Medicine | University of Oxford

Medicine at Oxford

The Medicine course at Oxford provides a well-rounded intellectual training with particular emphasis on the basic science research that underpins medicine. We have retained a distinct three-year pre-clinical stage that includes studying towards a BA Honours degree in Medical Sciences, followed by a three-year clinical stage.

Despite recent expansion, the Medical School at Oxford remains relatively small, allowing students and staff to get to know one another and benefit from a relaxed and friendly atmosphere.

From becoming a GP to training as a brain surgeon, a vast array of speciality training pathways is available after obtaining a medical qualification, ranging from anaesthesia or emergency medicine through obstetrics or ophthalmology to paediatrics or psychiatry.

Of course, you need not remain confined to the surgery or the operating theatre: the lecture theatre or the laboratory could also beckon. Some of our graduates end up leading the education of the next generation of doctors or directing biomedical research. You dont need to know right now what you want to do when you qualify: the Medical School organises careers sessions for final-year clinical students and helps students learn about and apply for foundation house officer posts. BM BCh graduates are entitled to provisional registration with the General Medical Council (GMC) with a licence to practise, subject to demonstrating to the GMC that their fitness to practise is not impaired.

Gordon, who graduated in 2004, now works in the field of biotechnology. He says: Although I studied medicine as an undergraduate and qualified as a doctor in 2004, I have not remained working in clinical medicine in the NHS. Instead I have built my career in small high-growth biotechnology companies in the UK, California, and France. My time as an undergraduate at Oxford was hugely influential in seizing interesting scientific and business opportunities well outside the boundaries of a typical medical career in the NHS.

Brad, who graduated in 2004, currently works as a Forensic Psychiatrist with mentally disordered offenders at Broadmoor high security psychiatric hospital. Brad developed through tutorials at Oxford the strong academic knowledge base and confidence to challenge received wisdom. This has allowed him to diversify his clinical career to include roles in leadership and innovation in the NHS.

Students interested in this course might also like to consider Biomedical Sciences, Biological Sciences, Human Sciences or Chemistry.

We have retained a course with distinct pre-clinical and clinical sections that includes studying towards a BA Honours degree in Medical Sciences.

Applicants are initially admitted to the pre-clinical section of the course. Entry to the Oxford Clinical School is competitive; however, currently a joint admissions scheme (under review) is in place with the Universities of Cambridge and London to ensure that all suitably qualified Oxford pre-clinical students will be allocated a clinical school place within the scheme. The majority of students continue their clinical training in Oxford. Upon successful completion of clinical training and the award of the BM BCh degree, subsequent years are spent on Foundation and Specialist Training programmes.

Applicants are initially admitted to the pre-clinical stage of the course.

The first five terms of this course are devoted to the First BM. This addresses not only much of the science that underpins Medicine, but also the clinical problems that arise when systems fail. Students are introduced to the major systems of the body and study all aspects of their structure and function in health and also the principles of disease processes. Students are encouraged to develop an enquiring approach and to consider the experimental basis of the science in the course. Matters of clinical relevance are illustrated from the outset. There are clinical demonstrations in hospitals, and students make regular visits to GP tutors.

The First BM is followed by a four-term BA Honours course (the Final Honour School) in Medical Sciences. Students specialise in an area of biomedical science selected from one of five options. They will become adept at working from primary research literature, and will be encouraged to think both critically and creatively. Students will gain in-depth knowledge of their chosen option, as well as advanced technical skills at the laboratory bench and in scientific data handling and presentation.

The Principles of Clinical Anatomy course, delivered at the end of the third year, is designed to teach students clinically relevant aspects of anatomy that will be of immediate use in their clinical years.

During the pre-clinical stage of the course, the college tutorial system is a central feature: students see their tutors and are taught weekly in groups often as small as two. This teaching can be tailored to individuals needs and interests. Most University lectures, seminars and practical classes take place in the Medical Sciences Teaching Centre in the Science Area. Lecturers are drawn from Oxfords extensive pre-clinical and clinical departments, all of which have international reputations for excellence in research, and the courses are organised on an interdisciplinary basis so as to emphasise the interrelatedness of all aspects of the curriculum.

In addition to taking written and computer-based examinations, and submitting practical reports and an extended essay, students undertake a research project as part of their BA course. This will be in a field of interest to the student, and will offer valuable first-hand experience of scientific research. Students have the opportunity to undertake research in a laboratory from a wide range of departments within the University.

