Commune – Wikipedia

Not to be confused with comune.

A commune (the French word appearing in the 12th century from Medieval Latin communia, meaning a large gathering of people sharing a common life; from Latin communis, things held in common)[1] is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests, often having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, possessions, resources, and, in some communes, work, income or assets.

In addition to the communal economy, consensus decision-making, non-hierarchical structures and ecological living have become important core principles for many communes. There are many contemporary intentional communities all over the world, a list of which can be found at the Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC).[2] For the usually larger-scale, political entities in communist political theory, see socialist communes, which are similar but distinct social organizations.

Benjamin Zablocki categorized communities this way:[3]

Many communal ventures encompass more than one of these categorizations. Some communes, such as the ashrams of the Vedanta Society or the Theosophical commune Lomaland, formed around spiritual leaders, while others formed around political ideologies. For others, the “glue” is simply the desire for a more shared, sociable lifestyle.

The central characteristics of communes, or core principles that define communes, have been expressed in various forms over the years. Before 1840 such communities were known as “communist and socialist settlements”; by 1860, they were also called “communitarian” and by around 1920 the term “intentional community”[citation needed] had been added to the vernacular of some theorists. The term “communitarian” was invented by the Suffolk-born radical John Goodwyn Barmby, subsequently a Unitarian minister.[4]

At the start of the 1970s, “The New Communes” author Ron E. Roberts classified communes as a subclass of a larger category of Utopias. He listed three main characteristics. Communes of this period tended to develop their own characteristics of theory though, so while many strived for variously expressed forms of egalitarianism Roberts’ list should never be read as typical. Roberts’ three listed items were: first, egalitarianism that communes specifically rejected hierarchy or graduations of social status as being necessary to social order. Second, human scale that members of some communes saw the scale of society as it was then organized as being too industrialized (or factory sized) and therefore unsympathetic to human dimensions. And third, that communes were consciously anti-bureaucratic.

Twenty five years later, Dr. Bill Metcalf, in his edited book “Shared Visions, Shared Lives” defined communes as having the following core principles: the importance of the group as opposed to the nuclear family unit, a “common purse”, a collective household, group decision making in general and intimate affairs. Sharing everyday life and facilities, a commune is an idealized form of family, being a new sort of “primary group” (generally with fewer than 20 people although again there are outstanding examples of much larger communes or communes that experienced episodes with much larger populations). Commune members have emotional bonds to the whole group rather than to any sub-group, and the commune is experienced with emotions which go beyond just social collectivity.

With the simple definition of a commune as an intentional community with 100% income sharing, the online directory of the Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC)[2] lists 186 communes worldwide (17 August 2011).[7] Some of these are religious institutions such as abbeys and monasteries. Others are based in anthroposophic philosophy, including Camphill villages that provide support for the education, employment, and daily lives of adults and children with developmental disabilities, mental health problems or other special needs.[8] Many communes are part of the New Age movement.

Many cultures naturally practice communal or tribal living, and would not designate their way of life as a planned ‘commune’ per se, though their living situation may have many characteristics of a commune.

In Germany, a large number of the intentional communities define themselves as communes and there is a network of political communes called “Kommuja”[9] with about 30 member groups (May 2009). Germany has a long tradition of intentional communities going back to the groups inspired by the principles of Lebensreform in the 19th century. Later, about 100 intentional communities were started in the Weimar Republic after World War I, many had a communal economy. In the 1960s, there was a resurgence of communities calling themselves communes, starting with the Kommune 1 in Berlin, followed by Kommune 2 (also Berlin) and Kommune 3 in Wolfsburg.

In the German commune book, Das KommuneBuch, communes are defined by Elisabeth Vo as communities which:

Kibbutzim in Israel, (sing., kibbutz) are examples of officially organized communes, the first of which were based on agriculture. Today, there are dozens of urban communes growing in the cities of Israel, often called urban kibbutzim. The urban kibbutzim are smaller and more anarchist.[11] Most of the urban communes in Israel emphasize social change, education, and local involvement in the cities where they live. Some of the urban communes have members who are graduates of zionist-socialist youth movements, like HaNoar HaOved VeHaLomed, HaMahanot HaOlim and Hashomer Hatsair.[12]

In 1831 John Vandeleur (a landlord) established a commune on his Ralahine Estate at Newmarket-on-Fergus, Co. Clare. Vandeleur asked Edward Thomas Craig, an English socialist, to formulate rules and regulations for the commune. It was set up with a population of 22 adult single men, 7 married men and their 7 wives, 5 single women, 4 orphan boys and 5 children under the age of 9 years. No money was employed, only credit notes which could be used in the commune shop. All occupants were committed to a life with no alcohol, tobacco, snuff or gambling. All were required to work for 12 hours a day during the summer and from dawn to dusk in winter. The social experiment prospered for a time and 29 new members joined. However, in 1833 the experiment collapsed due to the gambling debts of John Vandeleur. The members of the commune met for the last time on 23 November 1833 and placed on record a declaration of the contentment, peace and happiness they had experienced for two years under the arrangements introduced by Mr. Vandeleur and Mr. Craig and which through no fault of the Association was now at an end.[13]

In imperial Russia, the vast majority of Russian peasants held their land in communal ownership within a mir community, which acted as a village government and a cooperative.[14][15] The very widespread and influential pre-Soviet Russian tradition of Monastic communities of both sexes could also be considered a form of communal living. After the end of Communism in Russia monastic communities have again become more common, populous and, to a lesser degree, more influential in Russian society. Various patterns of Russian behaviortoloka (), pomochi (), artel’ ()are also based on Communal (“”) traditions.

A 19th century advocate and practitioner of communal living was the utopian socialist John Goodwyn Barmby, who founded a Communist Church before becoming a Unitarian minister.[16] The UK today has several communes or intentional communities, increasing since the New Towns Act 1946 to recuperate a lost sense of community at the centralization of population in Post-War New Towns such as Crawley or Corby.

