12345...102030...

Upload – Wikipedia

For the inverse operation, see Download.

Three generic symbols for uploading

In computer networks, to upload is to send data to a remote system such as a server or another client so that the remote system can store a copy.

Transferring data from one remote system to another under the control of a local system is remote uploading.

Remote uploading is used by some online file hosting services. It is also used when the local computer has a slow connection to the remote systems, but they have a fast connection between them. Without remote uploading functionality, the data would have to first be download to local host and then uploaded to the remote file hosting server, both times over slow connections.

Follow this link:

Upload – Wikipedia

Mind uploading in fiction – Wikipedia

Mind uploading, whole brain emulation or substrate-independent minds is a use of a computer or another substrate as an emulated human brain, and the view of thoughts and memories as software information states. The term mind transfer also refers to a hypothetical transfer of a mind from one biological brain to another. Uploaded minds and societies of minds, often in simulated realities, are recurring themes in science fiction novels and films since 1950s.

An early story featuring something like mind uploading is the novella Izzard and the Membrane by Walter M. Miller, Jr., first published in May 1951.[1] In this story, an American cyberneticist named Scott MacDonney is captured by Russians and made to work on an advanced computer, Izzard, which they plan to use to coordinate an attack on the United States. He has conversations with Izzard as he works on it, and when he asks it if it is self-aware, it says “answer indeterminate” and then asks “can human individual’s self-awareness transor be mechanically duplicated?” MacDonney is unfamiliar with the concept of a self-awareness transor (it is later revealed that this information was loaded into Izzard by a mysterious entity who may nor may not be God[2]), and Izzard defines it by saying “A self-awareness transor is the mathematical function which describes the specific consciousness pattern of one human individual.”[3] It is later found that this mathematical function can indeed be duplicated, although not by a detailed scan of the individual’s brain as in later notions of mind uploading; instead, Donney just has to describe the individual verbally in sufficient detail, and Izzard uses this information to locate the transor in the appropriate “mathematical region”. In Izzard’s words, “to duplicate consciousness of deceased, it will be necessary for you to furnish anthropometric and psychic characteristics of the individual. These characteristics will not determine transor, but will only give its general form. Knowing its form, will enable me to sweep my circuit pattern through its mathematical region until the proper transor is reached. At that point, the consciousness will appear among the circuits.”[4] Using this method, MacDonney is able to recreate the mind of his dead wife in Izzard’s memory, as well as create a virtual duplicate of himself, which seems to have a shared awareness with the biological MacDonney.

In The Altered Ego by Jerry Sohl (1954), a person’s mind can be “recorded” and used to create a “restoration” in the event of their death. In a restoration, the person’s biological body is repaired and brought back to life, and their memories are restored to the last time that they had their minds recorded (what the story calls a ‘brain record'[5]), an early example of a story in which a person can create periodic backups of their own mind. The recording process is not described in great detail, but it is mentioned that the recording is used to create a duplicate or “dupe” which is stored in the “restoration bank”,[6] and at one point a lecturer says that “The experience of the years, the neurograms, simple memory circuitsneurons, if you wishstored among these nerve cells, are transferred to the dupe, a group of more than ten billion molecules in colloidal suspension. They are charged much as you would charge the plates of a battery, the small neuroelectrical impulses emanating from your brain during the recording session being duplicated on the molecular structure in the solution.”[7] During restoration, they take the dupe and “infuse it into an empty brain”,[7] and the plot turns on the fact that it is possible to install one person’s dupe in the body of a completely different person.[8]

An early example featuring uploaded minds in robotic bodies can be found in Frederik Pohl’s story “The Tunnel Under the World” from 1955.[9] In this story, the protagonist Guy Burckhardt continually wakes up on the same date from a dream of dying in an explosion. Burckhardt is already familiar with the idea of putting human minds in robotic bodies, since this is what is done with the robot workers at the nearby Contro Chemical factory. As someone has once explained it to him, “each machine was controlled by a sort of computer which reproduced, in its electronic snarl, the actual memory and mind of a human being … It was only a matter, he said, of transferring a man’s habit patterns from brain cells to vacuum-tube cells.” Later in the story, Pohl gives some additional description of the procedure: “Take a master petroleum chemist, infinitely skilled in the separation of crude oil into its fractions. Strap him down, probe into his brain with searching electronic needles. The machine scans the patterns of the mind, translates what it sees into charts and sine waves. Impress these same waves on a robot computer and you have your chemist. Or a thousand copies of your chemist, if you wish, with all of his knowledge and skill, and no human limitations at all.” After some investigation, Burckhardt learns that his entire town had been killed in a chemical explosion, and the brains of the dead townspeople had been scanned and placed into miniature robotic bodies in a miniature replica of the town (as a character explains to him, ‘It’s as easy to transfer a pattern from a dead brain as a living one’), so that a businessman named Mr. Dorchin could charge companies to use the townspeople as test subjects for new products and advertisements.

Something close to the notion of mind uploading is very briefly mentioned in Isaac Asimov’s 1956 short story The Last Question: “One by one Man fused with AC, each physical body losing its mental identity in a manner that was somehow not a loss but a gain.” A more detailed exploration of the idea (and one in which individual identity is preserved, unlike in Asimov’s story) can be found in ArthurC. Clarke’s novel The City and the Stars, also from 1956 (this novel was a revised and expanded version of Clarke’s earlier story Against the Fall of Night, but the earlier version did not contain the elements relating to mind uploading). The story is set in a city named Diaspar one billion years in the future, where the minds of inhabitants are stored as patterns of information in the city’s Central Computer in between a series of 1000-year lives in cloned bodies. Various commentators identify this story as one of the first (if not the first) to deal with mind uploading, human-machine synthesis, and computerized immortality.[10][11][12][13]

Another of the “firsts” is the novel Detta r verkligheten (This is reality), 1968, by the renowned philosopher and logician Bertil Mrtensson, a novel in which he describes people living in an uploaded state as a means to control overpopulation. The uploaded people believe that they are “alive”, but in reality they are playing elaborate and advanced fantasy games. In a twist at the end, the author changes everything into one of the best “multiverse” ideas of science fiction.

In Robert Silverberg’s To Live Again (1969), an entire worldwide economy is built up around the buying and selling of “souls” (personas that have been tape-recorded at six-month intervals), allowing well-heeled consumers the opportunity to spend tens of millions of dollars on a medical treatment that uploads the most recent recordings of archived personalities into the minds of the buyers. Federal law prevents people from buying a “personality recording” unless the possessor first had died; similarly, two or more buyers were not allowed to own a “share” of the persona. In this novel, the personality recording always went to the highest bidder. However, when one attempted to buy (and therefore possess) too many personalities, there was the risk that one of the personas would wrest control of the body from the possessor.

In the 1982 novel Software, part of the Ware Tetralogy by Rudy Rucker, one of the main characters, Cobb Anderson, has his mind downloaded and his body replaced with an extremely human-like android body. The robots who persuade Anderson into doing this sell the process to him as a way to become immortal.

In William Gibson’s award-winning Neuromancer (1984), which popularized the concept of “cyberspace”, a hacking tool used by the main character is an artificial infomorph of a notorious cyber-criminal, Dixie Flatline. The infomorph only assists in exchange for the promise that he be deleted after the mission is complete.

The fiction of Greg Egan has explored many of the philosophical, ethical, legal, and identity aspects of mind transfer, as well as the financial and computing aspects (i.e. hardware, software, processing power) of maintaining “copies.” In Egan’s Permutation City (1994), Diaspora (1997) and Zendegi (2010), “copies” are made by computer simulation of scanned brain physiology. See also Egan’s “jewelhead” stories, where the mind is transferred from the organic brain to a small, immortal backup computer at the base of the skull, the organic brain then being surgically removed.

The movie The Matrix is commonly mistaken for a mind uploading movie, but with exception to suggestions in later movies, it is only about virtual reality and simulated reality, since the main character Neo’s physical brain still is required to reside his mind. The mind (the information content of the brain) is not copied into an emulated brain in a computer. Neo’s physical brain is connected into the Matrix via a brain-machine interface. Only the rest of the physical body is simulated. Neo is disconnected from and reconnected to this dreamworld.

James Cameron’s 2009 movie Avatar has so far been the commercially most successful example of a work of fiction that features a form of mind uploading. Throughout most of the movie, the hero’s mind has not actually been uploaded and transferred to another body, but is simply controlling the body from a distance, a form of telepresence. However, at the end of the movie the hero’s mind is uploaded into Eywa, the mind of the planet, and then back into his Avatar body.

Mind transfer is a theme in many other works of science fiction in a wide range of media. Specific examples include the following:

Continued here:

Mind uploading in fiction – Wikipedia

Mind uploading – Transhumanism Wiki – Wikia

In transhumanism and science fiction, mind uploading (also occasionally referred to by other terms such as mind transfer, whole brain emulation, or whole body emulation) refers to the hypothetical transfer of a human mind to a substrate different from a biological brain, such as a detailed computer simulation of an individual human brain.

The human brain contains a little more than 100 billion nerve cells called neurons, each individually linked to other neurons by way of connectors called axons and dendrites. Signals at the junctures (synapses) of these connections are transmitted by the release and detection of chemicals known as neurotransmitters. The brain contains cell types other than neurons (such as glial cells), some of which are structurally similar to neurons, but the information processing of the brain is thought to be conducted by the network of neurons.

Current biomedical and neuropsychological thinking is that the human mind is a product of the information processing of this neural network. To use an analogy from computer science, if the neural network of the brain can be thought of as hardware, then the human mind is the software running on it.

Mind uploading, then, is the act of copying or transferring this “software” from the hardware of the human brain to another processing environment, typically an artificially created one.

The concept of mind uploading then is strongly mechanist, relying on several assumptions about the nature of human consciousness and the philosophy of artificial intelligence. It assumes that strong AI machine intelligence is not only possible, but is indistinguishable from human intelligence, and denies the vitalist view of human life and consciousness.

Mind uploading is completely speculative at this point in time; no technology exists which can accomplish this.

The relationship between the human mind and the neural circuitry of the brain is currently poorly understood. Thus, most theoretical approaches to mind uploading are based on the idea of recreating or simulating the underlying neural network. This approach would theoretically eliminate the need to understand how such a system works if the component neurons and their connections can be simulated with enough accuracy.

It is unknown how precise the simulation of such a neural network would have to be to produce a functional simulation of the brain. It is possible, however, that simulating the functions of a human brain at the cellular level might be much more difficult than creating a human level artificial intelligence, which relied on recreating the functions of the human mind, rather than trying to simulate the underlying biological systems.[citation needed]

Thinkers with a strongly mechanistic view of human intelligence (such as Marvin Minsky) or a strongly positive view of robot-human social integration (such as Hans Moravec and Ray Kurzweil) have openly speculated about the possibility and desirability of this.

In the case where the mind is transferred into a computer, the subject would become a form of artificial intelligence, sometimes called an infomorph or “nomorph.” In a case where it is transferred into an artificial body, to which its consciousness is confined, it would also become a robot. In either case it might claim ordinary human rights, certainly if the consciousness within was feeling (or was doing a good job of simulating) as if it were the donor.

Uploading consciousness into bodies created by robotic means is a goal of some in the artificial intelligence community. In the uploading scenario, the physical human brain does not move from its original body into a new robotic shell; rather, the consciousness is assumed to be recorded and/or transferred to a new robotic brain, which generates responses indistinguishable from the original organic brain.

The idea of uploading human consciousness in this manner raises many philosophical questions which people may find interesting or disturbing, such as matters of individuality and the soul. Vitalists would say that uploading was a priori impossible. Many people also wonder whether, if they were uploaded, it would be their sentience uploaded, or simply a copy.