During the First BM, lectures and practicals occupy about half of the time, and the remainder is free for tutorial work, self-directed study and extra-curricular activities. During the BA course, formal lecturing is kept to a minimum, and students are mostly free to pursue their research and to prepare for tutorials and seminars. Strong academic support ensures that students manage their time effectively.







To progress to clinical training, at the end of Term 9 students take:



In December of the third year, students must apply to be accepted by a clinical school. Currently a joint admissions scheme is in place with the medical schools of London University to ensure that all suitably qualified Oxford pre-clinical students will be allocated a clinical school place within the scheme. Of those who choose to apply to the Oxford Clinical School, about 85% have been successful in recent years. Upon completion of the clinical stage of the course, the subsequent years are spent on Foundation and Specialist Training programmes.

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Medicine | University of Oxford

Medicine – Idioms by The Free Dictionary

*a taste of one’s own medicine and*a dose of one’s own medicine

Fig. a sample of the unpleasantness that one has been giving other people. (Typically: get ~; have ~; give someone ~.) Now you see how it feels to have someone call you names! You are getting a taste of your own medicine! John, who is often rude and abrupt with people, was devastated when the teacher treated him rudely. He doesn’t like having a dose of his own medicine.

Inf. inferior whiskey; strong whiskey; homemade whiskey. That old-time snakebite medicine is good for what ails you. snakebite medicine is a tremendous protection against snakebites if you can get the snake to drink the stuff before it bites you.

Fig. to accept the consequences or the bad fortune that one deserves. (Alludes to having to take unpleasant-tasting medicine.) I know I did wrong, and I know I have to take my medicine. Billy knew he was going to get spanked, and he didn’t want to take his medicine.

n. inferior whiskey; strong whiskey; homemade whiskey. Snakebite medicine is a tremendous protection against snakebites if you can get the snake to drink the stuff before it tries to bite you.

Also, taste of one’s own medicine. Repayment or retaliation, as in It’s time we gave them a dose of their own medicine and simply forget to call them back , or Joe was upset at being left out, but they were just giving him a taste of his own medicine . [Late 1800s]

Put up with unpleasantness, learn one’s lesson. For example, After failing math, he had to take his medicine and go to summer school. This idiom uses medicine in the sense of “a bitter-tasting remedy.” [Mid-1800s]

An experience of the same harmful or unpleasant thing that one has inflicted on others; an attack in the same manner in which one attacks others. John has gossiped about everyone in our group, so we gave him a dose of his own medicine by spreading rumors about him. The coup gave the dictatorship a dose of its own medicine, subjecting the dictator and his entourage to torture and confinement in deplorable conditions.

a situation that is unpleasant but must be accepted Losing the championship to a younger player was a bitter pill to swallow. Cuts in salaries are a dose of bitter medicine that may help the company to survive.

to do the same bad thing to someone that they have often done to you, in order to show them how unpleasant it is She’s always turning up late for me so I thought I’d give her a taste of her own medicine and see how she likes it.

something that you say which means that it is good for your physical and mental health to laugh A visit from Camille always makes me feel better – she’s so hilarious. It’s like they say, laughter’s the best medicine.

an unpleasant situation that must be accepted Losing the championship was a bitter pill to swallow for a team that was used to winning every year. Having his fate in the hands of others is a bitter pill for this proud man.

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Medicine – Idioms by The Free Dictionary

medicine – definition of medicine in English from the Oxford …

get even (with), get back at, get, let someone see how it feels, have/get/take one’s revenge (on), be revenged (on), revenge oneself (on), hit back (at);

even the score (with), settle a/the score, settle accounts (with), get one’s own back (on), give as good as one gets, play tit for tat (with), pay someone back, repay, reciprocate, retaliate (against), take reprisals (against), exact retribution (on)

informalgive someone their comeuppance

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medicine – definition of medicine in English from the Oxford …

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Department of Medicine

Awards Mary-Claire King to receive National Medal of Science

The White House announced today that Dr. Mary-Claire King, professor of medicine (Medical Genetics) and genome sciences, will receive the National Medal of Science.

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The inaugural DOM Mentorship Awards were presented to Drs. Matthew Golden (Allergy and Infectious Diseases) and Mark Tonelli (Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine).