The Simon Community in London is an example of social cooperation, made to ease homelessness within London. It provides food and religion and is staffed by homeless people and volunteers. Mildly nomadic, they run street “cafs” which distribute food to their known members and to the general public.

The Bruderhof has three locations in the UK[18] and follows the example of the earliest Christians in the Book of Acts by living in community and sharing all things in common.[19] In Glandwr, near Crymych, Pembrokeshire, a co-op called Lammas Ecovillage focuses on planning and sustainable development. Granted planning permission by the Welsh Government in 2009, it has since created 9 holdings and is a central communal hub for its community.[20] In Scotland, the Findhorn Foundation founded by Peter and Eileen Caddy and Dorothy Maclean in 1962[21] is prominent for its educational centre and experimental architectural community project based at The Park, in Moray, Scotland, near the village of Findhorn.[22]

The Findhorn Ecovillage community at The Park, Findhorn, a village in Moray, Scotland, and at Cluny Hill in Forres, now houses more than 400 people.[23]

There is a long history of communes in America (see this short discussion of Utopian communities) which led to the rise in the communes of the hippie movementthe “back-to-the-land” ventures of the 1960s and 1970s .[24] One commune that played a large role in the hippie movement was Kaliflower, a utopian living cooperative that existed in San Francisco between 1967 and 1973 built on values of free love and anti-capitalism.

Andrew Jacobs of The New York Times wrote that “after decades of contraction, the American commune movement has been expanding since the mid-1990s, spurred by the growth of settlements that seek to marry the utopian-minded commune of the 1960s with the American predilection for privacy and capital appreciation.”[25] (See Intentional community). The Fellowship for Intentional Community (FIC) is the best source for listings of and more information about communes in the United States.

While many American communes are short lived, some have been in operation for over 50 years. The Bruderhof was established in the US in 1954,[26] Twin Oaks in 1967[27] and Koinonia Farm in 1942.[28] Twin Oaks is a rare example of a non-religious commune surviving for longer than 30 years.

As of 2010, the Venezuelan state has initiated the construction of almost 200 “socialist communes” which are billed as autonomous and independent from the government. The communes have their own “productive gardens that grow their own vegetables as a method of self-supply. The communes also make independent decisions in regards to administration and the use of funding.[29] The idea has been denounced as an attempt to undermine elected local governments, since the central government could shift its funding away from these in favor of communes, which are overseen by the federal Ministry of Communes and Social Protection.[30]


Commune – Wikipedia

Why Americans of All Ages Are Embracing Communal Living

Everyone Needs Someone Else

WHY Americans OF ALL AGES are coming together in intentional communities

By Jeffrey Kluger

Theres not a lot to do in Syracuse, N.Y. when youre living alone and a winter storm system dumps 3 feet of snow on the city. Theres no going outside, but theres no staying inside at least not for too long if you want to remain sane. A dinner with friends would be nice; so would a yoga class or a shared movie and a good long talk. And when thats all done, it would also be nice to have just a little bit of that wintertime solitude, watching the snow fall, all alone, from the privacy of your own home.

At one place in Syracuse, all of that happens on those long snow-filled nights. That place is Commonspace, a co-housing community on the fourth and fifth floors of a restored 19th-century office building. The community is made up of 25 mini-apartments, fully equipped with their own kitchenettes and baths, with access to a larger, shared chefs kitchen, library nook, game room, coffee lounge and media room. The 27 residents (couples are welcome) live together but only sort of in private apartments that are, once you step outside your door, un-private too. And theyre part of a growing trend in an increasingly lonely country: intentional communities.

In cities and towns across the U.S., individuals and families are coming to the conclusion that while the commune experiment of the 1960s was overwhelmed by problems, the idea of living in close but not too close cooperation with other people has a lot of appeal. An intentional community is a very different beast from the more familiar planned communities, which can be big, unwieldy things hundreds or thousands of families living on small parcels across hundreds of acres of land. While there may be some common facilities a swimming pool or golf course or community lake the communities are really just villages writ large or cities writ small, easy places to be anonymous.

Intentional communities, by contrast, are intimate: a couple dozen apartments or single-family homes, built around central squares or common spaces. And theyre operated in ways intended to keep the community connected with weekly dinners at a community center or other common area, shared babysitting services, shared gardens or games or even vacations. If you dont want to participate, fine; no one will come pester you to play a pick-up game you dont want to play or join a committee you dont want to join. But when you need the community because a spouse is away or a baby is sick or youre just plain lonely and would like some companionship its there for you.

Its that business of relieving loneliness thats key to the popularity of intentional communities. Human beings may not always get along, but the fact is, we cant get enough of one another. There are currently 7.6 billion of us in the world but we inhabit only about 10% of the planets land, and roughly 50% of us live on just 1% of that land.

We evolved to depend on our social connections, says Dr. Vivek Murthy, former U.S. Surgeon General. Over thousands of years, this got baked into our nervous systems so much so that if we are feeling socially disconnected, that places us in a physiologic stress state.

According to a study by AARP, over 40% of American adults suffer from loneliness, a condition that, Murthy warns, is as dangerous to our physical health as smoking 15 cigarettes a day, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and more. Worse, loneliness is a condition that makes no demographic distinctions; it affects millennials just starting their careers, widowed boomers just ending theirs, empty-nesters, new divorcees, first year college students a thousand miles away from family and high school friends. Social media, which ostensibly draws people closer, in fact may be atomizing us further, creating virtual connections that have little of the benefits of actual connections.

A gusher of studies since the early 1990s have established the health dividends of social ties. Among people with cardiovascular disease, those with more social connections have a 2.4 times lower risk of mortality within an established period than those with poor social ties. Social connections lower the risk of cancer, speed recovery among people who do contract the disease, and reduce the risk of hypertension and other cardiovascular illnesses. Even wound-healing improves with social connections. Multiple studies suggest that part of this may come from the psychological boostincluding the sense of responsibilitythat meaningful relationships provide. When friends and family members are counting on you to be around, you make better health choices, even if theyre unconscious. Other studies have shown that similar brain structures control both physical pain and social painand that pain relief, through analgesics in the first case and relationships in the second, operate similarly as well. Being socially connected doesnt simply make you healthier, it just plain feels good.

