Ruidoso Cabin Rentals Ruidoso Cabins – 2 Ruidoso Redheads

Our goal is to give you the best and most exciting Ruidoso cabin rental experience you have ever had! We have chosen our Ruidoso cabins very carefully for their location, convenience and Ruidoso feel. We have gone to great lengths to appoint and furnish our cabins to provide our guests with amenities that impart luxury, comfort and a restorative, restful visit.

When you walk through the door of any of our Ruidoso cabins, we hope you feel embraced and greeted with warmth. Plush furnishings, beautiful artwork, locally crafted items and carefully designed mood-enhancing lighting is designed to welcome you and create a calming, relaxing atmosphere. A refreshing snack will be waiting for you upon arrival.

For your convenience, guest services are also provided as an option with 2 Ruidoso Redheads. We want to make your stay with 2 Ruidoso Redheads an extraordinaryRuidoso cabin rental experience and one that will make you want to come back time and time again.

See more here:

Ruidoso Cabin Rentals Ruidoso Cabins – 2 Ruidoso Redheads

Ruidoso Cabin Rentals Ruidoso Cabins – 2 Ruidoso Redheads

Our goal is to give you the best and most exciting Ruidoso cabin rental experience you have ever had! We have chosen our Ruidoso cabins very carefully for their location, convenience and Ruidoso feel. We have gone to great lengths to appoint and furnish our cabins to provide our guests with amenities that impart luxury, comfort and a restorative, restful visit.

When you walk through the door of any of our Ruidoso cabins, we hope you feel embraced and greeted with warmth. Plush furnishings, beautiful artwork, locally crafted items and carefully designed mood-enhancing lighting is designed to welcome you and create a calming, relaxing atmosphere. A refreshing snack will be waiting for you upon arrival.

For your convenience, guest services are also provided as an option with 2 Ruidoso Redheads. We want to make your stay with 2 Ruidoso Redheads an extraordinaryRuidoso cabin rental experience and one that will make you want to come back time and time again.

See original here:

Ruidoso Cabin Rentals Ruidoso Cabins – 2 Ruidoso Redheads

30 Shocking Facts About Redheads You Never Knew of

24

According to some studies, a side effect for redheads is that they are more sensitive to hot and cold pain than any other hair color.

23

Each September, the Netherlands holds a two-day celebration out of appreciation for redheads around the world which is called Roodharigendag in Dutch. The party includes crowning the ginger King and Queen.

There is a variety of red hair than you think. Red hair comes in so many different colors (Burnt Orange, Copper, Blonde, Ginger), sizes (Short and long) and shapes as other hair colors.

21

They have been treated awfully in the past. Hitler was against the intermarriage of redheads believing that they produce more devil children.

20

According to some studies bees are more attracted to redheads than any other hair color, probably its because they seem like sweet red flowers because of their red crown of hair.

19

Redheads are also known as hot-headed. However, there is no confirmation of this being valid. It might be just because of their red hair color they are called hot headed in a sense of joke.

18

We also have redhead Disney Princesses like Merida and Ariel. It means that red hair color is too cool because, Ariel and Merida also want to be a part of the ginger world, but you cannot have them because they are too beautiful for this earth.

Redheads never get lost in the crowd because of their red crown of hair which makes them unique from others which are cool.

According to a study, it is proved that Red is the hardest shade to dye your hair and also difficult to maintain it. So to be a redhead is a benefit.

Redheads have an impressive sense of humor because they grow up by teased for their ginger hair color.

14

To be a redhead is beneficial for men because according to some studies red headed men are 54 percent less likely to create prostate cancer. It means a lot for ginger men.

According to early Greeks believes Redheads were Vampires, and they also turn into vampires after they have died.

Redheads have fewer hair than brunettes or blondes. According to research on an average, brunettes have 140,000 strands of hair; blondes have 110,000 strands of hair and redheads have 90,000 which is too less, but red hair is thicker than any other hair color.

11

In surgeries, it’s been recommended that a few redheads require 20 percent larger doses of anesthesia as compared to a regular patient. Research proved this that redhead needs more anesthesia than people having other hair colors.

10

They are more efficient at making Vitamin D. Redheads have the low amount of eumelanin in their body that is why they cannot absorb the required level of Vitamin D. In any case, they compensate for this by creating their particular Vitamin D when they are present in low-light condition.

So, they do not need as much sunlight to get what they need.

9

Christian communities considered a mark of the devil were birthmarks, patches and the major one was red hair. Many Christian communities believed that Judas was a redheaded textual proof from the Bible.

This belief really inspired some painters to paint Judas with red hair.

Aristotle had some issues with redheads. Aristotle himself reported for the once saying “The reddish are of bad character” which shows that he hates redheads.

7

Redheads are more resistant to pain blocker. Redhead gene releases a chemical called pheomelanin, which is the cause of blocks the brains receptivity/acceptance to pain.

Families can carry redhead gene for generations without knowing it. So, it is might possible that there could be some redhead gene inside you that can surprise you for being a redheads parent.

Redheads are good at detecting changes in temperature than a person having any other hair color so, we can call them Temperature sensor.

According to research found by Britain DNA has found that more than 40 percent of the population carries the MC1R gene that is responsible for red hair. Redheads are not going to extinct because families have MC1R gene without knowing it.

According to some studies, redheads have more sensitive teeth. Redheads also bruise easily than those who have any other hair color.

Marilyn Monroe was also a redheaded. She was American actress and model. She was famous for her natural red hair.

1

Finally, if you look into redheads eye longer than 10 seconds, you will fall in love.

Redheads are always misunderstood and mistrust in the history. Previously, the people with red hair were considered to be an evil one, even nowadays many of us are having a lot of misconceptions about them.

Being a redhead is not an abnormality. Instead, its a blessing. If anyone of you has a redhead, then proud of it. We anticipate that you had an enjoyable journey while going through the article, and you get a lot to know about the redhead. Please let us know about your valuable feedback.

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30 Shocking Facts About Redheads You Never Knew of

Nineteen Eighty-Four – Wikipedia

Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as 1984, is a dystopian novel published in 1949 by English author George Orwell.[2][3] The novel is set in the year 1984 when most of the world population have become victims of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance and public manipulation.

In the novel, Great Britain (“Airstrip One”) has become a province of a superstate named Oceania. Oceania is ruled by the “Party”, who employ the “Thought Police” to persecute individualism and independent thinking.[4] The Party’s leader is Big Brother, who enjoys an intense cult of personality but may not even exist. The protagonist of the novel, Winston Smith, is a rank-and-file Party member. Smith is an outwardly diligent and skillful worker, but he secretly hates the Party and dreams of rebellion against Big Brother. Smith rebels by entering a forbidden relationship with fellow employee Julia.

As literary political fiction and dystopian science-fiction, Nineteen Eighty-Four is a classic novel in content, plot, and style. Many of its terms and concepts, such as Big Brother, doublethink, thoughtcrime, Newspeak, Room 101, telescreen, 2 + 2 = 5, and memory hole, have entered into common usage since its publication in 1949. Nineteen Eighty-Four popularised the adjective Orwellian, which describes official deception, secret surveillance, brazenly misleading terminology, and manipulation of recorded history by a totalitarian or authoritarian state.[5] In 2005, the novel was chosen by Time magazine as one of the 100 best English-language novels from 1923 to 2005.[6] It was awarded a place on both lists of Modern Library 100 Best Novels, reaching number 13 on the editor’s list, and 6 on the readers’ list.[7] In 2003, the novel was listed at number 8 on the BBC’s survey The Big Read.[8]

Orwell “encapsulate[d] the thesis at the heart of his unforgiving novel” in 1944, the implications of dividing the world up into zones of influence, which had been conjured by the Tehran Conference. Three years later, he wrote most of it on the Scottish island of Jura from 1947 to 1948 despite being seriously ill with tuberculosis.[9][10] On 4 December 1948, he sent the final manuscript to the publisher Secker and Warburg, and Nineteen Eighty-Four was published on 8 June 1949.[11][12] By 1989, it had been translated into 65 languages, more than any other novel in English until then.[13] The title of the novel, its themes, the Newspeak language and the author’s surname are often invoked against control and intrusion by the state, and the adjective Orwellian describes a totalitarian dystopia that is characterised by government control and subjugation of the people.

Orwell’s invented language, Newspeak, satirises hypocrisy and evasion by the state: the Ministry of Love (Miniluv) oversees torture and brainwashing, the Ministry of Plenty (Miniplenty) oversees shortage and rationing, the Ministry of Peace (Minipax) oversees war and atrocity and the Ministry of Truth (Minitrue) oversees propaganda and historical revisionism.

The Last Man in Europe was an early title for the novel, but in a letter dated 22 October 1948 to his publisher Fredric Warburg, eight months before publication, Orwell wrote about hesitating between that title and Nineteen Eighty-Four.[14] Warburg suggested choosing the main title to be the latter, a more commercial one.[15]

In the novel 1985 (1978), Anthony Burgess suggests that Orwell, disillusioned by the onset of the Cold War (194591), intended to call the book 1948. The introduction to the Penguin Books Modern Classics edition of Nineteen Eighty-Four reports that Orwell originally set the novel in 1980 but that he later shifted the date to 1982 and then to 1984. The introduction to the Houghton Mifflin Harcourt edition of Animal Farm and 1984 (2003) reports that the title 1984 was chosen simply as an inversion of the year 1948, the year in which it was being completed, and that the date was meant to give an immediacy and urgency to the menace of totalitarian rule.[16]

Throughout its publication history, Nineteen Eighty-Four has been either banned or legally challenged, as subversive or ideologically corrupting, like Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World (1932), We (1924) by Yevgeny Zamyatin, Darkness at Noon (1940) by Arthur Koestler, Kallocain (1940) by Karin Boye and Fahrenheit 451 (1953) by Ray Bradbury.[17] Some writers consider the Russian dystopian novel We by Zamyatin to have influenced Nineteen Eighty-Four,[18][19] and the novel bears significant similarities in its plot and characters to Darkness at Noon, written years before by Arthur Koestler, who was a personal friend of Orwell.[20]

The novel is in the public domain in Canada,[21] South Africa,[22] Argentina,[23] Australia,[24] and Oman.[25] It will be in the public domain in the United Kingdom, the EU,[26] and Brazil in 2021[27] (70 years after the author’s death), and in the United States in 2044.[28]

Nineteen Eighty-Four is set in Oceania, one of three inter-continental superstates that divided the world after a global war.

Smith’s memories and his reading of the proscribed book, The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism by Emmanuel Goldstein, reveal that after the Second World War, the United Kingdom became involved in a war fought in Europe, western Russia, and North America during the early 1950s. Nuclear weapons were used during the war, leading to the destruction of Colchester. London would also suffer widespread aerial raids, leading Winston’s family to take refuge in a London Underground station. Britain fell to civil war, with street fighting in London, before the English Socialist Party, abbreviated as Ingsoc, emerged victorious and formed a totalitarian government in Britain. The British Commonwealth was absorbed by the United States to become Oceania. Eventually Ingsoc emerged to form a totalitarian government in the country.

Simultaneously, the Soviet Union conquered continental Europe and established the second superstate of Eurasia. The third superstate of Eastasia would emerge in the Far East after several decades of fighting. The three superstates wage perpetual war for the remaining unconquered lands of the world in “a rough quadrilateral with its corners at Tangier, Brazzaville, Darwin, and Hong Kong” through constantly shifting alliances. Although each of the three states are said to have sufficient natural resources, the war continues in order to maintain ideological control over the people.

However, due to the fact that Winston barely remembers these events and due to the Party’s manipulation of history, the continuity and accuracy of these events are unclear. Winston himself notes that the Party has claimed credit for inventing helicopters, airplanes and trains, while Julia theorizes that the perpetual bombing of London is merely a false-flag operation designed to convince the populace that a war is occurring. If the official account was accurate, Smith’s strengthening memories and the story of his family’s dissolution suggest that the atomic bombings occurred first, followed by civil war featuring “confused street fighting in London itself” and the societal postwar reorganisation, which the Party retrospectively calls “the Revolution”.

Most of the plot takes place in London, the “chief city of Airstrip One”, the Oceanic province that “had once been called England or Britain”.[29][30] Posters of the Party leader, Big Brother, bearing the caption “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU”, dominate the city (Winston states it can be found on nearly every house), while the ubiquitous telescreen (transceiving television set) monitors the private and public lives of the populace. Military parades, propaganda films, and public executions are said to be commonplace.

The class hierarchy of Oceania has three levels:

As the government, the Party controls the population with four ministries:

The protagonist Winston Smith, a member of the Outer Party, works in the Records Department of the Ministry of Truth as an editor, revising historical records, to make the past conform to the ever-changing party line and deleting references to unpersons, people who have been “vaporised”, i.e., not only killed by the state but denied existence even in history or memory.

The story of Winston Smith begins on 4 April 1984: “It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.” Yet he is uncertain of the true date, given the regime’s continual rewriting and manipulation of history.[31]

In the year 1984, civilization has been damaged by war, civil conflict, and revolution. Airstrip One (formerly Britain) is a province of Oceania, one of the three totalitarian super-states that rules the world. It is ruled by the “Party” under the ideology of “Ingsoc” and the mysterious leader Big Brother, who has an intense cult of personality. The Party stamps out anyone who does not fully conform to their regime using the Thought Police and constant surveillance, through devices such as Telescreens (two-way televisions).

Winston Smith is a member of the middle class Outer Party. He works at the Ministry of Truth, where he rewrites historical records to conform to the state’s ever-changing version of history. Those who fall out of favour with the Party become “unpersons”, disappearing with all evidence of their existence removed. Winston revises past editions of The Times, while the original documents are destroyed by fire in a “memory hole”. He secretly opposes the Party’s rule and dreams of rebellion. He realizes that he is already a “thoughtcriminal” and likely to be caught one day.

While in a proletarian neighbourhood, he meets an antique shop owner called Mr. Charrington and buys a diary. He uses an alcove to hide it from the Telescreen in his room, and writes thoughts criticising the Party and Big Brother. In the journal, he records his sexual frustration over a young woman maintaining the novel-writing machines at the ministry named Julia, whom Winston is attracted to but suspects is an informant. He also suspects that his superior, an Inner Party official named O’Brien, is a secret agent for an enigmatic underground resistance movement known as the Brotherhood, a group formed by Big Brother’s reviled political rival Emmanuel Goldstein.

The next day, Julia secretly hands Winston a note confessing her love for him. Winston and Julia begin an affair, an act of the rebellion as the Party insists that sex may only be used for reproduction. Winston realizes that she shares his loathing of the Party. They first meet in the country, and later in a rented room above Mr. Charrington’s shop. During his affair with Julia, Winston remembers the disappearance of his family during the civil war of the 1950s and his terse relationship with his ex-wife Katharine. Winston also interacts with his colleague Syme, who is writing a dictionary for a revised version of the English language called Newspeak. After Syme admits that the true purpose of Newspeak is to reduce the capacity of human thought, Winston speculates that Syme will disappear. Not long after, Syme disappears and no one acknowledges his absence.

Weeks later, Winston is approached by O’Brien, who offers Winston a chance to join the Brotherhood. They arrange a meeting at O’Brien’s luxurious flat where both Winston and Julia swear allegiance to the Brotherhood. He sends Winston a copy of The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism by Emmanuel Goldstein. Winston and Julia read parts of the book, which explains more about how the Party maintains power, the true meanings of its slogans and the concept of perpetual war. It argues that the Party can be overthrown if proles (proletarians) rise up against it.

Mr. Charrington is revealed to be an agent of the Thought Police. Winston and Julia are captured in the shop and imprisoned in the Ministry of Love. O’Brien reveals that he is loyal to the party, and part of a special sting operation to catch “thoughtcriminals”. Over many months, Winston is tortured and forced to “cure” himself of his “insanity” by changing his own perception to fit the Party line, even if it requires saying that “2 + 2 = 5”. O’Brien openly admits that the Party “is not interested in the good of others; it is interested solely in power.” He says that once Winston is brainwashed into loyalty, he will be released back into society for a period of time, before they execute him. Winston points out that the Party has not managed to make him betray Julia.

O’Brien then takes Winston to Room 101 for the final stage of re-education. The room contains each prisoner’s worst fear, in Winston’s case rats. As a wire cage holding hungry rats is fitted onto his face, Winston shouts “Do it to Julia!”, thus betraying her. After being released, Winston meets Julia in a park. She says that she was also tortured, and both reveal betraying the other. Later, Winston sits alone in a caf as Oceania celebrates a supposed victory over Eurasian armies in Africa, and realizes that “He loved Big Brother.”

Ingsoc (English Socialism) is the predominant ideology and pseudophilosophy of Oceania, and Newspeak is the official language of official documents.