Even if uploading is theoretically possible, there is currently no technology capable of recording or describing mind states in the way imagined, and no one knows how much computational power or storage would be needed to simulate the activity of the mind inside a computer. On the other hand, advocates of uploading have made various estimates of the amount of computing power that would be needed to simulate a human brain, and based on this a number have estimated that uploading may become possible within decades if trends such as Moore’s Law continue.[citation needed]

If it is possible for human minds to be modeled and treated as software objects which can be instanced multiple times, in multiple processing environments, many potentially desirable possibilities open up for the individual.

If the mental processes of the human mind can be disassociated from its original biological body, it is no longer tied to the limits and lifespan of that body. In theory, a mind could be voluntarily copied or transferred from body to body indefinitely and therefore become immortal, or at least exercise conscious control of its lifespan.

Alternatively, if cybernetic implants could be used to monitor and record the structure of the human mind in real time then, should the body of the individual be killed, such implants could be used to later instance another working copy of that mind. It is also possible that periodic backups of the mind could be taken and stored external to the body and a copy of the mind instanced from this backup, should the body (and possibly the implants) be lost or damaged beyond recovery. In the latter case, any changes and experiences since the time of the last backup would be lost.

Such possibilities have been explored extensively in fiction: This Number Speaks, Nancy Farmer’s The House of the Scorpion, Newton’s Gate, John Varley’s Eight Worlds series, Greg Egan’s Permutation City, Diaspora, Schild’s Ladder and Incandescence, the Revelation Space series, Peter Hamilton’s Pandora’s Star duology, Bart Kosko’s Fuzzy Time, Armitage III series, the Takeshi Kovacs universe, Iain M. Banks Culture novels, Cory Doctorow’s Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom, and the works of Charles Stross. And in television sci-fi shows: Battlestar Galactica, Stargate SG-1, among others.

Another concept explored in science fiction is the idea of more than one running “copy” of a human mind existing at once. Such copies could either be full copies, or limited subsets of the complete mentality designed for a particular limited functions. Such copies would allow an “individual” to experience many things at once, and later integrate the experiences of all copies into a central mentality at some point in the future, effectively allowing a single sentient being to “be many places at once” and “do many things at once”.

The implications of such entities have been explored in science fiction. In his book Eon, Greg Bear uses the terms “partials” and “ghosts”, while Charles Stross’s novels Accelerando and Glasshouse deal with the concepts of “forked instances” of conscious beings as well as “backups”.

In Charles Sheffield’s Tomorrow and Tomorrow, the protagonist’s consciousness is duplicated thousands of times electronically and sent out on probe ships and uploaded into bodies adapted to native environments of different planets. The copies are eventually reintegrated back into the “master” copy of the consciousness in order to consolidate their findings.

Such partial and complete copies of a sentient being again raise issues of identity and personhood: is a partial copy of sentient being itself sentient? What rights might such a being have? Since copies of a personality are having different experiences, are they not slowly diverging and becoming different entities? At what point do they become different entities?

If the body and the mind of the individual can be disassociated, then the individual is theoretically free to choose their own incarnation. They could reside within a completely human body, within a modified physical form, or within simulated realities. Individuals might change their incarnations many times during their existence, depending on their needs and desires.

Choices of the individuals in this matter could be restricted by the society they exist within, however. In the novel Eon by Greg Bear, individuals could incarnate physically (within “natural” biological humans, or within modified bodies) a limited number of times before being legally forced to reside with the “city memory” as infomorphic “ghosts”.

Once an individual is moved to virtual simulation, the only input needed would be energy, which would be provided by large computing device hosting those minds. All the food, drink, moving, travel or any imaginable thing would just need energy to provide those computations.

Almost all scientists, thinkers and intelligent people would be moved to this virtual environment once they die. In this virtual environment, their brain capacity would be expanded by speed and storage of quantum computers. In virtual environment idea and final product are not different. This way more and more innovations will be sent to real world and it will speed up our technological development.

Regardless of the techniques used to capture or recreate the function of a human mind, the processing demands of such venture are likely to be immense.

Henry Markram, lead researcher of the “Blue Brain Project”, has stated that “it is not [their] goal to build an intelligent neural network”, based solely on the computational demands such a project would have[1].

Advocates of mind uploading point to Moore’s law to support the notion that the necessary computing power may become available within a few decades, though it would probably require advances beyond the integrated circuit technology which has dominated since the 1970s. Several new technologies have been proposed, and prototypes of some have been demonstrated, such as the optical neural network based on the silicon-photonic chip (harnessing special physical properties of Indium Phosphide) which Intel showed the world for the first time on September 18, 2006.[3] Other proposals include three-dimensional integrated circuits based on carbon nanotubes (researchers have already demonstrated individual logic gates built from carbon nanotubes[4]) and also perhaps the quantum computer, currently being worked on internationally as well as most famously by computer scientists and physicists at the IBM Almaden Research Center, which promises to be useful in simulating the behavior of quantum systems; such ability would enable protein structure prediction which could be critical to correct emulation of intracellular neural processes.

Present methods require use of massive computational power (as the BBP does with IBM’s Blue Gene Supercomputer) to use the essentially classical computing architecture for serial deduction of the quantum mechanical processes involved in ab initio protein structure prediction. If necessary, should the quantum computer become a reality, its capacity for exactly such rapid calculations of quantum mechanical physics may well help the effort by reducing the required computational power per physical size and energy needs, as Markram warns would be needed (and thus why he thinks it would be difficult, besides unattractive) should an entire brain’s simulation, let alone emulation (at both cellular and molecular levels) be feasibly attempted. Reiteration may also be useful for distributed simulation of a common, repeated function (e.g., proteins).

Ultimately, nano-computing is projected by some[citation needed] to hold the requisite capacity for computations per second estimated necessary, in surplus. If Kurzweil’s Law of Accelerating Returns (a variation on Moore’s Law) shows itself to be true, the rate of technological development should accelerate exponentially towards the technological singularity, heralded by the advent of viable though relatively primitive mind uploading and/or “strong” (human-level) AI technologies, his prediction being that the Singularity may occur around the year 2045.[5]

The structure of a neural network is also different from classical computing designs. Memory in a classical computer is generally stored in a two state design, or bit, although one of the two components is modified in dynamic RAM and some forms of flash memory can use more than two states under some circumstances. Gates inside central processing units will often also use this two state or digital type of design as well. In some ways a neural network or brain could be thought of like a memory unit in a computer, but with an extremely vast number of states, corresponding with the total number of neurons. Beyond that, whether the action potential of a neuron will form, based upon the summation of the inputs of different dendrites, might be something that is more analog in nature than that which happens in a computer. One great advantage that a modern computer has over a biological brain, however, is that the speed of each electronic operation in a computer is many orders of magnitude faster than the time scales involved for the firing and transmission of individual nerve impulses. A brain, however, uses far more parallel processing than exists in most classical computing designs, and so each of the slower neurons can make up for it by operating at the same time.

There are many ethical issues concerning mind uploading. Viable mind uploading technology might challenge the ideas of human immortality, property rights, capitalism, human intelligence, an afterlife, and the Abrahamic view of man as created in God’s image. These challenges often cannot be distinguished from those raised by all technologies that extend human technological control over human bodies, e.g. organ transplant. Perhaps the best way to explore such issues is to discover principles applicable to current bioethics problems, and question what would be permissible if they were applied consistently to a future technology. This points back to the role of science fiction in exploring such problems, as powerfully demonstrated in the 20th century by such works as Brave New World and Nineteen Eighty-Four, each of which frame current ethical problems in a future environment where those have come to dominate the society.

Another issue with mind uploading is whether an uploaded mind is really the “same” sentience, or simply an exact copy with the same memories and personality. Although this difference would be undetectable to an external observer (and the upload itself would probably be unable to tell), it could mean that uploading a mind would actually kill it and replace it with a clone. Some people would be unwilling to upload themselves for this reason. If their sentience is deactivated even for a nanosecond, they assert, it is permanently wiped out. Some more gradual methods may avoid this problem by keeping the uploaded sentience functioning throughout the procedure.

True mind uploading remains speculative. The technology to perform such a feat is not currently available, however a number of possible mechanisms, and research approaches, have been proposed for developing mind uploading technology.

Since the function of the human mind, and how it might arise from the working of the brain’s neural network, are poorly understood issues, many theoretical approaches to mind uploading rely on the idea of emulation. Rather than having to understand the functioning of the human mind, the structure of underlying neural network is captured and simulated with a computer system. The human mind then, theoretically, is generated by the simulated neural network in an identical fashion to it being generated by the biological neural network.

These approaches require only that we understand the nature of neurons and how their connections function, that we can simulate them well enough, that we have the computational power to run such large simulations, and that the state of the brain’s neural network can be captured with enough fidelity to create an accurate simulation.

A possible method for mind uploading is serial sectioning, in which the brain tissue and perhaps other parts of the nervous system are frozen and then scanned and analyzed layer by layer, thus capturing the structure of the neurons and their interconnections[6]. The exposed surface of frozen nerve tissue would be scanned (possibly with some variant of an electron microscope) and recorded, and then the surface layer of tissue removed (possibly with a conventional cryo-ultramicrotome if scanning along an axis, or possibly through laser ablation if scans are done radially “from the outside inwards”). While this would be a very slow and labor intensive process, research is currently underway to automate the collection and microscopy of serial sections[7]. The scans would then be analyzed, and a model of the neural net recreated in the system that the mind was being uploaded into.

There are uncertainties with this approach using current microscopy techniques. If it is possible to replicate neuron function from its visible structure alone, then the resolution afforded by a scanning electron microscope would suffice for such a technique[7]. However, as the function of brain tissue is partially determined by molecular events (particularly at synapses, but also at other places on the neuron’s cell membrane), this may not suffice for capturing and simulating neuron functions. It may be possible to extend the techniques of serial sectioning and to capture the internal molecular makeup of neurons, through the use of sophisticated immunohistochemistry staining methods which could then be read via confocal laser scanning microscopy[citation needed].

A more advanced hypothetical technique that would require nanotechnology might involve infiltrating the intact brain with a network of nanoscale machines to “read” the structure and activity of the brain in situ, much like the electrode meshes used in current brain-computer interface research, but on a much finer and more sophisticated scale. The data collected from these probes could then be used to build up a simulation of the neural network they were probing, and even check the behavior of the model against the behavior of the biological system in real time.

In his 1998 book, Mind children, Hans Moravec describes a variation of this process. In it, nanomachines are placed in the synapses of the outer layer of cells in the brain of a conscious living subject. The system then models the outer layer of cells and recreates the neural net processes in whatever simulation space is being used to house the uploaded consciousness of the subject. The nanomachines can then block the natural signals sent by the biological neurons, but send and receive signals to and from the simulated versions of the neurons. Which system is doing the processing biological or simulated can be toggled back and forth, both automatically by the scanning system and manually by the subject, until it has been established that the simulation’s behavior matches that of the biological neurons and that the subjective mental experience of the subject is unchanged. Once this is the case, the outer layer of neurons can be removed and their function turned solely over to the simulated neurons. This process is then repeated, layer by layer, until the entire biological brain of the subject has been scanned, modeled, checked, and disassembled. When the process is completed, the nanomachines can be removed from the spinal column of the subject, and the mind of the subject exists solely within the simulated neural network.

Alternatively, such a process might allow for the replacement of living neurons with artificial neurons one by one while the subject is still conscious, providing a smooth transition from an organic to synthetic brain – potentially significant for those who worry about the loss of personal continuity that other uploading processes may entail. This method has been likened to upgrading the whole internet by replacing, one by one, each computer connected to it with similar computers using newer hardware.

