produced and how they could be combined to enhancenanomedicinedelivery was not known. Answering those questions was the goal of the current study.

Finding that this combination of radiation andnanomedicineleads to synergistic tumor eradication in mice provides motivation for clinical trials that combine tumor rewiring using radiation therapy withnanomedicine” – Miles Miller

Experiments in mouse models of cancer revealed that radiation therapy produced important changes in the tumor microenvironment, including greater blood vessel size and permeability and an increase in the number of macrophages relative to tumor cells. These changes did not appear until three to four days after administration of radiation therapy and disappeared by day 11.

Analysis of patient biopsy samples taken before and several days after radiation therapy for breast or cervical cancer revealed significant macrophage expansion in post-radiation samples, with the greatest increases in patients receiving the highest radiation dosage.

Additional mouse studies showed that, beginning three days after radiation therapy, the uptake ofnanoparticles, but not of solvent-delivered drugs, approximately doubled. High-resolution in vivo microscopy revealed that increases in vascular permeability occurred erratically with periods of low permeability interrupted by a bursting of vascular contents, includingnanoparticles, into the tumors.

The rate of bursting increased three days after radiation and was higher on larger blood vessels with adjacent macrophages. Removal of macrophages prevented the radiation-induced changes and the increased uptake ofnanoparticles.

Combining radiation therapy with cyclophosphamidea DNA-damaging drug that enhances nanoparticle delivery to tumor cells through similar tumor-priming mechanismsled to even greater nanoparticle uptake.

Testing the therapeutic effect of combining radiation therapy with a nanoparticle-encased chemotherapy drugs in a mouse model confirmed the efficacy of the strategy and the key role of macrophages.

While combining radiation with a solvent-based drug had no benefit compared with radiation alone, delivery of a nanoencapsulated version of the same drug three days after radiation therapy eliminated most tumors, an effect that was significantly reduced if macrophages were depleted.

Finding that this combination of radiation andnanomedicineleads to synergistic tumor eradication in mice provides motivation for clinical trials that combine tumor rewiring using radiation therapy withnanomedicine, Miller said.

Most of the treatments andnanomedicinesemployed in this study are FDA approved for cancer treatment, so this combination treatment strategy could be tested in clinical trials relatively quickly, he added. And given the role of macrophages in this approach, we are particularly interested in combining tumor irradiation andnanomedicinewith immuno-oncology therapies.

This study was supported by National Institutes of Health grants UO1CA206997, K99CA207744, R01EB010011 and P50GM107618.

Adapted from a Mass Generalnewsrelease.

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Rallying Point | HMS – Harvard Medical School (registration)

Research Offers Promising Outlook for Nanomedicine – Controlled Environments Magazine

In the past six years, the National Research Programme “Opportunities and Risks of Nanomaterials” (NRP 64) intensively studied the development, use, behavior, and degradation of engineered nanomaterials, including their impact on humans and on the environment.

Twenty-three research projects on biomedicine, the environment, energy, construction materials and food demonstrated the enormous potential of engineered nanoparticles for numerous applications in industry and medicine. Thanks to these projects we now know a great deal more about the risks associated with nanomaterials and are therefore able to more accurately determine where and how they can be safely used.

“One of the specified criteria in the program was that every project had to examine both the opportunities and the risks, and in some cases this was a major challenge for the researchers,” explains Peter Gehr, President of the NRP 64 Steering Committee.

One development that is nearing industrial application concerns a building material strengthened with nanocellulose that can be used to produce a strong but lightweight insulation material. Successful research was also carried out in the area of energy, where the aim was to find a way to make lithium-ion batteries safer and more efficient.

A great deal of potential is predicted for the field of nanomedicine. Nine of the 23 projects in NRP 64 focused on biomedical applications of nanoparticles. These include their use for drug delivery, for example in the fight against viruses, or as immune modulators in a vaccine against asthma. Another promising application concerns the use of nanomagnets for filtering out harmful metallic substances from the blood. One of the projects demonstrated that certain nanoparticles can penetrate the placenta barrier, which points to potential new therapy options. The potential of cartilage and bone substitute materials based on nanocellulose or nanofibres was also studied.

The examination of potential health risks was the focus of NRP 64. A number of projects examined what happens when nanoparticles are inhaled, while two focused on ingestion. One of these investigated whether the human gut is able to absorb iron more efficiently if it is administered in the form of iron nanoparticles in a food additive, while the other studied silicon nanoparticles as they occur in powdered condiments. It was ascertained that further studies will be required in order to determine the doses that can be used without risking an inflammatory reaction in the gut.