Intentional communities are about creating attachment, the feeling that someone has your back, says Harvard University psychiatrist Robert Waldinger, director of the Harvard Study of Adult Development, a decades-old survey of the health of a population of Harvard graduates and their descendants. We often ask people in studies, Who would you call in the middle of the night if you were really sick or scared? Intentional communities can help you have an answer to that question.

Its not easy to come by a firm count of how many intentional communities are out there. Only about 160 of them have been built from the ground up with co-housing in mind, but the regularly updated Fellowship for Intentional Community lists 1,539 communities in all 50 states that have also used existing housing stock to establish co-housing arrangements.

There are urban communities like Commonspace in most major cities. There is Milagro in Tucson, Ariz., 28 single-family homes on 43 desert acres built around a central green space with a shared community center and other facilities. There is Village Hearth Co-Housing, a similar set-up in Durham, N.C., but one intended for singles, couples and families in the LGBTQ community. There are other communities for seniors or artists or veterans; there are even rural communities for people who want the independence of owning their own homes but the collective experience of farming the same land.

For each of the communities, the relative compactness of the population is what creates the feeling of togetherness. You cant possibly know three hundred people, says Troy Evans, real estate developer and the co-founder of Syracuses Commonspace. But you can know fifty. What we try to do in Commonspace is create a neighborhood in a building.

To all appearance, theyve succeeded at that. The communitys 25 apartments rent for an average of $850 per month, which is admittedly pricey for a tiny, 200 sq. ft. space, though services like thrice-weekly cleaning of all of the common spaces and the costs of activities like the weekly farm-to-table dinners are included. And the social benefits which are impossible to measure in dollars and cents are included too.

We set everything up with a town square feel so when you come out of your door theres not a long, dark hallway like in most apartment buildings, says Evans. Town squares, of course, can be noisy not to the liking of even some people who choose to live semi-communally. Thats why one of the floors has fewer apartments built a quiet lounge where locally roasted coffee is always on offer.

The mini-apartments are cleverly laid out, with a platform bed built atop storage cabinets and floor-to-ceiling windows that create an open feel. The bathroom is complete though it has a shower without a tub and the kitchenette is limited only by the fact that is has two electric burners instead of a full stove, because local regulations forbid open flame in such small quarters. The apartments are all equipped with TVs and high-speed Internet, and a Slack channel allows residents to stay in touch without having to remember 26 other email addresses.

Still, its the 6,000 shared square feet, not the 200 private ones that really defines the Commonspace experience, providing what Evans describes as a lot of collision space, which is something people who would otherwise be living alone often crave. What weve found is demand from people who were landing in Syracuse for the first time and not knowing anyone, he says. Weve got people from eight different countries and seven different states. Its a really cool, diverse group.

That diversity is not only cultural but temperamental. Rose Bear Dont Walk, a 23-year old Native American studying environment and forestry at the State University of New York, Syracuse, moved in to Commonspace over the summer and soon grew friendly with another resident who works in computer coding. His mind operates arithmetically, hers works more emotively, and they took to talking about their different ways of approaching the world.

Hes always building something or talking about building something or listening to podcasts, she says. One day, when she was weaving decorative strands out of plant fibers, she decided to make him a bracelet. It was just this way that our worlds connected, she says. He is very logical and mathematical and was very excited about this little tiny rope bracelet that I was bringing home.

Meaningful as those kinds of connections can be, Commonspace residents dont always have a lot of time to make them. Millennials can be transitory characteristic of most people early in their careers and the average length of tenancy is just eight months.

Things are very different at other intentional communities, like Milagro in Tucson. There, the buy-in is typically for life. The 28 homes in the landscaped desert space are sometimes available for rent, but are typically owned by their residents and have sold for anywhere from $175,000 to $430,000, depending on the market. The investment in house and land means an equal investment in the life of the community.

Brian Stark, a married father of two, has lived in Milagro since 2003, two years after the community opened, and considers himself a lifer. For him the appeal is not so much the community-wide dinner in the dining room every Saturday, or the happy hours or the stargazing sessions or the shared holiday parties. Its the easy, collegial pace of the place, unavoidable when neighbors all know one another.

You almost have to assume that someone may stop to chat with you when youre coming or going, he says. It took some getting used to but when were in a hurry for school or a meeting, weve learned to explain our rush and connect another time.

Even more important are the benefits that accrue to any communitys most vulnerable members: babies and seniors. For families with very young children, we do baby care trades, Stark says. And having a supportive community to help as you grow older is also a wonderful alternative to assisted care living.

Intentional communities are not without stressors. Stark recalls the decade of committee meetings that went into the simple business of deciding whether there should be path lights in the community important for safety, but murder on the deserts spectacular nighttime sky. Even when the community agreed that lights were a good idea, there was continued wrangling over cost, wattage and more. A similar struggle ensued when it came time to have all 28 homes painted, as residents debated color schemes for the homes stucco, trim and side boards.

Still, the long meetings and compromises are a small price for those suited to intentional communities. Thats true of diverse, cross-generational communities like Milagro, and it can be even more so when residents come together with a particular shared need for a particular kind of solidarity as in the LGBTQ or aging Boomer communities.

Shortly after the opening of Village Hearth, the North Carolina LGBTQ community, one of the founders explained to a local reporter that she was tired of hearing about this or that intentional community that has a nice lesbian couple or a nice gay couple. She and her wife didnt want to be a curiosity in even the friendliest surroundings, so they founded a community in which nothing would be remarkable about them at all.

There is little science so far that explicitly addresses the medical benefits of co-housing arrangements, but the benefits of the human connections the communities provide are being powerfully established. In one recent meta-analysis of 148 studies gathered from around the world, Julianne Holt-Lunstad, a professor of psychology and neuroscience at Brigham Young University, compared subjects reported state of loneliness with their overall life expectancy. The total sample size was more than 300,000 people and produced sobering results: Adults who are socially isolated, she found, have a 50% greater risk of dying from any cause within a given time frame than people who are more connected.