While many people are more comfortable with the idea of the gradual replacement of their natural selves than they are with some of the more radical and discontinuous mental transfer, it still raises questions of identity. Is the individual preserved in this process, and if not, at what point does the individual cease to exist? If the original entity ceases to exist, what is the nature and identity of the individual created within the simulated neural network, or can any individual be said to exist there at all? This gradual replacement leads to a much more complicated and sophisticated version of the Ship of Theseus paradox.

It may also be possible to use advanced neuroimaging technology (such as Magnetoencephalography) to build a detailed three-dimensional model of the brain using non-invasive and non-destructive methods. However, current imaging technology lacks the resolution needed to gather the information needed for such a scan.

Such a process would leave the original entity intact, but the existence, nature, and identity of the resulting being in the simulated network are still open philosophical questions.

Another recently conceived possibility[citation needed] is the use of genetically engineered viruses to attach to synaptic junctions, and then release energy-emitting molecular compounds, which could be detected externally, and used to generate a functional model of the synapses in question, and, given enough time, the whole brain and nervous system.

An alternate set of possible theoretical approaches to mind uploading would require that we first understand the functions of the human mind sufficiently well to create abstract models of parts, or the totality, of human mental processes. It would require that strong AI be not only a possibility, but that the techniques used to create a strong AI system could also be used to recreate a human type mentality.

Such approaches might be more desirable if the abstract models required less computational power to execute than the neural network simulation of the emulation techniques described above.

Another theoretically possible method of mind uploading from organic to inorganic medium, related to the idea described above of replacing neurons one at a time while consciousness remained intact, would be a much less precise but much more feasible (in terms of technology currently known to be physically possible) process of “cyborging”. Once a given person’s brain is mapped, it is replaced piece-by-piece with computer devices which perform the exact same function as the regions preceding them, after which the patient is allowed to regain consciousness and validate that there has not been some radical upheaval within his own subjective experience of reality. At this point, the patient’s brain is immediately “re-mapped” and another piece is replaced, and so on in this fashion until, the patient exists on a purely hardware medium and can be safely extricated from the remaining organic body.

However, critics contend[citation needed] that, given the significant level of synergy involved throughout the neural plexus, alteration of any given cell that is functionally correspondent with (a) neighboring cell(s) may well result in an alteration of its electrical and chemical properties that would not have existed without interference, and so the true individual’s signature is lost. Revokability of that disturbance may be possible with damage anticipation and correction (seeing the original by the particular damage rendered unto it, in reverse chronological fashion), although this would be easier in a stable system, meaning a brain subjected to cryosleep (which would imbue its own damage and alterations).[citation needed]

It has also been suggested (for example, in Greg Egan’s “jewelhead” stories[8]) that a detailed examination of the brain itself may not be required, that the brain could be treated as a black box instead and effectively duplicated “for all practical purposes” by merely duplicating how it responds to specific external stimuli. This leads into even deeper philosophical questions of what the “self” is.

On June 6, 2005 IBM and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne announced the launch of a project to build a complete simulation of the human brain, entitled the “Blue Brain Project”.[9] The project will use a supercomputer based on IBM’s Blue Gene design to map the entire electrical circuitry of the brain. The project seeks to research aspects of human cognition, and various psychiatric disorders caused by malfunctioning neurons, such as autism. Initial efforts are to focus on experimentally accurate, programmed characterization of a single neocortical column in the brain of a rat, as it is very similar to that of a human but at a smaller scale, then to expand to an entire neocortex (the alleged seat of higher intelligence) and eventually the human brain as a whole.

It is interesting to note that the Blue Brain project seems to use a combination of emulation and simulation techniques. The first stage of their program was to simulate a neocortical column at the molecular level. Now the program seems to be trying to create a simplified functional simulation of the neocortical column in order to simulate many of them, and to model their interactions.

With most projected mind uploading technology it is implicit that “copying” a consciousness could be as feasible as “moving” it, since these technologies generally involve simulating the human brain in a computer of some sort, and digital files such as computer programs can be copied precisely. It is also possible that the simulation could be created without the need to destroy the original brain, so that the computer-based consciousness would be a copy of the still-living biological person, although some proposed methods such as serial sectioning of the brain would necessarily be destructive. In both cases it is usually assumed that once the two versions are exposed to different sensory inputs, their experiences would begin to diverge, but all their memories up until the moment of the copying would remain the same.

By many definitions, both copies could be considered the “same person” as the single original consciousness before it was copied. At the same time, they can be considered distinct individuals once they begin to diverge, so the issue of which copy “inherits” what could be complicated. This problem is similar to that found when considering the possibility of teleportation, where in some proposed methods it is possible to copy (rather than only move) a mind or person. This is the classic philosophical issue of personal identity. The problem is made even more serious by the possibility of creating a potentially infinite number of initially identical copies of the original person, which would of course all exist simultaneously as distinct beings.

Philosopher John Locke published “An Essay Concerning Human Understanding” in 1689, in which he proposed the following criterion for personal identity: if you remember thinking something in the past, then you are the same person as he or she who did the thinking. Later philosophers raised various logical snarls, most of them caused by applying Boolean logic, the prevalent logic system at the time. It has been proposed that modern fuzzy logic can solve those problems,[10] showing that Locke’s basic idea is sound if one treats personal identity as a continuous rather than discrete value.

In that case, when a mind is copied — whether during mind uploading, or afterwards, or by some other means — the two copies are initially two instances of the very same person, but over time, they will gradually become different people to an increasing degree.

The issue of copying vs moving is sometimes cited as a reason to think that destructive methods of mind uploading such as serial sectioning of the brain would actually destroy the consciousness of the original and the upload would itself be a mere “copy” of that consciousness. Whether one believes that the original consciousness of the brain would transfer to the upload, that the original consciousness would be destroyed, or that this is simply a matter of definition and the question has no single “objectively true” answer, is ultimately a philosophical question that depends on one’s views of philosophy of mind.

Because of these philosophical questions about the survival of consciousness, there are some who would feel more comfortable about a method of uploading where the transfer is gradual, replacing the original brain with a new substrate over an extended period of time, during which the subject appears to be fully conscious (this can be seen as analogous to the natural biological replacement of molecules in our brains with new ones taken in from eating and breathing, which may lead to almost all the matter in our brains being replaced in as little as a few months[11]). As mentioned above, this would likely take place as a result of gradual cyborging, either nanoscopically or macroscopically, wherein the brain (the original copy) would slowly be replaced bit by bit with artificial parts that function in a near-identical manner, and assuming this was possible at all, the person would not necessarily notice any difference as more and more of their brain became artificial. A gradual transfer also brings up questions of identity similar to the classical Ship of Theseus paradox, although the above-mentioned natural replacement of molecules in the brain through eating and breathing brings up these questions as well.

A computer capable of simulating a person may require microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), or else perhaps optical or nano computing for comparable speed and reduced size and sophisticated telecommunication between the brain and body (whether it exists in virtual reality, artificially as an android, or cybernetically as in sync with a biological body through a transceiver), but would not seem to require molecular nanotechnology.

If minds and environments can be simulated, the Simulation Hypothesis posits that the reality we see may in fact be a computer simulation, and that this is actually the most likely possibility.[12]

Uploading is a common theme in science fiction. Some of the earlier instances of this theme were in the Roger Zelazny 1968 novel Lord of Light and in Frederik Pohl’s 1955 short story “Tunnel Under the World.” A near miss was Neil R. Jones’ 1931 short story “The Jameson Satellite”, wherein a person’s organic brain was installed in a machine, and Olaf Stapledon’s “Last and First Men” (1930) had organic human-like brains grown into an immobile machine.

Another of the “firsts” is the novel Detta r verkligheten (This is reality), 1968, by the renowned philosopher and logician Bertil Mrtensson, in which he describes people living in an uploaded state as a means to control overpopulation. The uploaded people believe that they are “alive”, but in reality they are playing elaborate and advanced fantasy games. In a twist at the end, the author changes everything into one of the best “multiverse” ideas of science fiction. Together with the 1969 book Ubik by Philip K. Dick it takes the subject to its furthest point of all the early novels in the field.

Frederik Pohl’s Gateway series (also known as the Heechee Saga) deals with a human being, Robinette Broadhead, who “dies” and, due to the efforts of his wife, a computer scientist, as well as the computer program Sigfrid von Shrink, is uploaded into the “64 Gigabit space” (now archaic, but Fred Pohl wrote Gateway in 1976). The Heechee Saga deals with the physical, social, sexual, recreational, and scientific nature of cyberspace before William Gibson’s award-winning Neuromancer, and the interactions between cyberspace and “meatspace” commonly depicted in cyberpunk fiction. In Neuromancer, a hacking tool used by the main character is an artificial infomorph of a notorious cyber-criminal, Dixie Flatline. The infomorph only assists in exchange for the promise that he be deleted after the mission is complete.

In the 1982 novel Software, part of the Ware Tetralogy by Rudy Rucker, one of the main characters, Cobb Anderson, has his mind uploaded and his body replaced with an extremely human-like android body. The robots who persuade Anderson into doing this sell the process to him as a way to become immortal.

In the 1997 novel “Shade’s Children” by Garth Nix, one of the main characters Shade (a.k.a. Robert Ingman) is an uploaded consciousness that guides the other characters through the post-apocolyptic world in which they live.

The fiction of Greg Egan has explored many of the philosophical, ethical, legal, and identity aspects of mind uploading, as well as the financial and computing aspects (i.e., hardware, software, processing power) of maintaining “copies”. In Egan’s Permutation City and Diaspora, “copies” are made by computer simulation of scanned brain physiology. Also, in Egan’s “Jewelhead” stories, the mind is transferred from the organic brain to a small, immortal backup computer at the base of the skull, with the organic brain then being surgically removed.

The Takeshi Kovacs novels by Richard Morgan was set in a universe where mind transfers were a part of standard life. With the use of cortical stacks, which record a person’s memories and personality into a device implanted in the spinal vertebrae, it was possible to copy the individual’s mind to a storage system at the time of death. The stack could be uploaded to a virtual reality environment for interrogation, entertainment, or to pass the time for long distance travel. The stack could also be implanted into a new body or “sleeve” which may or may not have biomechanical, genetic, or chemical “upgrades” since the sleeve could be grown or manufactured. Interstellar travel is most often accomplished by digitized human freight (“dhf”) over faster-than-light needlecast transmission.

In the “Requiem for Homo Sapiens” series of novels by David Zindell (Neverness, The Broken God, The Wild, and War in Heaven), the verb “cark” is used for uploading one’s mind (and also for changing one’s DNA). Carking is done for soul-preservation purposes by the members of the Architects church, and also for more sinister (or simply unknowable) purposes by the various “gods” that populate the galaxy such gods being human minds that have now grown into planet- or nebula-sized synthetic brains. The climax of the series centers around the struggle to prevent one character from creating a Universal Computer (under his control) that will incorporate all human minds (and indeed, the entire structure of the universe).

In the popular computer game Total Annihilation, the 4,000-year war that eventually culminated with the destruction of the Milky Way galaxy was started over the issue of mind transfer, with one group (the Arm) resisting another group (the Core) who were attempting to enforce a 100% conversion rate of humanity into machines, because machines are durable and modular, thereby making it a “public health measure.”

In the popular science fiction show Stargate SG-1 the alien race who call themselves the Asgard rely solely on cloning and mind transferring to continue their existence. This was not a choice they made, but a result of the decay of the Asgard genome due to excessive cloning, which also caused the Asgard to lose their ability to reproduce. In the episode “Tin Man”, SG-1 encounter Harlan, the last of a race that transferred their minds to robots in order to survive. SG-1 then discover that their minds have also been transferred to robot bodies. Eventually they learn that their minds were copied rather than uploaded and that the “original” SG-1 are still alive.