The aim of the seven projects focusing on environmental impact was to gain a better understanding of the toxicity of nanomaterials and their degradability, stability and accumulation in the environment and in biological systems. Here, the research teams monitored how engineered nanoparticles disseminate along their lifecycle, and where they end up or how they can be discarded.

One of the projects established that 95 percent of silver nanoparticles that are washed out of textiles are collected in sewage treatment plants, while the remaining particles end up in sewage sludge, which in Switzerland is incinerated. In another project a measurement device was developed to determine how aquatic microorganisms react when they come into contact with nanoparticles.

“The findings of the NRP 64 projects form the basis for a safe application of nanomaterials,” says Christoph Studer from the Federal Office of Public Health. “It has become apparent that regulatory instruments such as testing guidelines will have to be adapted at both national and international level.” Studer has been closely monitoring the research program in his capacity as the Swiss government’s representative in NRP 64. In this context, the precautionary matrix developed by the government is an important instrument by means of which companies can systematically assess the risks associated with the use of nanomaterials in their production processes.

The importance of standardized characterization and evaluation of engineered nanomaterials was highlighted by the close cooperation among researchers in the program. “The research network that was built up in the framework of NRP 64 is functioning smoothly and needs to be further nurtured,” says Professor Bernd Nowack from Empa, who headed one of the 23 projects.

The results of NRP 64 show that new key technologies such as the use of nanomaterials need to be closely monitored through basic research due to the lack of data on its long-term effects. As Gehr points out, “We now know a lot more about the risks of nanomaterials and how to keep them under control. However, we need to conduct additional research to learn what happens when humans and the environment are exposed to engineered nanoparticles over longer periods, or what happens a long time after a one-off exposure.”

Source: Swiss National Science Foundation

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Research Offers Promising Outlook for Nanomedicine – Controlled Environments Magazine

Nanomedicine scientist to join USC faculty – Daily Trojan Online

Mark Davis, a chemical engineering professor and nanomedicine researcher at the California Institute of Technology, will be joining the USC faculty in the fall, according to USC News.

Davis will serve as provost professor in the Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering in the Viterbi School of Engineering, and will also have joint appointments in the Department of Preventive Medicine and the Department of Chemistry.

Davis will also be a strategic advisor to the deans of both Viterbi and Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences, and will continue his research on nanomedicine, specifically on nanoparticles that would be able to deliver medicine to the brain.

Mark Davis is a stellar addition to our faculty, Provost Michael Quick said to USC News. His multidisciplinary scholarship and research is an asset to the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience, where we are building bridges across our campus to transform medicine and science.

Davis previously conducted his research at CalTech and at Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University. He has been recognized by the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine. He is also the author of more than 425 scientific publications, and two textbooks and holds 75 U.S. patents.

Davis specializes in materials synthesis, such as zeolites that can be used for molecular recognition, and polymers that can be used for therapeutic delivery.

At USC, he will continue his nanomedicine research on treatment for cancer.

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Nanomedicine scientist to join USC faculty – Daily Trojan Online

Renowned chemical engineer and nanomedicine pioneer joining USC – USC News

Mark E. Davis, a renowned chemical engineering professor and nanomedicine pioneer at Caltech, will join the USC faculty in October. His work on biomaterials for cancer treatment holds great promise to make medicines more targeted and effective.

Davis, one of the few academics selected to the National Academy of Engineering (1997), the National Academy of Sciences (2006) and the National Academy of Medicine (2011), will hold a Provost Professor appointment at USC, with a primary academic home in the Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering. He will be based at the University Park Campus, the soon to open Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience and the Health Sciences Campus.

In addition to his USC Viterbi appointment, Davis also will hold joint appointments in the Department of Preventive Medicine at the Keck School of Medicine of USC, as well as the Department of Chemistry at the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.

Davis research efforts involve materials synthesis in two general areas: zeolites and other solids that can be used for molecular recognition and catalysis, and polymers for the delivery of a broad range of therapeutics. He also conducts pioneering work on engineering nanoparticles for cancer therapeutics.

During his time at Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University (Virginia Tech) from 1981 to 1991, Davis and his research team invented a number of new zeolites and molecular sieves. They were the first to report the synthesis of a molecular sieve with uniform pore sizes larger than 1 nanometer. In recognition of his work, Davis became the first engineer to receive the National Science Foundations Alan T. Waterman Award in 1990.

While at Caltech in 1995, Davis expanded the focus of his research to biomaterials for cancer research. He did so in response to his wifes long and painful but ultimately successful fight against breast cancer.