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Department of Medicine

Medicine – LWW Journals – Beginning with A

ISSN: 0025-7974 Online ISSN: 1536-5964 Frequency: Weekly Ranking: Medicine, General & Internal 15/153 Impact Factor: 5.723 Influence of Metastatic Status and Number of Removed Lymph Nodes on Survival of Patients With Squamous Esophageal Carcinoma

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Medicine – LWW Journals – Beginning with A

Regenerative Medicine at the McGowan Institute

Grant Award: Engineered Neovascularization of Vasa Vasorum

McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine affiliated faculty member Julie Phillippi, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery,…

Langmuir Features Work of Dr. Anna Balazs

The work of McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine affiliated faculty member Anna Balazs, PhD, Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering…

New Study Reveals How Specialized Cells Help Each Other Survive During Times of Stress

A team led by scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) and the University of…

Study Identifies Patients Most Likely to Have Joint Pain Reduction After Bariatric Surgery

In the 3 years following bariatric surgery, the majority of patients experience an improvement in pain and walking ability,…

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Regenerative Medicine at the McGowan Institute

Falk recommended for appointment as Chair of … – Medicine

Apart from a two-year research fellowship at the University of Minnesota, Falk has been associated with the UNC School of Medicine for more than 40 years as a medical student, resident and valued faculty member. He joined the faculty in 1984 and currently serves as Allan Brewster Distinguished Professor, chief, Division of Nephrology, director, Center for Transplant Care, and director, UNC Kidney Center.

As Chair of the Department of Medicine, Falk will be charged with managing the largest unit of the School of Medicine while continuing and strengthening its national reputation for high level research funding and rigorous educational training.

Falk will report directly to Dean Roper as Dean and CEO, and on a day-to-day basis will report to Wesley Burks, MD, Executive Dean of the School of Medicine. Falk will lead a team of Vice Chairs that includes Vice Chair Andrew Greganti, MD who has served as Chair in an interim role since late last year Janet Rubin, MD, Vice Chair for Research; Janet Hadar, Vice Chair for Clinical Integration; and Lee Berkowitz, MD, Vice Chair for Education. Bruce Wicks, MHA, will continue to serve the Department as Associate Chair for Administration

Falk will oversee the recruitment and development of the departments faculty, residents, students and staff. He will also work closely with other leaders from the School of Medicine and UNC Health Care System in strategic planning and program development efforts.

Falk is a national leader in the field of nephrology, serving as President of the American Society of Nephrology, the largest kidney professional society, in 2012. His additional clinical and research specialties include vasculitis and autoimmune disorders.

Along with Charles Jennette, MD, Falk established the Glomerular Disease Collaborative Network which has greatly enhanced communication and research collaborations between community nephrology offices and the UNC School of Medicine. To date, approximately 1,000 physicians from more than 400 clinics throughout the state and region have participated.

His work has also focused on outreach efforts to improve the prevention and care for kidney disease among the people of North Carolina. He established the UNC Kidney Education and Outreach Program with the purpose of screening for kidney disease and hypertension across the state and educating the public about these conditions. Today, in addition to providing educational materials and lab testing in mobile units, the program encourages everyone to ask Hey Doc, how are my kidneys, during each trip to the doctor. This slogan has appeared across television advertising campaigns and billboards around the state.

In April, Falk was recognized with the Distinguished Medical Faculty Award with one colleague calling him a quadruple threat in reference to his achievements as a clinician, teacher, researcher and administrator.

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Falk recommended for appointment as Chair of … – Medicine

Virginia Board of Medicine


Click here for Information on Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Learn more about how to fill out death certificates, your final act of patient care, at the following link.

Virginia Department of Health training on Death Certification.

The Governor has signed legislation (SB1235 & HB1445) that authorizes a practitioner of medicine or osteopathy licensed by the Board of Medicine in the course of his professional practice to issue a written certification for the use of cannabidiol oil or THC-A oil for treatment or to alleviate the symptoms of a patients intractable epilepsy. Here is the link to the certification form that must be completed by the physician.

The 2014 Session of the General Assembly passed SB294 that establishes a requirement for all prescribers that treat humans to be registered with the Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) upon application for or renewal of licensure beginning July 1, 2015. DHP is working to integrate this registration into the re-licensure process. The bill also has a requirement for prescribers of benzodiazepines and opiates to check the PMP at the initiation of treatment. You may wish to go ahead and sign up for the PMP now rather than waiting until next year. You can read the bill by clicking here.