The Thirteenth Floor is a film made in 1999 directed by Josef Rusnak. In the film, a scientific team discovers a technology to create a fully functioning virtual world which they could experience by taking control of the bodies of simulated characters in the world, all of whom were self-aware. One plot twist was that if the virtual body a person had taken control of was killed in the simulation while they were controlling it, then the mind of the simulated character the body originally belonged to would take over the body of that person in the “real world”.

The Matrix is a film released the same year as The Thirteenth Floor that has the same kind of solipsistic philosophy. In The Matrix, the protagonist Neo finds out that the world he has been living in is nothing but a simulated dreamworld. However, this should be considered as virtual reality rather than mind uploading, since Neo’s physical brain still is required to reside his mind. The mind (the information content of the brain) is not copied into an emulated brain in a computer. Neo’s physical brain is connected into the Matrix via a brain-machine interface. Only the rest of the physical body is simulated. Neo is disconnected from this dreamworld by human rebels fighting against AI-driven machines in what seems to be a neverending war. During the course of the movie, Neo and his friends are connected back into the Matrix dreamworld in order to fight the machine race.

In the series Battlestar Galactica the antagonists of the story are the Cylons, sentient computers created by man which developed to become nearly identical to human beings. When they die they rely on mind transferring to keep on living so that “death becomes a learning experience”.

The 1995 movie Strange Days explores the idea of a technology capable of recording a conscious event. However, in this case, the mind itself is not uploaded into the device. The recorded event, which time frame is limited to that of the recording session, is frozen in time on a data disc much like today’s audio and video. Wearing the “helmet” in playback mode, another person can experience the external stimuli interpretation of the brain, the memories, the feelings, the thoughts and the actions that the original person recorded from his/her life. During playback, the observer temporarily quits his own memories and state of consciousness (the real self). In other words, one can “live” a moment in the life of another person, and one can “live” the same moment of his/her life more than once. In the movie, a direct link to a remote helmet can also be established, allowing another person to experience a live event.

Followers of the Ralian religion advocate mind uploading in the process of human cloning to achieve eternal life. Living inside of a computer is also seen by followers as an eminent possibility.[13]

However, mind uploading is also advocated by a number of secular researchers in neuroscience and artificial intelligence, such as Marvin Minsky. In 1993, Joe Strout created a small web site called the Mind Uploading Home Page, and began advocating the idea in Cryonics circles and elsewhere on the net. That site has not been actively updated in recent years, but it has spawned other sites including MindUploading.org, run by Randal A. Koene, Ph.D., who also moderates a mailing list on the topic. These advocates see mind uploading as a medical procedure which could eventually save countless lives.

Many Transhumanists look forward to the development and deployment of mind uploading technology, with many predicting that it will become possible within the 21st century due to technological trends such as Moore’s Law. Many view it as the end phase of the Transhumanist project, which might be said to begin with the genetic engineering of biological humans, continue with the cybernetic enhancement of genetically engineered humans, and finally obtain with the replacement of all remaining biological aspects.

The book Beyond Humanity: CyberEvolution and Future Minds by Gregory S. Paul & Earl D. Cox, is about the eventual (and, to the authors, almost inevitable) evolution of computers into sentient beings, but also deals with human mind transfer.

Raymond Kurzweil, a prominent advocate of transhumanism and the likelihood of a technological singularity, has suggested that the easiest path to human-level artificial intelligence may lie in “reverse-engineering the human brain”, which he usually uses to refer to the creation of a new intelligence based on the general “principles of operation” of the brain, but he also sometimes uses the term to refer to the notion of uploading individual human minds based on highly detailed scans and simulations. This idea is discussed on pp. 198-203 of his book The Singularity is Near, for example.

Hans Moravec describes and advocates mind uploading in both his 1988 book Mind Children: The Future of Robot and Human Intelligence and also his 2000 book Robot: Mere Machine to Transcendent Mind. Moravec is referred to by Marvin Minsky in Minsky’s essay Will Robots Inherit the Earth?.[14]

fr:Tlchargement de l’esprit ja: ru:

Read more:

Mind uploading – Transhumanism Wiki – Wikia

Mind map – Wikipedia

This article is about the visual diagram. For the geographical concept, see Mental mapping.

A mind map is a diagram used to visually organize information. A mind map is hierarchical and shows relationships among pieces of the whole.[1] It is often created around a single concept, drawn as an image in the center of a blank page, to which associated representations of ideas such as images, words and parts of words are added. Major ideas are connected directly to the central concept, and other ideas branch out from those.

Mind maps can be drawn by hand, either as “rough notes” during a lecture, meeting or planning session, for example, or as higher quality pictures when more time is available. Mind maps are considered to be a type of spider diagram.[2] A similar concept in the 1970s was “idea sun bursting”.[3]

Although the term “mind map” was first popularized by British popular psychology author and television personality Tony Buzan, the use of diagrams that visually “map” information using branching and radial maps traces back centuries. These pictorial methods record knowledge and model systems, and have a long history in learning, brainstorming, memory, visual thinking, and problem solving by educators, engineers, psychologists, and others. Some of the earliest examples of such graphical records were developed by Porphyry of Tyros, a noted thinker of the 3rd century, as he graphically visualized the concept categories of Aristotle. Philosopher Ramon Llull (12351315) also used such techniques.

The semantic network was developed in the late 1950s as a theory to understand human learning and developed further by Allan M. Collins and M. Ross Quillian during the early 1960s. Mind maps are similar in radial structure to concept maps, developed by learning experts in the 1970s, but differ in that the former are simplified by focusing around a single central key concept.

Buzan’s specific approach, and the introduction of the term “mind map” arose during a 1974 BBC TV series he hosted, called Use Your Head.[4][5] In this show, and companion book series, Buzan promoted his conception of radial tree, diagramming key words in a colorful, radiant, tree-like structure.[6]

Buzan says the idea was inspired by Alfred Korzybski’s general semantics as popularized in science fiction novels, such as those of Robert A. Heinlein and A. E. van Vogt. He argues that while “traditional” outlines force readers to scan left to right and top to bottom, readers actually tend to scan the entire page in a non-linear fashion. Buzan’s treatment also uses then-popular assumptions about the functions of cerebral hemispheres in order to explain the claimed increased effectiveness of mind mapping over other forms of note making.

Buzan suggests the following guidelines for creating mind maps:

As with other diagramming tools, mind maps can be used to generate, visualize, structure, and classify ideas, and as an aid to studying[7] and organizing information, solving problems, making decisions, and writing.

Mind maps have many applications in personal, family, educational, and business situations, including notetaking, brainstorming (wherein ideas are inserted into the map radially around the center node, without the implicit prioritization that comes from hierarchy or sequential arrangements, and wherein grouping and organizing is reserved for later stages), summarizing, as a mnemonic technique, or to sort out a complicated idea. Mind maps are also promoted as a way to collaborate in color pen creativity sessions.

In addition to these direct use cases, data retrieved from mind maps can be used to enhance several other applications; for instance expert search systems, search engines and search and tag query recommender.[8] To do so, mind maps can be analysed with classic methods of information retrieval to classify a mind map’s author or documents that are linked from within the mind map.[8]

Effectiveness – Cunningham (2005) conducted a user study in which 80% of the students thought “mindmapping helped them understand concepts and ideas in science”.[9] Other studies also report positive effects through the use of mind maps.[10][11] Farrand, Hussain, and Hennessy (2002) found that spider diagrams (similar to concept maps) had limited, but significant, impact on memory recall in undergraduate students (a 10% increase over baseline for a 600-word text only) as compared to preferred study methods (a 6% increase over baseline).[12] This improvement was only robust after a week for those in the diagram group and there was a significant decrease in motivation compared to the subjects’ preferred methods of note taking. A meta study about concept mapping concluded that concept mapping is more effective than “reading text passages, attending lectures, and participating in class discussions”.[13] The same study also concluded that concept mapping is slightly more effective “than other constructive activities such as writing summaries and outlines”. In addition, they concluded that low-ability students may benefit more from mind mapping than high-ability students.

Features of Mind Maps – Beel & Langer (2011) conducted a comprehensive analysis of the content of mind maps.[14] They analysed 19,379 mind maps from 11,179 users of the mind mapping applications SciPlore MindMapping (now Docear) and MindMeister. Results include that average users create only a few mind maps (mean=2.7), average mind maps are rather small (31 nodes) with each node containing about 3 words (median). However, there were exceptions. One user created more than 200 mind maps, the largest mind map consisted of more than 50,000 nodes and the largest node contained ~7500 words. The study also showed that between different mind mapping applications (Docear vs MindMeister) significant differences exist related to how users create mind maps.

Automatic Creating of Mind Maps – There have been some attempts to create mind maps automatically. Brucks & Schommer created mind maps automatically from full-text streams.[15] Rothenberger et al. extracted the main story of a text and presented it as mind map.[16] And there is a patent about automatically creating sub-topics in mind maps.[17]

Pen and Paper vs Computer – There are two studies that analyze whether electronic mind mapping or pen based mind mapping is more effective.[18][19]

Mind-mapping software can be used to organize large amounts of information, combining spatial organization, dynamic hierarchical structuring and node folding. Software packages can extend the concept of mind-mapping by allowing individuals to map more than thoughts and ideas with information on their computers and the Internet, like spreadsheets, documents, Internet sites and images.[20] It has been suggested that mind-mapping can improve learning/study efficiency up to 15% over conventional note-taking.[21]

Read more from the original source:

Mind map – Wikipedia

Collaborative mind mapping, concept mapping and outlining

Educate tomorrow’s thinkers today

To create mind maps, students explore information and decide for themselves what’s important and how it connects with what they already know. This is how they develop their critical thinking.

We built several features which will make it very easy for the professor and its students to use Mindomo in the classroom. Such features are: creating mind map assignments, setting up groups for students, accessing students’ maps, etc.

Use mind maps to understand facts, issues and ideas revolving around a central topic. Use concept maps to see how multiple concepts are connected. Use outlines to refine your maps and save them in a linear way.

It’s very simple to add and use Mindomo from the school’s Google Apps or Office365 account. Also, our LTI integrations provide a single click access to Mindomo from the most popular LMSs: Canvas, Blackboard, Moodle, Desire2Learn, itslearning, Schoology, etc.

From all the mind mapping tools out there, we are the most focused on providing the best solution for teachers and students.

The ‘Presenter’ feature lets students turn their maps into slide-by-slide presentations. This way they can show others their thought process as they developed the maps.

iPad and Android native apps for mind mapping both online and offline while using a smooth, simplified interface.

Our playback mode lets you keep track of all the changes each student makes on a mind map: added topics, new connections, uploaded images and videos, etc.

Students can make their maps more engaging by searching web images directly from the map and adding them with just one click.

To explain certain topics better, add related videos from the web or audio record your explanation directly in the mind map.

To introduce students to mind mapping, use our predefined mind map templates or create your own. It will be easier for them to get familiar with mind maps.

Collaborative mind map assignments

Google Apps for Education integration

Integrations with the most popular LMSs: Moodle, Canvas, Blackboard, Desire2Learn, itslearning, Schoology

Exporting maps in a great variety of formats: .pdf, .rtf, .ppt, .txt, .opml, .mpx, .html, .zip, .png.

