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Emerging Space opportunities in India – Geospatial World

Indian Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharamans recent announcement on boosting private participation in Space activities has spurred a new wave of excitement in the sector. As an after effect of the announcement, to bring in more clarity on the partnership opportunities, leaders from the sector came together ona virtual session on June 5,2020.

In the session on New Space Opportunities in India experts from ISRO, CII, Institute of Science and Technology (IIST), JNTU-H, ISG andTEQIP III shared valuable insights onhow the private sector, academic andresearch institutes could leverage on the new opportunities in the space sector and how this participation will boost the sector and the economy.

Prof. A Govardhan, Rector & In-charge-Registrar, JNTU-Hstarted the session on a positive note by saying, The new developments in the space sector will greatly boost the economy. With private companies coming in the space sector, there will be more employment, innovations and lot of growth in the space industry.

Taking the discussion further,Mr. Vagish Dixit, Convenor, Education & Skills Panel India CII Telangana & MD& CEO, ALPLA India Pvt Ltd.said, The time is ripe for the private sector to enter the commercial space sector. We need to build and nurture an ecosystem where the public and private sectors work collaboratively. The government must function as a facilitator, friend and regulator. It should handhold private start-ups and encourage them to venture into the space domain. Through public-private partnership, the Indian space sector can effectively reach its target of being a $50 billion worth industry in the next 5 years.

Dr. YVN Krishna Murthy, Senior Professor & Registrar IIST, Dept of Space, Govt of Indiaprovided clearer direction on the subject of public-private partnership in the space sector by right away outlining few domains within the sector where the private start-ups should focus on investing. He outlined some interesting entrepreneurial opportunities. He said private companies should think of contributing in areas of crop insurance, soil conservation, fisheries since in these areas they can make significant difference with less investment.

Citing the example of SatSure, an innovative analytics company basedon expanding the vision of Dr. Vikram Sarabhai,he said that private companies need to think what difference can they make? What innovation can they bring in the sector for better outcomes? How they can bring in IoT data? They must try to beat the market with their innovation.

Instead of repeating, which is already there, they must try to beat the market with new technologies. This will make them more useful. An area where the private companies must focus on is devising Locust Early Warning Systems. Data is available. The companies need to think how to use this data to provide such valuable services.

Mr. Walter Mayor, CEO, ProGis-Austria,addressing the necessity of adopting Geospatial approach for biodiversity conservation, mentioned, We have to integrate better in future. We have to go from data to information to precise decision-making to integrated decision-making. While exploring new opportunities in the space sector, private companies must focus on solving problems and building a good future. They have to think beyond short term gains. They have to develop solutions that reduce ecology damages and aid in building a sustainable world.

The discussion on new opportunities in space in India gained a new life whenFormer Chairman of ISRO, Dr. Kiran Kumarcame on board. He reinforced the point that the entire planet has to live as one system. He said, Like the reset button on our computer, COVID-19 has made all of us to rethink and reset the way we live and work. The entire planet is one family. We need to work together.

India has developed end to end capabilities in space opportunities, be it space exploration, space tourism, space adventure, space exploitation. A private enterprise recently took humans to space. Such efforts are needed for the development of the Indian Space Sector. More and more people have to do jobs at a rapid pace. We all are aware that government has its own pace due to the number of processes it has to follow. Things can happen fast when private entrepreneurs invest time, money and energy in the space sector. However, the private sector must not only focus on maximizing returns but on holistic development of the sector and the planet.

Touching upon the subject of developing the capabilities of the younger generation, he rightly mentioned, Rapid progress in building technological capabilities of the younger generation must be made. ISRO is building incubation centres, fostering academic partnership programs. Many such efforts are needed. We have to be bold in moving ahead. The government must play an active role in enabling academicians, industry, the young generation for facilitating new opportunities in the Indian space sector.

The fiery comments ofDr. Pavuluri Subba Rao, CMD, Ananth Technologiesbrought a new perspective to the discussion. His comments touched upon a pain area. Indian Remote Sensing policies have long been criticized for stifling the growth of the space sector and he rightly pointed out that for strengthening the sector and the private-public partnership to flourish, it is necessary to revamp the policies.

He said, More encouraging policies can make the space sector a level playing field for the private sector.

His views on the developments required on the academic front were also spot on. He pointed out that the universities need to update the curriculum such that the students become more job ready for the new age space sector. We must make the students suitable for meeting the industry needs. Faculties also need to be more aware about the industry trends. Inviting industry-experts to the universities could be a good way of making the students aware of the latest developments taking place in the industry.

As part of the COVID Stimulus Package, the Government of India is encouraging the Private Sector Participation in Space Sector and the eminent speakers present in the virtual session on new space opportunities in India provided valuable points as to how the space sector can develop a robust ecosystem, where everyone contributes and thrives equally. The public-private partnership is definitely the way to go forward!

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Emerging Space opportunities in India - Geospatial World

Space Exploration: Stocks and ETFs to Watch – The Motley Fool Canada

This past weekend, history was made, which may usher in a new era of space exploration. The Space X Crew Dragon became the first privately built ship to ever carry humans to the international space station. Aboard the famous Falcon 9 rocket, Crew Dragon successfully docked on Sunday, some 19 hours after launching from Floridas Kennedy Space Center.

The momentous occasion is also garnering interest from potential investors. How can one invest in this multi-billion industry? At the moment, Space X is private, but there are several other intriguing options for investors looking for exposure to space exploration.

The simplest way to gain exposure to the industry is to invest in an exchange-traded fund (ETF). Although there are no Canadian-listed ETFs, there are two intriguing options south of the border.

The SPDR S&P Kensho Final Frontiers ETF (NYSEMKT:ROKT) focuses on spacecraft, launch vehicles, rockets, satellites, infrastructure and mission-support services. The fund seeks to provide investment results that track the total return performance of the S&P Kensho Final Frontiers Index. The Index attempts to capture companies whose products and services are driving innovation behind the exploration of deep space and deep sea.

Among the top holdings, you will find industry leaders such as Raytheon Technologies and Lockheed Martin. TSX-listed Maxar Technologiesis also among ROKTs top holdings.

Since launching in late 2018, Kensho performed quite well and had a banner 2019 in which it gained 40.90%. The fund was trending well again in 2020 until the pandemic sent its price crashing. Despite rebounding, Kensho is still trading at a 28% discount to its 52-week high.

The Procure Space ETF (NASDAQ:UFO) focuses on broadcasting, cable/satellite TV, telecommunications and telecom-equipment industries. The fund seeks to provide investment results that track the S-Network Space Index equity Index. The Index serves as an equity benchmark for a global portfolio of companies that engage in space-related business, such as those utilizing satellite technology.

Among the top holdings of this space exploration fund you will find Virgin Galactic, ORBCOMM, and once again, Maxar Technologies.

Procure only launched in May of last year, and it has lost 23.16% of its value since inception. Over the past month, it is up by approximately 11% and is rebounding along with the rest of the markets.

Outside of the aforementioned Maxar Technologies, Magellan Aerospace (TSX:MAL) is also worth a look in the space exploration industry. Although not a pure play, Magellan has been working with partners in the space industry for over 50 years.

Magellans significant expertise made them key partners in several missions. Most recently, it partnered with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) on the RADARSAT Constellation Mission (RCM). Canadas new generation of Earth observation satellites launched in July of 2019.

According to the CSA, the satellites will scan our country and its waters daily to help manage our environment and waters. This important data will: help ships navigate safely through Arctic waters, monitor our ecosystems and assist first responders when disasters strike.

Much like the Crew Dragon spacecraft, the RADARSAT Constellation satellites were launched aboard the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket.

As of writing, Magellan is trading at an attractive 8.70 times forward earnings and below book value (0.40). If a new era of space exploration is indeed upon us, then companies like Magellan are well positioned to benefit.

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Space Exploration: Stocks and ETFs to Watch - The Motley Fool Canada

Stay Home, Watch Horror: 5 Deep Space Horror Movies to Stream This Week – Bloody Disgusting

Fear is subjective, and people watch horror for a variety of reasons. Horror as escapism being a prominent one. The genre offers endless creativity, allowing us to explore extreme scenarios, alternate dimensions, and creatures from beyond, all from the comfort of our own homes. Lately, horror as escapism seems needed more than ever. So, this week were leaving the planet behind and traversing the terrors lurking in the furthest corners of space.

Because its the definitive, default deep space horror franchise, I left it off this weeks list in favor of spotlighting other picks. However, the Alientrilogy is currently streaming on HBO Max,Prometheusis available to stream with a Sling subscription, andAlien: Covenantthrough FX. Also recommended is 2007sSunshine, but its available only on VOD and rental.

These five horror movies take on the physical and psychological nightmares that accompany deep space exploration, from mind-bending isolation trauma to savage monsters inhabiting hostile terrain. Theyre all currently available to stream this week.

Event Horizon Netflix

The other go-to deep space horror movie, outside of theAlienseries, and for a good reason. We may never see Paul W.S. Andersons directors cut, but at least the theatrical cut still rules. A haunted house film set near Neptune in 2047, the ill-fated crew of the Lewis and Clark spaceship is sent to answer a distress call from the Event Horizon after itd been missing for seven years. They soon discover that the ship went to hell and back, literally, and its gained sentience. Laurence Fishburne leads as Captain Miller, but Sam Neill steals the film as the Event Horizons designer turned evil villain. Where were going, we wont need eyes to see.

Planet of the Vampires Prime Video

Two interplanetary ships on an expedition exploring the furthest recesses of space answer a distress beacon from a nearby, unexplored world. The crew of one ship becomes possessed upon entering the planets atmosphere, rendering them homicidal as they turn on each other. The survivors learn that theyre far from the first species to set foot on the planet and succumb to its mysterious force. If this plot sounds familiar in any way, that might be because it played a significant influence onAlien. Italian maestro Mario Bava directs with his usual vivid, lush aesthetic.

High Life Prime Video

The first English-language feature by Claire Denis (Trouble Every Day) also happens to be a genre-bender. Told in a nonlinear format,High Life follows a group of death row criminals given a second chance at life by working on a mission to extract energy from a black hole. The deep space isolation and the psychological turmoil it brings is enough for anyone to deal with; the criminals are subjected to experimentation by the doctor, whos fixated on creating a baby in deep space through artificial insemination. Yes, its as disturbing as it sounds, and it doesnt even begin to cover how weird it gets. A headier sci-fi horror film that eschews convention or any easy answers, this is for the more avant-garde cinephiles.