In London, the capital city of Airstrip One, Oceania’s four government ministries are in pyramids (300 m high), the faades of which display the Party’s three slogans. The ministries’ names are the opposite (doublethink) of their true functions: “The Ministry of Peace concerns itself with war, the Ministry of Truth with lies, the Ministry of Love with torture and the Ministry of Plenty with starvation.” (Part II, Chapter IX The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism)

The Ministry of Peace supports Oceania’s perpetual war against either of the two other superstates:

The primary aim of modern warfare (in accordance with the principles of doublethink, this aim is simultaneously recognized and not recognized by the directing brains of the Inner Party) is to use up the products of the machine without raising the general standard of living. Ever since the end of the nineteenth century, the problem of what to do with the surplus of consumption goods has been latent in industrial society. At present, when few human beings even have enough to eat, this problem is obviously not urgent, and it might not have become so, even if no artificial processes of destruction had been at work.

The Ministry of Plenty rations and controls food, goods, and domestic production; every fiscal quarter, it publishes false claims of having raised the standard of living, when it has, in fact, reduced rations, availability, and production. The Ministry of Truth substantiates Ministry of Plenty’s claims by revising historical records to report numbers supporting the current, “increased rations”.

The Ministry of Truth controls information: news, entertainment, education, and the arts. Winston Smith works in the Minitrue RecDep (Records Department), “rectifying” historical records to concord with Big Brother’s current pronouncements so that everything the Party says is true.

The Ministry of Love identifies, monitors, arrests, and converts real and imagined dissidents. In Winston’s experience, the dissident is beaten and tortured, and, when near-broken, he is sent to Room 101 to face “the worst thing in the world”until love for Big Brother and the Party replaces dissension.

The keyword here is blackwhite. Like so many Newspeak words, this word has two mutually contradictory meanings. Applied to an opponent, it means the habit of impudently claiming that black is white, in contradiction of the plain facts. Applied to a Party member, it means a loyal willingness to say that black is white when Party discipline demands this. But it means also the ability to believe that black is white, and more, to know that black is white, and to forget that one has ever believed the contrary. This demands a continuous alteration of the past, made possible by the system of thought which really embraces all the rest, and which is known in Newspeak as doublethink. Doublethink is basically the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them.

Three perpetually warring totalitarian super-states control the world:[34]

The perpetual war is fought for control of the “disputed area” lying “between the frontiers of the super-states”, which forms “a rough parallelogram with its corners at Tangier, Brazzaville, Darwin and Hong Kong”,[34] and Northern Africa, the Middle East, India and Indonesia are where the superstates capture and use slave labour. Fighting also takes place between Eurasia and Eastasia in Manchuria, Mongolia and Central Asia, and all three powers battle one another over various Atlantic and Pacific islands.

Goldstein’s book, The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism, explains that the superstates’ ideologies are alike and that the public’s ignorance of this fact is imperative so that they might continue believing in the detestability of the opposing ideologies. The only references to the exterior world for the Oceanian citizenry (the Outer Party and the Proles) are Ministry of Truth maps and propaganda to ensure their belief in “the war”.

Winston Smith’s memory and Emmanuel Goldstein’s book communicate some of the history that precipitated the Revolution. Eurasia was formed when the Soviet Union conquered Continental Europe, creating a single state stretching from Portugal to the Bering Strait. Eurasia does not include the British Isles because the United States annexed them along with the rest of the British Empire and Latin America, thus establishing Oceania and gaining control over a quarter of the planet. Eastasia, the last superstate established, emerged only after “a decade of confused fighting”. It includes the Asian lands conquered by China and Japan. Although Eastasia is prevented from matching Eurasia’s size, its larger populace compensates for that handicap.

The annexation of Britain occurred about the same time as the atomic war that provoked civil war, but who fought whom in the war is left unclear. Nuclear weapons fell on Britain; an atomic bombing of Colchester is referenced in the text. Exactly how Ingsoc and its rival systems (Neo-Bolshevism and Death Worship) gained power in their respective countries is also unclear.

While the precise chronology cannot be traced, most of the global societal reorganization occurred between 1945 and the early 1960s. Winston and Julia once meet in the ruins of a church that was destroyed in a nuclear attack “thirty years” earlier, which suggests 1954 as the year of the atomic war that destabilised society and allowed the Party to seize power. It is stated in the novel that the “fourth quarter of 1983” was “also the sixth quarter of the Ninth Three-Year Plan”, which implies that the first quarter of the first three-year plan began in July 1958. By then, the Party was apparently in control of Oceania.

In 1984, there is a perpetual war between Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia, the superstates that emerged from the global atomic war. The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism, by Emmanuel Goldstein, explains that each state is so strong it cannot be defeated, even with the combined forces of two superstates, despite changing alliances. To hide such contradictions, history is rewritten to explain that the (new) alliance always was so; the populaces are accustomed to doublethink and accept it. The war is not fought in Oceanian, Eurasian or Eastasian territory but in the Arctic wastes and in a disputed zone comprising the sea and land from Tangiers (Northern Africa) to Darwin (Australia). At the start, Oceania and Eastasia are allies fighting Eurasia in northern Africa and the Malabar Coast.

That alliance ends and Oceania, allied with Eurasia, fights Eastasia, a change occurring on Hate Week, dedicated to creating patriotic fervour for the Party’s perpetual war. The public are blind to the change; in mid-sentence, an orator changes the name of the enemy from “Eurasia” to “Eastasia” without pause. When the public are enraged at noticing that the wrong flags and posters are displayed, they tear them down; the Party later claims to have captured Africa.

Goldstein’s book explains that the purpose of the unwinnable, perpetual war is to consume human labour and commodities so that the economy of a superstate cannot support economic equality, with a high standard of life for every citizen. By using up most of the produced objects like boots and rations, the proles are kept poor and uneducated and will neither realise what the government is doing nor rebel. Goldstein also details an Oceanian strategy of attacking enemy cities with atomic rockets before invasion but dismisses it as unfeasible and contrary to the war’s purpose; despite the atomic bombing of cities in the 1950s, the superstates stopped it for fear that would imbalance the powers. The military technology in the novel differs little from that of World War II, but strategic bomber aeroplanes are replaced with rocket bombs, helicopters were heavily used as weapons of war (they did not figure in World War II in any form but prototypes) and surface combat units have been all but replaced by immense and unsinkable Floating Fortresses, island-like contraptions concentrating the firepower of a whole naval task force in a single, semi-mobile platform (in the novel, one is said to have been anchored between Iceland and the Faroe Islands, suggesting a preference for sea lane interdiction and denial).

The society of Airstrip One and, according to “The Book”, almost the whole world, lives in poverty: hunger, disease and filth are the norms. Ruined cities and towns are common: the consequence of the civil war, the atomic wars and the purportedly enemy (but possibly false flag) rockets. Social decay and wrecked buildings surround Winston; aside from the ministerial pyramids, little of London was rebuilt. Members of the Outer Party consume synthetic foodstuffs and poor-quality “luxuries” such as oily gin and loosely-packed cigarettes, distributed under the “Victory” brand. (That is a parody of the low-quality Indian-made “Victory” cigarettes, widely smoked in Britain and by British soldiers during World War II. They were smoked because it was easier to import them from India than it was to import American cigarettes from across the Atlantic because of the War of the Atlantic.)

Winston describes something as simple as the repair of a broken pane of glass as requiring committee approval that can take several years and so most of those living in one of the blocks usually do the repairs themselves (Winston himself is called in by Mrs. Parsons to repair her blocked sink). All Outer Party residences include telescreens that serve both as outlets for propaganda and to monitor the Party members; they can be turned down, but they cannot be turned off.

In contrast to their subordinates, the Inner Party upper class of Oceanian society reside in clean and comfortable flats in their own quarter of the city, with pantries well-stocked with foodstuffs such as wine, coffee and sugar, all denied to the general populace.[35] Winston is astonished that the lifts in O’Brien’s building work, the telescreens can be switched off and O’Brien has an Asian manservant, Martin. All members of the Inner Party are attended to by slaves captured in the disputed zone, and “The Book” suggests that many have their own motorcars or even helicopters. Nonetheless, “The Book” makes clear that even the conditions enjoyed by the Inner Party are only “relatively” comfortable, and standards would be regarded as austere by those of the prerevolutionary lite.[36]

The proles live in poverty and are kept sedated with alcohol, pornography and a national lottery whose winnings are never actually paid out; that is obscured by propaganda and the lack of communication within Oceania. At the same time, the proles are freer and less intimidated than the middle-class Outer Party: they are subject to certain levels of monitoring but are not expected to be particularly patriotic. They lack telescreens in their own homes and often jeer at the telescreens that they see. “The Book” indicates that is because the middle class, not the lower class, traditionally starts revolutions. The model demands tight control of the middle class, with ambitious Outer-Party members neutralised via promotion to the Inner Party or “reintegration” by the Ministry of Love, and proles can be allowed intellectual freedom because they lack intellect. Winston nonetheless believes that “the future belonged to the proles”.[37]

The standard of living of the populace is low overall. Consumer goods are scarce, and all those available through official channels are of low quality; for instance, despite the Party regularly reporting increased boot production, more than half of the Oceanian populace goes barefoot. The Party claims that poverty is a necessary sacrifice for the war effort, and “The Book” confirms that to be partially correct since the purpose of perpetual war consumes surplus industrial production. Outer Party members and proles occasionally gain access to better items in the market, which deals in goods that were pilfered from the residences of the Inner Party.[citation needed]

Nineteen Eighty-Four expands upon the subjects summarised in Orwell’s essay “Notes on Nationalism”[38] about the lack of vocabulary needed to explain the unrecognised phenomena behind certain political forces. In Nineteen Eighty-Four, the Party’s artificial, minimalist language ‘Newspeak’ addresses the matter.

O’Brien concludes: “The object of persecution is persecution. The object of torture is torture. The object of power is power.”

In the book, Inner Party member O’Brien describes the Party’s vision of the future:

There will be no curiosity, no enjoyment of the process of life. All competing pleasures will be destroyed. But alwaysdo not forget this, Winstonalways there will be the intoxication of power, constantly increasing and constantly growing subtler. Always, at every moment, there will be the thrill of victory, the sensation of trampling on an enemy who is helpless. If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human faceforever.

Part III, Chapter III, Nineteen Eighty-Four

A major theme of Nineteen Eighty-Four is censorship, especially in the Ministry of Truth, where photographs are modified and public archives rewritten to rid them of “unpersons” (persons who are erased from history by the Party). On the telescreens, figures for all types of production are grossly exaggerated or simply invented to indicate an ever-growing economy, when the reality is the opposite. One small example of the endless censorship is Winston being charged with the task of eliminating a reference to an unperson in a newspaper article. He proceeds to write an article about Comrade Ogilvy, a made-up party member who displayed great heroism by leaping into the sea from a helicopter so that the dispatches he was carrying would not fall into enemy hands.

The inhabitants of Oceania, particularly the Outer Party members, have no real privacy. Many of them live in apartments equipped with two-way telescreens so that they may be watched or listened to at any time. Similar telescreens are found at workstations and in public places, along with hidden microphones. Written correspondence is routinely opened and read by the government before it is delivered. The Thought Police employ undercover agents, who pose as normal citizens and report any person with subversive tendencies. Children are encouraged to report suspicious persons to the government, and some denounce their parents. Citizens are controlled, and the smallest sign of rebellion, even something so small as a facial expression, can result in immediate arrest and imprisonment. Thus, citizens, particularly party members, are compelled to obedience.

“The Principles of Newspeak” is an academic essay appended to the novel. It describes the development of Newspeak, the Party’s minimalist artificial language meant to ideologically align thought and action with the principles of Ingsoc by making “all other modes of thought impossible”. (A linguistic theory about how language may direct thought is the SapirWhorf hypothesis.)

Whether or not the Newspeak appendix implies a hopeful end to Nineteen Eighty-Four remains a critical debate, as it is in Standard English and refers to Newspeak, Ingsoc, the Party etc., in the past tense: “Relative to our own, the Newspeak vocabulary was tiny, and new ways of reducing it were constantly being devised” p.422). Some critics (Atwood,[39] Benstead,[40] Milner,[41] Pynchon[42]) claim that for the essay’s author, both Newspeak and the totalitarian government are in the past.

Nineteen Eighty-Four uses themes from life in the Soviet Union and wartime life in Great Britain as sources for many of its motifs. Some time at an unspecified date after the first American publication of the book, producer Sidney Sheldon wrote to Orwell interested in adapting the novel to the Broadway stage. Orwell sold the American stage rights to Sheldon, explaining that his basic goal with Nineteen Eighty-Four was imagining the consequences of Stalinist government ruling British society:

[Nineteen Eighty-Four] was based chiefly on communism, because that is the dominant form of totalitarianism, but I was trying chiefly to imagine what communism would be like if it were firmly rooted in the English speaking countries, and was no longer a mere extension of the Russian Foreign Office.[43]

The statement “2 + 2 = 5”, used to torment Winston Smith during his interrogation, was a communist party slogan from the second five-year plan, which encouraged fulfillment of the five-year plan in four years. The slogan was seen in electric lights on Moscow house-fronts, billboards and elsewhere.[44]

The switch of Oceania’s allegiance from Eastasia to Eurasia and the subsequent rewriting of history (“Oceania was at war with Eastasia: Oceania had always been at war with Eastasia. A large part of the political literature of five years was now completely obsolete”; ch 9) is evocative of the Soviet Union’s changing relations with Nazi Germany. The two nations were open and frequently vehement critics of each other until the signing of the 1939 Treaty of Non-Aggression. Thereafter, and continuing until the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, no criticism of Germany was allowed in the Soviet press, and all references to prior party lines stoppedincluding in the majority of non-Russian communist parties who tended to follow the Russian line. Orwell had criticised the Communist Party of Great Britain for supporting the Treaty in his essays for Betrayal of the Left (1941). “The Hitler-Stalin pact of August 1939 reversed the Soviet Union’s stated foreign policy. It was too much for many of the fellow-travellers like Gollancz [Orwell’s sometime publisher] who had put their faith in a strategy of construction Popular Front governments and the peace bloc between Russia, Britain and France.”[45]

The description of Emmanuel Goldstein, with a “small, goatee beard”, evokes the image of Leon Trotsky. The film of Goldstein during the Two Minutes Hate is described as showing him being transformed into a bleating sheep. This image was used in a propaganda film during the Kino-eye period of Soviet film, which showed Trotsky transforming into a goat.[46] Goldstein’s book is similar to Trotsky’s highly critical analysis of the USSR, The Revolution Betrayed, published in 1936.

The omnipresent images of Big Brother, a man described as having a moustache, bears resemblance to the cult of personality built up around Joseph Stalin.

The news in Oceania emphasised production figures, just as it did in the Soviet Union, where record-setting in factories (by “Heroes of Socialist Labor”) was especially glorified. The best known of these was Alexey Stakhanov, who purportedly set a record for coal mining in 1935.

The tortures of the Ministry of Love evoke the procedures used by the NKVD in their interrogations,[47] including the use of rubber truncheons, being forbidden to put your hands in your pockets, remaining in brightly lit rooms for days, torture through the use of provoked rodents, and the victim being shown a mirror after their physical collapse.

The random bombing of Airstrip One is based on the Buzz bombs and the V-2 rocket, which struck England at random in 19441945.

The Thought Police is based on the NKVD, which arrested people for random “anti-soviet” remarks.[48] The Thought Crime motif is drawn from Kempeitai, the Japanese wartime secret police, who arrested people for “unpatriotic” thoughts.

The confessions of the “Thought Criminals” Rutherford, Aaronson and Jones are based on the show trials of the 1930s, which included fabricated confessions by prominent Bolsheviks Nikolai Bukharin, Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev to the effect that they were being paid by the Nazi government to undermine the Soviet regime under Leon Trotsky’s direction.

The song “Under the Spreading Chestnut Tree” (“Under the spreading chestnut tree, I sold you, and you sold me”) was based on an old English song called “Go no more a-rushing” (“Under the spreading chestnut tree, Where I knelt upon my knee, We were as happy as could be, ‘Neath the spreading chestnut tree.”). The song was published as early as 1891. The song was a popular camp song in the 1920s, sung with corresponding movements (like touching your chest when you sing “chest”, and touching your head when you sing “nut”). Glenn Miller recorded the song in 1939.[49]

The “Hates” (Two Minutes Hate and Hate Week) were inspired by the constant rallies sponsored by party organs throughout the Stalinist period. These were often short pep-talks given to workers before their shifts began (Two Minutes Hate), but could also last for days, as in the annual celebrations of the anniversary of the October revolution (Hate Week).