Exporting mind maps into other mind mapping tools

Importing mind maps from other mind mapping tools

Android and iPad native apps

Creating students accounts without email

Turning mind maps into presentations

Text formatting inside topics

Adding hyperlinks and attachments

Read more here:

Collaborative mind mapping, concept mapping and outlining

Praying with Body, Mind, and Voice

%PDF-1.7 % 118 0 obj > endobj xref 118 63 0000000016 00000 n 0000002056 00000 n 0000002221 00000 n 0000002769 00000 n 0000003015 00000 n 0000003542 00000 n 0000003605 00000 n 0000003717 00000 n 0000003831 00000 n 0000005520 00000 n 0000005784 00000 n 0000006452 00000 n 0000006812 00000 n 0000007369 00000 n 0000008007 00000 n 0000008136 00000 n 0000008475 00000 n 0000008880 00000 n 0000009967 00000 n 0000011137 00000 n 0000012279 00000 n 0000013415 00000 n 0000014495 00000 n 0000015572 00000 n 0000016480 00000 n 0000026253 00000 n 0000029204 00000 n 0000029434 00000 n 0000029517 00000 n 0000029572 00000 n 0000029607 00000 n 0000029636 00000 n 0000029711 00000 n 0000038770 00000 n 0000039101 00000 n 0000039167 00000 n 0000039283 00000 n 0000039318 00000 n 0000039393 00000 n 0000053984 00000 n 0000054312 00000 n 0000054378 00000 n 0000054494 00000 n 0000054621 00000 n 0000057163 00000 n 0000057483 00000 n 0000057875 00000 n 0000058068 00000 n 0000061955 00000 n 0000062320 00000 n 0000062792 00000 n 0000062879 00000 n 0000062968 00000 n 0000063089 00000 n 0000063235 00000 n 0000063310 00000 n 0000063425 00000 n 0000063692 00000 n 0000063767 00000 n 0000063892 00000 n 0000064154 00000 n 0000001885 00000 n 0000001556 00000 n trailer ]/Prev 148529/XRefStm 1885>> startxref 0 %%EOF 180 0 obj >stream hb““`Oa`c`Q@(?w,“`huX5Ed8dx’4(1gxGdCS”8%+EH$lbVaN`kF=) z;6p:3v84BnJv&X716M`oXa@4g a`pULNQ

Read the original here:

Praying with Body, Mind, and Voice

Mind Mapping Software – Create online Mind Maps

Educate tomorrow’s thinkers today

To create mind maps, students explore information and decide for themselves what’s important and how it connects with what they already know. This is how they develop their critical thinking.

We built several features which will make it very easy for the professor and it’s students to use Mindomo in the classroom. Such features are: creating mind map assignments, setting up groups for students, accessing students’ maps, etc.

Use mind maps to understand facts, issues and ideas revolving around a central topic. Use concept maps to see how multiple concepts are connected. Use outlines to refine your maps and save them in a linear way.

It’s very simple to add and use Mindomo from the school’s Google Apps or Office365 account. Also, our LTI integrations provide a single click access to Mindomo from the most popular LMSs: Canvas, Blackboard, Moodle, Desire2Learn, itslearning, Schoology, etc.

From all the mind mapping tools out there, we are the most focused on providing the best solution for teachers and students.

The ‘Presenter’ feature lets students turn their maps into slide-by-slide presentations. This way they can show others their thought process as they developed the maps.

iPad and Android native apps for mind mapping both online and offline while using a smooth, simplified interface.

Our playback mode lets you keep track of all the changes each student makes on a mind map: added topics, new connections, uploaded images and videos, etc.

Students can make their maps more engaging by searching web images directly from the map and adding them with just one click.

To explain certain topics better, add related videos from the web or audio record your explanation directly in the mind map.

To introduce students to mind mapping, use our predefined mind map templates or create your own. It will be easier for them to get familiar with mind maps.

Collaborative mind map assignments

Google Apps for Education integration

Integrations with the most popular LMSs: Moodle, Canvas, Blackboard, Desire2Learn, itslearning, Schoology

Exporting maps in a great variety of formats: .pdf, .rtf, .ppt, .txt, .opml, .mpx, .html, .zip, .png.

Exporting mind maps into other mind mapping tools

Importing mind maps from other mind mapping tools

Android and iPad native apps

Creating students accounts without email

Turning mind maps into presentations

Text formatting inside topics

Adding hyperlinks and attachments

Read more here:

Mind Mapping Software – Create online Mind Maps

www.ibe.unesco.org

%PDF-1.3 % 1 0 obj > endobj 2 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 3 0 obj > stream HWo^xx(hm,JVj.Wrm}M^H9j4|+UVeQE$T&YI2m a*e Ldd7?CDR!,gcYM}URh~xS:Xp{=}]n,F{c4N,&arY0zQ }>o63JjczF=s>^*62::4]e76JEmuy,q9H%=&X8]$q’T,8)U9):-Ua)kueFL>{pY])j3/-AEZEY,KBoq^ =>y,CXsx17J+8(CKfy^q*uu0DX:.LEtzg/% ZZ@S=[~s]zn-L$. evO6P:RN{T/f~4{ ^{E+b =tdOAdC@3B@#!sM4 }’3p5-Nep“ETL. Mz$9)%VhI.R2ZV@^~WJO@n=L|fW>O|3t_2.MWuN*,bY.T{Ic7_wth 2t=>OGTNN,F1;;u%8>j|>>S’U.2 o|xDoz%QUp5U:sw,nc=Kg p&?$/*OL9#Q yacV*zB6Dp%MY*1W+Vd.mzOAyVWe/|lvYn d:_} ,y>pkY ranlyNW)A|E7/;-!%3`NH(x1TT4`4Hxv6mMb> endobj 5 0 obj > /XObject > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 6 0 obj > stream HW6RQU9$Vml’$@+ U+Qv6wN{ng_yPj5u$M~58@, Vv4I M| WkT3Hf{YyQY0d-ddT87lJ4WO6^$ 0)fXBsi,}-liL[v”)4#NO&y%gyXiL+36Mk|O8A”vugj5-~l5’HhU(&Rrbeg[-wb;9?qSTDge$2~:HZwL#+MY{,V!)F]+u/6#~:nm1ME`5=tjM-,[LvnXWhT`I@n2}ykw0~1K&jC[nB638j7d+pAuz8 8Sk&XT0`”5q,`=S0v-yg?!/?7A{|g8Cm$]TpMR_}7fd endstream endobj 7 0 obj > stream AdobedC” u!”1A2# QBa$3Rqb%C&4r 5’S6DTsEF7Gc(UVWdte)8fu*9:HIJXYZghijvwxyz?rKXbj,9:9{.@H”s{{F}y~s}s>~ q}G,~G&M/GG @[qXz.O4/A_M}s O~|A#P”.8A>nE-f”n,n$?[~ $|HG{K/@_-f$pOrn.y}A,”AO}~ok^Bly$[ZUu2.UAc-C1*/!UK:mLSS9m* J8^}#K[KYCzn~’?_|~sv*aM0:Acaf__pO7yw}{-6@?=n86{zy?/7~A7?AnH’@}E^Z_bH’ [8BG$dr$\BL2^49Q+4$EXG$P46_XXXZo @,8?o>?D~O}?>n[%M`c$mXq}oEH%{.@ZA6?~`y’@U^H^.Yvb,[m}#Dob?}4[{ X`Ue`C+C) k’c{X_r-s{xO/W8}nxb}{s}_$n?~m~y}~?{EMlG}XG “lGW ?&}+ao}2wCtp*uG”lyos~}G?;+c6xj, .Z “n,#5-^c-SCT/d38>+bki8/#Of?%Q–v>hj)eXGG_}X?f?_OO~?>?{*?{9 2}K5x(‘4,639f*J*hie4gcQPApiQFqEH””DP{??_{{I6,,&k?_k’7}yqO-&^qA~om/oo-X] _P”$z[~`=ojyJ;~IYgUlv_NAJY3kR3*cv iGk%TTF]X3Y(y0>?qx4Vt9,j)1+UP=D +gnt;oGSkKU/WUer4C/.*g@j|NK7eM,me9& m|sY[AO AKG=lu??8E-y7r?OdollcU&u4MQSN(#]eOUT5eo 3*M&zuws/mOE_!QUCNh]7jTuu_8gh[|Me91h!+q ;,z>^.r}Ft/aqRmW9h’vqF[px~S ZZhi->Sb!lWZC}xo??OXN*%djcq0Eu}}mLSQS%E]]DAO$q0:!”=e+gCP9FCm&^-/O&1%%1?Ol,f>G~EC->]Z 55ob3U*GI=FM’4lfa%gJF+ZmWq{}h;KuvwW`q{;aga(S&J6′.vy,TfaJ$.w6}n.ODBphZTG,d”:TSCOSc>:V%kNZ) (Zfd:X =3SSEnk$Qn,C0MNhi#-I (#Sp|wvTn|so39)ihk”R=dEyQ/YNQ{’OAf76eO4ZS`I5b:h:”Fj*”(TDPUU@UUP{8 @TM2,6n5j]m{{}F.G;XM:h0P.1KZD eutZU-VB|t4K=NSKRMLU TG__:e/’Aq)WA]TR t9U&X4su$OsFYEQGQDuYERqd0Axf4fDC~?~}n?lHX^s6R76n(hf_BMWc$ds2SNO?#%mCC_1y=YLonJ>?^U8ZUO L0 5J w3x-97K}(# lsb:} xT`n;NCqN>QRe$1″I4ci)+o~”AHd:>:;PNMK5;gs#@bEnXy”_Sc?o?s{{{^ruGVpXu,R f2I+duI,”FaQ,,[Of{ck?aUCw.MIWW4tTHy($5l}}*{{u+7Yg8h.4cMDyt2,.gYZ_I 8qPn8GW;yWMh=eR6YVcUQSK%+chCvg+5Tw$y}e2JqU8$9nx O/kEOc,ti:jqL,ejJ@JOx=e7SZn:yN-$/TLFrgS5hcivDPVvJ?TG)% 2~)z&H#'{9{yOmt_”IZMQJeE=DU)$US:e-^ND?MD#0V3*zumd F!]M2Um|Vt!–>,m> stream AdobedC9″ u!”1A2# QBa$3Rqb%C&4r 5’S6DTsEF7Gc(UVWdte)8fu*9:HIJXYZghijvwxyz?}l?>KIs>qG?S~@?P~_pI>H OH)b}7{b 1=9$?^?}} D2f:!A $M7`H~ AXG7/~/?>{4u1Q..jn*Zj.Y)’UD:+VR5}&! [b`S OEMMME}ud Jt`1UPKU[5ELKI5D3,W>7p|N|VJ)iQ5;Gf%2ED3I?!C6>|znUQg$c^]v(j6o6]MU.6Me ki c14M @–9bHDv&q=E#gd~bokSbs’C/+,@klefoEdRr6VloUa6fmv’v+hi ]JtjdKOnI??~O{]s3SYXp0f’n(G$@KT7sqo’# ;hmOTQM-v71ROH SrU*PQ[g!j_SN+BjZAS $%,n^uc3XjiQ.0H 3|:9+XacnE8>UR6bMYzD’},MXn^CnlArh7xurVj`)?1yj[‘3Wtt5y6x,y11?ISyCS,us)`*2?DzRX*2: i$@ve_dn>I|ou%{uSS5F9$I -LlEqqOI(d=GJa{M$,-oVnC7OviBiaO]]MbIjVtL^7E &3J,MCAN &yfEOq&I_NC]Yy,GvPo(%0=f{m}>T_0R3MS;*Yg;[?Ks:z6fU6J}>_9>6[~{qqn&??k^ {}H$Tb.?qcbE?O?{6_{s`}?/ao7_{Z_o~Qy6XNm{skq8mG}yo>s o}S’^xqy#9rG{p,y~7SXzz~-{}?~{#g?>~C[ko o endstream endobj 9 0 obj > stream AdobedCH” u!”1A2# QBa$3Rqb%C&4r 5’S6DTsEF7Gc(UVWdte)8fu*9:HIJXYZghijvwxyz?B’-? b,InOn.}&K(X6>Gv~Svuo l^uto+^nj|FslO]w7GnJF^+C4^W P{j%XX]e,LSHgpY.’Z UGSf7ltvM`VugS`:& }_>0b7&Rf>7Ol3Sk6}kNC#}K]vOjy?>k’X}]}6;xk:oEbmC]5f6|w{wE]{wrOU,TjZPRYCXPlJn{}{cm;pxL;se0;smm L0L66#dj14TCO?3:>57’o{gZlo0.q]19G!}uw6>syg9a]wGn0[`Z1U}Ks>6’e8U[c~u-Gwfdunvl]v.nKjowdSqu| {3po%65gKj5?6>|v_gvns{z }wX^}]GErmKN{p|f]tGf/xO[xwFz?x=O_]/=(;b:oplv^;c3z(gk]G[OoB`;7RG^e[6sM’S~D2;.MQO{2; &w>7t-6$Xt”g’%tm4fdo:[MsVYf?=7Fcw/8+}ocnNi+ry{}a?_-vkswgGueiw/it9]G}R& )~TjAw}^e;3tIac”h{zu9Xw_vTe}#_=wDu.M,i68#{76ovSvk;n})?mwj {Szfdv/rinvN2_xn|?[so4 e,n}h?’->O;RWOwr>?Xnc:kP”mJnij,uY+(.cXa=j5?pCt8gn,'{q-o~6ujBJ 7{pJA>@fcvVrO:/>AbmN.qXXZm?O?_’GUzVTk#yV520eB##4aj/I?sn>h0;S;si;sv{7[|.&d6nZX%oz WowTkcCS[X; )l;,O=WLx+}}4Q-l5E[nj}M;=M6UOwa7ecY6MS;).Ckd[NkZiopn16xoGqpc`*Cpa6>qWje>& ak VqoX,-c~V>,?’>7fj].{‘e;vfqsj=19w.T0[fs9Jv/KS]]S4K*VB FY *e?#^Q5 m K @~~~~~P_?6eX>RW32+d9?l2}3sKpmUG Mw.4|}g>DRIlngM;Ko;:6^QPo_ol.caPekV_|ICkYPq=]=K6V/o9_Zi`-|9mMuuvSmyzzgd`dc;7h=oyM[_[de3Aa8km)?NwQF{7Yv’v^K?~J;sz,cmJJi!(+sPc4>W{Gv:tohWndv >^Nb:po:Ocmhv6?vUN$l]rESKX.xtKNRA{c-9I&i]K5~Y Q0=k’3 ?80]_=0W65Vgs{gan U? 0emwU#”oeiNyS%fnP*{ff*+x} v’&car9u{{o9cqSWlCrEw~o/{aV;[3B1S:ko~v6_t;1[lt2 kc1:M#l>fntd2E_uBoTM/wdm#0;?ye:o>#7>m777KwF>]kxO);#=}]gq7{KymN6W{l];qS]{nZ]c?`GIh]C:FJG”4nTue`9{{Pj`k wwufYY1t5sQbo(B)55VKG]6f^*2;NI;~oC} z%m;{wF36p8VI]vmE}T’Y?] T17kC#+kvf0Pc9 >V=6W1t:!fYL>kn|}DlJ=jNce?Zp>bFS}nJlJeRgGnNln3iYojd~Qn>M7oTMrj;&Tn ow^{)cv|]_`|bC?Gm~&~ka?2g[m^37ab;uP!{f|OXoHvnpOhd7;;wOh]nrgyK0{~q?`mQln}Wdd?0=vJVc]1]BiVY1v@5NnT=e!SXlc6f(qM]Y)hwgt9n0-[?$ZAsm}Wlt7us%psC~GnQ1]gt>}7W@n^4.3*,>^?CwWgl/t`i?jn^{ }aew|[.#{[^5u=4>hA6G_..l=EA+3S+~ |=s]y])*0iuy?_`SwOg({sh|?m%gT>=mjc2sKO>C&Wj5^q}9sX8}iR a*XBGRH~|}-cwOWzm>o]tugdKCWp]zuQ_ ;’vleVhtJDu]azc.N*l%YVdJ)ia-2H){gYn}];Yer?1vd6aoLGU^^?kmJund~~-68Y:!I]nm.h8Ker{W`^`/UbMMBkn:-Onxck~o>nSq`:Cd=>vo{hl=1&JUJE96bE?oPlG> endobj 11 0 obj > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 12 0 obj > stream HtWodH Jr=N>_i~ SMO%a?Uu=;DuQZ>~>YEM& u;Z5P_7;JeDC_+&/rZ}%bM7Ci/sJFRIi{9R~;turM.n _{Oun*_6? w+Od”_~{5i0d[t!E^&P9u(=4koZulsB.WBt6L{^ AzOg’ngxjh[Dd X@F m!`e$U,H9]d_H{ur~*;gZ:{>H”Ps(xo FqM!3:nGU:hGRiu:7KL%4O~~uaX8`e*o99IJxpv>” .3a2*q, Zs’RuF2[p#0AH#SP3Na!”EH,OI3′, N)2C 5A ; lm

