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Mind Hacks Neuroscience and psychology news and views.

Spaced repetition is a memory hack. We know that spacing out your study is more effective than cramming, but using an app you can tailor your own spaced repetition schedule, allowing you to efficiently create reliable memories for any material you like.

Michael Nielsen, has a nice thread on his use of spaced repetition on twitter:

He covers how he chooses what to put into his review system, what the right amount of information is for each item, and what memory alone wont give you (understanding of the process which uses the memorised items). Nielsen is pretty enthusiastic about the benefits:

The single biggest change is that memory is no longer a haphazard event, to be left to chance. Rather, I can guarantee I will remember something, with minimal effort: it makes memory a choice.

There are lots of apps/programmes which can help you run a spaced repetition system, but Nielsen used Anki (ankiweb.net), which is open source, and has desktop and mobile clients (which sync between themselves, which is useful if you want to add information while at a computer, then review it on your mobile while you wait in line for coffee or whatever).

Checking Anki out, it seems pretty nice, and Ive realised I can use it to overcome a cognitive bias we all suffer from: a tendency to forget facts which are an inconvenient for our beliefs.

Charles Darwin notes this in his autobiography:

I had, also, during many years, followed a golden rule, namely, that whenever a published fact, a new observation or thought came across me, which was opposed to my general results, to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once; for I had found by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from the memory than favourable ones. Owing to this habit, very few objections were raised against my views which I had not at least noticed and attempted to answer.

(Darwin, 1856/1958, p123).

I have notebooks, and Darwins habit of forgetting unfavourable facts, but I wonder if my thinking might be improved by not just noting the facts, but being able to keep them in memory using a spaced repetition system. Im going to give it a go.

Links & Footnotes:

Anki app (ankiweb.net)

Wikipedia on space repetition systems

The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 18091882, edited by Nora Barlow. London: Collins

For more on the science, see this recent review for educators: Weinstein, Y., Madan, C. R., & Sumeracki, M. A. (2018). Teaching the science of learning. Cognitive research: principles and implications, 3(1), 2.

I note that Anki-based spaced repetition also does a side serving of retrieval practice and interleaving (other effective learning techniques).

Here is the original post:

Mind Hacks Neuroscience and psychology news and views.

Mind uploading in fiction – Wikipedia

Mind uploading, whole brain emulation or substrate-independent minds is a use of a computer or another substrate as an emulated human brain, and the view of thoughts and memories as software information states. The term mind transfer also refers to a hypothetical transfer of a mind from one biological brain to another. Uploaded minds and societies of minds, often in simulated realities, are recurring themes in science fiction novels and films since 1950s.

An early story featuring technological transfer of memories and personality from one brain to another is “Intelligence Undying” by Edmond Hamilton, first published in the April 1936 issue of Amazing Stories. In this story, an elderly scientist named John Hanley explains that when humans are first born, “our minds are a blank sheet except for certain reflexes which we all inherit. But from our birth onward, our minds are affected by all about us, our reflexes are conditioned, as the behaviorists say. All we experience is printed on the sheet of our minds. … Everything a human being learns, therefore, simply establishes new connections between the nerve-cells of the brain. … As I said, a newborn child has no such knowledge-connections in his cortex at allhe has not yet formed any. Now if I take that child immediately after birth and establish in his brain exactly the same web of intricate neurone-connections I have built up in my own brain, he will have exactly the same mind, memories, knowledge, as I have … his mind will be exactly identical with my mind!” He then explains he has developed a technique to do just this, saying “I’ve devised a way to scan my brain’s intricate web of neurone connections by electrical impulses, and by means of those impulses to build up an exactly identical web of neurone connections in the infant’s brain. Just as a television scanning-disk can break down a complicated picture into impulses that reproduce the picture elsewhere.” He adds that the impulses scanning his brain will kill him, but the “counter-impulses” imprinting the same pattern on the baby’s brain will not harm him. The story shows the successful transfer of John Hanley’s mind to the baby, who he describes as “John Hanley 2nd”, and then skips forward to the year 3144 to depict “John Hanley, 21st” using his advanced technology to become the ruler of the Earth in order to end a war between the two great political powers of the time, and then further ahead to “John Hanley, 416th” helping to evacuate humanity to the planet Mercury in response to the Sun shrinking into a white dwarf. He chooses to remain on Earth awaiting death, so that people would “learn once more to do for themselves, would become again a strong a self-reliant race”, with Hanley concluding that he “had been wrong in living as a single super-mind down through the ages. He saw that now, and now he was undoing that wrong.”

A story featuring human minds replicated in a computer is the novella Izzard and the Membrane by Walter M. Miller, Jr., first published in May 1951.[1] In this story, an American cyberneticist named Scott MacDonney is captured by Russians and made to work on an advanced computer, Izzard, which they plan to use to coordinate an attack on the United States. He has conversations with Izzard as he works on it, and when he asks it if it is self-aware, it says “answer indeterminate” and then asks “can human individual’s self-awareness transor be mechanically duplicated?” MacDonney is unfamiliar with the concept of a self-awareness transor (it is later revealed that this information was loaded into Izzard by a mysterious entity who may nor may not be God[2]), and Izzard defines it by saying “A self-awareness transor is the mathematical function which describes the specific consciousness pattern of one human individual.”[3] It is later found that this mathematical function can indeed be duplicated, although not by a detailed scan of the individual’s brain as in later notions of mind uploading; instead, Donney just has to describe the individual verbally in sufficient detail, and Izzard uses this information to locate the transor in the appropriate “mathematical region”. In Izzard’s words, “to duplicate consciousness of deceased, it will be necessary for you to furnish anthropometric and psychic characteristics of the individual. These characteristics will not determine transor, but will only give its general form. Knowing its form, will enable me to sweep my circuit pattern through its mathematical region until the proper transor is reached. At that point, the consciousness will appear among the circuits.”[4] Using this method, MacDonney is able to recreate the mind of his dead wife in Izzard’s memory, as well as create a virtual duplicate of himself, which seems to have a shared awareness with the biological MacDonney.

In The Altered Ego by Jerry Sohl (1954), a person’s mind can be “recorded” and used to create a “restoration” in the event of their death. In a restoration, the person’s biological body is repaired and brought back to life, and their memories are restored to the last time that they had their minds recorded (what the story calls a ‘brain record'[5]), an early example of a story in which a person can create periodic backups of their own mind which are stored in an artificial medium. The recording process is not described in great detail, but it is mentioned that the recording is used to create a duplicate or “dupe” which is stored in the “restoration bank”,[6] and at one point a lecturer says that “The experience of the years, the neurograms, simple memory circuitsneurons, if you wishstored among these nerve cells, are transferred to the dupe, a group of more than ten billion molecules in colloidal suspension. They are charged much as you would charge the plates of a battery, the small neuroelectrical impulses emanating from your brain during the recording session being duplicated on the molecular structure in the solution.”[7] During restoration, they take the dupe and “infuse it into an empty brain”,[7] and the plot turns on the fact that it is possible to install one person’s dupe in the body of a completely different person.[8]

An early example featuring uploaded minds in robotic bodies can be found in Frederik Pohl’s story “The Tunnel Under the World” from 1955.[9] In this story, the protagonist Guy Burckhardt continually wakes up on the same date from a dream of dying in an explosion. Burckhardt is already familiar with the idea of putting human minds in robotic bodies, since this is what is done with the robot workers at the nearby Contro Chemical factory. As someone has once explained it to him, “each machine was controlled by a sort of computer which reproduced, in its electronic snarl, the actual memory and mind of a human being … It was only a matter, he said, of transferring a man’s habit patterns from brain cells to vacuum-tube cells.” Later in the story, Pohl gives some additional description of the procedure: “Take a master petroleum chemist, infinitely skilled in the separation of crude oil into its fractions. Strap him down, probe into his brain with searching electronic needles. The machine scans the patterns of the mind, translates what it sees into charts and sine waves. Impress these same waves on a robot computer and you have your chemist. Or a thousand copies of your chemist, if you wish, with all of his knowledge and skill, and no human limitations at all.” After some investigation, Burckhardt learns that his entire town had been killed in a chemical explosion, and the brains of the dead townspeople had been scanned and placed into miniature robotic bodies in a miniature replica of the town (as a character explains to him, ‘It’s as easy to transfer a pattern from a dead brain as a living one’), so that a businessman named Mr. Dorchin could charge companies to use the townspeople as test subjects for new products and advertisements.