The Visitor Tubi, Vudu

An utterly bizarre, often incoherent entry in midnight madness. Emphasis on madness. Evil space alien Zatteen fled his planet and escaped to Earth. He was eventually stopped, but hed procreated with many Earthlings before his death, resulting in numerous descendants harboring great potential for evil. One of those descendants is 8-year-old telekinetic Katy, who becomes locked in an intergalactic battle of good versus evil over the fate of the world. Much of the narrative takes place on Earth, but theres plenty of glimpses of the alien world as well. Theres a Christ figure, Satanists, a falcon, aliens, supernatural powers, and more in a strange mashup of The OmenandClose Encounters of the Third Kind. That the U.S. cut of the film was heavily edited makes this anomaly of a movie all the more nonsensically weird. In the best possible, you have to see it to believe it sort of way. Its pure madness.

Pandorum Hoopla

The films title refers to a psychosis triggered by deep space and severe stress. While that does factor into the story, what makes this movie memorable is the non-stop onslaught of monsters. The setup sees two crew members awaken from hypersleep, only to find their colleagues are missing, and strange, predatory creatures have overrun the ship. Dennis Quaid and Ben Foster lead the cast in this massive action-horror spectacle. The type of film we dont get too often these days. Savage kills, fresh creature design, and even a little psychological terror thrown into the mix. Like Kanopy, Hoopla is a free streaming service offered by local libraries, but if no library in your vicinity offers it,Pandorumis also available to stream on HBO Max.

Bonus: Killer Klowns from Outer Space Netflix, Tubi, Pluto TV, Hoopla

In terms of feel-good horror, its hard to beat the insanely fun and loveableKiller Klowns from Outer Space. Because its set on Earth, its a bonus pick, one that brings immeasurable joy. Who doesnt smile when seeing these wacky Klowns unleash mayhem and carnage in the form of shadow puppets, popcorn, cotton candy, and circus mayhem? All from the delightfully warped minds of the Chiodo brothers.

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Stay Home, Watch Horror: 5 Deep Space Horror Movies to Stream This Week - Bloody Disgusting

Physicists Solve the Mystery of the Light-Speed Cyclist – Popular Mechanics

Big news for students of the Star Trek school of warp speed: Scientists have proven that watching a body move at light speed would make you feel sick to your stomach.

Thats because the visual information coming in from both eyeballs would combine into a distorted, confusing mental picture that the human brain would find dizzying, they say.

Like those who designed the stretching USS Enterprise over several generations of special effects, physicists have wondered for decades what an object traveling at light speed would look like. In fiction, the goal is to persuade viewers that theyre really seeing warp speedbut in reality, the question is reversed. If light speed were a given and we knew it, what would that look like?

Soviet-born physicist George Gamow defected and moved to the U.S. in the 1930s. He wrote a book called Mr. Tompkins in Wonderland to help explain physics ideas to children, but the book contained a thought experiment that has lingered for decades.

[I]n it, the titular hero is transported to a strange world in which the speed of light is only slightly faster than that of a bicycle and he sees a passing cyclist to be Lorentz contracted, in apparent agreement with Einsteins Theory of Special Relativity, British researchers write in a new paper published in Proceedings of the Royal Society A.

Lorentz contraction is a visual squashing where you expect to see the entire object. But in their paper, the researchers discuss all the pieces of what we see when we look at a moving object and use that to build a new understanding of the light-speed cyclist. The scientists explain:

The reason for this is our advancing understanding of human sight. First, with two eyes (binocular vision), our brains receive information in two sections whose shared micro-lag is magnified by extremely high speeds. All the parameters are immediately doubled and muddied in stereoscope.

Adding visual information with light and shadow, 3D substance, colors, and more only multiplies the visual confusion. The scientists modeled this using math models for each of the different visual parameters.

A bicycle wheel is a uniquely great way to think about relative motion. If a wheel is traveling at the speed of light, half of each wheel appears to be spinning forward, while half is technically going backward. This is one reason its such an enduring thought exercise. Is the entire bicycle visually squashed, even though the wheels arent in one uniform motion vector?

E. A. Cryer-Jenkins and P. D. Stevenson, Proceedings of the Royal Society A

And while this all sounds far outno one is riding a bike at the speed of light!the researchers say it could have applications in space exploration and telescopy. The scientists explain:

Essentially, a powerful space viewer could match passing flickers with the distortion profile in this paper and detect whole objects even at extremely high speeds.

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Physicists Solve the Mystery of the Light-Speed Cyclist - Popular Mechanics

ISRO signs MoU with ARIES for cooperation in Space Situational Awareness, Astrophysics – Economic Times

BENGALURU: The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) has entered into an agreement with Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES) for cooperation in the field of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Astrophysics.

The Memorandum of Understanding was signed by R Umamaheswaran, Scientific Secretary of ISRO and Dipankar Banerjee, Director of ARIES, Nainital through videoconference mode at ISRO and ARIES Headquarters' on June 4, the space agency said in a release.

Space objects orbital tracking, analysis and space weather studies are important aspects in Space Situational Awareness and Management to safeguard Indian space assets from critical conjunction threats from space debris, ISRO said.

Future endeavors in space exploration depend on R&D in Astrophysics, solar sciences and space environment, it said, adding that self-reliance in these areas is key to the progress of Indian space arena.

This MoU will pave the way for future collaborations between ISRO and ARIES in establishing optical telescope observational facilities for space object tracking, R&D studies in space weather, astrophysics and Near Earth Object (NEO), it further noted.

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ISRO signs MoU with ARIES for cooperation in Space Situational Awareness, Astrophysics - Economic Times

The Dangers of Space, Military Rivals and Other New Books to Read – Smithsonian.com

Reading astrophysicist Paul M. Sutters latest book, How to Die in Space, will surely help any adult erase regrets they may have about their failed childhood dream of becoming an astronaut. As the SUNY Stony Brook professor observes, outer spacepopulated by such threats as black holes, acid rain, asteroids, planetary nebulae and magnetic fieldsis, to put it frankly, nasty.

The latest installment in our Books of the Week series, which launched in late March to support authors whose works have been overshadowed amid the COVID-19 pandemic, details the many ways one might meet their demise in space, six notorious military rivalries, the Italian Renaissances dark undertones, the history of swimming and the culinary implications of so-called wild foods. Past coverage has highlighted books including Karen Gray Houston's exploration of her family's civil right's legacy, St. Louis' racist history, James Madison's black family, and modern conservatism's roots in the antebellum South and post-Civil War westward expansion.

Representing the fields of history, science, arts and culture, innovation, and travel, selections represent texts that piqued our curiosity with their new approaches to oft-discussed topics, elevation of overlooked stories and artful prose. Weve linked to Amazon for your convenience, but be sure to check with your local bookstore to see if it supports social distancing-appropriate delivery or pickup measures, too.

Despite its macabre title, How to Die in Space is a surprisingly lighthearted read. Adopting what Kirkus describes as an informal, humorous persona, Sutterhost of popular podcast Ask a Spaceman!guides his audience through the cosmos deadliest phenomena, from Jupiters dense atmosphere to radiation, solar flares and exploding stars, which he deems slumbering dragon[s], just waiting for the chance to awaken and begin breathing flame.

The book also dedicates ample space to speculative threats, including dark matter, extraterrestrial life, wormholes and other relics of the ancient universe.

How to Die in Spaces description emphasizes that while the universe may be beautiful, ... its [also] treacherous. Still, Sutters musings cover more than simply doom and gloom: As the scientist writes in the texts closing chapters, Its really an excuse to talk about all the wonderful physics happening in the cosmos. There is so much to learn, and we need to study it as closely and intimately as possible.

Following the release of their 2013 bestseller, Moment of Battle: The Twenty Clashes That Changed the World, journalist James Lacey and historian Williamson Murray started brainstorming topics to explore in future books. Eventually, the pair landed on the premise of rivals, defined in Gods of Wars introduction as military geniuses who fought a general of equal caliberor, in the cases of World War II commanders Erwin Rommel, Bernard Law Montgomery and George Patton, multiple generals.

Bookended by essays on wars changing character and the role of military genius in modern warfare, the six case studies read like a Whos Who of global history. Representing the ancient world are Hannibal and Scipio (the latter of whom the authors describe as the better strategic thinker) and Caesar and Pompey. Crusader kings Richard I and Saladin; Napoleon Bonaparte and Battle of Waterloo victor Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington; Union Army commander Ulysses S. Grant and Confederate officer Robert E. Lee round out the list of 13 featured men.

Lacey and Murray liken their approach to chess strategy. There is only so much you can learn by playing someone inferior to you or by revisiting the games of neophytes, the duo writes. There is, however, much to absorb, think about, and learn from studying games that [pit] one grandmaster against another.

As alluded to by its title, Catherine Fletchers latest book juxtaposes seemingly discordant aspects of the Italian Renaissance: its aesthetic brilliance and, in the words of fellow historian Simon Sebag Montefiore, the filth and thuggery, slavery, sex, slaughter and skullduggery behind [this] exquisite art. Framed as an alternative history of the much-explored period of creative rebirth, The Beauty and the Terror contextualizes the Italian Renaissance within the framework of European colonialism, widespread warfare and religious reform. Rather than focusing solely on such artistic geniuses as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Botticelli, Fletcher lends a voice to the women writers, Jewish merchants, mercenaries, prostitutes, farmers and array of average citizens who also called the Italian peninsulas competing city-states home.

The lived reality of 15th- and 16th-century Italy involved far more violence, uncertainty and devastation than widely believed, argues Fletcher. Forces beyond its residents controla series of wars, the rise of the Ottoman Empire, the advent of the Protestant Reformationshaped their lives yet have been largely overshadowed by what their greatest minds left behind.

We revere Leonardo da Vinci for his art but few now appreciate his ingenious designs for weaponry, notes the books description. We know the Mona Lisa for her smile but not that she was married to a slave-trader. We visit Florence to see Michelangelo's David but hear nothing of the massacre that forced the republics surrender.

In lieu of visiting a swimming pool this summer, consider diving into Howard Means absorbing exploration of aquatic recreation and exercise. As the journalist writes in Splash!s prologue, paddling, floating or wading through water can be a transformative experience: The near weightlessness of swimming is the closest most of us will ever get to zero-gravity space travel. The terror of being submerged is the nearest some of us ever come to sheer hell.