=UCszO$:WD]dSZv:rP,b>QjbGh6ZjMM^!x42?}l@AEr:UMjD9O( BXuI]1GR;AqDKUtL=2R9l6xTUf6{$h;|.b^&=N74H?Xn]/o Jhbaf%$xrkJ’L 26W99@K92u(x ,Su<: xfw t_> R@nN1″ WD,2# /ewuSa& ISLbdgC9-@E?Rk0^G*{Iu8B]7{1`Q02ofrH_xE >_J @!IXhP%;_&s=`j= qdQ2WM’.}G=~-ZX=%AJ5#’8o”65FV”rte)J&Dg[2B}m0 endstream endobj 13 0 obj > endobj 14 0 obj > /XObject > /ExtGState > /ColorSpace > >> endobj 15 0 obj > stream HW4Q@m q,’u]X8g;qCb>4;/`MVi|`,:%`O7;WN.I_;_5Lk! XKR |LsM$S*Eh>UI7`PNEUliv5SMeNH09iLQ+e-YU$ 4?=Kdi?Yhh)i[. ‘A”%-“,$$ef9c0 ,[BB `cT{Pd” -@2hG-TBjKd e&6O!P}u5ke4 h Iv.i.L1%qG#o`jj”6h!AyBZp+{sR)EYT[_|i8j./{!H%cyl.yJz cQOH&I&AsZ46$jIgfp|#2)Sw./@tV!ZQ4kz(J#gUbIsnVp? ?aYBh_lB )1)AC%vEXgZaq:L;-RIShKuR\DqhySxq 47-;Hi=j1″%KZ3^18zp 8=Q/Y{`X+UtT:c u-#9)]Y9m ^0’P:%K =H#;$c&^i y!oEsRn&ApK}AaI(GgTX>G/pwp45wK3~pzsZ5u]&y’-|7Nm’3q FU~B/?DC-‘t2=d~L2m^,]?4z[?tO?6@)^]S%UBHa!D45^’0? endstream endobj 16 0 obj > stream AdobedC” u!”1A2# QBa$3Rqb%C&4r 5’S6DTsEF7Gc(UVWdte)8fu*9:HIJXYZghijvwxyz?@?P6″?.?O~ sv’lonmD`.IJUM”&jYP[y!Vc`uVy/NOYOI5. {/6 >?8O_O{{{{s# #A}; v”b+e,EALfC@o9″*Z5bOR._?{{{{B { AbRj?D-r>u2eGrXgh0DlY’g”44yJ’e$t`:(q]n%edbUO51%|TB-:s1/t ‘%>pl.{>2}4jt.:lx,{#y|0.P”BWV4K#}_`ovm >zT,uQLPSJ9`HS5_,>d#[zLYTG##C9L qMCF]]$KU4Y%j&@MRI@d”=T:xevEP@T:,BqUPXe7xV$if(tw7uPkShn:M’*gEdJ jchC#.0UHR,7{z}tG5TBVP%6V,{=;I) eYEUv”*i5U52TLEt3L8[ztMS=/H,]jg”YMK%mUGP0P|}a.l-aC0u]tSSr^R|t/]:9sP 5:’jy**ZuT444^zudiq4M]bdJjD%=E}$KQzeEAAiiy 3;]]N TFOOwg*i’wvyh$V3QMDU1cj)avd’`”[Tc*AKj{{CzSH 21^&xpa’| 8%fhia’fm7&J tSCL *eeV’1bk`wV7Qd9~?+QquU[hFIKoH:2P3WS &*$,r ;”$UU1r^ h&2V.B>yOI@RnlHeI /3jaL)~=oc_pl],R=|Ho0e(%UMX%&?M] T9 `*k9, WY]^5+6u+u+) ;’G

Visit link:

http://www.ibe.unesco.org

Youll Probably Never Upload Your Mind Into A Computer – io9

Many futurists predict that one day we’ll upload our minds into computers, where we’ll romp around in virtual reality environments. That’s possible but there are still a number of thorny issues to consider. Here are eight reasons why your brain may never be digitized.

Indeed, this isnt just idle speculation. Many important thinkers have expressed their support of the possibility, including the renowned futurist Ray Kurzweil (author of How to Create a Mind), roboticist Hans Moravec, cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky, neuroscientist David Eagleman, and many others.

Skeptics, of course, relish the opportunity to debunk uploads. The claim that well be able to transfer our conscious thoughts to a computer, after all, is a rather extraordinary one.

But many of the standard counter-arguments tend to fall short. Typical complaints cite insufficient processing power, inadequate storage space, or the fear that the supercomputers will be slow, unstable and prone to catastrophic failures concerns that certainly dont appear intractable given the onslaught of Moores Law and the potential for megascale computation. Another popular objection is that the mind cannot exist without a body. But an uploaded mind could be endowed with a simulated body and placed in a simulated world.

To be fair, however, there are a number of genuine scientific, philosophical, ethical, and even security concerns that could significantly limit or even prevent consciousness uploads from ever happening. Here are eight of the most serious.

Proponents of mind uploading tend to argue that the brain is a Turing Machine the idea that organic minds are nothing more than classical information-processors. Its an assumption derived from the strong physical Church-Turing thesis, and one that now drives much of cognitive science.

But not everyone believes the brain/computer analogy works. Speaking recently at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston, neuroscientist Miguel Nicolelis said that, The brain is not computable and no engineering can reproduce it. He referred to the idea of uploads as bunk, saying that itll never happen and that [t]here are a lot of people selling the idea that you can mimic the brain with a computer. Nicolelis argues that human consciousness cant be replicated in silicon because most of its important features are the result of unpredictable, nonlinear interactions among billions of cells.

You cant predict whether the stock market will go up or down because you cant compute it, he said. You could have all the computer chips ever in the world and you wont create a consciousness. Image credit: Jeff Cameron Collingwood/Shutterstock.

The computability of the brain aside, we may never be able to explain how and why we have qualia, or whats called phenomenal experience.

According to David Chalmers the philosopher of mind who came up with the term hard problem well likely solve the easy problems of human cognition, like how we focus our attention, recall a memory, discriminate, and process information. But explaining how incoming sensations get translated into subjective feelings like the experience of color, taste, or the pleasurable sound of music is proving to be much more difficult. Moreover, were still not entirely sure why we even have consciousness, and why were not just philosophical zombies hypothetical beings who act and respond as if theyre conscious, but have no internal mental states.

In his paper, Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness, Chalmers writes:

How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an emotion? It is widely agreed that experience arises from a physical basis, but we have no good explanation of why and how it so arises. Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life at all? It seems objectively unreasonable that it should, and yet it does.

If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, argues Chalmers, it is this one. Image: blog.lib.umn.edu.

And even if we do figure out how the brain generates subjective experience, classical digital computers may never be able to support unitary phenomenal minds. This is whats referred to as the binding problem our inability to understand how a mind is able to segregate elements and combine problems as seamlessly as it does. Needless to say, we dont even know if a Turing Machine can even support these functions.