Orwell fictionalized “newspeak”, “doublethink”, and “Ministry of Truth” as evinced by both the Soviet press and that of Nazi Germany.[50] In particular, he adapted Soviet ideological discourse constructed to ensure that public statements could not be questioned.[51]

Winston Smith’s job, “revising history” (and the “unperson” motif) are based on the Stalinist habit of airbrushing images of ‘fallen’ people from group photographs and removing references to them in books and newspapers.[53] In one well-known example, the Soviet encyclopaedia had an article about Lavrentiy Beria. When he fell in 1953, and was subsequently executed, institutes that had the encyclopaedia were sent an article about the Bering Strait, with instructions to paste it over the article about Beria.[54]

Big Brother’s “Orders of the Day” were inspired by Stalin’s regular wartime orders, called by the same name. A small collection of the more political of these have been published (together with his wartime speeches) in English as “On the Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union” By Joseph Stalin.[55][56] Like Big Brother’s Orders of the day, Stalin’s frequently lauded heroic individuals,[57] like Comrade Ogilvy, the fictitious hero Winston Smith invented to ‘rectify’ (fabricate) a Big Brother Order of the day.

The Ingsoc slogan “Our new, happy life”, repeated from telescreens, evokes Stalin’s 1935 statement, which became a CPSU slogan, “Life has become better, Comrades; life has become more cheerful.”[48]

In 1940 Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges published Tln, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius which described the invention by a “benevolent secret society” of a world that would seek to remake human language and reality along human-invented lines. The story concludes with an appendix describing the success of the project. Borges’ story addresses similar themes of epistemology, language and history to 1984.[58]

During World War II, Orwell believed that British democracy as it existed before 1939 would not survive the war. The question being “Would it end via Fascist coup d’tat from above or via Socialist revolution from below”?[citation needed] Later, he admitted that events proved him wrong: “What really matters is that I fell into the trap of assuming that ‘the war and the revolution are inseparable’.”[59]

Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949) and Animal Farm (1945) share themes of the betrayed revolution, the person’s subordination to the collective, rigorously enforced class distinctions (Inner Party, Outer Party, Proles), the cult of personality, concentration camps, Thought Police, compulsory regimented daily exercise, and youth leagues. Oceania resulted from the US annexation of the British Empire to counter the Asian peril to Australia and New Zealand. It is a naval power whose militarism venerates the sailors of the floating fortresses, from which battle is given to recapturing India, the “Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire. Much of Oceanic society is based upon the USSR under Joseph StalinBig Brother. The televised Two Minutes Hate is ritual demonisation of the enemies of the State, especially Emmanuel Goldstein (viz Leon Trotsky). Altered photographs and newspaper articles create unpersons deleted from the national historical record, including even founding members of the regime (Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford) in the 1960s purges (viz the Soviet Purges of the 1930s, in which leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution were similarly treated). A similar thing also happened during the French Revolution in which many of the original leaders of the Revolution were later put to death, for example Danton who was put to death by Robespierre, and then later Robespierre himself met the same fate.

In his 1946 essay “Why I Write”, Orwell explains that the serious works he wrote since the Spanish Civil War (193639) were “written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism”.[3][60] Nineteen Eighty-Four is a cautionary tale about revolution betrayed by totalitarian defenders previously proposed in Homage to Catalonia (1938) and Animal Farm (1945), while Coming Up for Air (1939) celebrates the personal and political freedoms lost in Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949). Biographer Michael Shelden notes Orwell’s Edwardian childhood at Henley-on-Thames as the golden country; being bullied at St Cyprian’s School as his empathy with victims; his life in the Indian Imperial Police in Burma and the techniques of violence and censorship in the BBC as capricious authority.[61]

Other influences include Darkness at Noon (1940) and The Yogi and the Commissar (1945) by Arthur Koestler; The Iron Heel (1908) by Jack London; 1920: Dips into the Near Future[62] by John A. Hobson; Brave New World (1932) by Aldous Huxley; We (1921) by Yevgeny Zamyatin which he reviewed in 1946;[63] and The Managerial Revolution (1940) by James Burnham predicting perpetual war among three totalitarian superstates. Orwell told Jacintha Buddicom that he would write a novel stylistically like A Modern Utopia (1905) by H. G. Wells.[citation needed]

Extrapolating from World War II, the novel’s pastiche parallels the politics and rhetoric at war’s endthe changed alliances at the “Cold War’s” (194591) beginning; the Ministry of Truth derives from the BBC’s overseas service, controlled by the Ministry of Information; Room 101 derives from a conference room at BBC Broadcasting House;[64] the Senate House of the University of London, containing the Ministry of Information is the architectural inspiration for the Minitrue; the post-war decrepitude derives from the socio-political life of the UK and the US, i.e., the impoverished Britain of 1948 losing its Empire despite newspaper-reported imperial triumph; and war ally but peace-time foe, Soviet Russia became Eurasia.

The term “English Socialism” has precedents in his wartime writings; in the essay “The Lion and the Unicorn: Socialism and the English Genius” (1941), he said that “the war and the revolution are inseparable…the fact that we are at war has turned Socialism from a textbook word into a realisable policy” because Britain’s superannuated social class system hindered the war effort and only a socialist economy would defeat Adolf Hitler. Given the middle class’s grasping this, they too would abide socialist revolution and that only reactionary Britons would oppose it, thus limiting the force revolutionaries would need to take power. An English Socialism would come about which “will never lose touch with the tradition of compromise and the belief in a law that is above the State. It will shoot traitors, but it will give them a solemn trial beforehand and occasionally it will acquit them. It will crush any open revolt promptly and cruelly, but it will interfere very little with the spoken and written word.”[65]

In the world of Nineteen Eighty-Four, “English Socialism”(or “Ingsoc” in Newspeak) is a totalitarian ideology unlike the English revolution he foresaw. Comparison of the wartime essay “The Lion and the Unicorn” with Nineteen Eighty-Four shows that he perceived a Big Brother regime as a perversion of his cherished socialist ideals and English Socialism. Thus Oceania is a corruption of the British Empire he believed would evolve “into a federation of Socialist states, like a looser and freer version of the Union of Soviet Republics”.[66][verification needed]

When first published, Nineteen Eighty-Four was generally well received by reviewers. V. S. Pritchett, reviewing the novel for the New Statesman stated: “I do not think I have ever read a novel more frightening and depressing; and yet, such are the originality, the suspense, the speed of writing and withering indignation that it is impossible to put the book down.”[67] P. H. Newby, reviewing Nineteen Eighty-Four for The Listener magazine, described it as “the most arresting political novel written by an Englishman since Rex Warner’s The Aerodrome.”[68] Nineteen Eighty-Four was also praised by Bertrand Russell, E. M. Forster and Harold Nicolson.[68] On the other hand, Edward Shanks, reviewing Nineteen Eighty-Four for The Sunday Times, was dismissive; Shanks claimed Nineteen Eighty-Four “breaks all records for gloomy vaticination”.[68] C. S. Lewis was also critical of the novel, claiming that the relationship of Julia and Winston, and especially the Party’s view on sex, lacked credibility, and that the setting was “odious rather than tragic”.[69]

Nineteen Eighty-Four has been adapted for the cinema, radio, television and theatre at least twice each, as well as for other art media, such as ballet and opera.

The effect of Nineteen Eighty-Four on the English language is extensive; the concepts of Big Brother, Room 101, the Thought Police, thoughtcrime, unperson, memory hole (oblivion), doublethink (simultaneously holding and believing contradictory beliefs) and Newspeak (ideological language) have become common phrases for denoting totalitarian authority. Doublespeak and groupthink are both deliberate elaborations of doublethink, and the adjective “Orwellian” means similar to Orwell’s writings, especially Nineteen Eighty-Four. The practice of ending words with “-speak” (such as mediaspeak) is drawn from the novel.[70] Orwell is perpetually associated with 1984; in July 1984, an asteroid was discovered by Antonn Mrkos and named after Orwell.

References to the themes, concepts and plot of Nineteen Eighty-Four have appeared frequently in other works, especially in popular music and video entertainment. An example is the worldwide hit reality television show Big Brother, in which a group of people live together in a large house, isolated from the outside world but continuously watched by television cameras.

The book touches on the invasion of privacy and ubiquitous surveillance. From mid-2013 it was publicized that the NSA has been secretly monitoring and storing global internet traffic, including the bulk data collection of email and phone call data. Sales of Nineteen Eighty-Four increased by up to seven times within the first week of the 2013 mass surveillance leaks.[79][80][81] The book again topped the Amazon.com sales charts in 2017 after a controversy involving Kellyanne Conway using the phrase “alternative facts” to explain discrepancies with the media.[82][83][84][85]

The book also shows mass media as a catalyst for the intensification of destructive emotions and violence. Since the 20th century, news and other forms of media have been publicizing violence more often.[86][87] In 2013, the Almeida Theatre and Headlong staged a successful new adaptation (by Robert Icke and Duncan Macmillan), which twice toured the UK and played an extended run in London’s West End. The play opened on Broadway in 2017.

In the decades since the publication of Nineteen Eighty-Four, there have been numerous comparisons to Aldous Huxley’s novel Brave New World, which had been published 17 years earlier, in 1932.[88][89][90][91] They are both predictions of societies dominated by a central government and are both based on extensions of the trends of their times. However, members of the ruling class of Nineteen Eighty-Four use brutal force, torture and mind control to keep individuals in line, but rulers in Brave New World keep the citizens in line by addictive drugs and pleasurable distractions.

In October 1949, after reading Nineteen Eighty-Four, Huxley sent a letter to Orwell and wrote that it would be more efficient for rulers to stay in power by the softer touch by allowing citizens to self-seek pleasure to control them rather than brute force and to allow a false sense of freedom:

Within the next generation I believe that the world’s rulers will discover that infant conditioning and narco-hypnosis are more efficient, as instruments of government, than clubs and prisons, and that the lust for power can be just as completely satisfied by suggesting people into loving their servitude as by flogging and kicking them into obedience.[92]

Elements of both novels can be seen in modern-day societies, with Huxley’s vision being more dominant in the West and Orwell’s vision more prevalent with dictators in ex-communist countries, as is pointed out in essays that compare the two novels, including Huxley’s own Brave New World Revisited.[93][94][95][85]

Comparisons with other dystopian novels like The Handmaid’s Tale, Virtual Light, The Private Eye and Children of Men have also been drawn.[96][97]

Read more here:

Nineteen Eighty-Four – Wikipedia

Red hair – Wikipedia

Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 12% of the human population. It occurs more frequently (26%) in people of northern or western European ancestry, and less frequently in other populations. Red hair appears most commonly in people with two copies of a recessive allele on chromosome 16 which produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.[1]

Red hair varies in hues from a deep burgundy or bright copper (reddish-brown or auburn) through to burnt orange or red-orange and strawberry blond. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. It is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye colors (gray, blue, green, and hazel), freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.[2]

Cultural reactions have varied from ridicule to admiration; many common stereotypes exist regarding redheads and they are often portrayed as fiery-tempered.

The term redhead has been in use since at least 1510.[3]

Red hair is most commonly found at the northern and western fringes of Europe;[4] it is centered around populations in the British Isles. Redheads today are commonly associated with the Celtic nations[4] and to a far lesser extent the Germanic peoples.

In Ireland, the percentage of population with red hair is estimated to be at around 10%,[5] making it the most red-haired country in the world. According to Britain’s DNA, 34.7% of the Irish population carry the allele for red hair, although this doesn’t directly translate proportionally into births of red-haired children.[6]

Scotland also has a very high percentage with around 6% of the population having red hair.[7][8] Dr. Jim Wilson of Britain’s DNA study used a sample of 2,343 people, and found red hair occurrence of 6% in Scotland, with 35% overall carrying the allele and Edinburgh having the highest proportion at 40%.[7][8][9] The largest ever study of hair colour in Scotland, which analysed over 500,000 people, found the percentage of Scots with red hair to be 5.3%.[10]

England has a red hair prevalence of around 4%, with 28.5% of population having the allele;[7] while in Wales 38% of Welsh people carry the red-haired allele.[7] A 1956 study of hair colour among British Army recruits from Great Britain found higher levels of red hair in Wales and the Scottish border counties of England.[fn 1][11]

Carleton Coon’s 1939 book The Races of Europe stated that rufosity (reddish hair) often occurred in Montenegrins.[12][13][14]

In Italy, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.57% of the total population, without variation in frequency across the different regions of the country.[15] In Sardinia, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.24% of the population.[15] Victorian era ethnographers considered the Udmurt people of the Volga to be “the most red-headed men in the world”,[16] a claim which has a solid basis even today, as the Volga region has more redheads per population than anywhere else in the world with the exception of Ireland.[17]

The Berber populations of Morocco[18] and northern Algeria have occasional redheads. Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Riffians from Morocco and Kabyles from Algeria,[19][20][21] respectively. The Queen of Morocco, Lalla Salma wife of king Mohammed VI, has red hair. Abd ar-Rahman I also had red hair, his mother being a Christian Berber slave.

Red hair is also found amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations.[22] In 1903, 5.6% of Polish Jews had red hair.[23] Other studies have found that 3.69% of Jewish women overall were found to have red hair, but around 10.9% of all Jewish men have red beards.[24] In European culture, before the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish.[25] In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair.[27] The stereotype that red hair is Jewish remains in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia.[28]

In Asia, genetic red hair is rare, but reddish-brown (auburn) hair can be found in the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine), in Turkey, in Caucasia, in Northern Kazakhstan, among Uyghurs and among Indo-Iranians, especially among the Pashtuns.[editorializing] The use of henna on hair and skin for various reasons occasionally occurs in Asia. When henna is used on hair it dyes the hair to different shades of red.[29][30]

Emigration from Europe has multiplied the population of red haired humans in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In the United States, it is estimated that 26% of the population has red hair. This would give the U.S. the largest population of redheads in the world, at 6 to 18 million, compared to approximately 420,000 in Ireland and 300,000 in Scotland.[7]

Several accounts by Greek writers mention redheaded people. A fragment by the poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red-haired.[32] The ancient peoples Budini and Sarmatians are also reported by Greek author to be blue-eyed and red-haired, and the latter even owe their names to it.[33][34]

In Asia, red hair has been found among the ancient Tocharians, who occupied the Tarim Basin in what is now the northwesternmost province of China. Caucasian Tarim mummies have been found with red hair dating to the 2nd millennium BC.[35]

Reddish-brown (auburn) hair is also found amongst some Polynesians, and is especially common in some tribes and family groups. In Polynesian culture reddish hair has traditionally been seen as a sign of descent from high-ranking ancestors and a mark of rulership.[36][37]

The pigment pheomelanin gives red hair its distinctive color. Red hair has far more of the pigment pheomelanin than it has of the dark pigment eumelanin.

The genetics of red hair, discovered in 1997, appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is found on chromosome 16. Red hair is associated with fair skin color because low concentrations of eumelanin throughout the body of those with red hair caused by a MC1R mutation can cause both. The lower melanin concentration in skin confers the advantage that a sufficient concentration of important Vitamin D can be produced under low light conditions. However, when UV-radiation is strong (as in regions close to the equator) the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer.

The MC1R recessive variant gene that gives people red hair generally results in skin that is unable to tan. Because of the natural tanning reaction to the sun’s ultraviolet light and high amounts of pheomelanin in the skin, freckles are a common but not all-inclusive feature of red-haired people. Eighty percent of redheads have an MC1R gene variant.[2]

Red hair can originate from several changes on the MC1R-gene. If one of these changes is present on both chromosomes then the respective individual is likely to have red hair. This type of inheritance is described as an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Even if both parents do not have red hair themselves, both can be carriers for the gene and have a redheaded child.

Genetic studies of dizygotic (fraternal) twins indicate that the MC1R gene is not solely responsible for the red hair phenotype; unidentified modifier genes exist, making variance in the MC1R gene necessary, but not always sufficient, for red hair production.[38]

The alleles Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His, and Arg142His on MC1R are shown to be recessives for the red hair phenotype.[39] The gene HCL2 (also called RHC or RHA) on chromosome 4 may also be related to red hair.[40][41]

In species other than primates, red hair has different genetic origins and mechanisms.