The earliest evidence of swimming dates to some 10,000 years ago, when Neolithic people living in what is now southwest Egypt painted individuals performing the breaststroke or doggy paddle on the walls of the Cave of Swimmers. Swimming endured throughout the classical period, with ancient texts including the Bible, Homers Odyssey, the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Chinese Book of Odes all containing references to the practice.

The advent of the medieval erawith its rising prudery and insularity, as well as its lack of sanitation and efficient infrastructurequickly brought this golden age of swimming to an end; in Europe, at least, swimming slipped into the dark for a full millennium, writes Means.

During the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries, swimming was more closely associated with witchcraft than leisure. The practice only regained popularity during the Enlightenment period, when such prominent figures as Benjamin Franklin and Lord Byron reminded the public of its merits. By 1896, swimming had regained enough popularity to warrant its inclusion in the first modern Olympic Games.

Part memoir, part travelogue and part culinary adventure, Feasting Wild examines humans relationship to wild food and the disappearing places and animals that provide it, according to Publishers Weekly. Broadly defined as fare foraged, hunted or caught in the wild, the untamed foods detailed in geographer and anthropologist Gina Rae La Cervas debut book hail from such diverse locales as Scandinavia, Poland, Borneo, the Democratic Republic of Congo, New Mexico and Maine. Once associated with poverty and subsistence, writes La Cerva, wild foods including broad-leaved garlic, bushmeat, sea buckthorn flowers and moose meat are now viewed as luxuries, reserved for five-star restaurants that cater to an elite clientele.

La Cerva argues that this shift in perception stems from the onslaught of settler-colonialism, which used the dichotomy of wild versus tame to justify violent appetites and the domination of unfamiliar cultures and places. Within a few centuries, she adds, the world [had] traded wild edibles at home for exotic domesticates from abroad.

The flipside of this fetishization of need is the standardization of humans diets. As wild places across the world vanish, so, too, do undomesticated or uncultivated plant and animal species. Preserving wild foodsand the knowledge imparted by the women who have historically collected and cooked themis therefore fundamentally about recovering our common heritage, writes La Cerva. The urgency of the environmental crisis is precisely why we must slow down, take time, [and] become complicated in our actions.

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The Dangers of Space, Military Rivals and Other New Books to Read - Smithsonian.com

Ethics of Space Exploration: Exploring to Sustain? – EuroScientist

Space.

The final frontier.

For as long as many of us can remember space has been at the forefront of the minds of most of the global population. Whether this fascination has to do with scientific exploration, resource extraction, or the desire for the fame and glory that comes with being one of a handful of people who have left the planet, there is little doubt that at some point or another nearly everyone has looked up at the nighttime sky and wondered what else is out there.

This desire has driven incredible feats of physics and engineering in our lifetimes. Weve put satellites and telescopes in the sky, rovers on other planets, and people on the moon. Within the subsequent generation, these ambitions will take their next major step forward with the potential for a constructed station on the moon and a manned trip to Mars.

As exciting as all of this (we all feel that inner-child giddiness), it begs the question at what cost?

Any scientist or engineer could tell you that getting to space is no easy feat no matter how many times it has been done. There are all sorts of logistics that have to be worked out for each aircraft ranging from the weight of the supplies that it will carry, to how it will be fueled, to how food and human waste will be handled in space for months on end. None of it is cheap in fact, space exploration is spendy and we as a society put a lot more money towards it than some of the lesser-known yet essential parts of our own planet like the oceans.

Creating equipment that will survive in space over the long-term isnt easy either. Things such as robots that are used widely in space exploration have to be made strategically in order to survive the harsh conditions. After all, they have to survive debris traveling at incredible speeds, extreme high and low temperatures, and have the battery life to last. Much of this essential testing and retesting adds up and frustrates politicians who hold the purse strings and want results quickly.

Outside of funding, many experts in space programs are also worried about the shrinking list of qualified professionals who have the experience and expertise to push the global space program to new boundaries. In the United States, for instance, the number of students seeking STEM degrees that are essential for space exploration is quite low and it is hoped that increased space funding will inspire more young adults to pursue those types of valuable degrees.

Establishing a presence on the moon and manning a trip to Mars are amazing scientific feats, things every global citizen should be proud of. The tools developed to make these happen will be creative and amazing. Take for instance the idea of creating a swarm of droid insects that could travel the surface of a planet like Mars, taking photos and samples as they go.

However, science is not where it will stop. Rather, space exploration is poised to go much the same way as any other exploration in our human history has. Resource extraction for personal gain is likely to be a priority with no real plan for dealing with any unforeseen consequences until much later. There is already an estimated $700 billion billion worth of valuable mineral resources in the asteroid belt alone.

These include all sorts of valuable minerals such as tungsten, which is actually used in space travel because of its high melting point and strength. Other valuable minerals that many entrepreneurs already have their eyes on include things like nickel, iron, gold, and platinum to name a few. Many make the valid argument that most of the mining for these metals done on Earth is hazardous, unethical, and heavily polluted. Moving these types of industries to outer space could be a real benefit for the planet.

Space exploration tugs at all of our heartstrings and is one of the few things that really brings the world together. Though exciting exploration is expensive and has some significant time and personal limitations. If this is something we manage to master in the near future, things like mining and other extractive industries will be quick to follow. The real question is: are we actually ready?

Indiana Lee is a writer and journalist from the Pacific Northwest with a passion for covering workplace issues, environmental protection, lifestyle improvements and more. In her off time she enjoys exploring the wilderness with her two dogs. You can reach her at indianaleewrites (at) gmail.com

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Ethics of Space Exploration: Exploring to Sustain? - EuroScientist

Struggling with isolation? Astronauts have been there, done that – The Detroit News

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Deana Weibel and husband Glen Swanson review a recent artice in 'Space Review' magazine. Weibel, a professor of anthropology at Grand Valley State University and Swanson, former chief historian at NASA's Johnson Space Center, conduct research on space exploration and practical lessons learned from astronauts in isolation.(Photo: Chris duMond, Special to the Detroit News)

When astronauts from NASA were first isolated in space, from 1961 to 1963 in Project Mercury, they were away from Earth on flights lasting from Alan Shepard Jr.s 15 minutes to L. Gordon Cooper Jr.s 34 hours.

Butas the country reached for the moon, Project Gemini began requiring a far more burdensome, considerably extended period of social isolation, at a considerable physical distance.

Doctors and scientists say the efforts more than half a century ago may provide lessons for livingthrough today's pandemic, when the major remedy is staying hometo stay safe.

In Gemini, you have guys in pairs being sent out for weeks at a time. Andit was stressful, said Deana Weibel, a professor of anthropology, at Grand Valley State University, whose research focus includes space exploration.

Glen Swanson, former chief historian at NASA's Johnson Space Center, works in his home office above his garage in Grand Rapids.(Photo: Chris duMond, Special to The Detroit News)

One of the descriptions was that they were in a space about the size of the front seat of a VW Bug, Weibel said.

Very limited space, small couches, and youre stuck like that for two weeks.

Sotrying to get along with another person for that amount of time is probably better than being completely by yourself. Butit is certainly something where by the time they landed, they were ready to get away from each other! she said.

Weibel recently wrote a piece for The Space Review, a 17-year-old online publication, about social isolation in space. Among her conclusions: Even though a lot goes on in space, diversions are crucial for tolerating social isolation.

Schedules create structure, provide mental stimulation and break up the day.

Andcommunication with others outside the bubble is a godsend. Whether it is the folks at Mission Control, the presidentof the United States or members of the family, who could sometimes pipe in. Especially during the flightslater, in Project Apollo, hearing from others outside of the bubble helped astronauts maintain proper frames of mind.

Deana Weibel pauses to gaze out the window while reading in her home office in Grand Rapids. Dr. Weibel, a professor of anthropology at Grand Valley State University, conducts on space exploration, applying practical lessons learned from astronauts in isolation.(Photo: Chris duMond, Special to the Detroit News)

Al Worden, who is from Michigan, and who died just March 18, has the Guinness Book of World Records record for being the most isolated human being thats ever existed, Weibel said.

Worden, an astronaut and engineerborn in Jacksonwho attended the University of Michigan,spent three days alone in the command moduleduring the Apollo 15 missionin 1971, becomingthe most socially distanced person, in history.

When he was orbiting the moon, and David Scott and Jim Irving were on the surface of the moon, (he was) farther than anyone on Earth could possibly be from any other human on Earth, she explained.

Andwhen he talks about it in his memoir, he dealt with it mostly just by staying really, really busy. They had an extremely rigid schedule that he was supposed to follow.

He actually enjoyed the isolation, a bit, after being involved with the other guysfor a while, Weibel said.

A.W. Tony England, dean of the College of Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Michigan-Dearborn, is a former astronaut who served as mission scientist for Apollo 13 and 16 and space station program scientist from 1986 to 1987.

England said NASA draws on the history of exploration, which often involved extreme physical distancing and social isolation.

A.W. (Tony) England, Dean of College of Engineering and Computer Science at University of Michigan, Dearborn, in front of his Ypsilanti home, Friday, May 15, 2020, The former astronaut talks about lessons learned from social isolation in space. (Photo: Clarence Tabb Jr., The Detroit News)

What NASA did for the early scientist astronauts, seven us of which eventually flew in something, theway they approached us is that they had found in the military that establishing common experiences and understanding how teams have to work under pressure convinced them that the thing to do for us was to give us the same experiences, he said.

A submarine crew is out for months without contact outside of the submarine. In the old sailing ships, the whalers were gone for years, mostly at sea, he said.Sothere is a long history of people working in a strange environment, without access to family or access to normal recreation.

While he had an eight-day space flight, England said, he also was in Antarctica with field teams, twice, for two-and-a-half months and only shortwave radio communication, without seeing so much as a contrail.

Unlike the coronavirus, which appeared suddenly and relentlessly for many people, without seeking volunteers, exploration and the accompanying isolation is often the fondest desire of those exploring.

Unlike COVID-19, astronauts and other explorers want to be where they are, and have trained.

I guess my experience would say that people who would accept the challenge as something they really want to invest themselves in, really dont have that much of a problem in extended living situations where its not normal life, England said, of his varied experiences.

The other thing that is really important in a situation like that is an understanding and an acceptance of your responsibilities, he said.

Being isolated in close quarters with a unit of people places a premium on everyone knowing their roles and fulfilling them, in a spirit of teamwork.