Something close to the notion of mind uploading is very briefly mentioned in Isaac Asimov’s 1956 short story The Last Question: “One by one Man fused with AC, each physical body losing its mental identity in a manner that was somehow not a loss but a gain.” A more detailed exploration of the idea (and one in which individual identity is preserved, unlike in Asimov’s story) can be found in ArthurC. Clarke’s novel The City and the Stars, also from 1956 (this novel was a revised and expanded version of Clarke’s earlier story Against the Fall of Night, but the earlier version did not contain the elements relating to mind uploading). The story is set in a city named Diaspar one billion years in the future, where the minds of inhabitants are stored as patterns of information in the city’s Central Computer in between a series of 1000-year lives in cloned bodies. Various commentators identify this story as one of the first (if not the first) to deal with mind uploading, human-machine synthesis, and computerized immortality.[10][11][12][13]

Another of the “firsts” is the novel Detta r verkligheten (This is reality), 1968, by the renowned philosopher and logician Bertil Mrtensson, a novel in which he describes people living in an uploaded state as a means to control overpopulation. The uploaded people believe that they are “alive”, but in reality they are playing elaborate and advanced fantasy games. In a twist at the end, the author changes everything into one of the best “multiverse” ideas of science fiction.

In Robert Silverberg’s To Live Again (1969), an entire worldwide economy is built up around the buying and selling of “souls” (personas that have been tape-recorded at six-month intervals), allowing well-heeled consumers the opportunity to spend tens of millions of dollars on a medical treatment that uploads the most recent recordings of archived personalities into the minds of the buyers. Federal law prevents people from buying a “personality recording” unless the possessor first had died; similarly, two or more buyers were not allowed to own a “share” of the persona. In this novel, the personality recording always went to the highest bidder. However, when one attempted to buy (and therefore possess) too many personalities, there was the risk that one of the personas would wrest control of the body from the possessor.

In the 1982 novel Software, part of the Ware Tetralogy by Rudy Rucker, one of the main characters, Cobb Anderson, has his mind downloaded and his body replaced with an extremely human-like android body. The robots who persuade Anderson into doing this sell the process to him as a way to become immortal.

In William Gibson’s award-winning Neuromancer (1984), which popularized the concept of “cyberspace”, a hacking tool used by the main character is an artificial infomorph of a notorious cyber-criminal, Dixie Flatline. The infomorph only assists in exchange for the promise that he be deleted after the mission is complete.

The fiction of Greg Egan has explored many of the philosophical, ethical, legal, and identity aspects of mind transfer, as well as the financial and computing aspects (i.e. hardware, software, processing power) of maintaining “copies.” In Egan’s Permutation City (1994), Diaspora (1997) and Zendegi (2010), “copies” are made by computer simulation of scanned brain physiology. See also Egan’s “jewelhead” stories, where the mind is transferred from the organic brain to a small, immortal backup computer at the base of the skull, the organic brain then being surgically removed.

The movie The Matrix is commonly mistaken for a mind uploading movie, but with exception to suggestions in later movies, it is only about virtual reality and simulated reality, since the main character Neo’s physical brain still is required for his mind to reside in. The mind (the information content of the brain) is not copied into an emulated brain in a computer. Neo’s physical brain is connected into the Matrix via a brain-machine interface. Only the rest of the physical body is simulated. Neo is disconnected from and reconnected to this dreamworld.

James Cameron’s 2009 movie Avatar has so far been the commercially most successful example of a work of fiction that features a form of mind uploading. Throughout most of the movie, the hero’s mind has not actually been uploaded and transferred to another body, but is simply controlling the body from a distance, a form of telepresence. However, at the end of the movie the hero’s mind is uploaded into Eywa, the mind of the planet, and then back into his Avatar body.

Mind transfer is a theme in many other works of science fiction in a wide range of media. Specific examples include the following:

Read the original post:

Mind uploading in fiction – Wikipedia

Mind Hacks Neuroscience and psychology news and views.

Spaced repetition is a memory hack. We know that spacing out your study is more effective than cramming, but using an app you can tailor your own spaced repetition schedule, allowing you to efficiently create reliable memories for any material you like.

Michael Nielsen, has a nice thread on his use of spaced repetition on twitter:

He covers how he chooses what to put into his review system, what the right amount of information is for each item, and what memory alone wont give you (understanding of the process which uses the memorised items). Nielsen is pretty enthusiastic about the benefits:

The single biggest change is that memory is no longer a haphazard event, to be left to chance. Rather, I can guarantee I will remember something, with minimal effort: it makes memory a choice.

There are lots of apps/programmes which can help you run a spaced repetition system, but Nielsen used Anki (ankiweb.net), which is open source, and has desktop and mobile clients (which sync between themselves, which is useful if you want to add information while at a computer, then review it on your mobile while you wait in line for coffee or whatever).

Checking Anki out, it seems pretty nice, and Ive realised I can use it to overcome a cognitive bias we all suffer from: a tendency to forget facts which are an inconvenient for our beliefs.

Charles Darwin notes this in his autobiography:

I had, also, during many years, followed a golden rule, namely, that whenever a published fact, a new observation or thought came across me, which was opposed to my general results, to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once; for I had found by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from the memory than favourable ones. Owing to this habit, very few objections were raised against my views which I had not at least noticed and attempted to answer.

(Darwin, 1856/1958, p123).

I have notebooks, and Darwins habit of forgetting unfavourable facts, but I wonder if my thinking might be improved by not just noting the facts, but being able to keep them in memory using a spaced repetition system. Im going to give it a go.

Links & Footnotes:

Anki app (ankiweb.net)

Wikipedia on space repetition systems

The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 18091882, edited by Nora Barlow. London: Collins

For more on the science, see this recent review for educators: Weinstein, Y., Madan, C. R., & Sumeracki, M. A. (2018). Teaching the science of learning. Cognitive research: principles and implications, 3(1), 2.

I note that Anki-based spaced repetition also does a side serving of retrieval practice and interleaving (other effective learning techniques).

See the article here:

Mind Hacks Neuroscience and psychology news and views.

Mind uploading in fiction – Wikipedia

Mind uploading, whole brain emulation or substrate-independent minds is a use of a computer or another substrate as an emulated human brain, and the view of thoughts and memories as software information states. The term mind transfer also refers to a hypothetical transfer of a mind from one biological brain to another. Uploaded minds and societies of minds, often in simulated realities, are recurring themes in science fiction novels and films since 1950s.

An early story featuring technological transfer of memories and personality from one brain to another is “Intelligence Undying” by Edmond Hamilton, first published in the April 1936 issue of Amazing Stories. In this story, an elderly scientist named John Hanley explains that when humans are first born, “our minds are a blank sheet except for certain reflexes which we all inherit. But from our birth onward, our minds are affected by all about us, our reflexes are conditioned, as the behaviorists say. All we experience is printed on the sheet of our minds. … Everything a human being learns, therefore, simply establishes new connections between the nerve-cells of the brain. … As I said, a newborn child has no such knowledge-connections in his cortex at allhe has not yet formed any. Now if I take that child immediately after birth and establish in his brain exactly the same web of intricate neurone-connections I have built up in my own brain, he will have exactly the same mind, memories, knowledge, as I have … his mind will be exactly identical with my mind!” He then explains he has developed a technique to do just this, saying “I’ve devised a way to scan my brain’s intricate web of neurone connections by electrical impulses, and by means of those impulses to build up an exactly identical web of neurone connections in the infant’s brain. Just as a television scanning-disk can break down a complicated picture into impulses that reproduce the picture elsewhere.” He adds that the impulses scanning his brain will kill him, but the “counter-impulses” imprinting the same pattern on the baby’s brain will not harm him. The story shows the successful transfer of John Hanley’s mind to the baby, who he describes as “John Hanley 2nd”, and then skips forward to the year 3144 to depict “John Hanley, 21st” using his advanced technology to become the ruler of the Earth in order to end a war between the two great political powers of the time, and then further ahead to “John Hanley, 416th” helping to evacuate humanity to the planet Mercury in response to the Sun shrinking into a white dwarf. He chooses to remain on Earth awaiting death, so that people would “learn once more to do for themselves, would become again a strong a self-reliant race”, with Hanley concluding that he “had been wrong in living as a single super-mind down through the ages. He saw that now, and now he was undoing that wrong.”