In a follow-up study in which she used census data to assemble an even larger sample group of 3.4 million, the results were a bit less stark, but no less conclusive, with social isolation and loneliness leading to a 30% increase in risk of mortality on average. Of course, being alone is not the same as being lonely, Holt-Lunstad stresses. Many people enjoy their solitude, and other people can feel lonely even in a group. The key is the subjective experience. If that experience is bad, thats when health can be affected.

More often than not, social media falls into the category of bad rather than good experiences. Even without being trolled or cyberbullied, people can suffer merely as a result of having replaced real relationships with virtual ones. Murthy does not believe social media is all bad, provided its often used as what he calls a way station rather than a destination, helping to establish real-life connections.

Using social media as a way station might mean that if Im traveling to a different city, in advance of the trip I look on Facebook or LinkedIn to see if I have any friends there, he says. Then I reach out to them and we get together.

The exact mechanisms that make loneliness so physically damaging are not easy to tease out, but chemical markers in the bloodstream, like cortisol, a stress hormone, or c-reactive proteins, indicators of inflammation, are considered worrisome signs. They indicate a weakened immune system and metabolic disruption, says Waldinger. This is when you start to see signs of illness like rising lipid levels and blood pressure.

Residents of intentional communities also see another kind of benefit to health and happiness in co-housing: as a way of alleviating transitions that can be both stressful isolating. Stark, the Milagro resident, recalls that when his older daughter, Maia, was born 12 years ago, the Milagro community was still new. Unbidden, the neighbors pitched in to help the family, cleaning their house, making them meals, even doing their laundry so that he and his wife could have the luxury of doing what few parents can do: focus their attention exclusively on their new baby. Since then, the Stark family has returned the favor, making food for people recovering from surgery and offering to make a pickup at an airport.

Everyone at some point needs someone else, Stark says. Intentional communities, in their quiet way, are helping to make sure that powerful human need gets met.

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Why Americans of All Ages Are Embracing Communal Living

Welcome! | The Cohousing Association

Innovative. Sustainable. Home.

Cohousing communities are intentional, collaborative neighborhoods created with a little ingenuity. They bring together the value of private homes with the benefits of more sustainable living. That means residents actively participate in the design and operation of their neighborhoods, and share common facilities and good connections with neighbors. All in all, they stand as innovative and sustainable answers to todays environmental and social problems. Welcome home.

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Bankruptcy Basics | United States Courts

Bankruptcy Basics is a publication of the Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. It provides basic information to debtors, creditors, court personnel, the media, and the general public on different aspects of federal bankruptcy laws. It also provides individuals who may be considering bankruptcy with a basic explanation of the different chapters under which a bankruptcy case may be filed and answers some of the most commonly asked questions about the bankruptcy process.

Bankruptcy Basics (pdf) For cases filed before October 17, 2005

Bankruptcy Basics (pdf) For cases filed on or after October 17, 2005

Bankruptcy Basics is not a substitute for the advice of competent legal counsel or a financial expert, nor is it a step-by-step guide for filing for bankruptcy. The Administrative Office of the United States Courts cannot provide legal or financial advice. Such advice may be obtained from a competent attorney, accountant, or financial adviser.

November 2011Third Edition

While the information presented is accurate as of the date of publication, it should not be cited or relied upon as legal authority. It should not be used as a substitute for reference to the United States Bankruptcy Code (title 11, United States Code) and the Federal Rules of Bankruptcy Procedure, both of which may be reviewed at local law libraries, or to local rules of practice adopted by each bankruptcy court. Finally, this publication should not substitute for the advice of competent legal counsel.

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Bankruptcy Basics | United States Courts

Understanding Bankruptcy: How to File & Qualifications

What is Bankruptcy?

Bankruptcy is a court proceeding in which a judge and court trustee examine the assets and liabilities of individuals and businesses who cant pay their bills and decide whether to discharge those debts so they are no longer legally required to pay them.

Bankruptcy laws were written to give people whose finances collapsed, a chance to start over. Whether it was bad decision-making or bad luck, lawmakers could see that in a capitalistic economy, consumers and businesses who failed, need a second chance.

And nearly all of them get it!

The American Bankruptcy Institute (ABI) did a study of PACER stats (public court records) from 2016 and found that 95.5% of the 499,909 Chapter 7 bankruptcy cases decided that year were discharged, meaning the individual was no longer legally required to pay the debt.

Only 22,388 cases were dismissed, meaning the judge or court trustee felt like the individual had enough resources to pay his/her debts.

Individuals who used Chapter 13 bankruptcy, best known as wage earners bankruptcy, were about split in their success. Slightly more than half (166,424) were discharged and 164,626 were dismissed.

The individuals and business who file for bankruptcy have far more debts than money to cover them and dont see that changing anytime soon. In 2015, bankruptcy filers owed $113 billion and had assets of $77 billion, most of that being real estate holdings, whose real value is debatable.

What is surprising is that people not businesses are the ones most often seeking help. They have taken on financial obligations like a mortgage, auto loan or student loan or perhaps all three! and dont have the income to pay for it. There were 844,495 bankruptcy cases filed in 2015, and 97% of them (819,760) were filed by individuals.

Only 24,375 bankruptcy cases were filed by businesses in 2015.

Most of the people filing bankruptcy were not particularly wealthy. The median income for the 819,760 individuals who filed, was just $34,392 and expenses were just $30,972.

It is important to understand that while bankruptcy is a chance to start over, it definitely affects your creditand future ability to use money. It mayprevent or delay foreclosureon a home and repossession of a car and it can also stop wage garnishment and other legal actions creditors use to collect debts, but in the end, there is a price to pay.