Regulations became effective on February 13, 2015 for the voluntary registration of surgical technologists and surgical assistants. Click here to view these regulations. The law passed by the 2014 General Assembly provided those with experience as a surgical technologist or surgical assistant the opportunity to register without holding one of the required credentials or having completed a training program. The date by which an individual with experience needed to register was July 1, 2015. Click here to view the law concerning surgical technologists. Click here to view the law regarding surgical assistants. Again, registration is voluntary, not mandatory. Registration is not necessary to practice as a surgical technologist or a surgical assistant.

The Virginia Board of Medicine has teamed up with VeriDoc, Inc. to provide immediate verifications of licensure for our physicians and physician assistants to other state medical boards.

If you need a verification of your Virginia MD, DO, PA, Resident, or University Limited license sent to another state medical board, go to and follow the instructions to create and send an immediate verification. The fee charged by VeriDoc is $10.00.

If you need to have a verification of licensure sent to any entity other than a state medical board, or if your license type is not included above, please send your request along with a check or money order in the amount of $10 payable to the Treasurer of Virginia, to:

Virginia Board of Medicine 9960 Mayland Drive, Suite 300 Henrico, VA 23233

Extension of renewal requirements for deployed military and spouses Virginia law allows active duty service people or their spouses who are deployed outside the U.S. to have an extension of time for any requirement or fee pertaining to renewal until 60 days after the persons return from deployment.The extension cannot last beyond 5 years past the expiration date for the license.For more information, please read attached policy and contact the applicable licensing specialist for your profession.

Public Health Information Important Public Health Information from the Department of Health

Download the available forms and applications from the Board.

Continuing Education Forms can be found here.

View the list of Professions regulated by the Board.

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View the calendar of upcoming Board meetings and minutes from past Board meetings.

View the current Members of the Board

Read the latest Board newsletters.

View and download the list of available guidance documents. These documents provide information or guidance to the public to interpret or implement statutes or the agency’s rules or regulations.

The Virginia Department of Planning & Budget has designed a Regulatory Town Hall for anyone interested in the proposal of regulations or meetings of regulatory boards.

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Virginia Board of Medicine

What Is Medicine? A History Of Medicine

knowledge center home primary care a history of medicine what is medicine? Medicine has two basic meanings, it refers to 1. The Science of Healing; the practice of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease, and the promotion of health. 2. Medications, drugs, substances used to treat and cure diseases, and to promote health. This collection of articles focuses on the science of healing, its history from prehistoric times until today, and the medications and healing methods used.

Some people might call medicine a regulated patient-focused health profession which is devoted to the health and well-being of patients.

Whichever way medicine is described, the thrust of the meaning is the same – diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disease, caring for patients and a dedication to their health and well-being.

According to Medilexicon’s medical dictionary, Medicine is:

2. The art of preventing or curing disease; the science concerned with disease in all its relations.

3. The study and treatment of general diseases or those affecting the internal parts of the body, especially those not usually requiring surgical intervention.

This history of medicine section was written by Christian Nordqvist for Medical News Today on 9 August 2012 , and may not be re-produced in any way without the permission of Medical News Today.

Disclaimer: This informational section on Medical News Today is regularly reviewed and updated, and provided for general information purposes only. The materials contained within this guide do not constitute medical or pharmaceutical advice, which should be sought from qualified medical and pharmaceutical advisers.

Please note that although you may feel free to cite and quote this article, it may not be re-produced in full without the permission of Medical News Today. For further details, please view our full terms of use

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What Is Medicine? A History Of Medicine

Department of Medicine – Massachusetts General Hospital …

Clinical Divisions Cardiology

The Cardiology Division at Massachusetts General Hospital provides multidisciplinary care and innovative treatments for common and complex heart conditions.

The Mass General Endocrine Division offerscomprehensive clinical services, including treatment for diabetes, osteoporosis and diseases of the pituitary, thyroid and reproductive systems.

The Division of Gastroenterology at Mass General provides state-of-the-art consultative care, endoscopic services, and access to clinical trials for the full spectrum of digestive and liver diseases.