It was interesting. On our flight, the commander, Gordie Fullerton had been a test pilot of heavy airplanes, and so he was used to working with large crews, England said. It made it a delightful experience for us.

Some of the commanders, who were from fighters or single-pilot airplanes, didnt adjust to the idea of working with a crew. Andtheir crews have come back down, you know, not really close friends.

The astronauts' experiences, and the information culled from them, are of significant interest to doctors, especially at the Space Medicine Innovations Laboratory at the Geisel School of Medicine, at Dartmouth Collegein New Hampshire.

In the lab, doctors and scientist research behavioral approaches for people in confined spaces, to devise strategies for handling stress, depression and conflict that can come from confinement, not unlike those associated with a pandemic.

Especially pertinent in the time of coronavirus, the Dartmouth PATH Program provides a series of self-help tools designed for astronauts coping with confinement in small spaces for extended periods.

Our work is focused on providing people with self-directed, anonymous tools that they can use,in the moment, to help them with these kinds of things, said Dr. Jay Buckey, a professor of medicine at Dartmouth, director of the Space Medicine Innovations Lab, and a former astronaut.

Sotheyre online. Its at path.dartmouth.edu, and its a research project, so you have to sign a consent form.

Mobile devices are not currently supported.

The program highlights coping with stress, depression and conflictin isolation and confinement.

These are self-help tools, said Buckey, a former astronaut. The individual is doing the work. The tools offer practical things that people can do in any environment.

Buckey flew aboard the space shuttle Columbia in 1998. He and research colleagues at Dartmouth, Harvard and UCLA developed the tools over more than decade.

Deana Weibel and husband Glen Swanson watch 'Dr. Stangelove' at their home in Grand Rapids. Weibel, a professor of anthropology at Grand Valley State University and Swanson, former chief historian at NASA's Johnson Space Center, conduct research on space exploration and practical lessons learned from astronauts in isolation.(Photo: Chris duMond, Special to The Detroit News)

In the conflict area, it gives you some different ways to think about conflict, he explained.

Why is when you say something, people responded in a totally different way than you expected? You think youre saying something really innocuous, and it gets a big response.It helps you understand, sometimes, what is going on there, Buckey said.

It also gives you some tips on being a good negotiator that keeps the relationship in mind. For a lot of us, now, being in isolation, where we're close to family and friends and roommates, people who we probably want to maintain or relationships with. But, we still got to negotiate things; were going to have some disagreements.

Sothe inter-space negotiation is kind of a skill on how to do that better, he said.

Glen Swanson, a former chief historian at the Johnson Space Center in Houston and a former physics instructor at Grand Valley State University, said the significant difference between space exploration and life in a time of pandemic is that NASA missions come with anend date.

The crew members, they have a flight plan, said Swanson, Weibels husband. There is great comfort in knowing when this is going to be over.

I know when Im going to come back, Im going to see my family and friends. I am prepared for this three-month, six-month stay, or whatever the duration, ahead of time.

When I signed up for this gig in advance, I knew what was going to happen.

COVID-19 is a different gig, Swanson said.

The big difference here is we just dont have that. We dont have that splashdown. We dont know when things are going to come to an end, and theres a lot of uncertainty.

And uncertainty is something that NASA tries to avoid."

gkrupa@detroitnews.com

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Struggling with isolation? Astronauts have been there, done that - The Detroit News

‘Kerbal Space Program’ teams up with European Space Agency for ‘Shared Horizons’ expansion – Space.com

The European Space Agency is joining the "Kerbal Space Program."

Space gamers and die-hard "Kerbal Space Program" fans will soon be able to recreate some of the biggest missions from the European Space Agency (ESA) in the free update "Shared Horizons" from developers Private Division and Squad.

The update, which launches July 1, requires the base game and will add ESA's workhorse Ariane 5 rocket, BepiColombo mission to Mercury and Rosetta comet mission to the roster of missions Kerbal players can try in the popular space simulator game. There'll also be an ESA spacesuit for the game's intrepid Kerbals to wear, new rocket components and science experiments to pursue.

"Here at the European Space Agency, many of our engineers and scientists are very familiar with KSP," ESA Director of Science Gnther Hasinger said in a statement. "Both Rosetta and BepiColombo are highly complex missions that have specific challenges; however, each prove to be very rewarding for ESA and the global scientific community. Because of this, I am very happy that these ground-breaking science missions can be experienced on Kerbin as well as on Earth."

Kerbin is the Earth analogue that Kerbals launch into space from in "Kerbal Space Program." The game's Mercury equivalent is Moho, while the moon is simply Mun.

"We are excited to partner with the ESA to bring their actual missions and spacecraft to Kerbal Space Program for the first time," Private Division executive producer Michael Cook said in the statement. "It is an honor to work hand-in-hand with such a world-class space organization, and we cannot wait for fans to experience these monumental missions with the Shared Horizons update."

ESA's Rosetta comet mission launched in 2004 and visited Comet 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko. Rosetta dropped the lander Philae on the comet and spent nearly two years studying the icy wanderer before intentionally crashing into the surface.

The BepiColombo mission, meanwhile, is a partnership between ESA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency to explore Mercury with a pair of spacecraft: the Mercury Planetary Orbiter and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter. That mission launched in 2018 and will arrive in orbit at Mercury in 2025. BepiColombo's mission is tricky because it includes nine planetary flybys: one of Earth (which occurred April 10), two of Venus and six of Mercury itself.

"Shared Horizons" isn't the first time that "Kerbal Space Program" has incorporated real-life space exploration into its gameplay. The game's "Making History" expansion in 2018 allowed players to recreate iconic missions from space history, while its "Breaking Ground" expansion added planetary rovers and other surface exploration features to the mix.

"Kerbal Space Program has already been an inspiration for an entire generation of future engineers and scientists, so introducing this level of realism will really take it to the next level," ESA Director of Space Transportation Daniel Neuenschwander, said in a statement. "I really look forward to seeing the innovative ways in which players will approach designing their new space transportation services."

Last week, Private Division and NASA challenged "Kerbal Space Program" players to recreate SpaceX's upcoming Demo-2 Crew Dragon launch and submit entries on social media using the hashtag #LaunchAmerica. Demo-2 is SpaceX's first astronaut launch on a Crew Dragon and will mark the first U.S. crewed orbital spaceflight from American soil since NASA's space shuttles were retired in 2011.

Private Division is currently developing a sequel to the physics-based space simulator. That game, "Kerbal Space Program 2," will include wild technologies for interplanetary travel and is expected to launch in 2021.

Today's best Kerbal Space Program deals

Email Tariq Malik attmalik@space.comor follow him@tariqjmalik. Follow us@Spacedotcom, Facebook and Instagram.

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'Kerbal Space Program' teams up with European Space Agency for 'Shared Horizons' expansion - Space.com

They Came From Earth IP Rights in Outer Space – JD Supra

Sixty-two years ago today, on May 15, 1958, the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 3 satellite from a spaceport in Kazakhstan with a mission to conduct geophysical research of the upper atmosphere and near space.[1] Although an extraordinary step toward exploration and understanding of space at the time, its launch was not as ground-breaking as that of its predecessor Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth.[2] Weighing in at just 183.9 pounds[3], less than heavyweight boxers of the day, Sputnik 1 nonetheless punched well above its weight class by setting in motion many defining events in politics, science and the law: the Space Race[4], the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958[5], and the creation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).[6]

The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Space Act of 1958) was drafted by the United States House Select Committee on Astronautics and Space Exploration and was signed into law by President Eisenhower on July 29, 1958.[7] The Space Act of 1958 charged NASA with planning, directing, and conducting the aeronautical and space activities of the United States.[8]

Section 305 of the Space Act of 1958 titled, Property Rights in Inventions made extensive modifications to patent law and provided that both employee inventions, as well as private government contractor innovations, may be subject to government ownership.[9]

The Space Act of 1958 is now codified in Title 51 of the U.S. Code titled, National and Commercial Space Programs. Specifically, 51 U.S.C. 20102 provides that the aeronautical and space activities shall be conducted so as to contribute materially to one or more of the following objectives:

51 U.S.C. 20102.

Section 20135 of 51 U.S. Code, which is directed to intellectual property rights in inventions, remains largely unchanged from the Space Act of 1958 and grants the same broad authority of ownership to the government over both employee inventions as well as private government contractor innovations.

In particular, 51 U.S.C 20135 provides that an invention shall be the exclusive property of the United States if it is made in the performance of any work under any contract of NASA and if NASA determines that

51 U.S.C. 20135.

These provisions and NASAs authority to enter into contracts with third parties under 51U.S.C. 20113 can pose challenging issues of ownership and enforcement for those who wish to commercialize their space technology-related inventions.

We will explore these and other issues in our upcoming posts but for now we leave you with a suggestion to listen to Chris Hadfields poignant cover of David Bowies Space Oddity[10] while on board the International Space Station featuring out of this world shots of Earth.

[1] Melanie Whiting, 60 years ago, Soviets launch Sputnik 3 (May 15, 2018), https://www.nasa.gov/feature/60-years-ago-soviets-launch-sputnik-3.

[2] Steve Garber, Sputnik and the Dawn of the Space Age (October 10, 2007), https://history.nasa.gov/sputnik/.

[3] Id.

[4] Id.

[5] Steven J. Dick, Why We Explore (March 28, 2008), https://www.nasa.gov/exploration/whyweexplore/Why_We_29.html [hereinafter Why We Explore].

[6] Id.

[7] Why We Explore, supra n.5.

[8] NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Unamended) (July 29, 1958) https://history.nasa.gov/spaceact.html

[9] Id.

[10] Chris Hadfield, Space Oddity https://chrishadfield.ca/space-oddity/ (last visited May 7, 2020).

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They Came From Earth IP Rights in Outer Space - JD Supra

The food and water systems astronauts will need to travel to places like Mars – Horizon magazine

On the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts are able to get resupplies from Earth from cargo spacecraft visiting the space station, taking just six hours to get there. But the journey time to Mars is eight months minimum. And if youre on the Red Planet, you need to go it alone.

Scientists have been working to address this problem. Theyve been looking at ways for astronauts to produce their own clean water and grow their own food. And just as importantly, theyre making sure any risk of contamination is reduced, to keep astronauts as safe and healthy as possible on long-duration missions.

Clean water

Drinking water is something many of us take for granted on Earth, but on space missions it is harder to come by. The ISS recycles much of its water using chemicals, but it still relies on sizeable shipments of water from Earth to give its astronauts access to clean water.