Red hair is the rarest natural hair color in humans. The non-tanning skin associated with red hair may have been advantageous in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder climates by encouraging higher levels of vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin.[42] In 2000, Harding et al. concluded that red hair is not the result of positive selection but of a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm untanned skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen, so redheads can become more common through genetic drift.[39]

Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago.[43][44]

A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans.[45]

A 2007 report in The Courier-Mail, which cited the National Geographic magazine and unnamed “geneticists”, said that red hair is likely to die out in the near future.[46] Other blogs and news sources ran similar stories that attributed the research to the magazine or the “Oxford Hair Foundation”. However, a HowStuffWorks article says that the foundation was funded by hair-dye maker Procter & Gamble, and that other experts had dismissed the research as either lacking in evidence or simply bogus. The National Geographic article in fact states “while redheads may decline, the potential for red isn’t going away”.[47]

Red hair is caused by a relatively rare recessive allele (variant of a gene), the expression of which can skip generations. It is not likely to disappear at any time in the foreseeable future.[47]

Melanin in the skin aids UV tolerance through suntanning, but fair-skinned persons lack the levels of melanin needed to prevent UV-induced DNA-damage. Studies have shown that red hair alleles in MC1R increase freckling and decrease tanning ability.[48] It has been found that Europeans who are heterozygous for red hair exhibit increased sensitivity to UV radiation.[49]

Red hair and its relationship to UV sensitivity are of interest to many melanoma researchers. Sunshine can both be good and bad for a person’s health and the different alleles on MC1R represent these adaptations. It also has been shown that individuals with pale skin are highly susceptible to a variety of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.[50][51]

Two studies have demonstrated that people with red hair have different sensitivity to pain compared to people with other hair colors. One study found that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain (associated with naturally occurring low vitamin K levels),[52] while another study concluded that redheads are less sensitive to pain from multiple modalities, including noxious stimuli such as electrically induced pain.[53][54][55]

Researchers have found that people with red hair require greater amounts of anesthetic.[56] Other research publications have concluded that women with naturally red hair require less of the painkiller pentazocine than do either women of other hair colors or men of any hair color. A study showed women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to that particular pain medication than men.[57] A follow-up study by the same group showed that men and women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to morphine-6-glucuronide.[55]

The unexpected relationship of hair color to pain tolerance appears to exist because redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two types of hormones: the pigmentation-driving melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and the pain-relieving endorphins. (Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH.[58] Melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in skin and hair, use the MC1R to recognize and respond to MSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone normally stimulates melanocytes to make black eumelanin, but if the melanocytes have a mutated receptor, they will make reddish pheomelanin instead. MC1R also occurs in the brain, where it is one of a large set of POMC-related receptors that are apparently involved not only in responding to MSH, but also in responses to endorphins and possibly other POMC-derived hormones.[58] Though the details are not clearly understood, it appears that there is some crosstalk between the POMC hormones; this may explain the link between red hair and pain tolerance.

There is little or no evidence to support the belief that people with red hair have a higher chance than people with other hair colors to hemorrhage or suffer other bleeding complications.[59][60] One study, however, reports a link between red hair and a higher rate of bruising.[60]

Most red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. However, in rare cases red hair can be associated with disease or genetic disorder:

In various times and cultures, red hair has been prized, feared, and ridiculed.

A common belief about redheads is that they have fiery tempers and sharp tongues. In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that “her temper matches her hair”, while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that “People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair.”

During the early stages of modern medicine, red hair was thought to be a sign of a sanguine temperament.[64] In the Indian medicinal practice of Ayurveda, redheads are seen as most likely to have a Pitta temperament.

Another belief is that redheads are highly sexed; for example, Jonathan Swift satirizes redhead stereotypes in part four of Gulliver’s Travels, “A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms,” when he writes that: “It is observed that the red-haired of both sexes are more libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet they much exceed in strength and activity.” Swift goes on to write that “neither was the hair of this brute [a Yahoo] of a red colour (which might have been some excuse for an appetite a little irregular) but black as a sloe”.[65] Such beliefs were given a veneer of scientific credibility in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero. They concluded that red hair was associated with crimes of lust, and claimed that 48% of “criminal women” were redheads.[66]

Queen Elizabeth I of England was a redhead, and during the Elizabethan era in England, red hair was fashionable for women. In modern times, red hair is subject to fashion trends; celebrities such as Nicole Kidman, Alyson Hannigan, Marcia Cross, Christina Hendricks, Emma Stone and Geri Halliwell can boost sales of red hair dye.[citation needed]

Sometimes, red hair darkens as people get older, becoming a more brownish color or losing some of its vividness. This leads some to associate red hair with youthfulness, a quality that is generally considered desirable. In several countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh and Pakistan, henna and saffron are used on hair to give it a bright red appearance.[67]

Many painters have exhibited a fascination with red hair. The hair color “Titian” takes its name from the artist Titian, who often painted women with red hair. Early Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli’s famous painting The Birth of Venus depicts the mythological goddess Venus as a redhead. Other painters notable for their redheads include the Pre-Raphaelites, Edmund Leighton, Modigliani,[68] and Gustav Klimt.[69]

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story “The Red-Headed League” (1891) involves a man who is asked to become a member of a mysterious group of red-headed people. The 1943 film DuBarry Was a Lady featured red-heads Lucille Ball and Red Skelton in Technicolor.

Notable fictional characters with red hair includes Red Sonja, Mystique, and Poison Ivy.[70]

Red hair was thought to be a mark of a beastly sexual desire and moral degeneration. A savage red-haired man is portrayed in the fable by Grimm brothers (Der Eisenhans) as the spirit of the forest of iron. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper, in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk.[71]

Montague Summers, in his translation of the Malleus Maleficarum,[72] notes that red hair and green eyes were thought to be the sign of a witch, a werewolf or a vampire during the Middle Ages;

Those whose hair is red, of a certain peculiar shade, are unmistakably vampires. It is significant that in ancient Egypt, as Manetho tells us, human sacrifices were offered at the grave of Osiris, and the victims were red-haired men who were burned, their ashes being scattered far and wide by winnowing-fans. It is held by some authorities that this was done to fertilize the fields and produce a bounteous harvest, red-hair symbolizing the golden wealth of the corn. But these men were called Typhonians, and were representatives not of Osiris but of his evil rival Typhon, whose hair was red.

During the Spanish Inquisition, people of red hair were identified as Jewish and isolated for persecution.[25] In Medieval Italy and Spain, red hair was associated with the heretical nature of Jews and their rejection of Jesus, and thus Judas Iscariot was commonly depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair, with red-hair being given by the authors to villainous Jewish characters such as Shylock and Fagin.[27] The antisemitic association persisted into modern times in Soviet Russia.[28] The medieval prejudice against red-hair may have derived from the Ancient biblical tradition, in relation to biblical figures such as Esau and King David. The Ancient historian Josephus would mistranslate the Hebrew Torah to describe the more positive figure of King David as ‘golden haired’, in contrast to the negative figure of Esau, even though the original Hebrew Torah implies that both King David and Esau had ‘fiery red hair’.[73]

In his 1885 book I Say No, Wilkie Collins wrote “The prejudice against habitual silence, among the lower order of the people, is almost as inveterate as the prejudice against red hair.”

In his 1895 memoir and history The Gurneys of Earlham, Augustus John Cuthbert Hare described an incident of harassment: “The second son, John, was born in 1750. As a boy he had bright red hair, and it is amusingly recorded that one day in the streets of Norwich a number of boys followed him, pointing to his red locks and saying, “Look at that boy; he’s got a bonfire on the top of his head,” and that John Gurney was so disgusted that he went to a barber’s, had his head shaved, and went home in a wig. He grew up, however, a remarkably attractive-looking young man.”[74]

In British English, the word “ginger” is sometimes used to describe red-headed people (at times in an insulting manner),[75] with terms such as “gingerphobia”[76] and “gingerism”[77] used by the British media. In Britain, redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as “carrot tops” and “carrot heads”. (The comedian “Carrot Top” uses this stage name.) “Gingerism” has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed, and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads.[77]

Nonetheless, individuals and families in Britain are targeted for harassment and violence because of their hair colour. In 2003, a 20-year-old was stabbed in the back for “being ginger”.[78] In 2007, a UK woman won an award from a tribunal after being sexually harassed and receiving abuse because of her red hair;[79] in the same year, a family in Newcastle upon Tyne, was forced to move twice after being targeted for abuse and hate crime on account of their red hair.[80] In May 2009, a schoolboy committed suicide after being bullied for having red hair.[81] In 2013, a fourteen-year-old boy in Lincoln had his right arm broken and his head stamped on by three men who attacked him “just because he had red hair”. The three men were subsequently jailed for a combined total of ten years and one month for the attack.[82]

This prejudice has been satirised on a number of TV shows. The British comedian Catherine Tate (herself a redhead) appeared as a red-haired character in a running sketch of her series The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch saw fictional character Sandra Kemp, who was forced to seek solace in a refuge for ginger people because she had been ostracised from society.[83] The British comedy Bo’ Selecta! (starring redhead Leigh Francis) featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people. (Hucknall, who says that he has repeatedly faced prejudice or been described as ugly on account of his hair colour, argues that Gingerism should be described as a form of racism.[84][85]) Comedian Tim Minchin, himself a redhead, also covered the topic in his song “Prejudice”.[86]

The pejorative use of the word “ginger” and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the “Ginger Kids”, “Le Petit Tourette”, “It’s a Jersey Thing” and “Fatbeard” episodes of South Park.

Film and television programmes often portray school bullies as having red hair.[87] However, children with red hair are often themselves targeted by bullies; “Somebody with ginger hair will stand out from the crowd,” says anti-bullying expert Louise Burfitt-Dons.[88]

In Australian slang, redheads are often nicknamed “Blue” or “Bluey”.[89] More recently, they have been referred to as “rangas” (a word derived from the red-haired ape, the orangutan), sometimes with derogatory connotations.[90] The word “rufus” has been used in both Australian and British slang to refer to red-headed people;[91] based on a variant of rufous, a reddish-brown color.

In November 2008 social networking website Facebook received criticism after a ‘Kick a Ginger’ group, which aimed to establish a “National Kick a Ginger Day” on 20 November, acquired almost 5,000 members. A 14-year-old boy from Vancouver who ran the Facebook group was subjected to an investigation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for possible hate crimes.[92]

In December 2009 British supermarket chain Tesco withdrew a Christmas card which had the image of a child with red hair sitting on the lap of Santa Claus, and the words: “Santa loves all kids. Even ginger ones” after customers complained the card was offensive.[93]

In October 2010, Harriet Harman, the former Equality Minister in the British government under Labour, faced accusations of prejudice after she described the red-haired Treasury secretary Danny Alexander as a “ginger rodent”.[94] Alexander responded to the insult by stating that he was “proud to be ginger”.[95] Harman was subsequently forced to apologise for the comment, after facing criticism for prejudice against a minority group.[96]

In September 2011, Cryos International, one of the world’s largest sperm banks, announced that it would no longer accept donations from red-haired men due to low demand from women seeking artificial insemination.[97]

The term ang mo (Chinese: ; pinyin: hng mo; Peh-e-j: ng-mo) in Hokkien (Min Nan) Chinese means “red-haired”,[98] and is used in Malaysia and Singapore to refer to white people. The epithet is sometimes rendered as ang mo kui () meaning “red-haired devil”, similar to the Cantonese term gweilo (“foreign devil”). Thus it is viewed as racist and derogatory by some people.[99] Others, however, maintain it is acceptable.[100] Despite this ambiguity, it is a widely used term. It appears, for instance, in Singaporean newspapers such as The Straits Times,[101] and in television programmes and films.

The Chinese characters for ang mo are the same as those in the historical Japanese term Km (), which was used during the Edo period (16031868) as an epithet for Dutch or Northern European people. It primarily referred to Dutch traders who were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan during Sakoku, its 200-year period of isolation.[102]

There has been an annual Redhead Day festival in the Netherlands that attracts red-haired participants from around the world. The festival is paid for by the local government in Breda, a city in the south east of the Netherlands.[103] It attracts participants from over 80 different countries. The international event began in 2005, when Dutch painter Bart Rouwenhorst decided he wanted to paint 15 redheads. Today, the festival includes music, fashion shows, art exhibitions and a picnic[104]

The Irish Redhead Convention, held in late August in County Cork since 2011, claims to be a global celebration and attracts people from several continents. The celebrations include crowning the ginger King and Queen, competitions for the best red eyebrows and most freckles per square inch, orchestral concerts and carrot throwing competitions.[105]

A smaller red-hair day festival is held since 2013 by the UK’s anti bullying alliance in London, with the aim of instilling pride in having red-hair.[106]

Since 2014, a red-hair event is held in Israel, at Kibbutz Gezer (Carrot), held for the local Israeli red hair community,[107] including both Ashkenazi and Mizrahi red-heads.[108] However, the number of attendees has to be restricted due to the risk of rocket attacks, leading to anger in the red-hair community.[109] The organizers state; “The event is a good thing for many redheads, who had been embarrassed about being redheads before.[109]

The first and only festival for red heads in the United States was launched in 2015. Held in Highwood, Illinois, Redhead Days draws participants from across the United States.[110]

In the Iliad, Achilles’ hair is described as [111] (ksanths), usually translated as blonde, or golden[112] but sometimes as red or tawny.[113][114] His son Neoptolemus also bears the name Pyrrhus, a possible reference to his own red hair.[115]

The Norse god Thor is usually described as having red hair.[116]

The Hebrew word usually translated “ruddy” or “reddish-brown” (admoni , from the root ADM , see also Adam and Edom)[117][118][119][120] was used to describe both Esau and David.

Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint.

Judas Iscariot is also represented with red hair in Spanish culture[121][122] and in the works of William Shakespeare,[123] reinforcing the negative stereotype.

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Red hair – Wikipedia

Ruidoso Cabin Rentals Ruidoso Cabins – 2 Ruidoso Redheads

Our goal is to give you the best and most exciting Ruidoso cabin rental experience you have ever had! We have chosen our Ruidoso cabins very carefully for their location, convenience and Ruidoso feel. We have gone to great lengths to appoint and furnish our cabins to provide our guests with amenities that impart luxury, comfort and a restorative, restful visit.

When you walk through the door of any of our Ruidoso cabins, we hope you feel embraced and greeted with warmth. Plush furnishings, beautiful artwork, locally crafted items and carefully designed mood-enhancing lighting is designed to welcome you and create a calming, relaxing atmosphere. A refreshing snack will be waiting for you upon arrival.

For your convenience, guest services are also provided as an option with 2 Ruidoso Redheads. We want to make your stay with 2 Ruidoso Redheads an extraordinaryRuidoso cabin rental experience and one that will make you want to come back time and time again.

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Ruidoso Cabin Rentals Ruidoso Cabins – 2 Ruidoso Redheads

7 Things You Didn’t Know About Redheads – YouTube

There are a bunch of myths out there about redheads: Are they really going extinct? Are they more prone to develop cancer? Trace has all those answers and more.

Read More: Simultaneous purifying selection on the ancestral MC1R allele and positive selection on the melanoma-risk allele V60L in South Europeanshttp://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content…”In humans, the geographical apportionment of the coding diversity of the pigmentary locus MC1R is, unusually, higher in Eurasians than in Africans.”

Are redheads going extinct?http://science.howstuffworks.com/life…”In August 2007, many news organizations reported that redheads or “gingers,” as our British and Australian friends call them, would eventually become extinct.”

MC1Rhttp://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/gene/MC1R”The MC1R gene provides instructions for making a protein called the melanocortin 1 receptor. This receptor plays an important role in normal pigmentation.”

Why Redheads Are at Higher Risk for Melanomahttp://www.livescience.com/39094-redh…”The same genetic mutation that leads to red hair and fair skin may put redheads at risk for skin cancer, a new study suggests.”

Redheads may be at higher risk of melanoma even without sunhttp://articles.latimes.com/2012/oct/…”A study on mice suggests that pheomelanin pigment, which gives rise to red hair, is itself a potential trigger for melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer.”

Why Surgeons Dread Redheadshttp://healthland.time.com/2010/12/10…”As the authors of a recent study published in BMJ attest, society’s red-haired members don’t always get a fair shake. Hoary stereotypes, such as the idea that redheads are also hot heads, are mixed together with actual physiological differences such as a heightened sensitivity to pain. Now science is getting a better understanding of redheaded physiology than ever before.”

‘Ginger gene’ developed after humans moved to colder climate 50,000 years agohttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/science/sc…”Fair skin and red hair first appeared around the time people settled in Europe and still remains a dominant gene in southern Europeans today, even if they become tanned.”

Check out more about the ginger gene on I F#!&king Love Science:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bfAKoV…

Watch More:Is Anorexia Genetic?:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWHqDl…Changing Your Genes:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B5DU9l…What Are Sea Monkeys?: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3AZJRp…____________________

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7 Things You Didn’t Know About Redheads – YouTube

30 Shocking Facts About Redheads You Never Knew of

24

According to some studies, a side effect for redheads is that they are more sensitive to hot and cold pain than any other hair color.

23

Each September, the Netherlands holds a two-day celebration out of appreciation for redheads around the world which is called Roodharigendag in Dutch. The party includes crowning the ginger King and Queen.

There is a variety of red hair than you think. Red hair comes in so many different colors (Burnt Orange, Copper, Blonde, Ginger), sizes (Short and long) and shapes as other hair colors.