The Division of General Internal Medicine provides general medical careincluding hospital medicine, primary care and geriatric medicineand oversees primary care training and programs in health services research.

As an integral part of the Mass General Cancer Center, world-renowned specialists in the Division of Hematology & Oncology offer patients personalized, team-based cancer care and access to promising new therapies.

The Division of Infectious Disease provides comprehensive inpatient and outpatient clinical services in all areas of infectious disease and conducts leading-edge, basic, translational and clinical research. We also offer fellowships and advanced research training.

The Mass General Division of Nephrology offers a full range of personalized care and education for patients with kidney diseases while engaging in clinical, translational and basic research.

The Division of Palliative Care provides patients with relief from the symptoms, pain and stress of a serious illnesswhatever the diagnosis or prognosis. It serves as an extra layer of support to the patients other clinicians.

The Division of Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine provides comprehensive care for patients with respiratory diseases and critical illness, performs leading-edge research, and trains the next generation of physicians and scientists.

The Division of Rheumatology, Allergy & Immunology at Mass General treats immune diseases by integrating patient care, basic and clinical research, and education of physician-scientists.

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Medicine – Elsevier Health

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Department of Medicine – University of Rochester Medical …

URMC / Medicine

The Department of Medicine is the largest department within the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry. It is made up of nearly 300 faculty members who are involved in patient care, research and education.

Again and again, the Department of Medicine has distinguished itself as both a national and world-leader. Take a moment to read about some of our achievements that are helping to move all of medicine forward.

Nov 11, 2015

UR Scientist Wins Novo Nordisk Award to Develop Obesity Drug

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Construction Begins on the Ann and Carl Myers Cancer Center

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Experimental Treatment Regimen Effective Against HIV

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WebMD Drugs & Medications – Medical information on …

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Otitis externa management: You could be doing it wrong VETERINARY MEDICINE – Nov 03, 2015

From “that smell” to potential ear hematomas and ablations, otitis externa can be a clinical challenge for any veterinary practitioner to manage. Wayne Rosenkrantz, DVM, DACVD, answers some of the most common questions about his approach to the management of this odorous condition.

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The University of Utah School of Medicine combines excellence in teaching, research, and clinical expertise to train tomorrow’s physicians for the rapidly changing world of medicine. With a faculty of more than 1,000 physicians and researchers and 22 clinical and basic-science departments, the School of Medicine trains the majority of Utah physicians, whether it’s to receive an M.D. degree, residency or fellowship specialty training. The School of Medicine also is widely recognized for interdisciplinary research in the genetics of disease, cancer, biomedical informatics, infectious diseases, and other areas of leading-edge medicine.

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WebMD – Better information. Better health.

Quiz: When kids are stressed, they tend to act out with negative behavior. Which of these is not a common stress-related behavior?

The correct answer is: Testicular

Sleeping is not a common negative behavior related to kids’ stress. From the WebMD Survey: 43% of parents said their children argued more; 37% reported increased crying or whining; 34% said children appeared worried or anxious.

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Medications Information – Index of drug monographs …

ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors-Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are used to treat high blood pressure. They cause the blood vessels to relax and become larger and, as a result, blood pressure is lowered. When blood pressure is reduced, the heart has an easier time pumping blood. This is especially beneficial when the heart is failing. ACE inhibitors also cause the process of hypertensive- and diabetes-related kidney diseases to slow down and prevent early deaths associated with high blood pressure. ACE inhibitors cannot be taken during pregnancy since they may cause birth defects. Generic ACE inhibitors are available.

acetaminophen (brand name: Tylenol)-A pain reliever and fever reducer. The exact mechanism of action of acetaminophen is not known. Acetaminophen relieves pain by elevating the pain threshold (that is, by requiring a greater amount of pain to develop before it is felt by a person). Acetaminophen reduces fever through its action on the heat-regulating center of the brain. Generic is available.

alprazolam (brand name: Xanax)- A benzodiazepine sedative that causes dose-related depression of the central nervous system. Alprazolam is useful in treating anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, and muscle spasms. Generic is available.

amoxicillin (brand names: Amoxil, Polymox, Trimox)-An antibiotic of the penicillin type that is effective against different bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Escherichia coli, Pneumococci, Streptococci, and certain strains of Staphylococci, particularly infections of the middle ear, tonsillitis, throat infections, laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Amoxicillin is also used in treating urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gonorrhea. Generic is available.