A project called BIOWYSE hoped to find a solution to the water problem for long missions. The project looked at ways to store water for extended periods of time, monitor it in real time for contamination from microbes, and then dispense clean drinking water whenever needed by decontaminating the water with UV light rather than chemicals.

We wanted a system where you take it from A to Z, from storing the water to making it available for someone to drink, said Dr Emmanouil Detsis, the coordinator of BIOWYSE. That means you store the water, you are able to monitor the biocontamination, you are able to disinfect if you have to, and finally you deliver to the cup for drinking.

The end result was a fully automated machine that could perform all of these tasks. When someone wants to drink water you press the button, said Dr Detsis. The water is checked, decontaminated if necessary, then delivered. Its like a water cooler, he said.

The machine could even analyse samples from wet surfaces inside a spacecraft to see if they had been contaminated and were dangerous to astronauts. Inside the closed habitat, you start having the humidity build up and you may have corners or areas where they are not clean, said Dr Detsis. So we developed something that could check these areas in a fast way.

The project developed a prototype of this machine on Earth, measuring about a metre long, with the idea that a smaller version could be used somewhere like the ISS. Ultimately, however, the thought was that a system like BIOWYSE could be useful for future exploration, and the prototype remains available for any applicable missions in the future.

The system is designed with future habitats in mind, said Dr Detsis. So a space station around the moon, or a field laboratory on Mars in decades to come. These are places where the water may have been sitting there some time before the crew arrives.

Self-sustainability

Water is hard to come by, but it is not scarce in the solar system. The moon and Mars both have ice that could theoretically be turned into drinking water. But a more difficult prospect for self-sustainability is food any food for astronauts needs to be brought from Earth.

There are some developing ideas of how to grow food without constant resupply missions. For several years on the ISS, astronauts have been using machines like the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), launched in 2006, to research the growth of plants such as thale cress. The ECMS was replaced by a similar machine called Biolab in 2018.

Dr Ann-Iren Kittang Jost from the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Space (CIRiS) in Norway, was the project coordinator on TIME SCALE, a project that looked at ways to develop a new system to grow plants that are safe to eat in space. When Dr Kittang Jost started the project, the EMCS had already been in space for a decade and it was time to upgrade it, she says.

We (need) state of the art technologies to cultivate food for future space exploration to the moon and Mars.

Dr Ann-Iren Kittang Jost, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Space, Norway

TIME SCALE aimed to produce a method to recycle water and nutrients inside a future cultivation machine, and also monitor the health of the plants more easily, to develop an idea for a greenhouse in space.

We (need) state of the art technologies to cultivate food for future space exploration to the moon and Mars, she said, as well as new ideas. We took (the ECMS) as a starting point to define concepts and technologies to learn more about cultivating crops and plants in microgravity.

TIME SCALE envisioned a machine that would have a larger space to grow plants than the suitcase-sized EMCS, with more functionalities. We built a prototype demonstrating that we could recycle the nutrients and we could grow salad or lettuce in there, said Dr Kittang Jost. We could produce them, and monitor the nutrients in the water. We proved the concept.

As with Biolab and the ECMS, the prototype was designed to use a spinning centrifuge to simulate gravity on the moon and Mars to measure the plants uptake of nutrients or water, for example. Such ideas could not just useful for space travel, but for people on Earth too. Its important to find synergies with the challenges we have on the ground, said Dr Kittang Jost. And that includes finding ways to reuse nutrients and water in our own greenhouses, for example by improving sensor technology and developing better ways to monitor nutrients and plant health.

Worlds

In order to travel to and even live on worlds like the moon and Mars, technologies like these will be crucial allowing astronauts to be self-sustainable when they are far from Earth. And making sure any water stored at these locations is decontaminated and safe to drink is very important.

It will not be like the ISS, said Dr Detsis. You are not going to have a constant crew all the time. There will be a period where the laboratory might be empty, and will not have crew until the next shift arrives in three or four months (or longer). Water and other resources will be sitting there, and it may build up microorganisms.

Dr Kittang Jost says that in terms of producing safe food, we are nearing the goal of having a system that can be used on future missions. Were quite close, she said. Its a challenge of course. But building a greenhouse should be feasible.

The research in this article was funded by the EU. If you liked this article, please consider sharing it on social media.

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The food and water systems astronauts will need to travel to places like Mars - Horizon magazine

NASA moves to resume SLS testing ‘Next great era of space exploration’ still on horizon – Yellowhammer News

NASA this week resumed Green Run testing activities on the first Boeing-built core stage of its Space Launch System (SLS) rocket, with the return of limited crews to perform work at the agencys Stennis Space Center in Bay St. Louis, MS.

While some progress has continued remotely on the core stage, NASA in March suspended operations at Stennis and Michoud Assembly Facility in Louisiana in response to the ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic.

This is an important step toward resuming the critical work to support NASAs Artemis program that will land the first woman and the next man on the south pole of the Moon by 2024, Stennis Center Director Rick Gilbrech said in a Thursday statement.

Though Stennis remains in Stage 4 of NASAs COVID-19 Response Framework, we assessed state and local conditions and worked with agency leadership to develop a plan to safely and methodically increase critical on-site work toward the launch of the next great era of space exploration, he continued.

Stennis moved to Stage 4 on March 16, with only personnel needed to perform mission-essential activities related to the safety and security of the center allowed on site.

Alabamas aerospace industry has led the effort to build the SLS, which stands 212 feet high and 27.6 feet in diameter..

Boeing isthe core stage lead contractor, and Aerojet Rocketdyne is the RS-25 engines lead contractor. The SLS program is managed out of NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,while Boeings Huntsville-based Space and Launch division manages the companys SLS work.

SLS is the most powerful rocket in world history and the only rocket that can send the Orion spacecraft, astronauts and supplies to the moon in a single mission.

Marshall Space Flight Center and New Orleans Michoud Assembly Facility, which has spearheaded the physical construction of SLS, also are in Stage 4.

Before NASA suspended SLS operations at Stennis in response to COVID-19, Boeing and the agency had been putting the first core stage through a months-long series of Green Run tests in Mississippi. The stage, designated for the uncrewed Artemis I mission, includes the largest rocket propellant tanks in existence, new computers and new flight software.

The Stennis team had been approaching avionics power-on a test of the computer, routers, processors, power and other boxes and software that control the stages functions and communications.

The test facility has been in standby mode, so we allotted two days to reestablish some facility support of mechanical and electrical systems that will also assist the vehicle contractors in performing their operations, explained Barry Robinson, project manager for the B-2 Test Stand SLS core stage Green Run testing at Stennis.

NASA in a release outlined that reestablishing, or waking up, the Stennis B-2 Test Stand systems in the days ahead includes restoring facility power and controls, as well as ensuring pressurized gas systems are at proper levels for SLS operators to proceed with testing activities.

Michoud has been cleaning and preparing the rocket manufacturing facility for critical production restart of the SLS core stage and the Orion capsule, advised Michoud Director Robert Champion.

According to Julie Bassler, SLS stages project manager responsible for the core stage work at Stennis, Michoud and Marshall, Marshall also is resuming critical flight software and hardware testing.

Returning workers were trained on general safety procedures, personal protective equipment requirements and self-monitoring. Site personnel also installed signs and markings to indicate where employees should stand and sit during upcoming activities.

We want to make sure employees are armed with the appropriate information to be effective on the job and return safely to their families, Robinson added.

All sites are closely following CDC guidance to safely operate and protect the health and welfare of all employees. Michoud plans to transition to Stage 3 and operate in that stage for 30 days, in coordination with local government plans. Marshall remains at Stage 4 at this time.

Stennis plans for 30 days of limited crew activity on site in anticipation of the centers transition from Stage 4 to Stage 3. Once that transition occurs, increases to on-site work will continue slowly and methodically. The focus then will shift to preparing for the avionics power-up test.

According to Robinson, it is still too early to calculate a precise schedule for the various test milestones.

Like so many others, in so many places, were operating under a new normal. Were working now to determine exactly what that looks like, he stated. The virus, and our knowledge of safety as it relates to the virus, will dictate any changes we consider and implement. We will adjust tasks based on the most current information and guidance.

Green Run represents the first top-to-bottom integrated test of all flight core stage systems prior to its maiden Artemis I flight. All testing will be conducted on the B-2 Test Stand in the coming months and will culminate with an eight-minute, full-duration hot fire of the core stage with its four RS-25 engines, as during an actual launch. This will come beforethe stage is refurbished and delivered to Kennedy Space Center in Florida. There, it will be integrated with its Interim Cryogenic Upper Stage and NASAs Orion spacecraft for a mission around the moon and back.

SLS is part of NASAs backbone for deep space exploration, along with Orion and the Gateway in orbit around the moon.

North Alabama also will play a leading role in some of these other components of Artemis, including the lunar Gateway and the new Human Landing System. Historic contributions to Americas space prowess are being made by several private sector partners in the Yellowhammer State, such as United Launch Alliance (ULA), Boeing and Dynetics.

RELATED: Alabamas Dynetics to design Human Landing System for NASA

Sean Ross is the editor of Yellowhammer News. You can follow him on Twitter @sean_yhn

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NASA moves to resume SLS testing 'Next great era of space exploration' still on horizon - Yellowhammer News

Isaac Asimov: ‘How We’ll Live on the Moon’ – Popular Mechanics

In March 1988, Popular Mechanics ran an article, written by sci-fi legend Isaac Asimov, exploring humanity's future on the moon. With NASA's plans to return to the moon in the coming years and President Trump's recent executive order clearing the way for companies to start mining the moon, Asimov's vision is more relevant than ever.

Reprinted here is the original article in its entirety.

Absolute silence.

The Lunarian stood in the eternal dark within the crater at the Moons south pole, and thought that silence was so characteristicand soothingand, yes, frighteningabout the Moon. He was not a true Lunarian, of course. He had come from Earth and when his 90-day stint was over, he would return to Earth and try to readjust to its strong pull of gravity.

There was no motion anywhere, no sound of living things. There was light along the crater top, as perpetual as the dark at this portion of the crater floor. Farther along the gently rolling floor, in the direction of the opposite side of the crater, was sunlight, too.

The Lunarian looked in that direction, and the photosensitive glass of his faceplate darkened at once.

The Lunarian thought: It is the year 2028 and the Moon has become our second world.