A story featuring human minds replicated in a computer is the novella Izzard and the Membrane by Walter M. Miller, Jr., first published in May 1951.[1] In this story, an American cyberneticist named Scott MacDonney is captured by Russians and made to work on an advanced computer, Izzard, which they plan to use to coordinate an attack on the United States. He has conversations with Izzard as he works on it, and when he asks it if it is self-aware, it says “answer indeterminate” and then asks “can human individual’s self-awareness transor be mechanically duplicated?” MacDonney is unfamiliar with the concept of a self-awareness transor (it is later revealed that this information was loaded into Izzard by a mysterious entity who may nor may not be God[2]), and Izzard defines it by saying “A self-awareness transor is the mathematical function which describes the specific consciousness pattern of one human individual.”[3] It is later found that this mathematical function can indeed be duplicated, although not by a detailed scan of the individual’s brain as in later notions of mind uploading; instead, Donney just has to describe the individual verbally in sufficient detail, and Izzard uses this information to locate the transor in the appropriate “mathematical region”. In Izzard’s words, “to duplicate consciousness of deceased, it will be necessary for you to furnish anthropometric and psychic characteristics of the individual. These characteristics will not determine transor, but will only give its general form. Knowing its form, will enable me to sweep my circuit pattern through its mathematical region until the proper transor is reached. At that point, the consciousness will appear among the circuits.”[4] Using this method, MacDonney is able to recreate the mind of his dead wife in Izzard’s memory, as well as create a virtual duplicate of himself, which seems to have a shared awareness with the biological MacDonney.

In The Altered Ego by Jerry Sohl (1954), a person’s mind can be “recorded” and used to create a “restoration” in the event of their death. In a restoration, the person’s biological body is repaired and brought back to life, and their memories are restored to the last time that they had their minds recorded (what the story calls a ‘brain record'[5]), an early example of a story in which a person can create periodic backups of their own mind which are stored in an artificial medium. The recording process is not described in great detail, but it is mentioned that the recording is used to create a duplicate or “dupe” which is stored in the “restoration bank”,[6] and at one point a lecturer says that “The experience of the years, the neurograms, simple memory circuitsneurons, if you wishstored among these nerve cells, are transferred to the dupe, a group of more than ten billion molecules in colloidal suspension. They are charged much as you would charge the plates of a battery, the small neuroelectrical impulses emanating from your brain during the recording session being duplicated on the molecular structure in the solution.”[7] During restoration, they take the dupe and “infuse it into an empty brain”,[7] and the plot turns on the fact that it is possible to install one person’s dupe in the body of a completely different person.[8]

An early example featuring uploaded minds in robotic bodies can be found in Frederik Pohl’s story “The Tunnel Under the World” from 1955.[9] In this story, the protagonist Guy Burckhardt continually wakes up on the same date from a dream of dying in an explosion. Burckhardt is already familiar with the idea of putting human minds in robotic bodies, since this is what is done with the robot workers at the nearby Contro Chemical factory. As someone has once explained it to him, “each machine was controlled by a sort of computer which reproduced, in its electronic snarl, the actual memory and mind of a human being … It was only a matter, he said, of transferring a man’s habit patterns from brain cells to vacuum-tube cells.” Later in the story, Pohl gives some additional description of the procedure: “Take a master petroleum chemist, infinitely skilled in the separation of crude oil into its fractions. Strap him down, probe into his brain with searching electronic needles. The machine scans the patterns of the mind, translates what it sees into charts and sine waves. Impress these same waves on a robot computer and you have your chemist. Or a thousand copies of your chemist, if you wish, with all of his knowledge and skill, and no human limitations at all.” After some investigation, Burckhardt learns that his entire town had been killed in a chemical explosion, and the brains of the dead townspeople had been scanned and placed into miniature robotic bodies in a miniature replica of the town (as a character explains to him, ‘It’s as easy to transfer a pattern from a dead brain as a living one’), so that a businessman named Mr. Dorchin could charge companies to use the townspeople as test subjects for new products and advertisements.

Something close to the notion of mind uploading is very briefly mentioned in Isaac Asimov’s 1956 short story The Last Question: “One by one Man fused with AC, each physical body losing its mental identity in a manner that was somehow not a loss but a gain.” A more detailed exploration of the idea (and one in which individual identity is preserved, unlike in Asimov’s story) can be found in ArthurC. Clarke’s novel The City and the Stars, also from 1956 (this novel was a revised and expanded version of Clarke’s earlier story Against the Fall of Night, but the earlier version did not contain the elements relating to mind uploading). The story is set in a city named Diaspar one billion years in the future, where the minds of inhabitants are stored as patterns of information in the city’s Central Computer in between a series of 1000-year lives in cloned bodies. Various commentators identify this story as one of the first (if not the first) to deal with mind uploading, human-machine synthesis, and computerized immortality.[10][11][12][13]

Another of the “firsts” is the novel Detta r verkligheten (This is reality), 1968, by the renowned philosopher and logician Bertil Mrtensson, a novel in which he describes people living in an uploaded state as a means to control overpopulation. The uploaded people believe that they are “alive”, but in reality they are playing elaborate and advanced fantasy games. In a twist at the end, the author changes everything into one of the best “multiverse” ideas of science fiction.

In Robert Silverberg’s To Live Again (1969), an entire worldwide economy is built up around the buying and selling of “souls” (personas that have been tape-recorded at six-month intervals), allowing well-heeled consumers the opportunity to spend tens of millions of dollars on a medical treatment that uploads the most recent recordings of archived personalities into the minds of the buyers. Federal law prevents people from buying a “personality recording” unless the possessor first had died; similarly, two or more buyers were not allowed to own a “share” of the persona. In this novel, the personality recording always went to the highest bidder. However, when one attempted to buy (and therefore possess) too many personalities, there was the risk that one of the personas would wrest control of the body from the possessor.

In the 1982 novel Software, part of the Ware Tetralogy by Rudy Rucker, one of the main characters, Cobb Anderson, has his mind downloaded and his body replaced with an extremely human-like android body. The robots who persuade Anderson into doing this sell the process to him as a way to become immortal.

In William Gibson’s award-winning Neuromancer (1984), which popularized the concept of “cyberspace”, a hacking tool used by the main character is an artificial infomorph of a notorious cyber-criminal, Dixie Flatline. The infomorph only assists in exchange for the promise that he be deleted after the mission is complete.

The fiction of Greg Egan has explored many of the philosophical, ethical, legal, and identity aspects of mind transfer, as well as the financial and computing aspects (i.e. hardware, software, processing power) of maintaining “copies.” In Egan’s Permutation City (1994), Diaspora (1997) and Zendegi (2010), “copies” are made by computer simulation of scanned brain physiology. See also Egan’s “jewelhead” stories, where the mind is transferred from the organic brain to a small, immortal backup computer at the base of the skull, the organic brain then being surgically removed.

The movie The Matrix is commonly mistaken for a mind uploading movie, but with exception to suggestions in later movies, it is only about virtual reality and simulated reality, since the main character Neo’s physical brain still is required for his mind to reside in. The mind (the information content of the brain) is not copied into an emulated brain in a computer. Neo’s physical brain is connected into the Matrix via a brain-machine interface. Only the rest of the physical body is simulated. Neo is disconnected from and reconnected to this dreamworld.

James Cameron’s 2009 movie Avatar has so far been the commercially most successful example of a work of fiction that features a form of mind uploading. Throughout most of the movie, the hero’s mind has not actually been uploaded and transferred to another body, but is simply controlling the body from a distance, a form of telepresence. However, at the end of the movie the hero’s mind is uploaded into Eywa, the mind of the planet, and then back into his Avatar body.

Mind transfer is a theme in many other works of science fiction in a wide range of media. Specific examples include the following:

Continued here:

Mind uploading in fiction – Wikipedia

Stem cell

STEM CELL SUPPLEMENTS

Stem cells are cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells.

Stem Cell Supplements are developed based on the merits of stem cells and they are applied for degenerative diseases treatments and to stimulate the formation of all the different tissues of the body: muscle, cartilage, tendon, ligament, bone, blood,nerve, organs, etc. Stem Cell Supplements bring essential health & antiaging benefits by providing necessary elements to the body to improve cellular rejuvenation, organ regeneration and tissue healing.