21

They have been treated awfully in the past. Hitler was against the intermarriage of redheads believing that they produce more devil children.

20

According to some studies bees are more attracted to redheads than any other hair color, probably its because they seem like sweet red flowers because of their red crown of hair.

19

Redheads are also known as hot-headed. However, there is no confirmation of this being valid. It might be just because of their red hair color they are called hot headed in a sense of joke.

18

We also have redhead Disney Princesses like Merida and Ariel. It means that red hair color is too cool because, Ariel and Merida also want to be a part of the ginger world, but you cannot have them because they are too beautiful for this earth.

Redheads never get lost in the crowd because of their red crown of hair which makes them unique from others which are cool.

According to a study, it is proved that Red is the hardest shade to dye your hair and also difficult to maintain it. So to be a redhead is a benefit.

Redheads have an impressive sense of humor because they grow up by teased for their ginger hair color.

14

To be a redhead is beneficial for men because according to some studies red headed men are 54 percent less likely to create prostate cancer. It means a lot for ginger men.

According to early Greeks believes Redheads were Vampires, and they also turn into vampires after they have died.

Redheads have fewer hair than brunettes or blondes. According to research on an average, brunettes have 140,000 strands of hair; blondes have 110,000 strands of hair and redheads have 90,000 which is too less, but red hair is thicker than any other hair color.

11

In surgeries, it’s been recommended that a few redheads require 20 percent larger doses of anesthesia as compared to a regular patient. Research proved this that redhead needs more anesthesia than people having other hair colors.

10

They are more efficient at making Vitamin D. Redheads have the low amount of eumelanin in their body that is why they cannot absorb the required level of Vitamin D. In any case, they compensate for this by creating their particular Vitamin D when they are present in low-light condition.

So, they do not need as much sunlight to get what they need.

9

Christian communities considered a mark of the devil were birthmarks, patches and the major one was red hair. Many Christian communities believed that Judas was a redheaded textual proof from the Bible.

This belief really inspired some painters to paint Judas with red hair.

Aristotle had some issues with redheads. Aristotle himself reported for the once saying “The reddish are of bad character” which shows that he hates redheads.

7

Redheads are more resistant to pain blocker. Redhead gene releases a chemical called pheomelanin, which is the cause of blocks the brains receptivity/acceptance to pain.

Families can carry redhead gene for generations without knowing it. So, it is might possible that there could be some redhead gene inside you that can surprise you for being a redheads parent.

Redheads are good at detecting changes in temperature than a person having any other hair color so, we can call them Temperature sensor.

According to research found by Britain DNA has found that more than 40 percent of the population carries the MC1R gene that is responsible for red hair. Redheads are not going to extinct because families have MC1R gene without knowing it.

According to some studies, redheads have more sensitive teeth. Redheads also bruise easily than those who have any other hair color.

Marilyn Monroe was also a redheaded. She was American actress and model. She was famous for her natural red hair.

1

Finally, if you look into redheads eye longer than 10 seconds, you will fall in love.

Redheads are always misunderstood and mistrust in the history. Previously, the people with red hair were considered to be an evil one, even nowadays many of us are having a lot of misconceptions about them.

Being a redhead is not an abnormality. Instead, its a blessing. If anyone of you has a redhead, then proud of it. We anticipate that you had an enjoyable journey while going through the article, and you get a lot to know about the redhead. Please let us know about your valuable feedback.

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30 Shocking Facts About Redheads You Never Knew of

redheads The Most Attractive Redheads Ever – Ranker

To clarify: this is a list of people who have had red hair for as long as we’ve seen them, not necessarily people born that way. If you can think of a particularly good-looking redhead missing from this list, let me know! Redheads are some of the most attractive people living today. While many people dye their hair blonde or any other random color, when you see someone with red hair, it immediately draws your attention.

There are a lot of familiar names on this Ultimate List. You’ll see actresses like Emma Stone, Isla Fisher and Christina Hendricks on here. All of them are known for being some of the most attractive redheads living today. That being said, this list includes redheads who aren’t with us today, like Rita Hayworth, Lucille Ball and Judy Garland. But the one thing they all have in common is that they’re all beautiful and attractive redheads. Take a look at these sexy redheads. These hot redheads are the hottest around.

Enjoy these pictures of these hot gingers!

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redheads The Most Attractive Redheads Ever – Ranker

RedHead Babes pic galleries from 1 to 108 – DefineBabe.com

Redheads babe. These girls have fire in their bodies from head to toe. Hot redhead love sex and they have hot tempers that cant be controlled. Redhead teen girls are every guys first crush and first heartbreak. But just wait until she turns into a redhead MILF that pussy is so hot it cant be hosed off with a gallon of your cum. Redhead pussy is a lot of trouble, but fucking a busty redhead is the best sex youll ever have. Watch these redhead porn movies and youll see why guys cant get enough of those ginger girls.

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RedHead Babes pic galleries from 1 to 108 – DefineBabe.com

Red hair – Wikipedia

Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 12% of the human population. It occurs more frequently (26%) in people of northern or western European ancestry, and less frequently in other populations. Red hair appears most commonly in people with two copies of a recessive allele on chromosome 16 which produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.[1]

Red hair varies in hues from a deep burgundy or bright copper (reddish-brown or auburn) through to burnt orange or red-orange and strawberry blond. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. It is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye colors (gray, blue, green, and hazel), freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.[2]

Cultural reactions have varied from ridicule to admiration; many common stereotypes exist regarding redheads and they are often portrayed as fiery-tempered.

The term redhead has been in use since at least 1510.[3]

Red hair is most commonly found at the northern and western fringes of Europe;[4] it is centered around populations in the British Isles. Redheads today are commonly associated with the Celtic nations[4] and to a far lesser extent the Germanic peoples.

In Ireland, the percentage of population with red hair is estimated to be at around 10%,[5] making it the most red-haired country in the world. According to Britain’s DNA, 34.7% of the Irish population carry the allele for red hair, although this doesn’t directly translate proportionally into births of red-haired children.[6]

Scotland also has a very high percentage with around 6% of the population having red hair.[7][8] Dr. Jim Wilson of Britain’s DNA study used a sample of 2,343 people, and found red hair occurrence of 6% in Scotland, with 35% overall carrying the allele and Edinburgh having the highest proportion at 40%.[7][8][9] The largest ever study of hair colour in Scotland, which analysed over 500,000 people, found the percentage of Scots with red hair to be 5.3%.[10]

England has a red hair prevalence of around 4%, with 28.5% of population having the allele;[7] while in Wales 38% of Welsh people carry the red-haired allele.[7] A 1956 study of hair colour among British Army recruits from Great Britain found higher levels of red hair in Wales and the Scottish border counties of England.[fn 1][11]

Carleton Coon’s 1939 book The Races of Europe stated that rufosity (reddish hair) often occurred in Montenegrins.[12][13][14]

In Italy, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.57% of the total population, without variation in frequency across the different regions of the country.[15] In Sardinia, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.24% of the population.[15] Victorian era ethnographers considered the Udmurt people of the Volga to be “the most red-headed men in the world”,[16] a claim which has a solid basis even today, as the Volga region has more redheads per population than anywhere else in the world with the exception of Ireland.[17]

The Berber populations of Morocco[18] and northern Algeria have occasional redheads. Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Riffians from Morocco and Kabyles from Algeria,[19][20][21] respectively. The Queen of Morocco, Lalla Salma wife of king Mohammed VI, has red hair. Abd ar-Rahman I also had red hair, his mother being a Christian Berber slave.

Red hair is also found amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations.[22] In 1903, 5.6% of Polish Jews had red hair.[23] Other studies have found that 3.69% of Jewish women overall were found to have red hair, but around 10.9% of all Jewish men have red beards.[24] In European culture, before the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish.[25] In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair.[27] The stereotype that red hair is Jewish remains in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia.[28]

In Asia, genetic red hair is rare, but reddish-brown (auburn) hair can be found in the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine), in Turkey, in Caucasia, in Northern Kazakhstan, among Uyghurs and among Indo-Iranians.[editorializing] The use of henna on hair and skin for various reasons occasionally occurs in Asia. When henna is used on hair it dyes the hair to different shades of red.[29][30]

Emigration from Europe has multiplied the population of red haired humans in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In the United States, it is estimated that 26% of the population has red hair. This would give the U.S. the largest population of redheads in the world, at 6 to 18 million, compared to approximately 420,000 in Ireland and 300,000 in Scotland.[7]

Several accounts by Greek writers mention redheaded people. A fragment by the poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red-haired.[32] The ancient peoples Budini and Sarmatians are also reported by Greek author to be blue-eyed and red-haired, and the latter even owe their names to it.[33][34]

In Asia, red hair has been found among the ancient Tocharians, who occupied the Tarim Basin in what is now the northwesternmost province of China. Caucasian Tarim mummies have been found with red hair dating to the 2nd millennium BC.[35]

Reddish-brown (auburn) hair is also found amongst some Polynesians, and is especially common in some tribes and family groups. In Polynesian culture reddish hair has traditionally been seen as a sign of descent from high-ranking ancestors and a mark of rulership.[36][37]

The pigment pheomelanin gives red hair its distinctive color. Red hair has far more of the pigment pheomelanin than it has of the dark pigment eumelanin.

The genetics of red hair, discovered in 1997, appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is found on chromosome 16. Red hair is associated with fair skin color because low concentrations of eumelanin throughout the body of those with red hair caused by a MC1R mutation can cause both. The lower melanin concentration in skin confers the advantage that a sufficient concentration of important Vitamin D can be produced under low light conditions. However, when UV-radiation is strong (as in regions close to the equator) the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer.

The MC1R recessive variant gene that gives people red hair generally results in skin that is unable to tan. Because of the natural tanning reaction to the sun’s ultraviolet light and high amounts of pheomelanin in the skin, freckles are a common but not all-inclusive feature of red-haired people. Eighty percent of redheads have an MC1R gene variant[2].

Red hair can originate from several changes on the MC1R-gene. If one of these changes is present on both chromosomes then the respective individual is likely to have red hair. This type of inheritance is described as an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Even if both parents do not have red hair themselves, both can be carriers for the gene and have a redheaded child.

Genetic studies of dizygotic (fraternal) twins indicate that the MC1R gene is not solely responsible for the red hair phenotype; unidentified modifier genes exist, making variance in the MC1R gene necessary, but not always sufficient, for red hair production.[38]

The alleles Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His, and Arg142His on MC1R are shown to be recessives for the red hair phenotype.[39] The gene HCL2 (also called RHC or RHA) on chromosome 4 may also be related to red hair.[40][41]

In species other than primates, red hair has different genetic origins and mechanisms.

Red hair is the rarest natural hair color in humans. The non-tanning skin associated with red hair may have been advantageous in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder climates by encouraging higher levels of vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin.[42] In 2000, Harding et al. concluded that red hair is not the result of positive selection but of a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm untanned skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen, so redheads can become more common through genetic drift.[39]

Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago.[43][44]

A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans.[45]

A 2007 report in The Courier-Mail, which cited the National Geographic magazine and unnamed “geneticists”, said that red hair is likely to die out in the near future.[46] Other blogs and news sources ran similar stories that attributed the research to the magazine or the “Oxford Hair Foundation”. However, a HowStuffWorks article says that the foundation was funded by hair-dye maker Procter & Gamble, and that other experts had dismissed the research as either lacking in evidence or simply bogus. The National Geographic article in fact states “while redheads may decline, the potential for red isn’t going away”.[47]

Red hair is caused by a relatively rare recessive allele (variant of a gene), the expression of which can skip generations. It is not likely to disappear at any time in the foreseeable future.[47]

Melanin in the skin aids UV tolerance through suntanning, but fair-skinned persons lack the levels of melanin needed to prevent UV-induced DNA-damage. Studies have shown that red hair alleles in MC1R increase freckling and decrease tanning ability.[48] It has been found that Europeans who are heterozygous for red hair exhibit increased sensitivity to UV radiation.[49]

Red hair and its relationship to UV sensitivity are of interest to many melanoma researchers. Sunshine can both be good and bad for a person’s health and the different alleles on MC1R represent these adaptations. It also has been shown that individuals with pale skin are highly susceptible to a variety of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.[50][51]

Two studies have demonstrated that people with red hair have different sensitivity to pain compared to people with other hair colors. One study found that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain (associated with naturally occurring low vitamin K levels),[52] while another study concluded that redheads are less sensitive to pain from multiple modalities, including noxious stimuli such as electrically induced pain.[53][54][55]

Researchers have found that people with red hair require greater amounts of anesthetic.[56] Other research publications have concluded that women with naturally red hair require less of the painkiller pentazocine than do either women of other hair colors or men of any hair color. A study showed women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to that particular pain medication than men.[57] A follow-up study by the same group showed that men and women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to morphine-6-glucuronide.[55]

The unexpected relationship of hair color to pain tolerance appears to exist because redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two types of hormones: the pigmentation-driving melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and the pain-relieving endorphins. (Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH.[58] Melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in skin and hair, use the MC1R to recognize and respond to MSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone normally stimulates melanocytes to make black eumelanin, but if the melanocytes have a mutated receptor, they will make reddish pheomelanin instead. MC1R also occurs in the brain, where it is one of a large set of POMC-related receptors that are apparently involved not only in responding to MSH, but also in responses to endorphins and possibly other POMC-derived hormones.[58] Though the details are not clearly understood, it appears that there is some crosstalk between the POMC hormones; this may explain the link between red hair and pain tolerance.

There is little or no evidence to support the belief that people with red hair have a higher chance than people with other hair colors to hemorrhage or suffer other bleeding complications.[59][60] One study, however, reports a link between red hair and a higher rate of bruising.[60]

Most red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. However, in rare cases red hair can be associated with disease or genetic disorder:

In various times and cultures, red hair has been prized, feared, and ridiculed.

A common belief about redheads is that they have fiery tempers and sharp tongues. In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that “her temper matches her hair”, while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that “People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair.”

During the early stages of modern medicine, red hair was thought to be a sign of a sanguine temperament.[64] In the Indian medicinal practice of Ayurveda, redheads are seen as most likely to have a Pitta temperament.

Another belief is that redheads are highly sexed; for example, Jonathan Swift satirizes redhead stereotypes in part four of Gulliver’s Travels, “A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms,” when he writes that: “It is observed that the red-haired of both sexes are more libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet they much exceed in strength and activity.” Swift goes on to write that “neither was the hair of this brute [a Yahoo] of a red colour (which might have been some excuse for an appetite a little irregular) but black as a sloe”.[65] Such beliefs were given a veneer of scientific credibility in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero. They concluded that red hair was associated with crimes of lust, and claimed that 48% of “criminal women” were redheads.[66]

Queen Elizabeth I of England was a redhead, and during the Elizabethan era in England, red hair was fashionable for women. In modern times, red hair is subject to fashion trends; celebrities such as Nicole Kidman, Alyson Hannigan, Marcia Cross, Christina Hendricks, Emma Stone and Geri Halliwell can boost sales of red hair dye.[citation needed]

Sometimes, red hair darkens as people get older, becoming a more brownish color or losing some of its vividness. This leads some to associate red hair with youthfulness, a quality that is generally considered desirable. In several countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh and Pakistan, henna and saffron are used on hair to give it a bright red appearance.[67]

Many painters have exhibited a fascination with red hair. The hair color “Titian” takes its name from the artist Titian, who often painted women with red hair. Early Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli’s famous painting The Birth of Venus depicts the mythological goddess Venus as a redhead. Other painters notable for their redheads include the Pre-Raphaelites, Edmund Leighton, Modigliani,[68] and Gustav Klimt.[69]

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story “The Red-Headed League” (1891) involves a man who is asked to become a member of a mysterious group of red-headed people. The 1943 film DuBarry Was a Lady featured red-heads Lucille Ball and Red Skelton in Technicolor.

Notable fictional characters with red hair includes Red Sonja, Mystique, and Poison Ivy.[70]

Red hair was thought to be a mark of a beastly sexual desire and moral degeneration. A savage red-haired man is portrayed in the fable by Grimm brothers (Der Eisenhans) as the spirit of the forest of iron. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper, in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk.[71]

Montague Summers, in his translation of the Malleus Maleficarum,[72] notes that red hair and green eyes were thought to be the sign of a witch, a werewolf or a vampire during the Middle Ages;

Those whose hair is red, of a certain peculiar shade, are unmistakably vampires. It is significant that in ancient Egypt, as Manetho tells us, human sacrifices were offered at the grave of Osiris, and the victims were red-haired men who were burned, their ashes being scattered far and wide by winnowing-fans. It is held by some authorities that this was done to fertilize the fields and produce a bounteous harvest, red-hair symbolizing the golden wealth of the corn. But these men were called Typhonians, and were representatives not of Osiris but of his evil rival Typhon, whose hair was red.