atenolol (brand name: Tenormin)-A medication that blocks the action of a portion of the involuntary nervous system that stimulates the pace of the heartbeat. By blocking the action of these nerves, atenolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms. Atenolol also reduces the force of heart muscle contraction, lowers blood pressure, and is helpful in treating angina. It is also used for the prevention of migraine headaches and the treatment of certain types of tremors. Generic is available.

bupropion (brand names: Wellbutrin, Zyban, Wellbutrin SR)-An antidepressant medication that affects chemicals within the brain that nerves use to send messages to each other. These chemical messengers are called neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters that are released by nerves are taken up again by the nerves that release them for reuse (referred to as reuptake). Many experts believe that depression is caused by an imbalance among the amounts of neurotransmitters that are released. Bupropion is unrelated to other antidepressants. It works by inhibiting the reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, resulting in more of these chemicals being available to transmit messages to other nerves. Bupropion is unique in that its major effect is on dopamine. Wellbutrin and Wellbutrin SR are used for the management of depression. Zyban has been approved as an aid to patients who want to quit smoking. Generic is not available.

cephalexin (brand names: Keflex, Keftabs)-A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic that is chemically similar to penicillin. Cephalexin is effective against a wide variety of bacterial organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Escherichia coli, particular involving infections of the middle ear, tonsillitis, throat infections, laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Cephalexin is also used in treating urinary tract infections and skin and bone infections. Generic is available.

ciprofloxacin (brand name: Cipro)-An antibiotic that stops multiplication of bacteria by inhibiting the reproduction and repair of their genetic material (DNA). Ciprofloxacin is used to treat infections of the skin, lungs, airways, bones, and joints that are caused by susceptible bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is also frequently used to treat urinary infections caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Ciprofloxacin is effective in treating infectious diarrheas caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and shigella bacteria. Generic is not available.

citalopram (brand name: Celexa)-An antidepressant medication that affects neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers within the brain. Neurotransmitters manufactured and released by nerves attach to adjacent nerves and alter their activities. Thus, neurotransmitters can be thought of as the communication system of the brain. Many experts believe that an imbalance among neurotransmitters is the cause of depression. Citalopram works by preventing the uptake of one neurotransmitter, serotonin, by nerve cells after it has been released. The reduced uptake caused by citalopram results in more free serotonin being available in the brain to stimulate nerve cells. Citalopram is in the class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Generic is not available.

clonazepam (Klonopin)-Used to treat anxiety, clonazepam works by enhancing the response to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of many parts of the brain. It is believed that too much activity can lead to anxiety. By enhancing the response to GABA, clonazepam inhibits activity in the brain and relieves the short-term symptoms of anxiety. Clonazepam should not be taken during pregnancy, as the effects are known to cause damage to the fetus. More than half of those who take clonazepam experience the side effect of sedation. Generic clonazepam is available.

codeine (brand name: Empirin 2, 3, 4, Tylenol 2, 3, 4, Tylenol with Codeine Elixir)-Codeine is a pain reliever used to temporarily relieve mild to severe pain. Codeine has the ability to impair thinking and physical ability necessary for driving, and, when combined with alcohol, the impairment can be worsened. Those taking codeine have the ability to become dependent on the drug mentally and physically. Those patients allergic to aspirin and pregnant mothers should not take codeine. Codeine often is combined with acetaminophen (Tylenol) or aspirin to add to its effectiveness. Side effects of codeine include light-headedness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, and sedation. Generic codeine is available.

doxycycline (brand name: Vibramycin)-A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic that is derived from tetracycline and is effective against a wide variety of bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoea. Doxycycline is particularly helpful for treating respiratory tract infections and for treating nongonococcal urethritis (due to ureaplasma), Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus, chancroid, cholera, brucellosis, anthrax, syphilis, and acne. Generic is available.

fluoxetine (brand name: Prozac)-A class of antidepressant medications that affects chemical messengers within the brain. These chemical messengers are called neurotransmitters. Many experts believe that an imbalance in these neurotransmitters is the cause of depression. Fluoxetine is used in the treatment of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Fluoxetine is believed to work by inhibiting the release of or affecting the action of serotonin. Generic is available.