Continued here:

Stem cell

Stem Cell Treatment | Arizona | Stem Cell Rejuvenation Center

ADIPOSE STEM CELL THERAPIES AND TREATMENTS

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WE PLAY AN ESSENTIALROLE IN IMPROVING THE LIVESOF PATIENTS FROM AROUND THE WORLD

For Immediate Assistance please fill out he form below:

TREATABLE CONDITIONS

HAVE GENERAL QUESTIONS

Please Note: Although we have supplied links to the research journals above on the use of stem cells for specific conditions, we are not saying that any of these studies would relate to your particular condition, nor that it would even be an effective treatment. OurAutologousStem Cell Therapy is not an FDA approved treatment for any condition. We provide stem cell therapy (less than manipulated) as a service &as a practice of medicine only. Please see theFAQ pagefor more information. Thesejournal articlesare for educational purposes only &are not intended to be used to sell or promote our therapy.

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Telephone:(602) 439-0000Fax: (602) 439-0021

See the original post here:

Stem Cell Treatment | Arizona | Stem Cell Rejuvenation Center

Stem cell – Wikipedia

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. They are always and only found in the multicellular organisms.

In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cellsectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans:

Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one’s own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures.

Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.[2] Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.[3][4]

The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties:

Two mechanisms exist to ensure that a stem cell population is maintained:

1. Obligatory asymmetric replication: a stem cell divides into one mother cell that is identical to the original stem cell, and another daughter cell that is differentiated.

When a stem cell self-renews it divides and does not disrupt the undifferentiated state. This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell.[5]

2. Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original.

Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell.[6]

In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. This demonstrates that the cells can produce new blood cells over a long term. It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew.

Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew.[9][10] Stem cells can also be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers. However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells shall behave in a similar manner in vivo. There is considerable debate as to whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells.[11]

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are the cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo.[12] Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 45 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50150 cells. ESCs are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta.

During embryonic development these inner cell mass cells continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as ‘neurectoderm’, which will become the future central nervous system.[13] Later in development, neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes encephalization to generate or ‘pattern’ the basic form of the brain. At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell. These neural stem cells are pluripotent, as they can generate a large diversity of many different neuron types, each with unique gene expression, morphological, and functional characteristics. The process of generating neurons from stem cells is called neurogenesis. One prominent example of a neural stem cell is the radial glial cell, so named because it has a distinctive bipolar morphology with highly elongated processes spanning the thickness of the neural tube wall, and because historically it shared some glial characteristics, most notably the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).[14][15] The radial glial cell is the primary neural stem cell of the developing vertebrate CNS, and its cell body resides in the ventricular zone, adjacent to the developing ventricular system. Neural stem cells are committed to the neuronal lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes), and thus their potency is restricted.[13]

Nearly all research to date has made use of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES) derived from the early inner cell mass. Both have the essential stem cell characteristics, yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state. Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin as an extracellular matrix (for support) and require the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in serum media. A drug cocktail containing inhibitors to GSK3B and the MAPK/ERK pathway, called 2i, has also been shown to maintain pluripotency in stem cell culture.[16] Human ESCs are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and require the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2).[17] Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation,[18] embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate.

A human embryonic stem cell is also defined by the expression of several transcription factors and cell surface proteins. The transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 form the core regulatory network that ensures the suppression of genes that lead to differentiation and the maintenance of pluripotency.[19] The cell surface antigens most commonly used to identify hES cells are the glycolipids stage specific embryonic antigen 3 and 4 and the keratan sulfate antigens Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. By using human embryonic stem cells to produce specialized cells like nerve cells or heart cells in the lab, scientists can gain access to adult human cells without taking tissue from patients. They can then study these specialized adult cells in detail to try and catch complications of diseases, or to study cells reactions to potentially new drugs. The molecular definition of a stem cell includes many more proteins and continues to be a topic of research.[20]

There are currently no approved treatments using embryonic stem cells. The first human trial was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009.[21] However, the human trial was not initiated until October 13, 2010 in Atlanta for spinal cord injury research. On November 14, 2011 the company conducting the trial (Geron Corporation) announced that it will discontinue further development of its stem cell programs.[22] ES cells, being pluripotent cells, require specific signals for correct differentiationif injected directly into another body, ES cells will differentiate into many different types of cells, causing a teratoma. Differentiating ES cells into usable cells while avoiding transplant rejection are just a few of the hurdles that embryonic stem cell researchers still face.[23] Due to ethical considerations, many nations currently have moratoria or limitations on either human ES cell research or the production of new human ES cell lines. Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease.[24]

Human embryonic stem cell colony on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer

The primitive stem cells located in the organs of fetuses are referred to as fetal stem cells.[25]There are two types of fetal stem cells:

Adult stem cells, also called somatic (from Greek , “of the body”) stem cells, are stem cells which maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.[27] They can be found in children, as well as adults.[28]

Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number, but they can be found in umbilical cord blood and other tissues.[29] Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells,[30] which have been used in treating several conditions including liver cirrhosis,[31] chronic limb ischemia [32] and endstage heart failure.[33] The quantity of bone marrow stem cells declines with age and is greater in males than females during reproductive years.[34] Much adult stem cell research to date has aimed to characterize their potency and self-renewal capabilities.[35] DNA damage accumulates with age in both stem cells and the cells that comprise the stem cell environment. This accumulation is considered to be responsible, at least in part, for increasing stem cell dysfunction with aging (see DNA damage theory of aging).[36]

Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).[37][38] Muse cells (multi-lineage differentiating stress enduring cells) are a recently discovered pluripotent stem cell type found in multiple adult tissues, including adipose, dermal fibroblasts, and bone marrow. While rare, muse cells are identifiable by their expression of SSEA-3, a marker for undifferentiated stem cells, and general mesenchymal stem cells markers such as CD105. When subjected to single cell suspension culture, the cells will generate clusters that are similar to embryoid bodies in morphology as well as gene expression, including canonical pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog.[39]

Adult stem cell treatments have been successfully used for many years to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants.[40] Adult stem cells are also used in veterinary medicine to treat tendon and ligament injuries in horses.[41]

The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Additionally, in instances where adult stem cells are obtained from the intended recipient (an autograft), the risk of rejection is essentially non-existent. Consequently, more US government funding is being provided for adult stem cell research.[42]

Multipotent stem cells are also found in amniotic fluid. These stem cells are very active, expand extensively without feeders and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, hepatic and also neuronal lines.[43]Amniotic stem cells are a topic of active research.

Use of stem cells from amniotic fluid overcomes the ethical objections to using human embryos as a source of cells. Roman Catholic teaching forbids the use of embryonic stem cells in experimentation; accordingly, the Vatican newspaper “Osservatore Romano” called amniotic stem cells “the future of medicine”.[44]

It is possible to collect amniotic stem cells for donors or for autologuous use: the first US amniotic stem cells bank [45][46] was opened in 2009 in Medford, MA, by Biocell Center Corporation[47][48][49] and collaborates with various hospitals and universities all over the world.[50]

Adult stem cells have limitations with their potency; unlike embryonic stem cells (ESCs), they are not able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. As such, they are deemed multipotent.

However, reprogramming allows for the creation of pluripotent cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), from adult cells. These are not adult stem cells, but adult cells (e.g. epithelial cells) reprogrammed to give rise to cells with pluripotent capabilities. Using genetic reprogramming with protein transcription factors, pluripotent stem cells with ESC-like capabilities have been derived.[51][52][53] The first demonstration of induced pluripotent stem cells was conducted by Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues at Kyoto University.[54] They used the transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 to reprogram mouse fibroblast cells into pluripotent cells.[51][55] Subsequent work used these factors to induce pluripotency in human fibroblast cells.[56] Junying Yu, James Thomson, and their colleagues at the University of WisconsinMadison used a different set of factors, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28, and carried out their experiments using cells from human foreskin.[51][57] However, they were able to replicate Yamanaka’s finding that inducing pluripotency in human cells was possible.

Induced pluripotent stem cells differ from embryonic stem cells. They share many similar properties, such as pluripotency and differentiation potential, the expression of pluripotency genes, epigenetic patterns, embryoid body and teratoma formation, and viable chimera formation,[54][55] but there are many differences within these properties. The chromatin of iPSCs appears to be more “closed” or methylated than that of ESCs.[54][55] Similarly, the gene expression pattern between ESCs and iPSCs, or even iPSCs sourced from different origins.[54] There are thus questions about the “completeness” of reprogramming and the somatic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells. Despite this, inducing adult cells to be pluripotent appears to be viable.