During the Spanish Inquisition, people of red hair were identified as Jewish and isolated for persecution.[25] In Medieval Italy and Spain, red hair was associated with the heretical nature of Jews and their rejection of Jesus, and thus Judas Iscariot was commonly depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair, with red-hair being given by the authors to villainous Jewish characters such as Shylock and Fagin.[27] The antisemitic association persisted into modern times in Soviet Russia.[28] The medieval prejudice against red-hair may have derived from the Ancient biblical tradition, in relation to biblical figures such as Esau and King David. The Ancient historian Josephus would mistranslate the Hebrew Torah to describe the more positive figure of King David as ‘golden haired’, in contrast to the negative figure of Esau, even though the original Hebrew Torah implies that both King David and Esau had ‘fiery red hair’.[73]

In his 1885 book I Say No, Wilkie Collins wrote “The prejudice against habitual silence, among the lower order of the people, is almost as inveterate as the prejudice against red hair.”

In his 1895 memoir and history The Gurneys of Earlham, Augustus John Cuthbert Hare described an incident of harassment: “The second son, John, was born in 1750. As a boy he had bright red hair, and it is amusingly recorded that one day in the streets of Norwich a number of boys followed him, pointing to his red locks and saying, “Look at that boy; he’s got a bonfire on the top of his head,” and that John Gurney was so disgusted that he went to a barber’s, had his head shaved, and went home in a wig. He grew up, however, a remarkably attractive-looking young man.”[74]

In British English, the word “ginger” is sometimes used to describe red-headed people (at times in an insulting manner),[75] with terms such as “gingerphobia”[76] and “gingerism”[77] used by the British media. In Britain, redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as “carrot tops” and “carrot heads”. (The comedian “Carrot Top” uses this stage name.) “Gingerism” has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed, and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads.[77]

Nonetheless, individuals and families in Britain are targeted for harassment and violence because of their hair colour. In 2003, a 20-year-old was stabbed in the back for “being ginger”.[78] In 2007, a UK woman won an award from a tribunal after being sexually harassed and receiving abuse because of her red hair;[79] in the same year, a family in Newcastle upon Tyne, was forced to move twice after being targeted for abuse and hate crime on account of their red hair.[80] In May 2009, a schoolboy committed suicide after being bullied for having red hair.[81] In 2013, a fourteen-year-old boy in Lincoln had his right arm broken and his head stamped on by three men who attacked him “just because he had red hair”. The three men were subsequently jailed for a combined total of ten years and one month for the attack.[82]

This prejudice has been satirised on a number of TV shows. The British comedian Catherine Tate (herself a redhead) appeared as a red-haired character in a running sketch of her series The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch saw fictional character Sandra Kemp, who was forced to seek solace in a refuge for ginger people because she had been ostracised from society.[83] The British comedy Bo’ Selecta! (starring redhead Leigh Francis) featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people. (Hucknall, who says that he has repeatedly faced prejudice or been described as ugly on account of his hair colour, argues that Gingerism should be described as a form of racism.[84][85]) Comedian Tim Minchin, himself a redhead, also covered the topic in his song “Prejudice”.[86]

The pejorative use of the word “ginger” and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the “Ginger Kids”, “Le Petit Tourette”, “It’s a Jersey Thing” and “Fatbeard” episodes of South Park.

Film and television programmes often portray school bullies as having red hair.[87] However, children with red hair are often themselves targeted by bullies; “Somebody with ginger hair will stand out from the crowd,” says anti-bullying expert Louise Burfitt-Dons.[88]

In Australian slang, redheads are often nicknamed “Blue” or “Bluey”.[89] More recently, they have been referred to as “rangas” (a word derived from the red-haired ape, the orangutan), sometimes with derogatory connotations.[90] The word “rufus” has been used in both Australian and British slang to refer to red-headed people;[91] based on a variant of rufous, a reddish-brown color.

In November 2008 social networking website Facebook received criticism after a ‘Kick a Ginger’ group, which aimed to establish a “National Kick a Ginger Day” on 20 November, acquired almost 5,000 members. A 14-year-old boy from Vancouver who ran the Facebook group was subjected to an investigation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for possible hate crimes.[92]

In December 2009 British supermarket chain Tesco withdrew a Christmas card which had the image of a child with red hair sitting on the lap of Santa Claus, and the words: “Santa loves all kids. Even ginger ones” after customers complained the card was offensive.[93]

In October 2010, Harriet Harman, the former Equality Minister in the British government under Labour, faced accusations of prejudice after she described the red-haired Treasury secretary Danny Alexander as a “ginger rodent”.[94] Alexander responded to the insult by stating that he was “proud to be ginger”.[95] Harman was subsequently forced to apologise for the comment, after facing criticism for prejudice against a minority group.[96]

In September 2011, Cryos International, one of the world’s largest sperm banks, announced that it would no longer accept donations from red-haired men due to low demand from women seeking artificial insemination.[97]

The term ang mo (Chinese: ; pinyin: hng mo; Peh-e-j: ng-mo) in Hokkien (Min Nan) Chinese means “red-haired”,[98] and is used in Malaysia and Singapore to refer to white people. The epithet is sometimes rendered as ang mo kui () meaning “red-haired devil”, similar to the Cantonese term gweilo (“foreign devil”). Thus it is viewed as racist and derogatory by some people.[99] Others, however, maintain it is acceptable.[100] Despite this ambiguity, it is a widely used term. It appears, for instance, in Singaporean newspapers such as The Straits Times,[101] and in television programmes and films.

The Chinese characters for ang mo are the same as those in the historical Japanese term Km (), which was used during the Edo period (16031868) as an epithet for Dutch or Northern European people. It primarily referred to Dutch traders who were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan during Sakoku, its 200-year period of isolation.[102]

There has been an annual Redhead Day festival in the Netherlands that attracts red-haired participants from around the world. The festival is paid for by the local government in Breda, a city in the south east of the Netherlands.[103] It attracts participants from over 80 different countries. The international event began in 2005, when Dutch painter Bart Rouwenhorst decided he wanted to paint 15 redheads. Today, the festival includes music, fashion shows, art exhibitions and a picnic[104]

The Irish Redhead Convention, held in late August in County Cork since 2011, claims to be a global celebration and attracts people from several continents. The celebrations include crowning the ginger King and Queen, competitions for the best red eyebrows and most freckles per square inch, orchestral concerts and carrot throwing competitions.[105]

A smaller red-hair day festival is held since 2013 by the UK’s anti bullying alliance in London, with the aim of instilling pride in having red-hair.[106]

Since 2014, a red-hair event is held in Israel, at Kibbutz Gezer (Carrot), held for the local Israeli red hair community,[107] including both Ashkenazi and Mizrahi red-heads.[108] However, the number of attendees has to be restricted due to the risk of rocket attacks, leading to anger in the red-hair community.[109] The organizers state; “The event is a good thing for many redheads, who had been embarrassed about being redheads before.[109]

The first and only festival for red heads in the United States was launched in 2015. Held in Highwood, Illinois, Redhead Days draws participants from across the United States.[110]

In the Iliad, Achilles’ hair is described as [111] (ksanths), usually translated as blonde, or golden[112] but sometimes as red or tawny.[113][114] His son Neoptolemus also bears the name Pyrrhus, a possible reference to his own red hair.[115]

The Norse god Thor is usually described as having red hair.[116]

The Hebrew word usually translated “ruddy” or “reddish-brown” (admoni , from the root ADM , see also Adam and Edom)[117][118][119][120] was used to describe both Esau and David.

Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint.

Judas Iscariot is also represented with red hair in Spanish culture[121][122] and in the works of William Shakespeare,[123] reinforcing the negative stereotype.

Read the original here:

Red hair – Wikipedia

Red hair – Wikipedia

Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 12% of the human population. It occurs more frequently (26%) in people of northern or western European ancestry, and less frequently in other populations. Red hair appears most commonly in people with two copies of a recessive allele on chromosome 16 which produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.[1]

Red hair varies in hues from a deep burgundy or bright copper (reddish-brown or auburn) through to burnt orange or red-orange and strawberry blond. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. It is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye colors (gray, blue, green, and hazel), freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.[2]

Cultural reactions have varied from ridicule to admiration; many common stereotypes exist regarding redheads and they are often portrayed as fiery-tempered.

The term redhead has been in use since at least 1510.[3]

Red hair is most commonly found at the northern and western fringes of Europe;[4] it is centered around populations in the British Isles. Redheads today are commonly associated with the Celtic nations[4] and to a far lesser extent the Germanic peoples.

In Ireland, the percentage of population with red hair is estimated to be at around 10%,[5] making it the most red-haired country in the world. According to Britain’s DNA, 34.7% of the Irish population carry the allele for red hair, although this doesn’t directly translate proportionally into births of red-haired children.[6]

Scotland also has a very high percentage with around 6% of the population having red hair.[7][8] Dr. Jim Wilson of Britain’s DNA study used a sample of 2,343 people, and found red hair occurrence of 6% in Scotland, with 35% overall carrying the allele and Edinburgh having the highest proportion at 40%.[7][8][9] The largest ever study of hair colour in Scotland, which analysed over 500,000 people, found the percentage of Scots with red hair to be 5.3%.[10]

England has a red hair prevalence of around 4%, with 28.5% of population having the allele;[7] while in Wales 38% of Welsh people carry the red-haired allele.[7] A 1956 study of hair colour among British Army recruits from Great Britain found higher levels of red hair in Wales and the Scottish border counties of England.[fn 1][11]

Carleton Coon’s 1939 book The Races of Europe stated that rufosity (reddish hair) often occurred in Montenegrins.[12][13][14]

In Italy, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.57% of the total population, without variation in frequency across the different regions of the country.[15] In Sardinia, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.24% of the population.[15] Victorian era ethnographers considered the Udmurt people of the Volga to be “the most red-headed men in the world”,[16] a claim which has a solid basis even today, as the Volga region has more redheads per population than anywhere else in the world with the exception of Ireland.[17]

The Berber populations of Morocco[18] and northern Algeria have occasional redheads. Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Riffians from Morocco and Kabyles from Algeria,[19][20][21] respectively. The Queen of Morocco, Lalla Salma wife of king Mohammed VI, has red hair. Abd ar-Rahman I also had red hair, his mother being a Christian Berber slave.

Red hair is also found amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations.[22] In 1903, 5.6% of Polish Jews had red hair.[23] Other studies have found that 3.69% of Jewish women overall were found to have red hair, but around 10.9% of all Jewish men have red beards.[24] In European culture, before the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish.[25] In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair.[27] The stereotype that red hair is Jewish remains in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia.[28]

In Asia, genetic red hair is rare, but reddish-brown (auburn) hair can be found in the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine), in Turkey, in Caucasia, in Northern Kazakhstan, among Uyghurs and among Indo-Iranians.[editorializing] The use of henna on hair and skin for various reasons occasionally occurs in Asia. When henna is used on hair it dyes the hair to different shades of red.[29][30]

Emigration from Europe has multiplied the population of red haired humans in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In the United States, it is estimated that 26% of the population has red hair. This would give the U.S. the largest population of redheads in the world, at 6 to 18 million, compared to approximately 420,000 in Ireland and 300,000 in Scotland.[7]

Several accounts by Greek writers mention redheaded people. A fragment by the poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red-haired.[32] The ancient peoples Budini and Sarmatians are also reported by Greek author to be blue-eyed and red-haired, and the latter even owe their names to it.[33][34]

In Asia, red hair has been found among the ancient Tocharians, who occupied the Tarim Basin in what is now the northwesternmost province of China. Caucasian Tarim mummies have been found with red hair dating to the 2nd millennium BC.[35]

Reddish-brown (auburn) hair is also found amongst some Polynesians, and is especially common in some tribes and family groups. In Polynesian culture reddish hair has traditionally been seen as a sign of descent from high-ranking ancestors and a mark of rulership.[36][37]

The pigment pheomelanin gives red hair its distinctive color. Red hair has far more of the pigment pheomelanin than it has of the dark pigment eumelanin.

The genetics of red hair, discovered in 1997, appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is found on chromosome 16. Red hair is associated with fair skin color because low concentrations of eumelanin throughout the body of those with red hair caused by a MC1R mutation can cause both. The lower melanin concentration in skin confers the advantage that a sufficient concentration of important Vitamin D can be produced under low light conditions. However, when UV-radiation is strong (as in regions close to the equator) the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer.

The MC1R recessive variant gene that gives people red hair generally results in skin that is unable to tan. Because of the natural tanning reaction to the sun’s ultraviolet light and high amounts of pheomelanin in the skin, freckles are a common but not all-inclusive feature of red-haired people. Eighty percent of redheads have an MC1R gene variant[2].

Red hair can originate from several changes on the MC1R-gene. If one of these changes is present on both chromosomes then the respective individual is likely to have red hair. This type of inheritance is described as an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Even if both parents do not have red hair themselves, both can be carriers for the gene and have a redheaded child.

Genetic studies of dizygotic (fraternal) twins indicate that the MC1R gene is not solely responsible for the red hair phenotype; unidentified modifier genes exist, making variance in the MC1R gene necessary, but not always sufficient, for red hair production.[38]

The alleles Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His, and Arg142His on MC1R are shown to be recessives for the red hair phenotype.[39] The gene HCL2 (also called RHC or RHA) on chromosome 4 may also be related to red hair.[40][41]

In species other than primates, red hair has different genetic origins and mechanisms.

Red hair is the rarest natural hair color in humans. The non-tanning skin associated with red hair may have been advantageous in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder climates by encouraging higher levels of vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin.[42] In 2000, Harding et al. concluded that red hair is not the result of positive selection but of a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm untanned skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen, so redheads can become more common through genetic drift.[39]

Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago.[43][44]

A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans.[45]

A 2007 report in The Courier-Mail, which cited the National Geographic magazine and unnamed “geneticists”, said that red hair is likely to die out in the near future.[46] Other blogs and news sources ran similar stories that attributed the research to the magazine or the “Oxford Hair Foundation”. However, a HowStuffWorks article says that the foundation was funded by hair-dye maker Procter & Gamble, and that other experts had dismissed the research as either lacking in evidence or simply bogus. The National Geographic article in fact states “while redheads may decline, the potential for red isn’t going away”.[47]

Red hair is caused by a relatively rare recessive allele (variant of a gene), the expression of which can skip generations. It is not likely to disappear at any time in the foreseeable future.[47]

Melanin in the skin aids UV tolerance through suntanning, but fair-skinned persons lack the levels of melanin needed to prevent UV-induced DNA-damage. Studies have shown that red hair alleles in MC1R increase freckling and decrease tanning ability.[48] It has been found that Europeans who are heterozygous for red hair exhibit increased sensitivity to UV radiation.[49]

Red hair and its relationship to UV sensitivity are of interest to many melanoma researchers. Sunshine can both be good and bad for a person’s health and the different alleles on MC1R represent these adaptations. It also has been shown that individuals with pale skin are highly susceptible to a variety of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.[50][51]

Two studies have demonstrated that people with red hair have different sensitivity to pain compared to people with other hair colors. One study found that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain (associated with naturally occurring low vitamin K levels),[52] while another study concluded that redheads are less sensitive to pain from multiple modalities, including noxious stimuli such as electrically induced pain.[53][54][55]

Researchers have found that people with red hair require greater amounts of anesthetic.[56] Other research publications have concluded that women with naturally red hair require less of the painkiller pentazocine than do either women of other hair colors or men of any hair color. A study showed women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to that particular pain medication than men.[57] A follow-up study by the same group showed that men and women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to morphine-6-glucuronide.[55]

The unexpected relationship of hair color to pain tolerance appears to exist because redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two types of hormones: the pigmentation-driving melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and the pain-relieving endorphins. (Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH.[58] Melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in skin and hair, use the MC1R to recognize and respond to MSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone normally stimulates melanocytes to make black eumelanin, but if the melanocytes have a mutated receptor, they will make reddish pheomelanin instead. MC1R also occurs in the brain, where it is one of a large set of POMC-related receptors that are apparently involved not only in responding to MSH, but also in responses to endorphins and possibly other POMC-derived hormones.[58] Though the details are not clearly understood, it appears that there is some crosstalk between the POMC hormones; this may explain the link between red hair and pain tolerance.

There is little or no evidence to support the belief that people with red hair have a higher chance than people with other hair colors to hemorrhage or suffer other bleeding complications.[59][60] One study, however, reports a link between red hair and a higher rate of bruising.[60]

Most red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. However, in rare cases red hair can be associated with disease or genetic disorder:

In various times and cultures, red hair has been prized, feared, and ridiculed.