hydrocodone/acetaminophen (brand names: Vicodin, Vicodin ES, Anexsia, Lorcet, Lorcet Plus, Norco)-A narcotic pain reliever and a cough suppressant that is similar to codeine and is used for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain. The precise mechanism of pain relief by hydrocodone and other narcotics is not known. Acetaminophen is a nonnarcotic pain reliever and fever reducer. It relieves pain by elevating the pain threshold and reduces fever through its action on the heat-regulating center of the brain. Generic is available.

hydroxyzine (brand names: Vistaril, Atarax)-An antihistamine with anticholinergic (drying) and sedative properties that is used to treat allergic reactions and to relieve nasal and nonnasal symptoms such as those from seasonal allergic rhinitis. Histamine is released by the body during several types of allergic reactions and to a lesser extent during some viral infections, such as the common cold. When histamine binds to its receptors on cells, it causes changes within the cells that lead to sneezing, itching, and increased mucus production. Antihistamines compete with histamine for cell receptors; however, when they bind to the receptors, antihistamines do not stimulate the cells. In addition, antihistamines prevent histamine from binding and stimulating the cells. Generic is available.

ibuprofen (brand names: Advil, Motrin, Medipren, Nuprin)-A traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is effective in treating fever, pain, and inflammation in the body. As a group, NSAIDs are nonnarcotic relievers of mild to moderate pain of many causes, including injury, menstrual cramps, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions. Generic is available.

levothyroxine sodium (brand names: Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid, Unithroid)-A synthetic version of the principal thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), which is made and released by the thyroid gland. Levothyroxine sodium is used to treat hypothyroidism and to suppress thyroid hormone release in the management of cancerous thyroid nodules and growth of goiters. Thyroid hormone increases the metabolic rate of cells of all tissues in the body. Thyroid hormone helps to maintain brain function, food metabolism, and body temperature, among other effects. Generic is available.

lisinopril (brand name: Zestril, Prinivil)-Lisinopril is an ACE inhibitor that works to lower blood pressure by relaxing and enlarging blood vessels. It also is used to treat heart failure. Lisinopril should be taken at the same time each day in order to ensure consistent blood levels. Pregnant mothers should avoid lisinopril, and it is important to avoid taking lisinopril within two hours of an antacid since antacid binds the lisinopril and prevents it from being absorbed into the body. Side effects of lisinopril include dizziness that is felt when the blood pressure begins to drop, and kidney damage as well. Those taking potassium supplements or diuretics that cause potassium to be retained by the body should not take lisinopril because blood potassium levels may rise to dangerously high levels. Generic lisinopril is available.

lithium (brand name: Lithobid)-Since the 1950s, lithium has been used in the treatment of bipolar disorder as well as depression. Lithium is a mineral that has a positive charge, similar to sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. It works by interfering inside cells with other minerals with positive charges such as potassium, calcium and magnesium. Lithium impacts the brain by affecting both the concentrations of tryptophan and serotonin within the brain’s cells, and neurotransmitters, chemical messengers that nerves use to communicate with each other. It is recommended that lithium be taken together with food. The full clinical effects of lithium are seen about 2-3 weeks after beginning treatment. Goiters of the thyroid gland develop in one out of every 25 persons taking lithium. Generic lithium is available.

lorazepam (brand names: Ativan)-An antianxiety medication in the benzodiazepine family. Lorazepam and other benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that nerves in the brain use to send messages to one another. GABA inhibits activity in many of the nerves of the brain, and it is thought that this excessive activity is what causes anxiety and other psychological disorders. Lorazepam has fewer interactions with other medications and is felt to be potentially less toxic than most of the other benzodiazepines. Lorazepam is also used to treat insomnia and panic attacks. Generic is available.

meloxicam (brand name: Mobic)-Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used in the treatment of inflammation due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Meloxicam, like other NSAIDs, reduces the pain, tenderness and swelling caused by inflammation by preventing the formation of chemicals that contribute to inflammation. Individuals who are prone to asthma attacks, hives or have an allergy to aspirin and other NSAIDs should not take meloxicam. Aspirin should not be taken with meloxicam as such a combination raises the risk for developing ulcers of the stomach or small intestine. Generic meloxicam is available..