As a result of the success of these experiments, Ian Wilmut, who helped create the first cloned animal Dolly the Sheep, has announced that he will abandon somatic cell nuclear transfer as an avenue of research.[58]

Furthermore, induced pluripotent stem cells provide several therapeutic advantages. Like ESCs, they are pluripotent. They thus have great differentiation potential; theoretically, they could produce any cell within the human body (if reprogramming to pluripotency was “complete”).[54] Moreover, unlike ESCs, they potentially could allow doctors to create a pluripotent stem cell line for each individual patient.[59] Frozen blood samples can be used as a valuable source of induced pluripotent stem cells.[60] Patient specific stem cells allow for the screening for side effects before drug treatment, as well as the reduced risk of transplantation rejection.[59] Despite their current limited use therapeutically, iPSCs hold create potential for future use in medical treatment and research.

To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties. Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before terminally differentiating into a mature cell. It is possible that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells.[61]

An alternative theory is that stem cells remain undifferentiated due to environmental cues in their particular niche. Stem cells differentiate when they leave that niche or no longer receive those signals. Studies in Drosophila germarium have identified the signals decapentaplegic and adherens junctions that prevent germarium stem cells from differentiating.[62][63]

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is a form of stem cell therapy that has been used for many years without controversy.[64][65]

Stem cell treatments may lower symptoms of the disease or condition that is being treated. The lowering of symptoms may allow patients to reduce the drug intake of the disease or condition. Stem cell treatment may also provide knowledge for society to further stem cell understanding and future treatments.[66]

Stem cell treatments may require immunosuppression because of a requirement for radiation before the transplant to remove the person’s previous cells, or because the patient’s immune system may target the stem cells. One approach to avoid the second possibility is to use stem cells from the same patient who is being treated.

Pluripotency in certain stem cells could also make it difficult to obtain a specific cell type. It is also difficult to obtain the exact cell type needed, because not all cells in a population differentiate uniformly. Undifferentiated cells can create tissues other than desired types.[67]

Some stem cells form tumors after transplantation;[68] pluripotency is linked to tumor formation especially in embryonic stem cells, fetal proper stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. Fetal proper stem cells form tumors despite multipotency.[69]

Some of the fundamental patents covering human embryonic stem cells are owned by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) they are patents 5,843,780, 6,200,806, and 7,029,913 invented by James A. Thomson. WARF does not enforce these patents against academic scientists, but does enforce them against companies.[70]

In 2006, a request for the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to re-examine the three patents was filed by the Public Patent Foundation on behalf of its client, the non-profit patent-watchdog group Consumer Watchdog (formerly the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights).[70] In the re-examination process, which involves several rounds of discussion between the USPTO and the parties, the USPTO initially agreed with Consumer Watchdog and rejected all the claims in all three patents,[71] however in response, WARF amended the claims of all three patents to make them more narrow, and in 2008 the USPTO found the amended claims in all three patents to be patentable. The decision on one of the patents (7,029,913) was appealable, while the decisions on the other two were not.[72][73] Consumer Watchdog appealed the granting of the ‘913 patent to the USPTO’s Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI) which granted the appeal, and in 2010 the BPAI decided that the amended claims of the ‘913 patent were not patentable.[74] However, WARF was able to re-open prosecution of the case and did so, amending the claims of the ‘913 patent again to make them more narrow, and in January 2013 the amended claims were allowed.[75]

In July 2013, Consumer Watchdog announced that it would appeal the decision to allow the claims of the ‘913 patent to the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC), the federal appeals court that hears patent cases.[76] At a hearing in December 2013, the CAFC raised the question of whether Consumer Watchdog had legal standing to appeal; the case could not proceed until that issue was resolved.[77]

Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is being investigated include:

Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions, diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.[93] Research is also underway in generating organoids using stem cells, which would allow for further understanding of human development, organogenesis, and modeling of human diseases.[94]

In more recent years, with the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, and with scientists’ growing ability to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells, controversy has crept in, both related to abortion politics and to human cloning.

Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury account for a substantial number of failures of new drugs in development and market withdrawal, highlighting the need for screening assays such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process.[95]

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Stem cell – Wikipedia

Stem Cells in Milwaukee, WI | Wisconsin Stem Cell Therapy

Dave, age 68, avid hunter and snow skier, his orthopedic surgeon suggested that he would need knee replacement surgery. He instead found relief through our powerful Stem Cell Therapy treatment protocol.

He said about his knee after our treatment, It is 85% better than when I walked in. I would recommend the procedure before trying anything else.

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Stem Cells in Milwaukee, WI | Wisconsin Stem Cell Therapy

Home – Stem Cell Therapy in Orlando, Florida

A Breakthrough Technology

Stem Cell Therapy is a procedure in which new cells are introduced directly into an injurious area or joint, promoting healing and growth. The multitude of administered cells allows the body to proceed with the healing process at an accelerated rate. This treatment has been recognized by the medical industry worldwide as the biggest medical breakthrough in natural healing. Athletes such as Kobe Bryant, Alex Rodriguez and Peyton Manning have traveled abroad for this unique treatment. And now, SCI brings this same solution to you right here in Florida.

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Stem Cell Therapy & Treatment Center | TruStem Cell Therapy

Patient-Centric Care

At TruStem Cell Therapy, we focus on patient-centric care that has the potential to improve the quality of the patients life with less risk of complication.

Some patients experience mild soreness after harvesting and bruising that clears up quickly. The therapy can takes 1 day to complete. This is a same day procedure. The visit is 3 days.

Adult stem cell therapy for chronic disease is a safe and effective therapy to improve disease-related symptoms. Thus, patients with conditions such as stroke, osteoarthritis, inflammatory bowel disease or critical limb ischemia may feel better and live fuller lives.

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Stem Cell Therapy & Treatment Center | TruStem Cell Therapy

Stem Cell Therapy for Anti-Aging and Sexual Performance …

Stem Cell Therapy has been around for quite some time, but due to high cost it was primarily used for recovery in athletes and the financial elite. However, with the progression of science and knowledge, stem cell therapy has become much more widely used and financially attainable.

Tampa Rejuvenation is the first in Tampa Bay to utilize the benefits of stem cell therapy for the purpose of anti-aging and sexual performance. We realize as our patients age, their bodies no longer have the regenerative properties to attain the desired results from using their growth factors alone as with our PRP, or Plasma Rich Platelet, therapy. Although many patients will still yield improvement with the PRP alone, the magnitude of cytokines and growth factors in your blood as you age will deplete with age. By implementing stem cell therapy, the number of growth factors are exponential allowing our bodies to regenerate on a magnitude that is otherwise unattainable with some results lasting for 3-5 years.

Stem Cell Therapy can be used to restore vitality to the skin, encourage the growth of hair, and even restore sexual performance and pleasure.

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Stem Cell Therapy for Anti-Aging and Sexual Performance …

NSI Stem Cell | What Is Stem Cell Therapy?

This innovative therapy option for alleviating pain and restoring function in the body could be the answer youve been looking for! We know you may have tried everything, and may have seen numerous doctors to take care of your condition, without real success. This can be very frustrating and can cause a lot of stress on you and your family. It is very important to your recovery to find someone that understands your journey and what you have been through along the way.

You may have been through the ringer with your injury or condition. Many of our patients have spent years getting their hopes up, and then getting their hopes dashed.

Stem Cell Therapy is about using your bodys own stem cells to regenerate damagedtissue. So if you, or someone you love, is suffering please read on to find out who can be helped and how.

Our Stem Cell Therapy is an innovative therapy that is recommendedfor a wide variety of chronic conditions, yet many people are learning about it now for the first time.

These are not embryonic stem cells or cells from fetuses.These regenerative cells come straight from your own body.

They are extracted just a few hours before theyre injected back into your body and put to work to heal damaged or dysfunctional tissue.

We use a variety of stem cells derived from the patients own tissues. Our preferred choice is bone marrow or fat because the cells there are multi-potent which means that they have the ability to differentiate into muscle, tendons, ligaments, bone, and cartilage. Once introduced into the damaged or diseased area, the stem cells can then heal your damaged tissue and regenerate new healthy tissue.

Stem Cell Therapy offers significant potential for the healing of tissues that have become injured as a result of the aging process.

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NSI Stem Cell | What Is Stem Cell Therapy?

Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoarthritis – StemGenex

Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoarthritis

New treatments and advances in research are giving new hope to people affected by Osteoarthritis pain and symptoms. StemGenex provides stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis to help those with unmet clinical needs achieve optimum health and better quality of life.

Stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis is being studied for efficacy in improving the complications in patients through the use of their own stem cells. These procedures may help patients who dont respond to typical drug treatment, want to reduce their reliance on medication, or are looking to try stem cell therapy before starting drug treatment.

To learn more about becoming a patient and receiving stem cell therapy for Osteoarthritis through StemGenex, please contact one of our patient advocates at (800) 609-7795 or fill out the contact form on this page.Below are some frequently asked questions about stem cell treatment for Osteoarthritis.

The majority of complications in Osteoarthritis patients are related to the deterioration of cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in your joints. Cartilage is a firm, slippery tissue that permits nearly frictionless joint motion. In Osteoarthritis, this surface become rough. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, patients will be left with bone rubbing on bone.

Stem cell treatment provided by StemGenex is designed to target these areas within the joints to help with the creation of new cartilage cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent and have the ability to differentiate into cartilage called (chondrytes). The goal of each stem cell treatment is to inject the stem cells into the joint to create cartilage (chondryte cells). Stem cells are a natural anti-inflammatories which can assist with Osteoarthritis pain and swelling in the joint area.

Stem cells are the basic building blocks of human tissue and have the ability to repair, rebuild, and rejuvenate tissues in the body. When a disease or injury strikes, stem cells respond to specific signals and set about to facilitate the healing process by differentiating into specialized cells required for the bodys repair.

There are four known types of stem cells which include:

StemGenex provides autologous adult stem cells (from fat tissue) where the stem cells come from the person receiving treatment.

StemGenex provides autologous adult adipose-derived stem cells (from fat tissue) where the stem cells come from the person receiving treatment.

We tap into our bodys stem cell reserve daily to repair and replace damaged or diseased tissue. When the bodys reserve is limited and as it becomes depleted, the regenerative power of our body decreases and we succumb to disease and injury.

Three sources of stem cells from a patients body are used clinically which include adipose tissue (fat), bone marrow and peripheral blood.

Performed by Board Certified Physicians, dormant stem cells are extracted from the patients adipose tissue (fat) through a minimally invasive mini-liposuction procedure with little to no downtime.

During the liposuction procedure, a small area (typically the abdomen) is numbed with an anesthetic and patients receive mild to moderate sedation. Next, the extracted dormant stem cells are isolated from the fat and activated, and then comfortably infused back into the patient intravenously (IV) and via other directly targeted methods of administration. The out-patient procedure takes approximately four to five hours.

StemGenex provides multiple administration methods for Osteoarthritis patients to best target the disease related conditions and symptoms which include:

Since each condition and patient are unique, there is no guarantee of what results will be achieved or how quickly they may be observed. According to patient feedback, many patients report results in one to three months, however, it may take as long as six to nine months. Individuals interested in stem cell therapy are urged to consult with their physician before choosing investigational autologous adipose-derived stem cell therapy as a treatment option.

In order to determine if you are a good candidate for adult stem cell treatment, you will need to complete a medical history form which will be provided by your StemGenex Patient Advocate. Once you complete and submit your medical history form, our medical team will review your records and determine if you are a qualified candidate for adult stem cell therapy.

StemGenex team members are here to help assist and guide you through the patient process.

Patients travel to StemGenex treatment center located in San Diego, California for stem cell treatment from all over the United States, Canada and around the globe. Treatment will consist of one visit lasting a total of three days. The therapy is minimally invasive and there is little to no down time. Majority of patients fly home the day after treatment.

We provide stem cell therapy for a wide variety of diseases and conditions for which traditional treatment offers less than optimal options. Some conditions include Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Osteoarthritis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

The side effects of the mini-liposuction procedure are minimal and may include but are not limited to: minor swelling, bruising and redness at the procedure site, minor fever, headache, or nausea. However, these side effects typically last no longer than 24 hours and are experienced mostly by people with sensitivity to mild anesthesia. No long-term negative side effects or risks have been reported.

The side effects of adipose-derived stem cell therapy are minimal and may include but are not limited to: infection, minor bleeding at the treatment sites and localized pain. However, these side effects typically last no longer than 24 hours. No long-term negative side effects or risks have been reported.

StemGenex provides adult stem cell treatment with mesenchymal stem cells which come from the person receiving treatment. Embryonic stem cells are typically associated with ethical and political controversies.

Stem cell treatment is not FDA approved.

Stem cell for arthritis treatment is not covered by health insurance at this time. The cost for standard preoperative labs are included. Additional specific labs may be requested at the patients expense.

Osteoarthritis, or degenerative joint disease, is the most common type of arthritis. It is caused by the degradation of a joints cartilage. Cartilage is a firm, rubbery material that covers and cushions the ends of bones in normal joints. Its main function is to reduce friction in the joints and serve as an intermediary or cushion.

Over time, the cartilage may wear away in some areas, greatly decreasing its ability to act as a shock absorber. As the cartilage wears away, tendons and ligaments stretch, causing pain. In advanced cases, the bones could rub against each other, causing even more pain and loss of movement.

Osteoarthritis is very common in middle-aged and older people, and its symptoms can range from very mild to very severe. The disorder most often affects hands and weight-bearing joints such as knees, hips, feet and shoulders, but can affect almost any joint in the body.

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Stem Cell Therapy for Osteoarthritis – StemGenex

Stem Cell Research & Therapy | Home page

“Stem cells have enormous potential for alleviating suffering for many diseases which currently have no effective therapy. The field has progressed to the clinic and it is important that this pathway is underpinned by excellent science and rigorous standards of clinical research. The journal provides an important avenue of publication in translational aspects of stem cell therapy spanning preclinical studies, clinical research and commercialization.”

Timothy O’Brien,Editor-in-Chief,Stem Cell Research & Therapy

“The study of stem cells is one of the most exciting areas of contemporary biomedical research. We believe that Stem Cell Research & Therapy will act as a highly active forum for both basic and translational research into stem cell biology and therapies. Specifically, by developing this forum for cutting edge research, we hope that Stem Cell Research & Therapy will play a significant role in bringing together the critical information to synergize stem cell science with stem cell therapies.”

Rocky S Tuan,Editor-in-Chief,Stem Cell Research & Therapy

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Stem Cell Therapy | Advanced Regenerative Orthopedics

Stem Cell Therapy involves the use of stem cells to stimulate the bodys natural repair mechanisms to repair, regenerate or replace damaged cells, tissues and organs. This physician-directed therapy is very safe, ethical and does not entail the use of any fetal or embryonic cells or tissue. It has been described as the future of medicine by many prestigious groups including the National Institutes of Health and the Institute of Medicine.

The field of Stem Cell Therapy continues to evolve, focusing on cures rather than just treatments for essentially all types of chronic diseases and conditions, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, as well as various forms of arthritis and various orthopedic problems. When cells are transplanted into a patient, they do not stay for more than a few days. However, the cells provide a large and robust stimulus to turn on native repair mechanisms. The number of stem cells present in the body and their functional capacity to repair damaged tissue declines with each advancing decade of life, and chronic diseases further impede their ability to respond to chronic injury or damage in the body. This is why research has led to new solutions, which include the use of umbilical cord blood as the source of cells, which have the most potent ability to generate new tissues without risk of rejection. We at Advanced Regenerative Orthopedics use stem cells that are supplied by an FDA-registered cord blood bank.

Stem Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering are much simpler and effective options that use very powerful young cells to stimulate the patients own native repair mechanisms to regenerate new cartilage and bone. The physician-directed treatment at ARO is a comprehensive approach to a specific joint with the goal of reducing the disabling pain and increasing function.

At Advanced Regenerative Orthopedics, our goal is to provide minimally invasive treatments along with regenerative techniques to target your bodys natural healing ability. Used as part of our innovative, three-tiered approach, physician-directed arthritis stem cell treatment can help patients of all ages get pain relief, increase their joint mobility and enjoy a higher quality of life.

Stem cell therapy can be an effective treatment for those suffering from a broad range of arthritic conditions. By using stem cells for arthritis, Advanced Regenerative Orthopedics stimulates your bodys natural mechanism to repair, regenerate and replace damaged cells within your joints.

If you live in Tampa, Brandon, St. Petersburg, Clearwater, Lakeland, Sarasota, The Villages, Ocala, or the surrounding areas and are interested in learning more about using stem cells for arthritis or any other joint condition, please contact our courteous and efficient office staff today to schedule an appointment. We look forward to discussing the benefits of physician-directed arthritis stem cell treatment with you and determining the best course of treatment to restore your joint health.