The line between dark and light swung slowly toward him and away in a 4-week cycle. It would never quite reach the point where he was standing, nor ever quite recede out of sight. If he were to move a few miles into the light, he would see the Sun skimming the crater edge along the horizon, but, of course, the faceplate grew virtually opaque if he accidentally looked in the Suns direction. At intervals, he could see the Earth, or a portion of it, edging above the crater wall. His heart would always melt at that sight. He tried not to think of Earth.

Pat Rawlins

For now, he was on the Moon. He could make out the line of photovoltaic cells in the sunlight and he knew that solar energy, never ending, was powering the world beneath his feetwhich was, as yet, very small. Already, dozens of human beings were housed there and in his lifetime it might well rise to hundreds. An experimental farm existed there, plus a chemical laboratory for the study of lunar soil, a furnace for baking out the small but precious amounts of volatile elements from appropriate ores.

This was not the only Moon base. A much larger one existed near the lunar equator, where the soil was mined and hurled into space to be used as a construction material. A much more specialized one existed on the Moon's far side where a huge radio telescope, insulated from Earth's radio interference by 2000 miles of solid Moon, was being completed.

The Lunarian thought: It is the year 2028 and the Moon has become our second world.

But it is now 1988. We have visited the Moon six times between 1969 and 1972, and 12 men have trod its surface. But those were visits only. We came, lingered and leftso that the total time human beings have spent on the Moon is less than two weeks.

But we have been sharpening our space abilities, and when we return to the Moon, it will be to stay. A day will come in the future after which there will never be a time when human beings will not be living on the Moon.

NASA is already planning Moon bases. In recent years, scientists, engineers, industrialists and scholars have met to discuss scientific, industrial and sociological issues in connection with living on the Moon. Former astronaut Dr. Sally K. Ride, America's first woman in space, recently produced a report outlining this nation's space goals. Satellite studies of the Earth will remain an important priority, along with the lofting of unmanned spacecraft to explore our solar system.

But the "Ride Report also stresses a manned permanent presence on the Moon before we embark on a manned mission to Mars, hoping to fully exploit the Moon's resources and scientific opportunities while boosting our own interplanetary learning curvebefore engaging in a Mars space spectacular.

Whether or not we choose to follow the Ride recommendations, the Moon will probably play an important role in man's future space explorations. But why bother? The Moon is a dead, desolate world, without air or water. It is a large super-Sahara. So what is there to make us want to go there, let alone live there?

Super-Sahara or not, the Moon would be useful, even vital, to us in many ways. Some of those ways are not material in nature. For instance, there is the question of knowledge. The Moon has not been seriously disturbed after the first half-billion years of the existence of the solar system (something that is not true of the Earth). We have been studying 800 pounds of Moon rocks astronauts retrieved, but merely bringing them to Earth has contaminated them, and the astronauts were only able to investigate isolated landing areas. If we can investigate the Moon's substance on the Moon, over extended periods and over every portion of its surface, we might learn a great detail about the early history of the Moon-and, therefore, of the Earth as well.

Unlike man's initial forays to the lunar surface, future trips to the Moon will be greatly aided by a space station positioned in low Earth orbit, by orbital transfer vehicles and by expendable lunar landers. It's envisioned that early lunar pioneers will reside in pressurized modules and airlocksnot unlike the modules currently being designed for the space station but with a significant difference. Because the Moon has no protective atmosphere, early settlers will cover their modules with up to 2 meters of lunar soil, or regolith, to protect them from solar radiation. These modules may give way to larger structures positioned beneath regolith archways or buildings made of lunar concrete as requirements change. Indeed, lunar building materials may one day be a principal lunar export.

Pat Rawlins

Solar collectors, photovoltaic systems and small nuclear powerplants positioned well away from lunar habitats would supply the power needs of an early Moon base. The resulting energy would support not only human explorers but a broad array of science and industrial activities, principally lunar mining and astronomical observation. Wheeled lunar rovers powered by the Sun would provide close-in transportation and cargo handling. Vertically launched rocket vehicles would aid in mapping and distant exploration. Some tasks may be performed by intelligent robots already on the drawing board.

After humans become established on the Moon, some visionaries foresee a complex of habitable dwellings and research labs for geochemical, physical and biological research. A life-giving atmosphere "manufactured on the Moon would promote ecological and agricultural pursuits, helping to make a Moon base self-supporting. Turning to the heavens, special detectors would analyze rays from astrophysical sources, and Moon-based particle accelerators would give new insight into the nature of matter. Spe cial units would process oxygen and refine new ceramic and metallurgical materials. "Moonmovers," adapted from Earthmovers, would excavate building and mining sites.

Think of the nuclear power stations we could build...where safety considerations did not bulk so large. Think of the efficiency of the solar power stations we could build on a world without an interfering atmosphere...

To what purpose? First, but not necessarily foremost, the Moon is a marvelous platform for astronomical observations. The absence of an atmosphere makes telescopic visibility far more acute. The far side of the Moon would allow radio telescopes to work without interference from human sources of light and radio waves. The Moon's slow rotation would allow objects in the sky to be followed, without interference from clouds or haze, for two weeks at a time. Neutrinos and gravity waves, together with other exotic cosmic manifestations, might be detected more easily and studied from the Moon than from the Earth. And, in fact, radio telescopes on the Moon and on the Earth could make observations in combination, allowing us to study in the finest detail the active centers of the galaxies, including our own Milky Way.

The Moon can also be used for experiments we would not wish to perform in the midst of the Earth's teeming life. Think of the genetic engineering we could perform, of the experimental life forms we could devise. We could obtain energy in copious quantities for use not only on the Moon, but for transfer to space structures and even to the Earth. Think of the nuclear power stations we could build (both fission and, eventually, fusion) where safety considerations did not bulk so large. Think of the efficiency of the solar power stations we could build on a world without an interfering atmosphere to scatter, absorb and obscure light.

Pat Rawlings

From the Moon's soil, we would obtain various elements. The Moon's crust is 40-percent oxygen (in combination with other elements, of course). This can be isolated. A common mineral on the Moon is ilmenite, or titanium iron oxide. Treatment with hydrogen can cause the oxygen of ilmenite to combine with the hydrogen, forming water, which can be broken up into hydrogen and oxygen.

But where would the hydrogen come from? Those portions of the Moon we have studied are lacking in the vital light elements: hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen. That makes it seem that these "volatiles will have to be imported from Earth (which has plenty), but there may be places where they can be found in small amounts on the Moon, especially in the polar regions where there are places where the Sun rarely shines. Lunar hydrogen can then be used to obtain oxygen, and lunar nitrogen can be used to dilute it. There you have an atmosphere.

Other elements, particularly iron, aluminum and titanium, all very useful structurally, are common in the lunar crust and can be smelted out of the soil. In addition, silicon can be obtained for making computer chips. The Moon will be an active mining base to begin with. Quantities of lunar soil can be hurled off the Moon by a "mass-driver, powered by an electromagnetic field based on solar energy. This would not be difficult because the Moon is relatively small and has a gravitational pull much weaker than that of Earth. It takes less than 5 percent as much energy to lift a quantity of matter off the Moon than it would to lift the same quantity off the Earth.

Pat Rawlings

To build observatories, laboratories, factories and settlements in space, it would make sense to use lunar materials, especially since Earthly resources are badly needed by our planet's population.

Because of the Moon's feebler gravity, it would be a particularly useful site for the building and launching of space vessels. Since far less power would be required to lift a vessel off the Moon's surface than off the Earth's, less fuel and oxygen would be needed and more weight could be devoted to payload.

Eventually, when space settlements are constructed, they may be even more efficient as places where space vessels can be built and launched, but the Moon will retain certain advantages. First, it will be a world of huge spaces and will not have the claustrophobic aura of the space settlements. Second, a lunar gravity, though weak, will be constant. On space settlements, a pseudo-gravitational field based on centrifugal effects may be as intense as Earth's gravitation in places, but will complicate matters by varying considerably with change of position inside the settlement.

The Moon, as an independent world, will represent a complete new turning in human history. Humanity will have a second world.

Then, too, since the Moon exists and is already constructed, so to speak, it can surely be developed first and be used to experiment with artificial ecologies.

Once the lunar colonists discover how to create a balanced ecology based on a limited number of plant and animal species (which may take awhile) that knowledge can be used to make space settlements viable.

Finally, of course, our Moon, with its enormous supply of materials, may eventually become a self-supporting, inhabited body in the solar system, completely independent of Earth. Surely this will become possible sooner than much smaller settlements elsewhere in space can achieve true independence.

The Moon, as an independent world, will represent a complete new turning in human history. Humanity will have a second world. If Earth should be struck by an unexpected catastrophe from without, say by a cometary strike such as the one that may have possibly wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years agoor if humanity's own follies ruin Earth through nuclear war or otherwise then a second world will exist on which humanity will survive and on which human history, knowledge and culture will be remembered and preserved.

Asimov's Dream Coming True?

But when will this colonization take place? Naturally, we can't tell because so much of it depends not on technological ability but on unpredictable economic and political factors.

If all goes well, there is no reason why work on the project cannot be initiated in the 1990s. By 2005, the first outpost could be established, and by 2015, a permanently occupied Moon base may be in existence. After that, it may be that the Moon settlers will have developed their world to the point of being independent of Earth by the end of the 21st century.

On the other hand, if affairs on Earth are so mismanaged that there seems no money or effort to spare for space, or if humanity concentrates its efforts on turning space into a military arena and is not concerned with peaceful development or expansion, or if humanity ruins itself forever by means of a nuclear war in the course of the next few decades, then clearly there will be no Moon base, and perhaps no reasonable future of any kind.

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Isaac Asimov: 'How We'll Live on the Moon' - Popular Mechanics

Covid 19 Pandemic: AI in Space Exploration Market Analysis with Market Size, Industry Share, trends and Forecast to 2025 – News Distinct

An Up to Date Report on AI in Space Exploration Market size | Industry Segment by Applications, by Type, Regional Outlook, Market Demand, Latest Trends, AI in Space Exploration Industry Share & Revenue by Manufacturers, Company Profiles, Growth Forecasts 2025. Analyzes current market size and upcoming 5 years growth of this industry.

Report Covers Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, CAGR, Trends, Forecast And Business Opportunity.