metformin (brand name: Glucophage)-Approved by the FDA in 1994, metformin is used to lower blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes in adults and children. Metformin also reduces complications of diabetes including heart disease, blindness and kidney disease. When used alone, metformin does not increase insulin levels in the blood and, therefore, does not result in extremely low blood glucose levels. Metformin increases the effects that insulin has on the liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues. As a result, the reduced levels of insulin have more of an effect than they otherwise would. Metformin also has been used to prevent diabetes from worsening and also has been used to treat polycystic ovaries. Side effects of metformin include nausea, vomiting, gas, bloating, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Generic metformin is available.

methotrexate (brand names: Rheumatrex, Trexall)-A drug that is capable of blocking the metabolism of cells (an antimetabolite). As a result of this effect, methotrexate has been found to be helpful in treating certain diseases associated with abnormally rapid cell growth, such as cancer of the breast and psoriasis. Recently, methotrexate has been shown to be effective in inducing miscarriage (for example, in patients with ectopic pregnancy). This effect of methotrexate is attributed to its action of killing the rapidly growing cells of the placenta. Methotrexate has also been found to be very helpful in treating rheumatoid arthritis, although its mechanism of action in this illness is not known. Methotrexate seems to work, in part, by altering aspects of immune function that may play a role in causing rheumatoid arthritis. Generic is available.

methylprednisolone (brand name: Medrol, Depo-Medrol)-Methylprednisolone is a synthetic corticosteroid that is used to reduce inflammation in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, lupus, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. The body produces corticosteroids naturally in the adrenal glands. Methylprednisolone may be used during pregnancy as it does not cause abnormalities in the fetus. However, using methylprednisolone for long periods of time can cause the body to stop producing its own corticosteroids. This can lead to a serious problem, i.e., inadequate amounts of corticosteroids, if the methylprednisolone is stopped for any reason. Generic methylprednisolone is available.

metoprolol (brand names: Lopressor, Toprol XL)-A medication that blocks the action of a portion of the involuntary nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the pace of the heart beat. By blocking the action of these nerves, metoprolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms. Metoprolol also reduces the force of heart muscle contraction, lowers blood pressure, and is helpful in treating angina. Generic is available.

metronidazole (brand name: Flagyl)-Metronidazole is an antibiotic used to fight infections caused by a class of bacteria called anaerobic bacteria as well as some parasites. Metronidazole is used for infections of the small intestine, amebic liver abscesses, dysentery and trichomonas vaginal infections. It also is used to treat infections of the colon caused by the bacterium, Clostridium difficile. Taking metronidazole with alcohol is dangerous as it can cause nausea, vomiting, cramps, flushing and headache. Pregnant mothers and nursing mothers should not use metronidazole. Side effects of metronidazole, although they are few, include seizures and nerve damage that can lead to numbness and tingling of the hands and feet. Generic metronidazole is available.

naproxen (brand names: Naprosyn, Naprelan, Anaprox, Aleve)-A traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is effective in treating fever, pain, and inflammation in the body. As a group, NSAIDs are nonnarcotic relievers of mild to moderate pain of many causes, including injury, menstrual cramps, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions. Generic is available.

phentermine (brand names: Adipex-P, Fastin, Obenix, Oby-Trim)-An appetite suppressor that decreases appetite by possibly changing brain levels of serotonin. Phentermine is a nervous system stimulator like the amphetamines, causing stimulation, elevation of blood pressure, and increased heart rates. Phentermine is used for short periods, along with diet and behavior modification, to treat obesity. Generic is available.

prednisone (brand names: Deltasone, Liquid Pred, Prednisolone, Pediapred Oral Liquid, Medrol)-An oral, synthetic corticosteroid that is used for suppressing the immune system and inflammation. Synthetic corticosteroids mimic the action of cortisol (hydrocortisone), the naturally occurring corticosteroid that is produced in the body by the adrenal glands. Corticosteroids have many effects on the body, but they most often are used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects, particularly in conditions in which the immune system plays an important role. Such conditions include arthritis, colitis, asthma, bronchitis, certain skin rashes, and allergic or inflammatory conditions of the nose and eyes. Generic is available.

tramadol (brand name: Ultram)-A pain reliever (analgesic) that is used in the management of moderate to moderately severe pain. Its mode of action resembles that of narcotics, but tramadol has significantly less potential for abuse and addiction than narcotics. Tramadol is as effective as narcotics in relieving pain, but it does not depress respiration, which is a side effect of most narcotics. Generic is not available.

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Medications Information – Index of drug monographs …