As many of our patients travel to us from outside the state of Florida for our world class procedures, our team is very familiar with managing the care & travel for remote patients.

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Stem Cell Therapy | Advanced Regenerative Orthopedics

Stem Cell Therapy for Arthritis

Experts are researching ways to use stem cells to treat arthritis in the knee and other joints. Many doctors already use stem cell therapy to treat arthritis, but it is not considered standard practice.

Stem cell therapy is one of several non-surgical treatments for arthritis pain. See Knee Osteoarthritis Treatment

There is a lot of debate around stem cell treatment, and it is helpful for potential patients to understand what stem cells are and the issues surrounding their use in arthritis therapy.

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Stem cells are located throughout the body. What makes stem cells special is that they can:

See What Are Stem Cells?

Advocates of stem cell treatments hypothesize that, when placed into a certain environment, stem cells can transform to accommodate a certain need. For example, stem cells that are placed near damaged cartilage are hypothesized to develop into cartilage tissue.

See What Is Cartilage?

Stem cells can be applied during a surgery (such as the surgical repair of a torn knee meniscus) or delivered through injections directly into the arthritis joint.

Watch: Knee Meniscus Tear Video

When administering stem cell injections, many physicians use medical imaging, such as ultrasound, in order to deliver cells precisely to the site of cartilage damage.

The most common type of stem cells used for treating arthritis are mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells are usually collected from the patients fat tissue, blood, or bone marrow.

The process of collecting cells is often called harvesting.

Bone marrow is usually taken from the pelvic bone using a needle and syringe, a process called bone marrow aspiration. The patient is given a local anesthetic and may also be given a sedative before the procedure.

There are no professional medical guidelines for who can and cannot receive stem cell therapy for arthritis. For now, the decision about who gets stem cell therapy is up to patients and doctors.

See Arthritis Treatment Specialists

There is some evidence that people with severe arthritis can benefit from stem cell therapy.1 Most research indicates that younger patients who have relatively mild osteoarthritis or cartilage damage see the most benefit.2

See What Is Osteoarthritis?

Some doctors have certain criteria for recommending stem cell therapy. For example, they only recommend it to patients who are healthy and have relatively little cartilage damage. Other doctors make recommendations on a case-by-case basis.

Stem cell therapy is a promising but still unproven treatment, and will not be covered by most insurance companies.

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Stem Cell Therapy for Arthritis

National Stem Cell Centers | Stem Cell Therapy in New York …

At National Stem Cell Centers, our affiliate physicians focus on leading edge, regenerative medicine. Instead of synthetic compounds, prescription medications, or surgical procedures, they activate your own natural cellular resources to promote healing.

Our goal is to allow patients access to this potentially revolutionary form of treatment to harness your bodys natural healing cascade mechanism for the repair of damaged tissues.

Adult mesenchymal stem cells are a form of undifferentiated cells. These kinds of stem cells are found in great abundance within abdominal adipose (fatty) tissue and bone marrow. Lying dormant (non-replicating), these remarkably intelligent cells can be activated to become other kinds of cells specific to tendons, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and bone.

This means that regenerative cell therapies can be helpful in reducing pain, chronic inflammation, and the mitigation of some degenerative disease states.

At National Stem Cell Centers, our affiliated physicians utilize autologous stem cells harvested from your own tissue, without any form of artificial cellular manipulation, enzymes, expansion or multiplication.

Conditions Addressed

Anecdotal evidence including patient feedback suggests that stem cell procedures may be helpful in addressing conditions and injuries such as joint pain including knee pain, arthritis, osteoarthritis, back pain, and chronic inflammation.

As technology evolves, autoimmune and neurological disorders, orthopedic and urological conditions, heart and lung diseases, erectile dysfunction (ED), hair loss, cellular rejuvenation, autism, and aesthetics could be addressed as well.

Why National Stem Cell Centers?

There are many reasons you should choose our affiliated physicians including:- Our doctors are surgeons, not ordinary physicians- FDA registered tissue processing lab- No multiplication/duplication/expansion of cells- Numerous happy patients as evidenced by our 5 Star Reviews- IND and IRB Applications in preparation- Initiating participation in clinical trials- Affordable prices- Zero percent financing

Call today to find out if you are a candidate and to schedule a complimentary consultation. National Stem Cell Centers has affiliate physicians in New York City, Great Neck, Hauppauge and Southampton, Long Island, New Jersey, Dallas and Houston in Texas, and Newport Beach, California.

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Is Stem Cell Therapy Covered by Medicare?

Stem cell therapy has been a hot topic in the press lately. With more and more medical providers offering stem cell treatments, patients around the country have been wondering, Is Stem Cell Therapy covered by Medicare.

Stem Cell research has shown that its an effective treatment for chronic joint pain and arthritis sufferers and more recent studies are starting to show the benefit for treatment of neurological disorders as well. (M.S., Parkinsons, and Stroke)

So the team at Stem Cell: The Magazine, have put together some information to answer this question of insurance coverage for potential medical enrollees seeking stem cell and regenerative treatments.

So what is the answer to Does Medicare cover Stem Cell therapy?

From the research that we have pulled up regarding Medicare Insurance Coverage for stem cell therapy; medicare does cover stem cell treatments, but not for some of the chronic degenerative conditions that regenerative treatments (stem cell therapy) can help them with.

You can see in this publication from BCBS that stem cell therapy is covered for the following conditions:

INDICATIONS FOR COVERAGE

Section 2.aAllogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) eligible for coverage in the following:a) The treatment of leukemiab) The treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) and for the treatment of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.ORc) The treatment of Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) pursuant to Coverage with Evidence Development (CED) in the context of a Medicare-approved, prospective clinical study.3. Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation(AuSCT) is eligible for coverage in the following:a) Acute leukemia in remission who have a high probability of relapse and whohave no human leucocyte antigens (HLA)-matched;ORb) Resistant non-Hodgkins lymphomas or those presenting with poor prognosticfeatures following an initial response;ORc) Recurrent or refractory neuroblastoma;ORd) Advanced Hodgkins disease who have failed conventional therapy and have no HLA-matched donor.

You can see that outside of the listed conditions above, Medicare does not cover stem cell therapy for treatments joint conditions or neurological conditions that patients are more commonly seeking treatment for.

In this article, it clearly states that stem cell therapy for the coverage of orthopedic conditions is not covered:

The orthopedic application of stem-cell therapy is not addressed within the stem cell transplantation NCD. (NCD = National Care Determinations)

What this means for any patient that is looking to receive regenerative and stem cell treatments for orthopedic conditions such as:

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Medicare will not cover treatment for these conditions. In fact, most major medical carriers will not provide coverage for these treatments either.

Many chronic joint pain sufferers wonder why Medicare and most major carriers dont provide coverage for these treatments if they are so effective, but there is a simple answer for why this is.

Medicare and most major health insurance are for emergency conditions. Regenerative medicine is still considered an elective treatment, close to wellness care. Insurance carriers are not in the business of providing wellness for coverage for their participants.

We found a great video that explains more about this by John R Hoffman at Arcadia University. In it he describes the challenges of Medicare coverage for Stem Cell Therapy.

Our hope at Stem Cell: The Magazine is that as more and more patients continue to seek out treatment of their orthopedic and neurological conditions using stem cell and regenerative treatments, that Mediare and major health insurances will accept stem cell as the first treatment for these chronic conditions.

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Is Stem Cell Therapy Covered by Medicare? was last modified: October 3rd, 2018 by Stem Cell The Magazine

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Is Stem Cell Therapy Covered by Medicare?

15 Stem Cell Therapy For Pain Questions, Answered

Stem cell therapy is an exciting area of research that holds tremendous potential for helping chronic pain patients reduce their pain. Rapid advances in this field of medicine are buoying doctors and patients hopes that the exciting therapy could change lives. Advances are being made nearly every day, and as scientists further understand the nature of these cells, even more uses for them are becoming known. If youve ever wondered about how stem cell therapy for pain could help you, these 15 questions delve into how this therapy works and who it could be used for.

Science has a strong interest in stem cells because of their renewing properties and the ability of these cells to develop into any type of tissue in the body of the organism. Researchers believe that they have the potential for immeasurable clinical uses in health. Research is advancing many stem cell based therapies for people who suffer from diseases such as:

Mayo Clinic explains how this therapy works:

Stem cell therapy, also known as regenerative medicine, promotes the reparative response of diseased, dysfunctional or injured tissue using stem cells or their derivativesResearchers grow stem cells in a lab. These stem cells are manipulated to specialize into specific types of cells, such as heart muscle cells, blood cells or nerve cells. The specialized cells can then be implanted into a person.