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AI in space exploration Market is valued approximately USD 2 billion in 2018 and is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than 7.25% over the forecast period 2019-2026. Machine learning and AI leave their imprints on various fields including construction, automation, image analytics, and space exploration along with many others. Many applications of AI in space is being researched on various domains which includes relative positioning, communication and many others. Various spacecraft and space vehicles including satellites that are operating in the space may generates large amount of data owing to the complexity of the research missions. With AI in space exploration enables the data transmission over large distance with ease. Many organization and government agencies are collaborating on machine learning solutions for detection of new planets, space weather using magnetosphere and atmosphere measurement. With rapid technological development and increasing investment in R&D sector, space exploration is experiencing rapid technical development owing to the integration of AI and the space vehicles which are developed for space exploration. The factor leading to the growth of AI in space exploration is the development of AI-based robots that can perform highly complex tasks over a longer period without human inference and for enhances mobility and manipulation benefits. AI offers high flexibility, accuracy and control owing to the development of 3D perception and proximity GNC in AI robots. Moreover, robotics arms in space exploration is witnessing high demand due to the high weightlifting and handling capabilities that are offered to astronauts.

The regional analysis of AI in space exploration market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and Rest of the World. North America is expected to dominate the market share of AI in space exploration market owing to the presence of space organizations such as NASA and CSA working effectively towards the development of AI in space exploration. Moreover, U.S. and Canada are investing in the R&D sector and technological innovations to explore deep space. Whereas, Asia-Pacific is also anticipated to exhibit highest growth rate / CAGR over the forecast period 2019-2026 owing to the factors due to various ongoing and upcoming space programs in developing countries such as India and China.

Major market player included in this report are:Orbital ATKDARPANeuralaDescartes LabsKittyHawkIris AutomationFlyby NavPrecisionHawkPilot.aiMRX Global Holding Corp.Oceaneering InternationalMaxar TechnologiesNorthrop GrummanAstrobotic TechnologiesMotiv Space SystemsThe objective of the study is to define market sizes of different segments & countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming eight years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors & challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and product offerings of key players. The detailed segments and sub-segment of the market are explained below: By Product Type:Robotic armsRoversSpace probesOthers By Applications:GovernmentCommercial By Region:North AmericaU.S.CanadaEuropeUKGermanyAsia PacificChinaIndiaJapanLatin AmericaBrazilMexicoRest of the World

Furthermore, years considered for the study are as follows:

Historical year 2016, 2017Base year 2018Forecast period 2019 to 2026

Target Audience of the AI in space exploration Market in Market Study:

Key Consulting Companies & AdvisorsLarge, medium-sized, and small enterprisesVenture capitalistsValue-Added Resellers (VARs)Third-party knowledge providersInvestment bankersInvestors

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Table of Content:

Market Overview:The report begins with this section where product overview and highlights of product and application segments of the global AI in Space Exploration Market are provided. Highlights of the segmentation study include price, revenue, sales, sales growth rate, and market share by product.

Competition by Company:Here, the competition in the Worldwide AI in Space Exploration Market is analyzed, By price, revenue, sales, and market share by company, market rate, competitive situations Landscape, and latest trends, merger, expansion, acquisition, and market shares of top companies.

Company Profiles and Sales Data:As the name suggests, this section gives the sales data of key players of the global AI in Space Exploration Market as well as some useful information on their business. It talks about the gross margin, price, revenue, products, and their specifications, type, applications, competitors, manufacturing base, and the main business of key players operating in the global AI in Space Exploration Market.

Market Status and Outlook by Region:In this section, the report discusses about gross margin, sales, revenue, production, market share, CAGR, and market size by region. Here, the global AI in Space Exploration Market is deeply analyzed on the basis of regions and countries such as North America, Europe, China, India, Japan, and the MEA.

Application or End User:This section of the research study shows how different end-user/application segments contribute to the global AI in Space Exploration Market.

Market Forecast:Here, the report offers a complete forecast of the global AI in Space Exploration Market by product, application, and region. It also offers global sales and revenue forecast for all years of the forecast period.

Research Findings and Conclusion:This is one of the last sections of the report where the findings of the analysts and the conclusion of the research study are provided.

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Covid 19 Pandemic: AI in Space Exploration Market Analysis with Market Size, Industry Share, trends and Forecast to 2025 - News Distinct

Indian space sector reforms: Will it be a big bang approach? – Outlook India

Indian space sector reforms: Will it be a big bang approach?

Chennai, May 19 (IANS) Space industry experts are divided over whether big-bang changes/reforms proposed in the Indian space sector are going to be incremental.

"This time, the approach is expected to be big-bang, involving restructuring of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)," an industry expert told IANS preferring anonymity.

The restructuring he speaks about is corporatisation of ISRO''s production/operational units so that the private sector can be a co-traveller in ISRO''s space missions and there is a level playing field for them.

The production units of ISRO -- rockets and satellites and the rocket launch centre at Sriharikota and the upcoming one in Tamil Nadu -- should be corporatised so that there is no conflict of interest, the expert said.

Similarly, the satellite payload and data product services too can be hived off into a company. The development of payloads can be done by technology labs, universities and the private sector, the expert added.

According to him, with the strategic space activities with Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO), Indian space sector can fully focus on commercial aspects with a sectoral regulator.

On May 16, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced that Indian private sector will be a co-traveller in India''s space sector journey and a level-playing field will be provided for them in satellites, launches, and space-based services.

She also said a predictable policy and regulatory environment will be provided to private players.

According to her, the private sector will be allowed to use the facilities of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and other relevant assets to improve their capacities.

Sitharaman said future projects for planetary exploration, outer space travel and others are to be opened up for the private sector, adding there will be a liberal geo-spatial data policy for providing remote-sensing data to tech-entrepreneurs subject to various checks.

"The reform announced is a big bang reform. Already ISRO follows a Government-Owned-Company-Operated (GOCO) model. Many private entities are using ISRO''s facilities in SHAR in Sriharikota such as the solid propellant casting plant. These facilities can be corporatised and put under one public sector unit, New Space India Limited," Vijay Anand, former Financial Advisor, Department of Space and Former Advisor to ISRO Chairman, told IANS.

Pointing out that nearly 90 per cent of the rockets and satellites are fabricated in the private sector and given the complexity of the systems, the design authority, quality assurance, integration and mission planning are with ISRO.

"Barring quality assurance and design authority, in due course industry can form a consortium and take it over. There is such a proposal on which action has been initiated," Anand, who is currently an independent external monitor at Indian Institute of Science and Indian Rare Earth Ltd, said.

According to him, certain facilities and labs can be earmarked for testing by the private sector at a cost. Further ISRO can hand hold, review, transfer technology and others at a price.

"Products from the Indian space industry should be rated to international standards, built to specification rather than built to print and capable of capturing a part of the global market," Anand added.

On the research side, instead of ISRO sponsoring it, it is the industry that should be doing that.

According to Anand, the larger issue is creating a level playing field in the industry.

On the other hand, ISRO will be required because there are sovereign liabilities when it comes to launches, space debris and others.

"This requires a Space Act with rules there under which will prescribe the liabilities, penalties, insurance and safety standards for such activities. In order to avoid a conflict of interest, a space regulatory authority has to be created," Anand added.

India is a signatory to various outer space treaties and the sovereign liability devolves on the Government of India represented by the Department of Space.

He agreed that the strategic aspects of the space are with DRDO and occasionally they do take a launcher or get a satellite contract manufactured.

Dismissing any big bang approach of corporatisation of ISRO''s production and other units, a senior space sector official on the condition of anonymity told IANS: "Already ISRO''s facilities are being used by the private sector."

According to him, the reforms/changes that would be brought in will bring in more clarity and give comfort factors for the private sector.

While welcoming the private participation in the Indian space research activities former Chairman of ISRO Madhavan Nair had told IANS: "However we have to carefully consider some of the policy matters. First of all, there has to be our national space law which will define responsibilities and liabilities."

Nair said there has to be a proper control mechanism to ensure that the sensitive and critical technologies do not fall into the wrong hands.

"In spite of not having a viable aerospace industry in the country, ISRO has taken up initiative to ensure industrial participation in its programmes," Nair said.

According to him, space doesn''t bring large revenues or profits and that how many would take up this challenge is a question.

"Space exploration is still more complex because returns are negative and it is only a long-term investment. The implementation has to be done taking into account sensitivity to international regulations like MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime) and international space laws," Nair said.

--IANS

vj/skp/

Disclaimer :- This story has not been edited by Outlook staff and is auto-generated from news agency feeds. Source: IANS

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Indian space sector reforms: Will it be a big bang approach? - Outlook India

Space Mining Market To See Strong Growth and Business Scope During 2019 to 2027 | Key Players: Deep Space Industries, Planetary Resources, SpaceFab,…

This study offers a comprehensive, 360 degree analysis on the Space Mining Market, bringing to fore insights that can help stakeholders identify the opportunities as well as challenges. It tracks the global Space Mining Market across key regions, and offers in-depth commentary and accurate quantitative insights. The study also includes incisive competitive landscape analysis, and provides key recommendations to market players on winning imperatives and successful strategies.

Space mining also known as asteroid mining is a process that is involved in exploitation of raw materials from asteroids and other minor planets, as well as near-Earth objects. Minerals are extracted from a spent comet or asteroid, then taken back to Earth or utilized in space for construction materials.

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Leading Key Market Players:- Deep Space Industries, Inc., Planetary Resources, Inc., SpaceFab, The Roscosmos State Corporation, Asteroid Mining Corporation, Shackleton Energy Company, Kleos Space S.A., TransAstra Corporation, SpaceFab.US and National Aeronautics and Space Administration among others.

This Report Contains:

It provides industry linkages, business strategies and proposals to invest in new projects, and includes market conditions, market share, growth rates, future trends, market drivers, challenge. This report focuses on the global status, future forecast, growth opportunity, key market and key players. The study objectives are to present the Space Mining in United States, Europe and China.

The key factors propelling the growth of space mining are increasing government initiatives and investments to frame regulations for asteroid mining and impending and ongoing space mining missions. Further, government initiatives resulting in rising number of start-ups and adoption of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) practice in space exploration are anticipated to provide growth opportunities over the next few years. However, high costs allied with asteroid mining and huge environmental risks due to mining activities are some of the restraints that are hindering the market to grow.

The report analyzes factors affecting Space Mining Market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics effecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. The report also provides exhaustive PEST analysis for all five regions namely; North America, Europe, APAC, MEA and South America after evaluating political, economic, social and technological factors effecting the Space Mining Market in these regions.