There is no perfect time, but there is a good rule of thumb to keep in mind when youre asking yourself the question: should I file for bankruptcy? If it is going to take more than five years for you to pay off all your debts, it might be time to declare bankruptcy.

The thinking behind this is that the bankruptcy code was set up to give people a second chance, not to punish them. If some combination of mortgage debt, credit card debt, medical bills and student loans has devastated you financially and you dont see that picture changing, bankruptcy might be the best answer.

Other possible debt-relief choices include a debt management program or debt settlement, but both of those typically need 3-5 years to reach a resolution and neither one guarantees all your debts will be settled when you finish.

Bankruptcy carries some significant long-term penalties because it will remain on your credit report for 7-10 years, but there is a great mental and emotional lift when youre given a fresh start and all your debts are eliminated.

The primary reason for declaring bankruptcy is to start all over again with a clean slate.

However, there is a secondary reason for filing that might ease some of the tension related to your problems. Declaring bankruptcy will stop the badgering phone calls, letters and other attempts to contact and collect from you.

Legally, its referred to as the automatic stay. It means that creditors are prohibited from filing a lawsuit against you or entering liens against your property or constantly contacting you in an effort to get a payment on the debt. It also stops things like eviction, utility disconnection and wage garnishments.

Bankruptcy is a long- tormenting situation. Once you have filed, the process usually takes six months or more to complete. Before, and during that time, you and possibly your friends or workplace, have received phone calls from debt collection agencies trying to settle your accounts. Those calls must stop as soon as you declare bankruptcy.

Like the economy, there is a rise and fall to bankruptcy filings in the U.S. In fact, the two are as connected as peanut butter and jelly.

Bankruptcy peaked with just over two million filings in 2005. That is the same year the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act was passed. That law was meant to stem the tide of consumers and businesses too eager to simply walk away from their debts.

The number of filings dropped 70% in 2006 to just 617,660, but then the economy tanked and bankruptcy filings increased rapidly to 1.6 million in 2010. They retreated again as the economy improved and have gone down 50% through 2016.

Filing for bankruptcy is a legal process that either reduces, restructures or eliminates your debts. Filing bankruptcy with a court is the first step. You can file on your own or you can file with an attorney. Bankruptcy costs include attorney fees and filing fees. If you file on your own, you will still be responsible for filing fees.

Bankruptcy is not simply a matter of telling a judge Im broke! and throwing yourself at the mercy of the court. There is a process a sometimes confusing, sometimes complicated process that individuals and businesses must wade through to be successful.

It starts with compiling all your financial records debts, assets, income, expenses and listing them. This not only gives you a better understanding of your situation, but also gives anyone helping you (and eventually the court) a better understanding.

The next step is to receive credit counseling within 180 days before filing your case. This is required step. You must obtain counseling from an approved provider listed on theUnited States Courtswebsite. Most counseling agencies offer this service online or over the phone.

The courts want you to do this to make sure you have exhausted all possibilities of finding a different way to handle your problem. Its important to understand that credit counseling is required. You will receive a certificate of completion from the course and this must be part of the paperwork when you declare bankruptcy, or your filing will be rejected.

Next, you file the petition for bankruptcy. If you havent done so at this point, this might be where you realize you need to find a bankruptcy lawyer. Legal counsel is not a requirement for individuals filing for either Chapter 7 or Chapter 13 bankruptcy, but you are taking a serious risk if you choose to represent yourself.

For one thing, you may not understand federal or state bankruptcy laws or be aware which laws apply to your case, especially regarding what debts can or cant be discharged. Judges are not permitted to offer advice and neither are the court employees involved in a case.

There also are many forms to complete and some important differences between Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 that you should be aware of when making decisions. Finally, if you dont know and follow the proper procedures and rules in court, it could affect the outcome of your case.

When your petition is accepted, your case is assigned to a court trustee, who sets up a meeting with your creditors. You must attend the meeting, but the creditors do not have to be there. This is an opportunity for them to ask you or the court trustee questions about your case.

If you cannot afford to hire an attorney, you may have options for free legal services. If you need help finding a lawyer or locating free legal services, check with the American Bar Association for resources and information.

There are several types of bankruptcy for which individuals or married couples can file, the most common being Chapter 7 and Chapter 13.

Chapter 7 bankruptcyis a chance to receive a court judgment that releases you from responsibility for repaying debts. You are permitted to keep key assets, considered exempt property, but non-exempt property will be sold to repay part of your debt.

Property exemptions vary from state to state. You may choose to follow either state law or federal law, which may allow you to keep more possessions.

Examples of exempt property include your home, the car you use for work, equipment you use at work, Social Security checks, pensions, veterans benefits, welfare and retirement savings. These things cant be sold or used to repay debt.

Non-exempt property includes things like cash, bank accounts, stock investments, coin or stamp collections, a second car or second home, etc. Non-exempt items will be liquidated and the proceeds used to repay lenders.

Your assets will be sold by a court-appointed bankruptcy trustee. The proceeds go toward paying the trustee, covering administrative fees and, if funds allow, repaying your creditors as much as possible.

Chapter 7 is the most popular form of bankruptcy, making up 63 percent of individual bankruptcy cases in 2015.

Chapter 13 bankruptcies make up about 30 percent of non-business bankruptcy filings. AChapter 13 bankruptcyinvolves repaying some of your debts to have the rest forgiven. This is an option for people who do not want to give up their property or do not qualify for Chapter 7 because their income is too high.

People can only file for bankruptcy under Chapter 13 if their debts do not exceed a certain amount. The specific cutoff is reevaluated periodically, so check with a lawyer or credit counselor for the most up-to-date figures.

Under Chapter 13, you must design a three- to five-year repayment plan for your creditors. Once you successfully complete the plan, the remaining debts are erased.

However, most people do not successfully finish their plans. When this happens, debtors may then choose to pursue a Chapter 7 bankruptcy instead. If they don’t, creditors then can resume their attempts to collect the full balance owed.