More specifically, we still need to figure out how our brains segregate elements in complex patterns, a process that allows us to distinguish them as discrete objects. The binding problem also describes the issue of how objects, like those in the background or in our peripheral experience or even something as abstract as emotions can still be combined into a unitary and coherent experience. As the cognitive neuroscientist Antti Revonsuo has said, Binding is thus seen as a problem of nding the mechanisms which map the objective physical entities in the external world into corresponding internal neural entities in the brain.

He continues:

No one knows how our organic brains perform this trick at least not yet or if digital computers will ever be capable of phenomenal binding. Image credit: agsandrew/Shutterstock.

Though still controversial, theres also the potential for panpsychism to be in effect. This is the notion that consciousness is a fundamental and irreducible feature of the cosmos. It might sound a bit New Agey, but its an idea thats steadily gaining currency (especially in consideration of our inability to solve the Hard Problem).

Panpsychists speculate that all parts of matter involve mind. Neuroscientist Stuart Hameroff has suggested that consciousness is related to a fundamental component of physical reality components that are akin to phenomenon like mass, spin or charge. According to this view, the basis of consciousness can be found in an additional fundamental force of nature not unlike gravity or electromagnetism. This would be something like an elementary sentience or awareness. As Hameroff notes, “these components just are.” Likewise, David Chalmers has proposed a double-aspect theory in which information has both physical and experiential aspects. Panpsychism has also attracted the attention of quantum physicists (who speculate about potential quantum aspects of consciousness given our presence in an Everett Universe), and physicalists like Galen Strawson (who argues that mental/experiential is physical).

Why this presents a problem to mind uploading is that consciousness may not substrate neutral a central tenant of the Church-Turing Hypothesis but is in fact dependent on specific physical/material configurations. Its quite possible that theres no digital or algorithmic equivalent to consciousness. Having consciousness arise in a classical Von Neumann architecture, therefore, may be as impossible as splitting an atom in a virtual environment by using ones and zeros. Image credit: agsandrew/Shutterstock.

Perhaps even more controversial is the suggestion that consciousness lies somewhere outside the brain, perhaps as some ethereal soul or spirit. Its an idea thats primarily associated with Rene Descartes, the 17th century philosopher who speculated that the mind is a nonphysical substance (as opposed to physicalist interpretations of mind and consciousness). Consequently, some proponents of dualism (or even vitalism) suggest that consciousness lies outside knowable science.

Needless to say, if our minds are located somewhere outside our bodies like in a vat somewhere, or oddly enough, in a simulation (a la The Matrix) our chances of uploading ourselves are slim to none.

Philosophical and scientific concerns aside, there may also be some moral reasons to forego the project. If were going to develop upload technologies, were going to have to conduct some rather invasive experiments, both on animals and humans. The potential for abuse is significant.

Uploading schemas typically describe the scanning and mapping of an individuals brain, or serial sectioning. While a test subject, like a mouse or monkey, could be placed under a general anesthetic, it will eventually have to be re-animated in digital substrate. Once this happens, well likely have no conception of its internal, subjective experience. Its brain could be completely mangled, resulting terrible psychological or physical anguish. Its reasonable to assume that our early uploading efforts will be far from perfect, and potentially cruel.

And when it comes time for the first human to be uploaded, there could be serious ethical and legal issues to consider especially considering that were talking about the re-location of a living, rights-bearing human being. Image credit: K. Zhuang.

Which leads to the next point, that of post-upload skepticism. A person can never really be sure they created a sentient copy of themselves. This is the continuity of consciousness problem the uncertainty well have that, instead of moving our minds, we simply copied ourselves instead.

Because we cant measure for consciousness either qualitatively or quantitatively uploading will require a tremendous leap of faith a leap that could lead to complete oblivion (e.g. a philosophical zombie), or something completely unexpected. And relying on the advice from uploaded beings wont help either (Come on in, the waters fine…).

In an email to me, philosopher David Pearce put it this way:

In other words, the quality of conscious experience in digital substrate could be far removed from that experienced by an analog consciousness. Image: Rikomatic.

Once our minds are uploaded, theyll be physically and inextricably connected to the larger computational superstructure. By consequence, uploaded brains will be perpetually vulnerable to malicious attacks and other unwanted intrusions.

To avoid this, each uploaded person will have to set-up a personal firewall to prevent themselves from being re-programmed, spied upon, damaged, exploited, deleted, or copied against their will. These threats could come from other uploads, rogue AI, malicious scripts, or even the authorities in power (e.g. as a means to instill order and control).

Indeed, as we know all too well today, even the tightest security measures can’t prevent the most sophisticated attacks; an uploaded mind can never be sure its safe.

Special thanks to David Pearce for helping with this article.

Top image: Jurgen Ziewe/Shutterstock.

Read more here:

Youll Probably Never Upload Your Mind Into A Computer – io9

Upload your mind maps to the Biggerplate library

So youve decided to share some mind maps on Biggerplate? Good on you. We like your style!

In order to add your mind maps to the library, you need to be a registered member of Biggerplate. Dont worry, its quick, easy, and free!

If you have not yet registered with Biggerplate, you can do so by clicking the ‘Register Now’ button below.

If you are already a member of Biggerplate, simply click ‘Upload now’ and youll be taken straight to the upload page!

If you’re not sure if youre ready to share your mind maps with the world? Here are a few of good reasons to give it a try:

See more here:

Upload your mind maps to the Biggerplate library

bubbl.us – brainstorm and mind map online.

Better, faster, bolder. The new bubbl.us is coming soon. Sign up today to be the first to try it!

Thank you for your interest! Check your email to confirm your invite.

To sign up, please use your desktop browser.

To sign up, please use your desktop browser.

To sign up, please use your desktop browser.

To sign up, please use your desktop browser.

Originally posted here:

bubbl.us – brainstorm and mind map online.

Mind Map Inspiration | Sharing Mind Maps for Inspiration …

If you’re new here, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. Thanks for visiting!

PLEASE NOTE ~ This will be the last mind map update for the foreseeable future

No greater confusion than assuming an assumption

No greater confusion than being attached to an attachment

No greater confusion than adding more clouds to a cloudy mind

No greater confusion than blaming blame

No greater confusion than anger at anger

No greater confusion than holding onto impermanence

No greater confusion than complaining about complaints

No greater confusion than planning spontaneity

No greater confusion than complicating complexity

No greater confusion than reliving a past that no longer exists

No greater confusion than seeking outer happiness when its on the inside

No greater confusion than analysing analysis

These contemplative confusions are effectively double errors; or compounded errors errors upon errors, whether recognised or not. Each presents a step further away from realization the antidote is simply awareness.

I hope you enjoy viewing my Mind Maps you can subscribe for any future updates via RSS or Email

Also available: E-Books designed to help you create stylish and artistic mind maps of your own.

If you know someone who would enjoy this post and others here at the Mind Map Inspiration Blog please share with them.

Follow me on Twitter @mindmapdrawer

This mindmap highlights ideas for contemplation and reflection. Some of these come from the thoughts I share on Twitter you can follow me here @mindmapdrawer Other ideas in the mindmap come from my personal journals. I hope you enjoy these contemplative phrases. Here are the text only versions:

Life is the coin. Heads or tails are only perspectives the coin still exists. The mirror of opposites.

I am nothing that you want me to be and anything that you want me to be. The mirror of opinions.

What is the difference between a true thought and a false thought? They are both the same. The mirror of commonality.

Every word is a thought every thought is a word. To attach or not to attach? The mirror of attachments.

If your illusions become your reality, your reality becomes your illusions. The mirror of confusion.

Nature reflects back your unconditional acceptance. The mirror of harmony.

Peace = Unity Unity = Peace. The mirror of the collective self, known as one.

Patience is kindness kindness is patience. The mirror of caring.

Simple is wise wise is simple. The mirror of clarity.

Trying to understand another is trying to understand yourself. The mirror of the unity of the human condition and conditioning.

Live the questions share the answers, share the questions live the answers. The mirror of the continuity of positive innovation and progress.

There is an ordinary soul housed within an extraordinary persona and an extraordinary soul housed within an ordinary persona. The mirror of the normality of unique talent unique is normal.

Compassion is forgiveness forgiveness is compassion. The mirror of human love and understanding.

Every lorry should have one If you cant see my mirrors I cant see you. The mirror of seeing.

I hope you enjoy viewing my Mind Maps you can subscribe for any future updates via RSS or Email

Also available: E-Books designed to help you create stylish and artistic mind maps of your own.

If you know someone who would enjoy this post and others here at the Mind Map Inspiration Blog please share with them.

Follow me on Twitter @mindmapdrawer

Next Page

Visit link:

Mind Map Inspiration | Sharing Mind Maps for Inspiration …

Mind of a Worm Uploaded to a LEGO Robot to Make the …

Ashley Allen / 10 months ago

In a breakthrough for artificial intelligence research, a digital clone of the mind of a roundworm (C. Elegans) has been uploaded into a robotic body made from LEGO, as part of the Open Worm Project.

Once the software facsimile of the worm brain was integrated into the LEGO robot it, with no additional programming, exhibited behaviour consistent with the C. Elegans species, avoiding obstacles and attracted by food. The robot carries sensors that imitate the senses of a roundworm, bridged by software modelled on a worms nervous system.

Stephen Larson, the projects co-ordinator, told US news network CNN, Weve been working on it for four years and while we have a lot more to achieve its been the most surprising project Ive been involved in. Its certainly exceeded my expectations.

The research teams says that it will take some time for the robot to learn to avoid predators or search for a mate, but that the progress made so far bodes well for the future.

We definitely have further to go, but I think what captures peoples imagination is how much information we have managed to put together, said Larson.

Source: CNN

Read more:

Mind of a Worm Uploaded to a LEGO Robot to Make the …

Living forever as robot? Prototype lets humans upload …

An Artificial Intelligence pioneer is embracing the controversial idea of uploading the memories, thoughts and feelings of a living person into a computer to create a Mind Clone or second self. The prototype for this new self is called Bina-48.

Entrepreneur Martine Rothblatt has created a new robotic head that she hopes, one day in the future, humans will be able to upload their minds into. Bina-48 is named after Rothblatts real-life wife, Bina Aspen, and serves as a proof-of-concept for the futuristic idea. The robot version is designed to carry on a conversation, with scientists hoping that these mind clones could give human owners a sort of artificial afterlife.

I believe Mind Clones will be humanitys biggest invention. The market opportunity is limitless, Rothblatt told Bloomberg News. Ultimately just like we all want a smart phone, we all want a social media account we are all going to want a Mind Clone. It will make everything in our life more useful, more valuable. It will give us twice as much time to do everything.

Bena-48 was created five years ago as a digital replica uploaded with Bina Aspens thoughts, memories and feelings all of which were broken down into computer code to create a digital version of her consciousness. Created by Hanson Robotics, Bina-48 can engage in conversation, answer questions and even have spontaneous thoughts that are derived from multimedia data in a mindfile created by the real Bina.

A similar mindfile is created when a person interacts on Twitter or Facebook and shares photos or blogs regularly in essence, its a digital database of thoughts, memories, feelings and opinions. Mindware mimics the way the human brain supposedly organizes information, creates emotions and achieves self-awareness.

READ MORE: Bill Gates on AI doomsday: I dont understand why we arent concerned

The proliferation of robots like Bina-48 may seem farfetched now, but Rothblatt is the woman who helped pioneered satellite radio as founder of Sirius and now oversees biotech innovation at United Therapeutics.

Mind Clone is a digital copy of your mind outside of your body, said Rothblatt. I think Mind Clone will look like an avatar on the screen, talking, instead of a robot version. Mind Clones are 10-20 years away.