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Space Mining Market To See Strong Growth and Business Scope During 2019 to 2027 | Key Players: Deep Space Industries, Planetary Resources, SpaceFab,...

Behind the HYPE: How Hasselblad Became the Camera for Space Exploration – HYPEBEAST

Founded and based in Gothenburg, Sweden, Hasselblad produces some of the worlds most lauded cameras. Used for purposes as far-flung as Karl Lagerfelds Chanel photoshoots and photographing Apollo 11s moon landing, the Hasselblad name instantly evokes images of premium quality, pristine visuals and appealing design. But how did a once-humble Swedish camera company stake out such a lofty place in the world of photography over the last 80 years? How do cameras that cost up to $47,000 USD find favor in an era where everyones a photographer thanks to the ever-increasing potency of smartphone cameras?

From a design standpoint, the brands cameras are beautifully compact and boxy. One of their main differentiators from other manufacturers is the viewfinder, which faces from the top down instead of towards the subject. When you use a Hasselblad, youre looking down rather than looking at the person. It slows everything down, and gives [the photographer] that extra breathing room says Hasselblad photographer Janet Beckman. Tyler Shields seconds Beckmans statements, saying Theres something tangible to the picture, and when you print [the pictures], thats when you see a whole other level to it.

Although Hasselblad was originally established in 1841 and formed its photography division in partnership with Eastman Kodak in the late 1890s, its rise to mainstream prominence started with 1948s 1600F, the worlds first SLR in medium format. Later, Hasselblads 500C line still its most iconic products debuted in 1957. However, the companys defining moment was in 1969, when American astronauts Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins Apollo 11 spacecraft was the first to touch down on the moons surface. A 500C accompanied the three astronauts to their otherworldly destination, and captured some of the most iconic photos of the 20th century. This was a byproduct of Hasselblads partnership with NASA, which began in 1962, and aimed to produce lighter, durable cameras that would perform in the uncertain environment of outer space. Back on Earth, the 500C was used to photograph everyone from Jimi Hendrix to the Rolling Stones and Led Zeppelin.

Later, in the 90s, Hasselblad made history once again with its X-Pan, developed in partnership with Fujifilm. Although it was a standard 35mm camera, it featured the awe-inspiring ability to produced a 65mm panorama photo, nearly twice its size. Moving on to 2016, Hasselblad made history with the X1D the first-ever mirrorless medium format camera. This was followed by the H6D400C, the aforementioned $47,000 USD model. Boasting technical features like a dynamic range of 15 stops for unparalleled agility and unreal quality, the H6D400C makes a strong argument as the finest camera on the market today, and secures Hasselblads position as a paradigm of photographic innovation.

Watch the video above to learn everything you need to know about Hasselblad, and be sure to check out the other videos in our Behind the HYPEseries.

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Behind the HYPE: How Hasselblad Became the Camera for Space Exploration - HYPEBEAST

$ 260 billion will be invested in space exploration in the coming years – Checkersaga

It seems that there are no great advances, but there are always new ones. Despite the crisis we are experiencing and a certain disillusionment with how the mission to go to Mars is always postponed, the truth is that space exploration plans do not stop and for the next decade there are a good number of missions planned, in the absence of those that are added.

According to data from Aerospace News, in the last decade 52 missions have been carried out with an investment of 167,000 million dollars and, at the moment, there are plans for the next 10 years 130 space exploration missions with a budget of $ 260 billion.

In the data used in the study carried out by Euroconsult, growth is expected to be continuous from year to year with the aim of increase exploration, but also improve orbital infrastructure.

The ties that have brought Space X and NASA together can be a good example of how this sector in which the alliances between the private and the public seem more promising than ever. The benefits of research and service optimization are at the forefront and can be the way to make a profitable area that sometimes does not find all the public funding it seeks.

Further, the hegemony experienced by the United States is losing distance and countries like China, Russia and India are constantly increasing its budget with the idea of also strengthening its image at the international level and presence.

Will the human being return to the Moon or will Mars step on it? It is difficult to figure out what will happen in the next 10 years, but it is clear that the increase in missions and budget ensures a good number of discoveries.

Originally posted here:

$ 260 billion will be invested in space exploration in the coming years - Checkersaga

Space exploration adventure to boost spirits nationwide | News, Sports, Jobs – Williamsport Sun-Gazette

We all need a bit of a psychological pick-me-up. The tough fight against COVID-19 is taking its toll on us emotionally.

Coronavirus blues, meet the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Just in time to give our spirits a boost, NASA is planning to send a new group of astronauts into space.

The last time our country did that was in 2011, when the last space shuttle flight took place. Since then, American astronauts have had to ride Russian rockets to reach the International Space Station.

We, the people who put human beings on the moon, have not been able to send anyone into space in nearly a decade.

That will change on May 27. NASA, working with the SpaceX company, plans to launch a rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on that date. The privately built vehicle is to carry two astronauts, Doug Hurley and Bob Behnken, to the space station.

Unfortunately, NASA officials have issued a warning about the launch. They are asking the public not to travel to Cape Canaveral to watch it. There is concern, obviously because of COVID-19, about too many people gathering in crowds.

Fine. Most of us cannot afford to visit Florida on May 27 anyway. But we can watch the event on television, as most Americans did during the glory days of the space program during the 1960s.

Let us hope television network executives are wise enough to provide extensive coverage.

This is a big deal. After an ill-conceived break from being space pioneers, the United States is getting back into the adventure.

It is that. Space exploration is thrilling, intellectually stimulating and, frankly, a source of immense national pride. It is something we need right now.

Tune in with us on May 27, then. Join us in the countdown three, two, one, ignition, liftoff!

Join us, too, as we watch the rocket soar into the heavens while we mutter, Take that, you stupid little virus!

Today's breaking news and more in your inbox

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Space exploration adventure to boost spirits nationwide | News, Sports, Jobs - Williamsport Sun-Gazette

#SpaceWatchGL Opinion: Europe Has The Potential To Lead The Way In Space Exploration Policy – SpaceWatch.Global

Photo by Gertrda Valaseviit on Unsplash.

By Ioana Bratu

In February 2020, the European Commission issued the White Paper on Artificial Intelligence (AI) a European Approach to Excellence and Trust (White Paper). The document follows a series of draft initiatives about what concerns European AI policies..

The White Paper identifies a few key sectors, alongside AI, in which the EU has the potential of becoming a global leader, including health, transport, finance, agri-food value chains, energy, environment, but also Earth observation and space.

In relation to them, the Commission recommends a project-based synchronization. For example, AI systems and sustainability objectives can be connected. AI can play a significant role in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Moreover, AI is a critical enabler for attaining the goals of the recent European Green Deal. Another example is related to the future European Defence Fund and Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) that will provide opportunities for research and development in AI. The Commission recommends that these research projects should be synchronized with the wider EU civilian programmes devoted to AI.

The need for synchronization was already partially indicated in the EUs Proposal for a Regulation on the New EU Space Program, from June 2018, based on the recommendation that Copernicus (an autonomous, user-driven, Earth observation system under civil control, offering geoinformation data and services, comprising satellites, ground infrastructure, data and information processing facilities, and distribution infrastructure, and fully integrating the needs and requirements of security) should take in account recent trends in research, technological advances and innovations impacting the Earth observation domain, as well as developments in big data analytics and AI together with related strategies and initiatives at EU level. [authors emphasis]

The next step in the policy synchronization process would be represented by: (i) a clear indication of all AI initiatives that should be taken into account in the context of the EUs New Space Programme, (ii) concrete principles based on which the two sectors should be correlated, and (iii) indications of an institutional body in charge of the policy synchronization and regulatory cross-check.

But why is it important to develop policy synchronization in key sectors such as space and AI?

The increasing number of space actors, various activities, and new technologies deployed require a fresh approach at a policy level because they have the potential of challenging existing legal norms. For example, a long-debated topic relates to the liability of AI systems in case of damages caused by their actions or omissions. A more complicated situation might arise when damages are caused by an AI system deployed in space. Therefore, who will be responsible for the damages caused by a collision between two space objects equipped with advanced AI capabilities? According to the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects (Liability Convention), the launching state will be liable for damages caused by its space object on the surface of the Earth or to an aircraft in flight. [authors emphasis]

However, the greatest challenge occurs if the space object is equipped with self-learning capabilities, being able to learn on its own. By doing so, it would be able to further develop new capabilities, initially not foreseen by its designer, that would potentially lead to unexpected results. In such a case, is it plausible to consider that the provisions of the existing Liability Convention are still applicable? Or is it high time for amending the Liability Convention in the light of the recent technological changes? Is Europe ready to initiate such a new approach?

At the EU level, there are a couple of initiatives addressing various scenarios related to AI liability. The White Paper itself distinguishes between high-risk and low-risk AI applications, with the purpose of ensuring that the regulatory intervention is proportionate. The Commission is of the opinion that an AI system should be considered high-risk in light of what is at stake: it takes into consideration both the sector and the intended use which could include significant risks, with a particular focus on safety, consumer rights, and fundamental rights. There are two criteria that need to be considered in order for an AI system to be considered high-risk: (i) the AI system is employed in a sector where, given the characteristics of the activities typically undertaken, significant risks can be expected to occur (for example, healthcare, transport, energy and parts of the public sector) and (ii) the AI system in the sector in question is, in addition, used in such a manner that significant risks are likely to arise.

Given these criteria, there remains an open question about whether the AI space technology should be considered high-risk or low-risk. Having AI space technology considered a high-risk application would create a difficult task for legislators, who would need to balance the risks associated with the deployment of the technology with the necessity of supporting innovation (regulating these technologies should not hinder their future development).

Even though the AI policies and the new space policies are still under discussion without new binding legal documents in force, there is an obvious need for an integrated policy approach in the space and AI sectors. When implemented, it will offer the EU an advantage in the current race for regulatory development. It will also offer consistency and predictability in these dynamic sectors.

Ioana Bratu is a Research Associate and a PhD Candidate at the Law Faculty of Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, focusing on liability aspects of AI technology deployed for space exploration. She is also a Legal Expert in capacity-building & knowledge sharing projects developed by VU Amsterdam in collaboration with international partners. Before enrolling in the academic career, she has been practicing business law for several international law firms and as a founder of her own private practice.

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#SpaceWatchGL Opinion: Europe Has The Potential To Lead The Way In Space Exploration Policy - SpaceWatch.Global


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