The overriding principle of bankruptcy is that it gives you a fresh start with your finances. Chapter 7 (known as liquidation), wipes away debt by selling nearly all your possessions. Chapter 13 (known as the wage earners plan) gives you an opportunity to develop a 3-5 year plan to repay all your debt and keep what you have.

Both equal a fresh start.

Bankruptcy remains on your credit report for 7-10 years, depending upon which chapter of bankruptcy you file under. For example, Chapter 7 (the most common) is on your credit report for 10 years, while a Chapter 13 filing (second most common) is there for seven years.

During this time, a bankruptcy discharge could prevent you from obtaining new lines of credit and may even cause problems when you apply for jobs.

If you are considering bankruptcy, yourcredit report and credit scoreprobably are damaged already. Your credit report may not endure significantly more damage, especially if you consistently pay your bills after declaring bankruptcy.

Still, because of the long-term effects of bankruptcy, some experts believe its most beneficial when you have more than $15,000 in debts.

Bankruptcy does not necessarily erase all financial responsibilities.

It also does not protect those who co-signed your debts. Your co-signer agreed to pay your loan if you didn’t or couldn’t pay. When you declare bankruptcy, your co-signer still may be legally obligated to pay all or part of your loan.

Most people consider bankruptcy only after they pursuedebt consolidation or debt settlement. These options can help you get your finances back on track and won’t negatively impact your credit as much as a bankruptcy.

Debt consolidationcombines all your loans to help you make regular and timely payments on your debts. Debt settlement is a means of negotiating with your creditors to lower your balance. If successful, it directly reduces your debts.

To learn more about bankruptcy and other debt-relief options, seek advice from a local credit counselor or read theFederal Trade Commission’sinformational pages.

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Understanding Bankruptcy: How to File & Qualifications

xkcd: Free Speech

xkcd: Free Speech

xkcd updates every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday.

Free Speech

[[A person speaking to the reader.]]Person: Public Service Announcehment: The *right to free speech* means the government can’t arrest you for what you say.[[Close-up on person’s face.]]Person: It doesn’t mean that anyone else has to listen to your bullshit, – or host you while you share it.[[Back to full figure.]]Person: The 1st Amendment doesn’t shield you from criticism or consequences.[[Close-up.]]Person: If you’re yelled at, boycotted, have your show canceled, or get banned from an internet community, your free speech rights aren’t being violated.[[Person, holding palm upward.]]Person: It’s just that the people listening think you’re an asshole,[[A door that is ajar.]]Person: And they’re showing you the door.{{Title text: I can’t remember where I heard this, but someone once said that defending a position by citing free speech is sort of the ultimate concession; you’re saying that the most compelling thing you can say for your position is that it’s not literally illegal to express.}}

This work is licensed under aCreative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 2.5 License.

This means you’re free to copy and share these comics (but not to sell them). More details.

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xkcd: Free Speech

Homepage – Free Speech Coalition

We appreciate everyones commitment to the production hold announced yesterday. The PASS medical advisors working with the performer have informed us that the initial test result has now been…

The Free Speech Coalition is calling for a precautionary production hold after a positive test for HIV by an adult performer listed in the PASS database. This is not believed to have been an on-set…

Last weeks seizure of Backpage is a disaster for the health and safety of consensual sex workers. The closure of a major advertising space, one where legitimate clients could be screened, means…

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Homepage – Free Speech Coalition

What Does Free Speech Mean? | United States Courts

Main content

Among other cherished values, the First Amendment protects freedom of speech. The U.S. Supreme Court often has struggled to determine what exactly constitutes protected speech. The following are examples of speech, both direct (words) and symbolic (actions), that the Court has decided are either entitled to First Amendment protections, or not.

The First Amendment states, in relevant part, that:

Congress shall make no law…abridging freedom of speech.

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What Does Free Speech Mean? | United States Courts

What is NIT? Neurotechnology Innovations Translator

NIT started with a clean slate, asking a simple question: How can neurotech companies pioneer these innovations in todays medtech world? The result? Neurotech development, completely reimagined.

NIT is a cutting-edge translational center–a private, for-profit company, formed in collaboration with over a dozen Partners, with a mission to develop and commercialize pioneering neurotechnology solutions to improve patient well-being.Built with the vision of developing a select number of high-quality, commercially-oriented companies, NIT brings together the vision, leadership, expertise,network, resources, personnel and capital to create the pre-eminent development ecosystem in the compelling frontier of neuroscience. NIT’s translational approach substantially reduces risk and required capital for companies and their investors by accelerating the development cycle, avoiding pitfalls, and propelling companies through development to commercial success.NIT will create or attract multiple companies sourced from a global pipeline of innovation.Whether an idea on a napkin, or a more mature neurotech company that is further along in the development pathway, NIT will invest in, and engage with, a select number of attractive neurotechnology companies that will benefit from NITs resources and model to accelerate their success.

NIT is not an incubator; not a venture capital firm; not a contract manufacturing house; not a clinical trialing organization…per se.Instead, NIT brings the best of what each of these other entities has tried to deliver, comprehensively, under one translational center, borrowing their best attributes, but transforming them into an entity that provides a cocoon for your companys success in todays challenging landscape.The result: far more than just capital or seasoned advice–a comprehensive solution, providing the expertise, resources, and capital to propel your company from concept-to-clinic, and subsequently to commercial success.

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What is NIT? Neurotechnology Innovations Translator

Mindmaze The Neurotechnology Company

MindMaze builds intuitive human machine interfaces through its breakthrough neuro-inspired computing platform. Our innovations at the intersection of neuroscience, mixed reality and artificial intelligence are poised to transform multiple industries.

A proprietary suite of products to enhanceneurorehabilitation for hospital and home care.

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Bringing emotions to virtual reality.