Stem cell therapy is actually a type of treatment within the larger umbrella of regenerative medicine. Our longer post on regenerative medicine discusses the types of treatments available, including stem cell therapy and platelet-rich plasma injections.

Stem cells are essentially blank canvases that can transform into any type of cell in the human body. Specialized cells like bone cells, liver cells, and heart cells begin as stem cells. The process of the cells transforming from blank slates into specialized cells is called differentiation.

Stem cell therapy is the process of injecting these cells into damaged areas of the body, such as arthritic knees or shoulders. The stem cells then differentiate into damaged tissue, helping to regenerate the entire area.

There are two different types of natural stem cells and one that is genetically reprogrammed within the laboratory. Embryonic stem cells are the most immature and are found within the early stages of a growing embryo, usually after it has been left to develop five to six days. After the egg and sperm have united, the fertilized egg divides and creates stem cells that differentiate into the specialized cells the body requires to function. Many techniques using stem cells for pain therapies no longer rely on these types of stem cells.

The second type of stem cell, found naturally in organisms, is adult stem cells. These are present in developed tissue, such as muscle, skin, bone, brain, and blood. Also called tissue stem cells, they can self-renew and generate one specialized cell type. Under normal circumstances these tissue stem cells, or adult stem cells, will generate the type of cells that make up the organ in which they reside. These cells are used by the body to divide and repair injured areas or regenerate into specialized cells to replace the ones that are dead or damaged.

The third type of stem cells, which are genetically reprogrammed in the laboratory, are induced pluripotent stem cells. After years of stem cell research and development, it was discovered that artificially triggering certain genetic components would prompt different cells to become pluripotent stem cells, which were similar in nature to embryonic stem cells. This helps avoid ethical concerns associated with using human embryonic tissue for research and regenerative medicine.

The following video from an Arizona pain doctor goes into detail about how stem cell therapy for pain works.

There are twomajor types of stem cells: those harvested from adults and those harvested from embryonic tissues.

However, there are other ways to retrieve stem cells that reduce the use of embryonic stem cells, including:

As the Euro Stem Cell organization reports, some of these types of stem cells are more effective than others.

One source of stem cells is human embryos. These cells are called pluripotent stem cells, and theyre very useful to researchers because they can be multiplied indefinitely in the laboratory. Although these cells are often cultivated from embryos that are just a few days old, they can also be taken from fetal tissue thats older than eight weeks, according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

The majority of therapeutic stem cells come from adults. Even though embryos are the richest source of stem cells, humans of all ages have stem cells. Stem cells give adults the ability to replace damaged tissue, heal wounds, and grow hair.The patients own adult stem cells are extracted, purified, concentrated, and then injected into the damaged tissue. This process is usually non-surgical and the individual has very little recovery time. Most patients report only some soreness around the site of the injection. Sometimes there is also slight bruising. There have been no reports of serious side effects from treatments using stem cell therapy.

Newer research has given scientists the ability to reprogram specialized adult cells so they essentially return to their original stem cell state. These reprogrammed cells are known as induced pluripotent stem cells. Although this ability exists, scientists arent sure how or if these artificially created stem cells behave differently than other types.

Despite these unknowns, the reprogrammed stem cells are already being used in the development of medicines and helping scientists learn more about specific types of diseases, according to NIH.

Stem cells have many uses, and the full spectrum of their application isnt yet known. One way stem cells are helping researchers is by illuminating the inner workings of various diseases. Stem cells offer scientists the ability to model human disease progression in a laboratory setting.

This is exciting because many studies rely on animals with similar, but not exact, biology to humans. The more scientists can understand about human-specific disease progression, the greater insight they have regarding potential treatments.

For example, one of the earliest uses for stem cells were bone marrow transplants, used to help patients with leukemia or sickle cell anemia heal. This treatment has been used for more than 40 years. In addition, stem cell therapy may be used to treat:

The application of most interest to chronicpatients is likely the emerging field of regenerative medicine, which is the science of helping tissues regenerate. This field examines the potential of stem cells to repair damaged tissue and heal areas of the body bone and potentially organs, too affected by arthritis, diabetes, spinal cord injuries, nerve damage, Parkinsons disease, and more.

Exciting research has also uncovered the potential for stem cells to expand the number of lungs available for transplant. A portion of lungs available for transplant arent used because they become damaged. However, research from the American Physiological Society has found stem cells could help repair the organs and prepare them to save lives.

Other recent researchstories include:

For many of the studies underway, time is needed to fully examine the benefits and potential dangers of this treatment. Another obstacle is obtaining specific types of adult stem cells. Theyre difficult to grow in the laboratory, making it hard to produce the large numbers available for research.

Another potential issue with donor stem cells is the possibility of rejection. The immune system of the recipient could reject the cells, essentially making it difficult for the treatment to work as intended and causing ancillary problems.

Finally, since this is such a new treatment area, some government agencies are calling for more oversight of its use. Others are pushing back, claiming that stem cell therapy provides a new area of treatment for patients who have exhausted all other options.

That being said, even though there are complications and roadblocks to its use, the benefits of stem cell therapy could be huge. As the American Academy of Anti-Aging Medicine notes:

[A]n analysis of the potential benefits of stem cells based therapies indicates that 128 million people in the United States alone may benefit with the largest impact on patients with Cardiovascular disorders (5.5 million), autoimmune disorders (35 million) and diabetes (16 million US patients and more than 217 million worldwide).

Californias Stem Cell Agency gives a great overview of this process, noting:

In order to be approved by the FDA for use in human trials, stem cells must be grown in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Under GMP standards, a cell line has to be manufactured so that each group of cells is grown in an identical, repeatable, sterile environment. This ensures that each batch of cells has the same properties, and each person getting a stem cell therapy gets an equivalent treatment. Although the FDA hasnt yet issued guidelines for how pluripotent stem cells need to meet GMP standards, achieving this level of consistency could mean knowing the exact identity and quantity of every component involved in growing the cells.

Stem cell therapy is being studied for a number of chronic pain conditions, especiallypain in the:

Stem cell therapy for pain could help reduce the inflammation that results in chronic pain, or it could help to heal regenerative conditions that lead to pain, such as arthritis.

Using stem cell therapy for knee pain is one of the leading areas of research. Stem cell therapy for knees can be provided as stem cell injections or as blood platelet treatments from the body itself (another form of regenerative medicine).These two treatments may help relieve pain associated with:

The leading researchers on stem cell therapy for knee pain claim that it can help patients avoid surgery, with its associated costs and risks.

Since stem cell therapy promises to treat a number of conditions related to degenerative conditions, like arthritis and tendonitis, stem cell therapy may present a great treat option for hip pain related to these causes.

The National Multiple Sclerosis Society is leading the efforts in research, but currently reports the following:

At present, there are no approved stem cell therapies for MS. Larger, longer-term, controlled studies are needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of using stem cells to treat MS. When the results of these and subsequent clinical trials are available, it should be possible to determine what the optimal cells, delivery methods, safety and actual effectiveness of these current experimental therapies might be for different people with MS.

Potentially. One of our sister clinics, Arizona Pain, is participating in a study evaluating the potential of stem cells to reduce back pain related to degenerative disc disease. This progressive condition sometimes results from injury, but other times has no clear cause.

The study is exciting because it involves stem cells harvested from the bone marrow of healthy, young adults, and therefore itdoesnt come with the ethical concerns of embryonic stem cells. So far, the results have been very positive, and a significant number of people who received stem cells for their back pain have experienced reduced discomfort and improved quality of life.

This study is currently in Phase III, which is the phase immediately preceding potential FDA approval. This means it could soon be available to many more patients and potentially covered by insurance, although each insurance companys coverage policy varies.

Absolutely, and the research into this area is very promising. In fact, scientists have recently uncovered the specific type of stem cell most likely to reduce arthritis pain. Theyre special cells that are specifically able to rebuild tissue, bone, and cartilage, potentially offering much relief to osteoarthritis patients.

What other questions do you have regarding stem cell therapy for pain? If youre ready to learn more about using stem cell therapy to treatyour pain, click the button below to find a pain specialist in your area.

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15 Stem Cell Therapy For Pain Questions, Answered


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