Am I talking about a law of physics here? Am I talking about defying gravity here? No. Am I talking about going faster than light? No. All I am doing here is talking about writing some good code.

READ MORE:Elon Musk donates $10mn to stop AI from turning against humans

Companies such as eterni.me, Gordon Bells MyLifeBits, and Terasems Lifenaut are all pursuing Mind Clone to help a persons personality, work and relationships survive after death.

Eterni.me is a proposed for-profit service that will reportedly offer immortality by creating a virtual YOU, an avatar that emulates your personality and can interact with, and offer information and advice to your family and friends, even after you pass away.

See the original post here:

Living forever as robot? Prototype lets humans upload …

Welcome to PHPSimplicity.com

I actually posted two new tips (more like libraries, really). Check them out!

I’ve seen how a phar archive can be created and thought why don’t I make an application where the user can select the files, determine structure, set options and create the phar graphically by few clicks?

And so the idea of Pharchiver (Phar Archiver) was born and now I am working on this application and have created its website at: http://www.phpsimplicity.com/pharchiver

I developed Pharchiver with C# and .NET 2.0 with the target OS in mind to be Windows. However, I’ve tested compiling the project in Mono and it worked just fine! So that means it will work on Linux, Mac and of course Windows.

Oh, did I mention that it will be free?

still wonderig wether or not PHP/MySQL is involved? you will be shocked!

417,320 visitors since Sunday 7th of March, 2004 at 08:25 PM

See the original post:

Welcome to PHPSimplicity.com

Youll Probably Never Upload Your Mind Into A Computer

Many futurists predict that one day we’ll upload our minds into computers, where we’ll romp around in virtual reality environments. That’s possible but there are still a number of thorny issues to consider. Here are eight reasons why your brain may never be digitized.

Indeed, this isnt just idle speculation. Many important thinkers have expressed their support of the possibility, including the renowned futurist Ray Kurzweil (author of How to Create a Mind), roboticist Hans Moravec, cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky, neuroscientist David Eagleman, and many others.

Skeptics, of course, relish the opportunity to debunk uploads. The claim that well be able to transfer our conscious thoughts to a computer, after all, is a rather extraordinary one.

But many of the standard counter-arguments tend to fall short. Typical complaints cite insufficient processing power, inadequate storage space, or the fear that the supercomputers will be slow, unstable and prone to catastrophic failures concerns that certainly dont appear intractable given the onslaught of Moores Law and the potential for megascale computation. Another popular objection is that the mind cannot exist without a body. But an uploaded mind could be endowed with a simulated body and placed in a simulated world.

To be fair, however, there are a number of genuine scientific, philosophical, ethical, and even security concerns that could significantly limit or even prevent consciousness uploads from ever happening. Here are eight of the most serious.

Proponents of mind uploading tend to argue that the brain is a Turing Machine the idea that organic minds are nothing more than classical information-processors. Its an assumption derived from the strong physical Church-Turing thesis, and one that now drives much of cognitive science.

But not everyone believes the brain/computer analogy works. Speaking recently at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Boston, neuroscientist Miguel Nicolelis said that, The brain is not computable and no engineering can reproduce it. He referred to the idea of uploads as bunk, saying that itll never happen and that [t]here are a lot of people selling the idea that you can mimic the brain with a computer. Nicolelis argues that human consciousness cant be replicated in silicon because most of its important features are the result of unpredictable, nonlinear interactions among billions of cells.

You cant predict whether the stock market will go up or down because you cant compute it, he said. You could have all the computer chips ever in the world and you wont create a consciousness. Image credit: Jeff Cameron Collingwood/Shutterstock.

The computability of the brain aside, we may never be able to explain how and why we have qualia, or whats called phenomenal experience.

According to David Chalmers the philosopher of mind who came up with the term hard problem well likely solve the easy problems of human cognition, like how we focus our attention, recall a memory, discriminate, and process information. But explaining how incoming sensations get translated into subjective feelings like the experience of color, taste, or the pleasurable sound of music is proving to be much more difficult. Moreover, were still not entirely sure why we even have consciousness, and why were not just philosophical zombies hypothetical beings who act and respond as if theyre conscious, but have no internal mental states.

In his paper, Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness, Chalmers writes:

How can we explain why there is something it is like to entertain a mental image, or to experience an emotion? It is widely agreed that experience arises from a physical basis, but we have no good explanation of why and how it so arises. Why should physical processing give rise to a rich inner life at all? It seems objectively unreasonable that it should, and yet it does.

If any problem qualifies as the problem of consciousness, argues Chalmers, it is this one. Image: blog.lib.umn.edu.

And even if we do figure out how the brain generates subjective experience, classical digital computers may never be able to support unitary phenomenal minds. This is whats referred to as the binding problem our inability to understand how a mind is able to segregate elements and combine problems as seamlessly as it does. Needless to say, we dont even know if a Turing Machine can even support these functions.

More specifically, we still need to figure out how our brains segregate elements in complex patterns, a process that allows us to distinguish them as discrete objects. The binding problem also describes the issue of how objects, like those in the background or in our peripheral experience or even something as abstract as emotions can still be combined into a unitary and coherent experience. As the cognitive neuroscientist Antti Revonsuo has said, Binding is thus seen as a problem of nding the mechanisms which map the objective physical entities in the external world into corresponding internal neural entities in the brain.

He continues:

No one knows how our organic brains perform this trick at least not yet or if digital computers will ever be capable of phenomenal binding. Image credit: agsandrew/Shutterstock.

Though still controversial, theres also the potential for panpsychism to be in effect. This is the notion that consciousness is a fundamental and irreducible feature of the cosmos. It might sound a bit New Agey, but its an idea thats steadily gaining currency (especially in consideration of our inability to solve the Hard Problem).

Panpsychists speculate that all parts of matter involve mind. Neuroscientist Stuart Hameroff has suggested that consciousness is related to a fundamental component of physical reality components that are akin to phenomenon like mass, spin or charge. According to this view, the basis of consciousness can be found in an additional fundamental force of nature not unlike gravity or electromagnetism. This would be something like an elementary sentience or awareness. As Hameroff notes, “these components just are.” Likewise, David Chalmers has proposed a double-aspect theory in which information has both physical and experiential aspects. Panpsychism has also attracted the attention of quantum physicists (who speculate about potential quantum aspects of consciousness given our presence in an Everett Universe), and physicalists like Galen Strawson (who argues that mental/experiential is physical).

Why this presents a problem to mind uploading is that consciousness may not substrate neutral a central tenant of the Church-Turing Hypothesis but is in fact dependent on specific physical/material configurations. Its quite possible that theres no digital or algorithmic equivalent to consciousness. Having consciousness arise in a classical Von Neumann architecture, therefore, may be as impossible as splitting an atom in a virtual environment by using ones and zeros. Image credit: agsandrew/Shutterstock.

Perhaps even more controversial is the suggestion that consciousness lies somewhere outside the brain, perhaps as some ethereal soul or spirit. Its an idea thats primarily associated with Rene Descartes, the 17th century philosopher who speculated that the mind is a nonphysical substance (as opposed to physicalist interpretations of mind and consciousness). Consequently, some proponents of dualism (or even vitalism) suggest that consciousness lies outside knowable science.

Needless to say, if our minds are located somewhere outside our bodies like in a vat somewhere, or oddly enough, in a simulation (a la The Matrix) our chances of uploading ourselves are slim to none.

Philosophical and scientific concerns aside, there may also be some moral reasons to forego the project. If were going to develop upload technologies, were going to have to conduct some rather invasive experiments, both on animals and humans. The potential for abuse is significant.

Uploading schemas typically describe the scanning and mapping of an individuals brain, or serial sectioning. While a test subject, like a mouse or monkey, could be placed under a general anesthetic, it will eventually have to be re-animated in digital substrate. Once this happens, well likely have no conception of its internal, subjective experience. Its brain could be completely mangled, resulting terrible psychological or physical anguish. Its reasonable to assume that our early uploading efforts will be far from perfect, and potentially cruel.

And when it comes time for the first human to be uploaded, there could be serious ethical and legal issues to consider especially considering that were talking about the re-location of a living, rights-bearing human being. Image credit: K. Zhuang.

Which leads to the next point, that of post-upload skepticism. A person can never really be sure they created a sentient copy of themselves. This is the continuity of consciousness problem the uncertainty well have that, instead of moving our minds, we simply copied ourselves instead.

Because we cant measure for consciousness either qualitatively or quantitatively uploading will require a tremendous leap of faith a leap that could lead to complete oblivion (e.g. a philosophical zombie), or something completely unexpected. And relying on the advice from uploaded beings wont help either (Come on in, the waters fine…).

In an email to me, philosopher David Pearce put it this way:

In other words, the quality of conscious experience in digital substrate could be far removed from that experienced by an analog consciousness. Image: Rikomatic.

Once our minds are uploaded, theyll be physically and inextricably connected to the larger computational superstructure. By consequence, uploaded brains will be perpetually vulnerable to malicious attacks and other unwanted intrusions.

To avoid this, each uploaded person will have to set-up a personal firewall to prevent themselves from being re-programmed, spied upon, damaged, exploited, deleted, or copied against their will. These threats could come from other uploads, rogue AI, malicious scripts, or even the authorities in power (e.g. as a means to instill order and control).

Indeed, as we know all too well today, even the tightest security measures can’t prevent the most sophisticated attacks; an uploaded mind can never be sure its safe.

Special thanks to David Pearce for helping with this article.

Top image: Jurgen Ziewe/Shutterstock.

See the original post here:

Youll Probably Never Upload Your Mind Into A Computer

‘Mind Uploading’ & Digital Immortality May Be Reality By …

AGI (artificial general intelligence), molecular assembling nanotechnology, hive minds, IA (intelligence augmentation), radical life extension, powerful spacecraft propulsion engines, useful quantum computers, mind uploads, or whole human brain emulations .

By 2045, humans will achieve digital immortality by uploading their minds to computers or at least that’s what some futurists believe Whole brain emulation (WBE) or mind uploading (sometimes called “mind copying” or “mind transfer”) is the hypothetical process of copying mental content

Read the original here:

‘Mind Uploading’ & Digital Immortality May Be Reality By …

Mind Upload (The Power Series of Short Stories), Mark …

Thirty-five year-old former Marine Roy Michaelson is dying of cancer. Before he undergoes an experimental new surgery, having his mind uploaded into a computer, Roy promises his wife Carolyn that he will see her after the surgery. But when he wakes up, Carolyn is not there and his world is forever changed.

The Power Series of Short Stories is an ongoing collection of complete and individual short stories with a greater overall story arc. The Power Series is set in the not-too-distant future, when technology has advanced to the point that legal and ethical questions abound. And much of the series explores such questions, while being wrapped in an exciting and thought provoking narrative.

The Power Series is not connected solely be theme, and it is not a retelling of a single event from different points of view (though that may occasionally happen). Characters and storylines often overlap to push the overall story arc along. The Power Series is a series, not a serial. Understanding one story is not dependent on reading previous stories. Because each short story in the series is an entity unto itself, they do not have to be read in any particular order. Reading a single Power Series story should leave you satisfied that the story was complete, but, like all good stories, it should leave you wanting more.

Read this article:

Mind Upload (The Power Series of Short Stories), Mark …

Upload A Transcription – Mind For Music

Thank you for taking the time to upload your transcriptions! Please upload using the form below and remember to enter your name and website (or email address) if you’d like me to link your transcription to your site/contact.

Accepted file types:

pdf jpg/bmp/gif/png mus (Finale files) sib (Sibelius files) MuseScore doc

Click here for more info on file types and conversion.

If you have a large amount of files to upload try using the Flash uploader on this page. *Requires Flash.

You can also This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. with your files.

The rest is here:

Upload A Transcription – Mind For Music


12345...102030...