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Mindmaze The Neurotechnology Company

Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) : Home

Web Mail login page Fri., April 27, 3:30 p.m. in POST 723, Hope Ishii “Solar System Bricks and Mortar” [G&G TGIF Seminar]

HIGP Seminar Schedule

HIGP Seminar Speaker Sign Up

Geology & Geophysics TGIF Seminar Schedule

Hawaii Groundwater & Geothermal Resources Center

Hawaii Mapping Research Group

Hawaii Space Flight Laboratory

Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

Pacific Regional Planetary Data Center

HawaiiView: Satellite Remote Sensing Data and Images

Hotspots: Global Space-borne Volcano and Fire Thermal Monitoring

PSRD: Planetary Science Research Discoveries educational website

The Denise B. Evans Fellowships in Oceanographic Research

Web Docs, Forms, Help Files (internal use)

School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology

University of Hawaii, Mnoa

Official University policy on smoke-free campus

University Health Promotion resources

Applying to Graduate School

Campus Map (printable pdf)

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Parking on Campus

We invite you to watch our HIGP video.

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Find out what else is happening through the SOEST News and Press Releases.

HIGP solves fundamental problems in Earth and Planetary Science by the development and application of state-of-the-art exploration, measurement, and data analysis technologies. HIGP serves society and the State of Hawaii by acquiring and disseminating new knowledge about the Earth and other planetary bodies, and developing and introducing leading edge technologies and a highly trained workforce to the State economy.

Campus Map

Top banner images: HIGP excels in advanced research, teaching, and service. Our expertise spans the globe from pole to pole, from the depths of the seas to the tops of volcanoes, and extends to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. These images show, from left to right: satellite communication dish, a map of tsunami wave heights, map of mid-ocean ridge/seafloor spreading, the IMI (Imaging and Mapping Instrument) deep-towed ocean sonar system, Earth’s Moon, active Hawaiian lava flow, Mars, a meteorite collected in Antarctica, and GPS field station.

Updated 10 April 2018

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Hawai’i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) : Home

What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

1. The objective of comparative stylistics The objective of comparative stylistics is to study the stylistic characteristics of one language in comparison with those of another one. This systematic study offers students a better and deeper knowledge of the features that distinguish one language from another. Examples: – To become penniless /aflasa/ – The Arabs have pioneered in many branches of science /kna lilc arabi assabaqu fi: Satt furuc i al mac rifati/ These are two cases of “transposition.” In the first example, the verb /aflasa/ is expressed by a phrase in English, while in the second example the verb “to pioneer” is replaced with a noun /assabaqu/ in Arabic. – He was blown away /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ This is a case of “modulation,” where each language describes the situation from a different viewpoint. While English indicates the means (blown), Arabic does the opposite: the result first /dhahaba/, then the means /adrja arriyhi/. Thus, we have a “chass-crois”: Means: blown /adrja arriyhi/ Result: /dhahaba/ away – Give a pint of your blood /tabarrac biqali:lin min damika/ – Before you could say Jack Robinson /fi: tarfati c ayn/ These are two cases of “equivalence” where two languages describe the same situation by using quite different structural and stylistic means. In the first example, the expression “to give a pint,” “pint” being a unit of measure for liquids equal to about half a liter, is rendered into Arabic by the equivalent /tabarrac biqali:lin min/ which literally means “donate some of.” In the second example, the English idiom “before you could say Jack Robinson,” which means “very quickly or suddenly,” has an equivalent idiom in Arabic /Fi tarfati c ayn/ which means “in the twinkling of an eye.” 2. The scope and limits of comparative stylistics According to Vinay and Darbelnet (1977), the three above-mentioned cases – transposition, modulation and equivalence – in addition to four others, which are borrowing, tracing (“calque”), literal translation and adaptation, constitute the seven techniques of translation. The authors of the book “Stylistique compare du franais et de l’anglais” even consider comparative stylistics as a method of translation (notice the expression, “mthode de traduction,” they put under the title on the first page). It is undeniable that comparative stylistics is beneficial to students, since it enables them to identify the characteristics which distinguish their mother language from a foreign one, and hence to perceive the phenomena that endow each languagewith a peculiar genius. Yet, it is arguable that comparative stylistics can explain the process of translation or set forth “laws valid to the two languages concerned” (Vinay and Darbelnet 1977: 20). Since the comparison of two languages requires primarily the performance of translation, we can assert that comparative stylistics is subsequent to translation and not prior to it. Therefore, the seven techniques are no more than means of comparison. If we reconsider the example “he was blown away,” it appears that, to translate it into Arabic, one would immediately look for its functional equivalent rather than think of the “technique” to be used, whether it is transposition, modulation or equivalence As a matter of fact, if the translator fails to find the appropriate equivalent in Arabic, /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/, it will be useless to know that this kind of transfer is called “modulation” from a comparative viewpoint. The same thing applies, of course, to the other techniques offered by comparative stylistics. Moreover, comparative stylistics usually suggests only one equivalent among several possible equivalents of a lexical unit or expression. In the previous example, we can say in Arabic: /dhahaba adrja arriyhi/ as well as /c asafat bihi arriyhu/ or /huwa fi: mahabbi arri:hi/, all of which are expressions with the same meaning. Finally, it appears that comparative stylistics, which is mainly interested in establishing correspondences and equivalences in two languages, does not go beyond the limit of language as a whole to reach the mobility of speech and usage. Hence, it can neither foretell the most appropriate equivalents for expressions in context nor embrace all potential cases of translation within the ever-renewable act of communication. The field of translation is indeed far from being limited or confined to linguistic facts, idiomatic expressions or correspondences that may constitute the subject of a comparative study

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What is comparative planetology – Answers.com

Europlanet Outreach

April 12, 2018

Europlanet presents its latest animation: Space Detectives The Case of the Rocks from Space has had its official premiere at 15:00 CEST on 12th April at EGU 2018 in Vienna. Watch now:

April 10, 2018

Europlanet presents: Space Detectives The case of the rocks from space. Europlanets latest animated video, Space Detectives the case of the rocks from Space will be premiered at the Europlanet stand on Thursday, 12th April at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) at 15:00 CEST. The video, designed in a film noir style by []