Davis and his team became the first researchers to successfully engineer nanoparticles made from polymeric materials specifically designed and created for human cancer therapeutics. To date, three different nanoparticles invented by his lab have gone to numerous human, cancer clinical trials that have been and are being conducted both in the United States and throughout the world.

At USC, Davis will continue his groundbreaking work on engineering nanoparticles that can deliver drugs to the brain, research that began in recent years and could improve the treatment of brain cancer, Parkinsons and Alzheimers diseases, among other conditions. At Caltech, he and his team discovered how to successfully design nanoparticles that safely cross the blood-brain barrier in rodent models. Their work continues on the pathway to clinical translation of these nanoparticles that, if successful, would be a major medical breakthrough.

Davis will also serve as a strategic adviser to the deans of USC Viterbi and USC Dornsife, and will mentor faculty and students on convergent bioscience and engineering. As part of his duties at the Keck School of Medicine, Davis will serve as co-director of the MD/PhD program.

The connection between engineering and medicine is really a focal point for me, Davis said. At USC, I will work on trying to be a conduit to help people do translational medicine, especially in the area of therapeutics.

Mark Davis is a stellar addition to our faculty, said Provost Michael Quick. His multidisciplinary scholarship and research is an asset to the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience, where we are building bridges across our campus to transform medicine and science. I know he will help move us forward in these efforts. We are looking forward to his expertise and guidance.

USC Viterbi Dean Yannis C. Yortsos said: We are truly excited to have such a superb engineer and scientist as Mark Davis join USC. We are eagerly looking forward to his leadership in advancing the rapidly accelerating convergence between engineering and medicine.

Rohit Varma, dean of the Keck School and director of the USC Gayle and Edward Roski Eye Institute, added, We are delighted to welcome Mark to the Keck School family.

He will be a tremendous resource for our MD-PhD program. His visionary work that converges the disciplines of technology and health/medicine will inspire our students to innovate and create at the forefront of translational science.

USC Dornsife Dean Amber D. Miller said: USC Dornsife extends a warm welcome toProvost Professor Davis. We greatly benefit from his strong record of leadership, innovation and expertise in creating synergies across scientific fields.

Davis has written more than 425 scientific publications, two textbooks and holds 75 U.S. patents. He is a founding editor of CaTTech and a former associate editor of Chemistry of Materials and the AIChE Journal, published by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

Over the decades, Davis has won a raft of awards, including the Colburn and Professional Progress awards from the AIChE and the Somorjai, Ipatieff, Langmuir, Murphree and Gaden prizes from the American Chemical Society. In 2014, he received the Prince of Asturias Award for Technical and Scientific Research from the King of Spain, and in 2015, he was elected to the National Academy of Inventors.

A scientist with an entrepreneurial bent, Davis founded Calando Pharmaceuticals Inc., a company that created the first RNAi therapeutic to reach the clinic for treating cancer, and Avidity Bioscience.

Apart from his scientific achievements, Davis attained All American Status for Masters Track and Field in the 400-, 200- and 100-meter dashes. In 2011, he won the 400-meter dash for men of age 55-59 at the Masters World Championship.

He holds three degrees from the University of Kentucky, all in chemical engineering.

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Renowned chemical engineer and nanomedicine pioneer joining USC – USC News

Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part VIII, Magnetic Nanoparticles theranostics – Lexology (registration)

This is the eighth article in a review series on Nanomedicine. We started from reviewing the major research and entrepreneurial development of nanomedicine and the relevant patent landscape (Part I and Part II). The first topic we discussed was Organs-on-a-chip (Part III). Following that, we focused on nanotechnology in medical therapeutics. Nanoparticles have nanoscale dimensions and demonstrate unique chemical and physical properties from their bulk. This also gives them great advantages in drug delivery (Part IV), cancer therapeutics (Part V), and bio-imaging (Part VI). In the last installment, we reviewed one special type of nanoparticles: quantum dots, which are incredibly small semiconductor particles (Part VII). Here, we will review the theranostic applications and IP landscape of another special type of nanoparticles known as magnetic nanoparticles (MNP). As in the past, those patent documents cited in the article are summarized in the table at the end.