A common belief about redheads is that they have fiery tempers and sharp tongues. In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that “her temper matches her hair”, while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that “People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair.”

During the early stages of modern medicine, red hair was thought to be a sign of a sanguine temperament.[64] In the Indian medicinal practice of Ayurveda, redheads are seen as most likely to have a Pitta temperament.

Another belief is that redheads are highly sexed; for example, Jonathan Swift satirizes redhead stereotypes in part four of Gulliver’s Travels, “A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms,” when he writes that: “It is observed that the red-haired of both sexes are more libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet they much exceed in strength and activity.” Swift goes on to write that “neither was the hair of this brute [a Yahoo] of a red colour (which might have been some excuse for an appetite a little irregular) but black as a sloe”.[65] Such beliefs were given a veneer of scientific credibility in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero. They concluded that red hair was associated with crimes of lust, and claimed that 48% of “criminal women” were redheads.[66]

Queen Elizabeth I of England was a redhead, and during the Elizabethan era in England, red hair was fashionable for women. In modern times, red hair is subject to fashion trends; celebrities such as Nicole Kidman, Alyson Hannigan, Marcia Cross, Christina Hendricks, Emma Stone and Geri Halliwell can boost sales of red hair dye.[citation needed]

Sometimes, red hair darkens as people get older, becoming a more brownish color or losing some of its vividness. This leads some to associate red hair with youthfulness, a quality that is generally considered desirable. In several countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh and Pakistan, henna and saffron are used on hair to give it a bright red appearance.[67]

Many painters have exhibited a fascination with red hair. The hair color “Titian” takes its name from the artist Titian, who often painted women with red hair. Early Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli’s famous painting The Birth of Venus depicts the mythological goddess Venus as a redhead. Other painters notable for their redheads include the Pre-Raphaelites, Edmund Leighton, Modigliani,[68] and Gustav Klimt.[69]

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story “The Red-Headed League” (1891) involves a man who is asked to become a member of a mysterious group of red-headed people. The 1943 film DuBarry Was a Lady featured red-heads Lucille Ball and Red Skelton in Technicolor.

Notable fictional characters with red hair includes Red Sonja, Mystique, and Poison Ivy.[70]

Red hair was thought to be a mark of a beastly sexual desire and moral degeneration. A savage red-haired man is portrayed in the fable by Grimm brothers (Der Eisenhans) as the spirit of the forest of iron. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper, in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk.[71]

Montague Summers, in his translation of the Malleus Maleficarum,[72] notes that red hair and green eyes were thought to be the sign of a witch, a werewolf or a vampire during the Middle Ages;

Those whose hair is red, of a certain peculiar shade, are unmistakably vampires. It is significant that in ancient Egypt, as Manetho tells us, human sacrifices were offered at the grave of Osiris, and the victims were red-haired men who were burned, their ashes being scattered far and wide by winnowing-fans. It is held by some authorities that this was done to fertilize the fields and produce a bounteous harvest, red-hair symbolizing the golden wealth of the corn. But these men were called Typhonians, and were representatives not of Osiris but of his evil rival Typhon, whose hair was red.

During the Spanish Inquisition, people of red hair were identified as Jewish and isolated for persecution.[25] In Medieval Italy and Spain, red hair was associated with the heretical nature of Jews and their rejection of Jesus, and thus Judas Iscariot was commonly depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair, with red-hair being given by the authors to villainous Jewish characters such as Shylock and Fagin.[27] The antisemitic association persisted into modern times in Soviet Russia.[28] The medieval prejudice against red-hair may have derived from the Ancient biblical tradition, in relation to biblical figures such as Esau and King David. The Ancient historian Josephus would mistranslate the Hebrew Torah to describe the more positive figure of King David as ‘golden haired’, in contrast to the negative figure of Esau, even though the original Hebrew Torah implies that both King David and Esau had ‘fiery red hair’.[73]

In his 1885 book I Say No, Wilkie Collins wrote “The prejudice against habitual silence, among the lower order of the people, is almost as inveterate as the prejudice against red hair.”

In his 1895 memoir and history The Gurneys of Earlham, Augustus John Cuthbert Hare described an incident of harassment: “The second son, John, was born in 1750. As a boy he had bright red hair, and it is amusingly recorded that one day in the streets of Norwich a number of boys followed him, pointing to his red locks and saying, “Look at that boy; he’s got a bonfire on the top of his head,” and that John Gurney was so disgusted that he went to a barber’s, had his head shaved, and went home in a wig. He grew up, however, a remarkably attractive-looking young man.”[74]

In British English, the word “ginger” is sometimes used to describe red-headed people (at times in an insulting manner),[75] with terms such as “gingerphobia”[76] and “gingerism”[77] used by the British media. In Britain, redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as “carrot tops” and “carrot heads”. (The comedian “Carrot Top” uses this stage name.) “Gingerism” has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed, and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads.[77]

Nonetheless, individuals and families in Britain are targeted for harassment and violence because of their hair colour. In 2003, a 20-year-old was stabbed in the back for “being ginger”.[78] In 2007, a UK woman won an award from a tribunal after being sexually harassed and receiving abuse because of her red hair;[79] in the same year, a family in Newcastle upon Tyne, was forced to move twice after being targeted for abuse and hate crime on account of their red hair.[80] In May 2009, a schoolboy committed suicide after being bullied for having red hair.[81] In 2013, a fourteen-year-old boy in Lincoln had his right arm broken and his head stamped on by three men who attacked him “just because he had red hair”. The three men were subsequently jailed for a combined total of ten years and one month for the attack.[82]

This prejudice has been satirised on a number of TV shows. The British comedian Catherine Tate (herself a redhead) appeared as a red-haired character in a running sketch of her series The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch saw fictional character Sandra Kemp, who was forced to seek solace in a refuge for ginger people because she had been ostracised from society.[83] The British comedy Bo’ Selecta! (starring redhead Leigh Francis) featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people. (Hucknall, who says that he has repeatedly faced prejudice or been described as ugly on account of his hair colour, argues that Gingerism should be described as a form of racism.[84][85]) Comedian Tim Minchin, himself a redhead, also covered the topic in his song “Prejudice”.[86]

The pejorative use of the word “ginger” and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the “Ginger Kids”, “Le Petit Tourette”, “It’s a Jersey Thing” and “Fatbeard” episodes of South Park.

Film and television programmes often portray school bullies as having red hair.[87] However, children with red hair are often themselves targeted by bullies; “Somebody with ginger hair will stand out from the crowd,” says anti-bullying expert Louise Burfitt-Dons.[88]

In Australian slang, redheads are often nicknamed “Blue” or “Bluey”.[89] More recently, they have been referred to as “rangas” (a word derived from the red-haired ape, the orangutan), sometimes with derogatory connotations.[90] The word “rufus” has been used in both Australian and British slang to refer to red-headed people;[91] based on a variant of rufous, a reddish-brown color.

In November 2008 social networking website Facebook received criticism after a ‘Kick a Ginger’ group, which aimed to establish a “National Kick a Ginger Day” on 20 November, acquired almost 5,000 members. A 14-year-old boy from Vancouver who ran the Facebook group was subjected to an investigation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for possible hate crimes.[92]

In December 2009 British supermarket chain Tesco withdrew a Christmas card which had the image of a child with red hair sitting on the lap of Santa Claus, and the words: “Santa loves all kids. Even ginger ones” after customers complained the card was offensive.[93]

In October 2010, Harriet Harman, the former Equality Minister in the British government under Labour, faced accusations of prejudice after she described the red-haired Treasury secretary Danny Alexander as a “ginger rodent”.[94] Alexander responded to the insult by stating that he was “proud to be ginger”.[95] Harman was subsequently forced to apologise for the comment, after facing criticism for prejudice against a minority group.[96]

In September 2011, Cryos International, one of the world’s largest sperm banks, announced that it would no longer accept donations from red-haired men due to low demand from women seeking artificial insemination.[97]

The term ang mo (Chinese: ; pinyin: hng mo; Peh-e-j: ng-mo) in Hokkien (Min Nan) Chinese means “red-haired”,[98] and is used in Malaysia and Singapore to refer to white people. The epithet is sometimes rendered as ang mo kui () meaning “red-haired devil”, similar to the Cantonese term gweilo (“foreign devil”). Thus it is viewed as racist and derogatory by some people.[99] Others, however, maintain it is acceptable.[100] Despite this ambiguity, it is a widely used term. It appears, for instance, in Singaporean newspapers such as The Straits Times,[101] and in television programmes and films.

The Chinese characters for ang mo are the same as those in the historical Japanese term Km (), which was used during the Edo period (16031868) as an epithet for Dutch or Northern European people. It primarily referred to Dutch traders who were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan during Sakoku, its 200-year period of isolation.[102]

There has been an annual Redhead Day festival in the Netherlands that attracts red-haired participants from around the world. The festival is paid for by the local government in Breda, a city in the south east of the Netherlands.[103] It attracts participants from over 80 different countries. The international event began in 2005, when Dutch painter Bart Rouwenhorst decided he wanted to paint 15 redheads. Today, the festival includes music, fashion shows, art exhibitions and a picnic[104]

The Irish Redhead Convention, held in late August in County Cork since 2011, claims to be a global celebration and attracts people from several continents. The celebrations include crowning the ginger King and Queen, competitions for the best red eyebrows and most freckles per square inch, orchestral concerts and carrot throwing competitions.[105]

A smaller red-hair day festival is held since 2013 by the UK’s anti bullying alliance in London, with the aim of instilling pride in having red-hair.[106]

Since 2014, a red-hair event is held in Israel, at Kibbutz Gezer (Carrot), held for the local Israeli red hair community,[107] including both Ashkenazi and Mizrahi red-heads.[108] However, the number of attendees has to be restricted due to the risk of rocket attacks, leading to anger in the red-hair community.[109] The organizers state; “The event is a good thing for many redheads, who had been embarrassed about being redheads before.[109]

The first and only festival for red heads in the United States was launched in 2015. Held in Highwood, Illinois, Redhead Days draws participants from across the United States.[110]

In the Iliad, Achilles’ hair is described as [111] (ksanths), usually translated as blonde, or golden[112] but sometimes as red or tawny.[113][114] His son Neoptolemus also bears the name Pyrrhus, a possible reference to his own red hair.[115]

The Norse god Thor is usually described as having red hair.[116]

The Hebrew word usually translated “ruddy” or “reddish-brown” (admoni , from the root ADM , see also Adam and Edom)[117][118][119][120] was used to describe both Esau and David.

Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint.

Judas Iscariot is also represented with red hair in Spanish culture[121][122] and in the works of William Shakespeare,[123] reinforcing the negative stereotype.

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Red hair – Wikipedia

RedHead Babes pic galleries from 1 to 108 – DefineBabe.com

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Red hair – Wikipedia

Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 12% of the human population. It occurs more frequently (26%) in people of northern or western European ancestry, and less frequently in other populations. Red hair appears most commonly in people with two copies of a recessive allele on chromosome 16 which produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.[1]

Red hair varies in hues from a deep burgundy or bright copper (reddish-brown or auburn) through to burnt orange or red-orange and strawberry blond. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. It is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye colors (gray, blue, green, and hazel), freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.[2]

Cultural reactions have varied from ridicule to admiration; many common stereotypes exist regarding redheads and they are often portrayed as fiery-tempered.

The term redhead has been in use since at least 1510.[3]

Red hair is most commonly found at the northern and western fringes of Europe;[4] it is centered around populations in the British Isles. Redheads today are commonly associated with the Celtic nations[4] and to a far lesser extent the Germanic peoples.

In Ireland, the percentage of population with red hair is estimated to be at around 10%,[5] making it the most red-haired country in the world. According to Britain’s DNA, 34.7% of the Irish population carry the allele for red hair, although this doesn’t directly translate proportionally into births of red-haired children.[6]

Scotland also has a very high percentage with around 6% of the population having red hair.[7][8] Dr. Jim Wilson of Britain’s DNA study used a sample of 2,343 people, and found red hair occurrence of 6% in Scotland, with 35% overall carrying the allele and Edinburgh having the highest proportion at 40%.[7][8][9] The largest ever study of hair colour in Scotland, which analysed over 500,000 people, found the percentage of Scots with red hair to be 5.3%.[10]

England has a red hair prevalence of around 4%, with 28.5% of population having the allele;[7] while in Wales 38% of Welsh people carry the red-haired allele.[7] A 1956 study of hair colour among British Army recruits from Great Britain found higher levels of red hair in Wales and the Scottish border counties of England.[fn 1][11]

Carleton Coon’s 1939 book The Races of Europe stated that rufosity (reddish hair) often occurred in Montenegrins.[12][13][14]

In Italy, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.57% of the total population, without variation in frequency across the different regions of the country.[15] In Sardinia, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.24% of the population.[15] Victorian era ethnographers considered the Udmurt people of the Volga to be “the most red-headed men in the world”,[16] a claim which has a solid basis even today, as the Volga region has more redheads per population than anywhere else in the world with the exception of Ireland.[17]

The Berber populations of Morocco[18] and northern Algeria have occasional redheads. Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Riffians from Morocco and Kabyles from Algeria,[19][20][21] respectively. The Queen of Morocco, Lalla Salma wife of king Mohammed VI, has red hair. Abd ar-Rahman I also had red hair, his mother being a Christian Berber slave.

Red hair is also found amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations.[22] In 1903, 5.6% of Polish Jews had red hair.[23] Other studies have found that 3.69% of Jewish women overall were found to have red hair, but around 10.9% of all Jewish men have red beards.[24] In European culture, before the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish.[25] In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair.[27] The stereotype that red hair is Jewish remains in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia.[28]

In Asia, genetic red hair is rare, but reddish-brown (auburn) hair can be found in the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine), in Turkey, in Caucasia, in Northern Kazakhstan, among Uyghurs and among Indo-Iranians.[editorializing] The use of henna on hair and skin for various reasons occasionally occurs in Asia. When henna is used on hair it dyes the hair to different shades of red.[29][30]

Emigration from Europe has multiplied the population of red haired humans in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In the United States, it is estimated that 26% of the population has red hair. This would give the U.S. the largest population of redheads in the world, at 6 to 18 million, compared to approximately 420,000 in Ireland and 300,000 in Scotland.[7]

Several accounts by Greek writers mention redheaded people. A fragment by the poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red-haired.[32] The ancient peoples Budini and Sarmatians are also reported by Greek author to be blue-eyed and red-haired, and the latter even owe their names to it.[33][34]

In Asia, red hair has been found among the ancient Tocharians, who occupied the Tarim Basin in what is now the northwesternmost province of China. Caucasian Tarim mummies have been found with red hair dating to the 2nd millennium BC.[35]

Reddish-brown (auburn) hair is also found amongst some Polynesians, and is especially common in some tribes and family groups. In Polynesian culture reddish hair has traditionally been seen as a sign of descent from high-ranking ancestors and a mark of rulership.[36][37]

The pigment pheomelanin gives red hair its distinctive color. Red hair has far more of the pigment pheomelanin than it has of the dark pigment eumelanin.

The genetics of red hair, discovered in 1997, appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is found on chromosome 16. Red hair is associated with fair skin color because low concentrations of eumelanin throughout the body of those with red hair caused by a MC1R mutation can cause both. The lower melanin concentration in skin confers the advantage that a sufficient concentration of important Vitamin D can be produced under low light conditions. However, when UV-radiation is strong (as in regions close to the equator) the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer.

The MC1R recessive variant gene that gives people red hair generally results in skin that is unable to tan. Because of the natural tanning reaction to the sun’s ultraviolet light and high amounts of pheomelanin in the skin, freckles are a common but not all-inclusive feature of red-haired people. Eighty percent of redheads have an MC1R gene variant[2].

Red hair can originate from several changes on the MC1R-gene. If one of these changes is present on both chromosomes then the respective individual is likely to have red hair. This type of inheritance is described as an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Even if both parents do not have red hair themselves, both can be carriers for the gene and have a redheaded child.

Genetic studies of dizygotic (fraternal) twins indicate that the MC1R gene is not solely responsible for the red hair phenotype; unidentified modifier genes exist, making variance in the MC1R gene necessary, but not always sufficient, for red hair production.[38]

The alleles Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His, and Arg142His on MC1R are shown to be recessives for the red hair phenotype.[39] The gene HCL2 (also called RHC or RHA) on chromosome 4 may also be related to red hair.[40][41]

In species other than primates, red hair has different genetic origins and mechanisms.