April 9, 2018

Europlanet at EGU From 9-13th April, Europlanet will be taking part in the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly 2018 in Vienna, Austria. On Thursday 12th April 2018, from 08:30 10:00, Europlanet will hold a tutorial session on the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) virtual observatory for planetary science in room 2.85 []

April 4, 2018

Europlanet is committed to building a diverse, inclusive planetary science community in Europe and to ensuring that individuals within that community experience equal opportunity, regardless of gender, disability, ethnicity, religion or belief, sexual orientation, marital status, age, nationality or socioeconomic background. Europlanet Diversity Working Group Following a Diversity Breakfast event at the 2017 European Planetary []

March 29, 2018

Are you an early career researcher or amateur astronomer that would like to develop your science communication skills, as well as learning more about making ground-based observations in support of space missions? Europlanet 2020 (RI) and the Moltai Astronomical Observatory (ITPA VU) are holding an international research summer school,Space missions: ground-based observations and science communication, []

The rest is here:

Europlanet Outreach

Hayes Research Group – Comparative Planetology and Solar …

Welcome to the Hayes Research Group at Cornell University

Our research focuses on comparative planetology and solar system exploration.

We specialize in the design, calibration, and operation of remote sensing instruments on unmanned planetary spacecraft.

Scientifically, we are interested in the processes that shape planetary surfaces and atmospheres, with particular emphasis on Mars and outer solar system satellites.

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Hayes Research Group – Comparative Planetology and Solar …

Homepage INAF English

On October 14th 2015, the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) appointed Professor Nicol D’Amico as President of the Italian National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF). Full professor in Astrophysics at University of Cagliari, D’Amico has been previously director of the INAF Astronomical Observatory in Cagliari and the director of the Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT) Project.

Below, the latest news on the president:

See the article here:

Homepage INAF English

University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

The University of Hawaii system (formally the University of Hawaii and popularly known as U.H.) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States. All schools of the University of Hawaii system are accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. The U.H. system’s main administrative offices are located on the property of the University of Hawaii at Mnoa in Honolulu CDP.[3][4][5]

The University of Hawaii at Mnoa is the flagship institution of the University of Hawaii system. It was founded as a land-grant college under the terms of the Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890. It is well respected for its programs in Hawaiian/Pacific Studies, Astronomy, East Asian Languages and Literature, Asian Studies, Comparative Philosophy, Marine Science, Second Language Studies, along with Botany, Engineering, Ethnomusicology, Geophysics, Law, Business, Linguistics, Mathematics, and Medicine. The second-largest institution is the University of Hawaii at Hilo on the “Big Island” of Hawaii, with over 3,000 students. The smaller University of Hawaii-West Oahu in Kapolei primarily serves students who reside on Honolulu’s western and central suburban communities. The University of Hawaii Community College system comprises four community colleges island campuses on O’ahu and one each on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. The schools were created to improve accessibility of courses to more Hawaii residents and provide an affordable means of easing the transition from secondary school/high school to college for many students. University of Hawaii education centers are located in more remote areas of the State and its several islands, supporting rural communities via distance education.

In accordance with Article X, Section 6 of the Hawaii State Constitution, the University of Hawaii system is governed by a Board of Regents, composed of 15 unpaid members who are nominated by a Regents Candidate Advisory Council, appointed by the governor, and confirmed by the state legislature. The Board oversees all aspects of governance for the university system, including its internal structure and management. The board also appoints, evaluates, and if necessary removes the President of the University of Hawaii.[8]

The University’s governing board includes a current student appointed by the Governor of Hawaii to serve a two-year term as a full voting regent. The practice of appointing a student to the Board was approved by the Hawaii State Legislature in 1997.

Alumni of the University of Hawaii system include many notable persons in various walks of life. Senator Daniel Inouye and Tammy Duckworth both are veterans of the US military who were injured during in the line of duty then later entered government service. Bette Midler and Georgia Engel are successful entertainers on the national stage. President Barack Obama’s parents, Barack Obama, Sr., and S. Ann Dunham, and half-sister, Maya Soetoro-Ng, also earned degrees from the Mnoa campus, where his parents met in a Russian language class. His mother earned three degrees from the University of Hawaii including a Ph.D. in anthropology.

The University of Hawaii system has had many faculty members of note. Many were visiting faculty or came after they won major awards like Nobel Laureate Dr. Georg von Bksy. Dr. Ryuzo Yanagimachi, principal investigator of the research group that developed a method of cloning from adult animal cells, is still on the faculty.

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University of Hawaii – Wikipedia

Eve online planetary interaction


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Eve online planetary interaction

Spot The Station | NASA

Watch the International Space Station pass overhead from several thousand worldwide locations. It is the third brightest object in the sky and easy to spot if you know when to look up. Read More

Visible to the naked eye, it looks like a fast-moving plane only much higher and traveling thousands of miles an hour faster!

See the article here:

Spot The Station | NASA

Island Maps: Caribbean Islands, Greek Islands, Pacific …

Arctic OceanAtlantic Ocean (North)North of the equatorAtlantic Ocean (South)South of the equatorAssorted (A – Z)Found in a variety of bays, channels, lakes, rivers, seas, straits, etc.Caribbean SeaFound in a variety of bays, channels, lakes, rivers, seas, straits, etc.Greek IslesIndian OceanMediterranean SeaPacific Ocean (north)north of the equatorPacific Ocean (South)south of the equatorOceania and the South Pacific Islands Trending on WorldAtlas

This page was last updated on August 26, 2015.

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Island Maps: Caribbean Islands, Greek Islands, Pacific …

| Islands Restaurants

Islands has been a San Diego favorite for more than 25 years. With ten locations throughout the county, you can find the best burger in San Diego in your own neighborhood. Relax with family and friends while enjoying awesome surf videos, ice cold beer, mai tais and delicious burgers, like the Hawaiian Burger with fresh grilled pineapple. Great sports viewing on large HD TVs in a fun atmosphere. Visit Islands for Happy Hour during the week from 3pm to 6:30pm for great deals in the bar.

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| Islands Restaurants