Magnetic Nanoparticles Magnetic nanoparticles, also known as superparamagnetic nanoparticles are small inorganic crystals about 5-20 nm in diameter. Two main classes of MNPs currently used for clinical imaging are ferromagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and ultrasmall superparameganetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPION). MNPs are usually multilayer materials, which give them their various properties and functionalities for diagnosis and disease treatment. The structure of iron oxide nanoparticles has three main components: an iron oxide core as a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast agent, a biocompatible coating outside the core, and an outer therapeutic coating with specific ligands for biomarker targeting. See (US 8,945,628 by Dr. Ralph Weissleder at Massachusetts General Hospital and US 7,462,446 by Dr. Miqin Zhang at the University of Washington). This unique structure enables MNP accumulation in the sites of interest via biomarker targeting. It further allows the diagnosis of diseases, the evaluation of treatment efficacy, and the localized delivery of drugs and disease therapies. The integration of both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities into one single agent is called a theranostic agent. We will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic properties of MNPs in cancer.

Magnetic Nanoparticles for Diagnosis In 2008, the International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that the total number of cancer case around the world doubled between 1975 and 2000, and that the number of cases are expected to triple by 2030. This means there will be 13-17 million cancer deaths annually by that time. The only chance for successful treatment of cancer is early cancer diagnosis, by identifying the cancer before the patient shows symptoms. Currently the standard cancer detection technology in the clinic is imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Dr. Ralph Weissleder at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) is a pioneer in the field of clinical imaging using advanced nanomaterials (US 6,615,063, US 8,569,078 and US 9,097,644). He predicted that high resolution molecular imaging technologies (including those utilizing nanoparticles) can screen tumor growth at very early stages.

Currently, there are two main nanoimaging technologies, fluorescence imaging and MRI. In fluorescence imaging, quantum dots can target malignant tissues and show strong localized signals (Part VI). Magnetic nanoparticles demonstrate advanced applications in MRI. MRI is a non-invasive medical imaging technology based on nuclear magnetic resonance. When the magnetic field around the nuclei varies, the nuclei relax their magnetic moment through spin-lattice relaxation and spin-spin relaxation. With the assistance of MRI contrast agents, the MRI captures the change of relaxation times of protons around tissues and forms the medical images. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are one of the currently used contrast agents for MRI. These particles can shorten the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 (brighter signal) and the spin-spin relaxation time T2 (darker signal), forming a sharper and brighter image. These particles can also be actively targeted or passively targeted to malignant sites to differentiate between normal and diseased tissues.

MNPs are the most advanced contrast labels currently being used in research and development for medical imaging. Dr. Shan Wangs group at Stanford University has developed superparameganetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and fluorescent tag conjugated SPIONs for biological molecular imaging (US 7,682,838 and US 8,722,017 ). Dr. Miqin Zhangs group at the University of Washington has developed MNPs with a Fe3O4 core and a mesoporous silica shell embedded with carbon dots and paclitaxel (a common anti-cancer drug), and covered by another layer of silica. These MNPs enable confocal and twophoton fluorescence imaging via carbon dots and MRI via magnetic Fe3O4. They also deliver the paclitaxel to cancer cells to kill them through combined photothermal and chemotherapy. Dr. Zhang also developed major histocompatibility complex (MHC) conjugated MNPs for imaging T cells and also chitosan-polyethylene oxide oligomer copolymer coated MNPs for brain tumor imaging and drug delivery (US 20160193369, US 20150320890, and US 20140286872). Dr. Koichiro Hayashi demonstrated the advantages of using SPIONs for cancer theranostics by combining MRI and magnetic hyperthermia treatment (WO/2012/026194). His team modified the SPION clusters with folic acid and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote the accumulation of clusters in tumors. Dr. Qun Zhao at the University of Georgia developed hyperthermia treatment of head and neck cancers in a mouse model via intratumor injection of SPIONs. Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIONs) having smaller size in diameter, resulting in longer circulation time. These particles can accumulate in the microvascularture before being endocytosed (i.e. removed) by macrophages. Therefore, these particles can be used for tumor-associated microvessel imaging. Dr. Edward Neuwelt reported clinical data with enhanced brain tumor imaging by USPIONs. Other groups from France and Switzerland also reported similar results.

Summary Magnetic nanoparticles are not only used as MRI contrast labels for medical imaging, but also used as therapeutic drug delivery carriers, as hyperthermia tools, and even as combined drug delivery and imaging agents for cancer therapy. In the next installment, we will discuss further details on the application of these particles in cancer therapeutics.

The General Hospital Corporation

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Nanomedicine: A Vast Horizon on a Molecular Landscape – Part VIII, Magnetic Nanoparticles theranostics – Lexology (registration)

PhD Research Fellow in Biophysics and Nanomedicine – Times Higher Education (THE)

A PhD research fellowship within the field of biophysics is available at the Department of Physics. The appointments have duration of 3 years with the possibility of until 1 year extension with 25% teaching duties in agreement with the department. Student should start mid-August 2017.

Information about the department The position is organized in the Department of Physics. Currently, there are 22 professors, 12 associate professors, 4 adjunct professors, 72 PhD research fellows and 15 postdoctoral positions appointed at the Department of Physics. Our research spans a broad spectrum of natural sciences and technology, which in turn allows us to offer an education providing a solid basis for future careers. Physics research is carried out in experimental as well as theoretical fields, often across conventional boundaries between disciplines. Research staff at the department makes a special effort to increase the awareness and understanding of the importance and impact of physics in our society. Further information about the department can be found at https://www.ntnu.edu/physics

Job description The PhD student will work on the project Acoustic Cluster Therapy (ACT) for improved treatment of cancer and brain diseases funded by the Research Council of Norway. This project is in collaboration with international universities and two companies Phoenix Solutions who developed a platform for ultrasound activated targeted drug delivery and Cristal therapeutics who developed a pioneering approach to transform drugs into tailor-made nanoparticles. A major challenge in cancer therapy is to obtain adequate delivery of the therapeutic agents to cancer cells, and limit the systemic exposure. The explored concepts utilize an acoustic activated cluster (microbubble/ microdroplet) system and nanoparticles to deliver a drug payload at the targeted pathology. The biodistribution of (novel) biologicals will be assessed using (fluorescence) microscopy other imaging modalities in healthy animals and disease models. In vivo MRI, ultrasound, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, ex vivo analyses, and histological examinations will be used to investigate the in vivo distribution and behavior of the nanoparticles.

The project involves studies in cell cultures and preclinical testing in mice, which require designing and building various experimental setups for ultrasound exposure and imaging. The student should have broad experimental experience especially with imaging techniques like confocal laser scan microscopy (CLSM) or multi photon microscopy (MPM). Knowledge of image analysis methods would be considered an asset. It is essential that the student is willing to work with laboratory animals and thus willing to obtain the FELASA license. Furthermore, it is crucial to be able to travel to workshops and for research collaboration in other EU countries as well as the USA with notice.

Qualifications The student should hold very good grades and a Master of Science in biophysics, bio (nano)technology, biomedical sciences, or related sciences.

The regulations for PhD programs at NTNU state that the applicant must have a master’s degree or equivalent with at least 5 years of studies and an average grade of A or B within a scale of A-E for passing grades (A best). Candidates from universities outside Norway are kindly requested to send a Diploma Supplement or a similar document, which describes in detail the study and grade system and the rights for further studies associated with the obtained degree: http://ec.europa.eu/education/tools/diploma-supplement_en.htm

The position requires spoken and written fluency in the English language. Such evidence might be represented by the results of standard tests such as TOEFL, IELTS, Cambridge Certificate in Advanced English (CAE) or Cambridge Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE). The candidate’s language skills might also be assessed in a personal interview.

For more information about the research activities see http://www.ntnu.edu/physics/biophysmedtech/ultrasound

Terms of employment The appointment of the PhD fellows will be made according to Norwegian guidelines for universities and university colleges and to the general regulations regarding university employees. Applicants must agree to participate in organized doctoral study programs within the period of the appointment and have to be qualified for the PhD-study.

NTNUs personnel policy objective is that the staff must reflect the composition of the population to the greatest possible extent.

The position as PhD is remunerated according to the Norwegian State salary scale. There is a 2% deduction for superannuation contribution.

It is expected that the candidate can start in the position within August 2017 (but preferably not later). Further information can be obtained from Professor Catharina Davies, Department of Physics, NTNU, Phone: +47 73593688, e-mail: catharina.davies@ntnu.no or Dr. Annemieke van Wamel, Phone: +47 73593432, e-mail: annemieke.wamel@ntnu.no.

The application The application should contain: -CV -Reference letters -Certificates from Bachelor and Master degrees -List of publications or other scientific work, if any -Statement on research interest (maximum one page) -Documentation of English language proficiency (e.g. TOEFL, IELTS, etc.) if English or a Scandinavian language is not the applicant’s mother tongue

Applications must be submitted electronically through this site. Applications submitted elsewhere will not be considered.

The reference number of the position is: NV-40/17

Application deadline: April 6th 2017.

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PhD Research Fellow in Biophysics and Nanomedicine – Times Higher Education (THE)

Nanomedicine provides HIV treatment alternative – Healio

Nanomedicine provides HIV treatment alternative
Healio
The results of two trials, which examined the use of nanotechnology to improve drug therapies for HIV patients, found that a new nanomedicine method has the potential to cut the dose of leading HIV treatment in half, according to new evidence presented

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Nanomedicine provides HIV treatment alternative – Healio


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