Red hair is the rarest natural hair color in humans. The non-tanning skin associated with red hair may have been advantageous in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder climates by encouraging higher levels of vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin.[42] In 2000, Harding et al. concluded that red hair is not the result of positive selection but of a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm untanned skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen, so redheads can become more common through genetic drift.[39]

Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago.[43][44]

A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans.[45]

A 2007 report in The Courier-Mail, which cited the National Geographic magazine and unnamed “geneticists”, said that red hair is likely to die out in the near future.[46] Other blogs and news sources ran similar stories that attributed the research to the magazine or the “Oxford Hair Foundation”. However, a HowStuffWorks article says that the foundation was funded by hair-dye maker Procter & Gamble, and that other experts had dismissed the research as either lacking in evidence or simply bogus. The National Geographic article in fact states “while redheads may decline, the potential for red isn’t going away”.[47]

Red hair is caused by a relatively rare recessive allele (variant of a gene), the expression of which can skip generations. It is not likely to disappear at any time in the foreseeable future.[47]

Melanin in the skin aids UV tolerance through suntanning, but fair-skinned persons lack the levels of melanin needed to prevent UV-induced DNA-damage. Studies have shown that red hair alleles in MC1R increase freckling and decrease tanning ability.[48] It has been found that Europeans who are heterozygous for red hair exhibit increased sensitivity to UV radiation.[49]

Red hair and its relationship to UV sensitivity are of interest to many melanoma researchers. Sunshine can both be good and bad for a person’s health and the different alleles on MC1R represent these adaptations. It also has been shown that individuals with pale skin are highly susceptible to a variety of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.[50][51]

Two studies have demonstrated that people with red hair have different sensitivity to pain compared to people with other hair colors. One study found that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain (associated with naturally occurring low vitamin K levels),[52] while another study concluded that redheads are less sensitive to pain from multiple modalities, including noxious stimuli such as electrically induced pain.[53][54][55]

Researchers have found that people with red hair require greater amounts of anesthetic.[56] Other research publications have concluded that women with naturally red hair require less of the painkiller pentazocine than do either women of other hair colors or men of any hair color. A study showed women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to that particular pain medication than men.[57] A follow-up study by the same group showed that men and women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to morphine-6-glucuronide.[55]

The unexpected relationship of hair color to pain tolerance appears to exist because redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two types of hormones: the pigmentation-driving melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and the pain-relieving endorphins. (Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH.[58] Melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in skin and hair, use the MC1R to recognize and respond to MSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone normally stimulates melanocytes to make black eumelanin, but if the melanocytes have a mutated receptor, they will make reddish pheomelanin instead. MC1R also occurs in the brain, where it is one of a large set of POMC-related receptors that are apparently involved not only in responding to MSH, but also in responses to endorphins and possibly other POMC-derived hormones.[58] Though the details are not clearly understood, it appears that there is some crosstalk between the POMC hormones; this may explain the link between red hair and pain tolerance.

There is little or no evidence to support the belief that people with red hair have a higher chance than people with other hair colors to hemorrhage or suffer other bleeding complications.[59][60] One study, however, reports a link between red hair and a higher rate of bruising.[60]

Most red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. However, in rare cases red hair can be associated with disease or genetic disorder:

In various times and cultures, red hair has been prized, feared, and ridiculed.

A common belief about redheads is that they have fiery tempers and sharp tongues. In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that “her temper matches her hair”, while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that “People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair.”

During the early stages of modern medicine, red hair was thought to be a sign of a sanguine temperament.[64] In the Indian medicinal practice of Ayurveda, redheads are seen as most likely to have a Pitta temperament.

Another belief is that redheads are highly sexed; for example, Jonathan Swift satirizes redhead stereotypes in part four of Gulliver’s Travels, “A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms,” when he writes that: “It is observed that the red-haired of both sexes are more libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet they much exceed in strength and activity.” Swift goes on to write that “neither was the hair of this brute [a Yahoo] of a red colour (which might have been some excuse for an appetite a little irregular) but black as a sloe”.[65] Such beliefs were given a veneer of scientific credibility in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero. They concluded that red hair was associated with crimes of lust, and claimed that 48% of “criminal women” were redheads.[66]

Queen Elizabeth I of England was a redhead, and during the Elizabethan era in England, red hair was fashionable for women. In modern times, red hair is subject to fashion trends; celebrities such as Nicole Kidman, Alyson Hannigan, Marcia Cross, Christina Hendricks, Emma Stone and Geri Halliwell can boost sales of red hair dye.[citation needed]

Sometimes, red hair darkens as people get older, becoming a more brownish color or losing some of its vividness. This leads some to associate red hair with youthfulness, a quality that is generally considered desirable. In several countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh and Pakistan, henna and saffron are used on hair to give it a bright red appearance.[67]

Many painters have exhibited a fascination with red hair. The hair color “Titian” takes its name from the artist Titian, who often painted women with red hair. Early Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli’s famous painting The Birth of Venus depicts the mythological goddess Venus as a redhead. Other painters notable for their redheads include the Pre-Raphaelites, Edmund Leighton, Modigliani,[68] and Gustav Klimt.[69]

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story “The Red-Headed League” (1891) involves a man who is asked to become a member of a mysterious group of red-headed people. The 1943 film DuBarry Was a Lady featured red-heads Lucille Ball and Red Skelton in Technicolor.

Notable fictional characters with red hair includes Red Sonja, Mystique, and Poison Ivy.[70]

Red hair was thought to be a mark of a beastly sexual desire and moral degeneration. A savage red-haired man is portrayed in the fable by Grimm brothers (Der Eisenhans) as the spirit of the forest of iron. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper, in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk.[71]

Montague Summers, in his translation of the Malleus Maleficarum,[72] notes that red hair and green eyes were thought to be the sign of a witch, a werewolf or a vampire during the Middle Ages;

Those whose hair is red, of a certain peculiar shade, are unmistakably vampires. It is significant that in ancient Egypt, as Manetho tells us, human sacrifices were offered at the grave of Osiris, and the victims were red-haired men who were burned, their ashes being scattered far and wide by winnowing-fans. It is held by some authorities that this was done to fertilize the fields and produce a bounteous harvest, red-hair symbolizing the golden wealth of the corn. But these men were called Typhonians, and were representatives not of Osiris but of his evil rival Typhon, whose hair was red.

During the Spanish Inquisition, people of red hair were identified as Jewish and isolated for persecution.[25] In Medieval Italy and Spain, red hair was associated with the heretical nature of Jews and their rejection of Jesus, and thus Judas Iscariot was commonly depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair, with red-hair being given by the authors to villainous Jewish characters such as Shylock and Fagin.[27] The antisemitic association persisted into modern times in Soviet Russia.[28] The medieval prejudice against red-hair may have derived from the Ancient biblical tradition, in relation to biblical figures such as Esau and King David. The Ancient historian Josephus would mistranslate the Hebrew Torah to describe the more positive figure of King David as ‘golden haired’, in contrast to the negative figure of Esau, even though the original Hebrew Torah implies that both King David and Esau had ‘fiery red hair’.[73]

In his 1885 book I Say No, Wilkie Collins wrote “The prejudice against habitual silence, among the lower order of the people, is almost as inveterate as the prejudice against red hair.”

In his 1895 memoir and history The Gurneys of Earlham, Augustus John Cuthbert Hare described an incident of harassment: “The second son, John, was born in 1750. As a boy he had bright red hair, and it is amusingly recorded that one day in the streets of Norwich a number of boys followed him, pointing to his red locks and saying, “Look at that boy; he’s got a bonfire on the top of his head,” and that John Gurney was so disgusted that he went to a barber’s, had his head shaved, and went home in a wig. He grew up, however, a remarkably attractive-looking young man.”[74]

In British English, the word “ginger” is sometimes used to describe red-headed people (at times in an insulting manner),[75] with terms such as “gingerphobia”[76] and “gingerism”[77] used by the British media. In Britain, redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as “carrot tops” and “carrot heads”. (The comedian “Carrot Top” uses this stage name.) “Gingerism” has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed, and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads.[77]

Nonetheless, individuals and families in Britain are targeted for harassment and violence because of their hair colour. In 2003, a 20-year-old was stabbed in the back for “being ginger”.[78] In 2007, a UK woman won an award from a tribunal after being sexually harassed and receiving abuse because of her red hair;[79] in the same year, a family in Newcastle upon Tyne, was forced to move twice after being targeted for abuse and hate crime on account of their red hair.[80] In May 2009, a schoolboy committed suicide after being bullied for having red hair.[81] In 2013, a fourteen-year-old boy in Lincoln had his right arm broken and his head stamped on by three men who attacked him “just because he had red hair”. The three men were subsequently jailed for a combined total of ten years and one month for the attack.[82]

This prejudice has been satirised on a number of TV shows. The British comedian Catherine Tate (herself a redhead) appeared as a red-haired character in a running sketch of her series The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch saw fictional character Sandra Kemp, who was forced to seek solace in a refuge for ginger people because she had been ostracised from society.[83] The British comedy Bo’ Selecta! (starring redhead Leigh Francis) featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people. (Hucknall, who says that he has repeatedly faced prejudice or been described as ugly on account of his hair colour, argues that Gingerism should be described as a form of racism.[84][85]) Comedian Tim Minchin, himself a redhead, also covered the topic in his song “Prejudice”.[86]

The pejorative use of the word “ginger” and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the “Ginger Kids”, “Le Petit Tourette”, “It’s a Jersey Thing” and “Fatbeard” episodes of South Park.

Film and television programmes often portray school bullies as having red hair.[87] However, children with red hair are often themselves targeted by bullies; “Somebody with ginger hair will stand out from the crowd,” says anti-bullying expert Louise Burfitt-Dons.[88]

In Australian slang, redheads are often nicknamed “Blue” or “Bluey”.[89] More recently, they have been referred to as “rangas” (a word derived from the red-haired ape, the orangutan), sometimes with derogatory connotations.[90] The word “rufus” has been used in both Australian and British slang to refer to red-headed people;[91] based on a variant of rufous, a reddish-brown color.

In November 2008 social networking website Facebook received criticism after a ‘Kick a Ginger’ group, which aimed to establish a “National Kick a Ginger Day” on 20 November, acquired almost 5,000 members. A 14-year-old boy from Vancouver who ran the Facebook group was subjected to an investigation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for possible hate crimes.[92]

In December 2009 British supermarket chain Tesco withdrew a Christmas card which had the image of a child with red hair sitting on the lap of Santa Claus, and the words: “Santa loves all kids. Even ginger ones” after customers complained the card was offensive.[93]

In October 2010, Harriet Harman, the former Equality Minister in the British government under Labour, faced accusations of prejudice after she described the red-haired Treasury secretary Danny Alexander as a “ginger rodent”.[94] Alexander responded to the insult by stating that he was “proud to be ginger”.[95] Harman was subsequently forced to apologise for the comment, after facing criticism for prejudice against a minority group.[96]

In September 2011, Cryos International, one of the world’s largest sperm banks, announced that it would no longer accept donations from red-haired men due to low demand from women seeking artificial insemination.[97]

The term ang mo (Chinese: ; pinyin: hng mo; Peh-e-j: ng-mo) in Hokkien (Min Nan) Chinese means “red-haired”,[98] and is used in Malaysia and Singapore to refer to white people. The epithet is sometimes rendered as ang mo kui () meaning “red-haired devil”, similar to the Cantonese term gweilo (“foreign devil”). Thus it is viewed as racist and derogatory by some people.[99] Others, however, maintain it is acceptable.[100] Despite this ambiguity, it is a widely used term. It appears, for instance, in Singaporean newspapers such as The Straits Times,[101] and in television programmes and films.

The Chinese characters for ang mo are the same as those in the historical Japanese term Km (), which was used during the Edo period (16031868) as an epithet for Dutch or Northern European people. It primarily referred to Dutch traders who were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan during Sakoku, its 200-year period of isolation.[102]

There has been an annual Redhead Day festival in the Netherlands that attracts red-haired participants from around the world. The festival is paid for by the local government in Breda, a city in the south east of the Netherlands.[103] It attracts participants from over 80 different countries. The international event began in 2005, when Dutch painter Bart Rouwenhorst decided he wanted to paint 15 redheads. Today, the festival includes music, fashion shows, art exhibitions and a picnic[104]

The Irish Redhead Convention, held in late August in County Cork since 2011, claims to be a global celebration and attracts people from several continents. The celebrations include crowning the ginger King and Queen, competitions for the best red eyebrows and most freckles per square inch, orchestral concerts and carrot throwing competitions.[105]

A smaller red-hair day festival is held since 2013 by the UK’s anti bullying alliance in London, with the aim of instilling pride in having red-hair.[106]

Since 2014, a red-hair event is held in Israel, at Kibbutz Gezer (Carrot), held for the local Israeli red hair community,[107] including both Ashkenazi and Mizrahi red-heads.[108] However, the number of attendees has to be restricted due to the risk of rocket attacks, leading to anger in the red-hair community.[109] The organizers state; “The event is a good thing for many redheads, who had been embarrassed about being redheads before.[109]

The first and only festival for red heads in the United States was launched in 2015. Held in Highwood, Illinois, Redhead Days draws participants from across the United States.[110]

In the Iliad, Achilles’ hair is described as [111] (ksanths), usually translated as blonde, or golden[112] but sometimes as red or tawny.[113][114] His son Neoptolemus also bears the name Pyrrhus, a possible reference to his own red hair.[115]

The Norse god Thor is usually described as having red hair.[116]

The Hebrew word usually translated “ruddy” or “reddish-brown” (admoni , from the root ADM , see also Adam and Edom)[117][118][119][120] was used to describe both Esau and David.

Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint.

Judas Iscariot is also represented with red hair in Spanish culture[121][122] and in the works of William Shakespeare,[123] reinforcing the negative stereotype.

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Red hair – Wikipedia

Red hair – Wikipedia

Red hair (or ginger hair) occurs naturally in 12% of the human population. It occurs more frequently (26%) in people of northern or western European ancestry, and less frequently in other populations. Red hair appears most commonly in people with two copies of a recessive allele on chromosome 16 which produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.[1]

Red hair varies in hues from a deep burgundy or bright copper (reddish-brown or auburn) through to burnt orange or red-orange and strawberry blond. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. It is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye colors (gray, blue, green, and hazel), freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.[2]

Cultural reactions have varied from ridicule to admiration; many common stereotypes exist regarding redheads and they are often portrayed as fiery-tempered.

The term redhead has been in use since at least 1510.[3]

Red hair is most commonly found at the northern and western fringes of Europe;[4] it is centered around populations in the British Isles. Redheads today are commonly associated with the Celtic nations[4] and to a far lesser extent the Germanic peoples.

In Ireland, the percentage of population with red hair is estimated to be at around 10%,[5] making it the most red-haired country in the world. According to Britain’s DNA, 34.7% of the Irish population carry the allele for red hair, although this doesn’t directly translate proportionally into births of red-haired children.[6]

Scotland also has a very high percentage with around 6% of the population having red hair.[7][8] Dr. Jim Wilson of Britain’s DNA study used a sample of 2,343 people, and found red hair occurrence of 6% in Scotland, with 35% overall carrying the allele and Edinburgh having the highest proportion at 40%.[7][8][9] The largest ever study of hair colour in Scotland, which analysed over 500,000 people, found the percentage of Scots with red hair to be 5.3%.[10]

England has a red hair prevalence of around 4%, with 28.5% of population having the allele;[7] while in Wales 38% of Welsh people carry the red-haired allele.[7] A 1956 study of hair colour among British Army recruits from Great Britain found higher levels of red hair in Wales and the Scottish border counties of England.[fn 1][11]

Carleton Coon’s 1939 book The Races of Europe stated that rufosity (reddish hair) often occurred in Montenegrins.[12][13][14]

In Italy, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.57% of the total population, without variation in frequency across the different regions of the country.[15] In Sardinia, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.24% of the population.[15] Victorian era ethnographers considered the Udmurt people of the Volga to be “the most red-headed men in the world”,[16] a claim which has a solid basis even today, as the Volga region has more redheads per population than anywhere else in the world with the exception of Ireland.[17]

The Berber populations of Morocco[18] and northern Algeria have occasional redheads. Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Riffians from Morocco and Kabyles from Algeria,[19][20][21] respectively. The Queen of Morocco, Lalla Salma wife of king Mohammed VI, has red hair. Abd ar-Rahman I also had red hair, his mother being a Christian Berber slave.

Red hair is also found amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations.[22] In 1903, 5.6% of Polish Jews had red hair.[23] Other studies have found that 3.69% of Jewish women overall were found to have red hair, but around 10.9% of all Jewish men have red beards.[24] In European culture, before the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish.[25] In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair.[27] The stereotype that red hair is Jewish remains in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia.[28]

In Asia, genetic red hair is rare, but reddish-brown (auburn) hair can be found in the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine), in Turkey, in Caucasia, in Northern Kazakhstan, among Uyghurs and among Indo-Iranians.[editorializing] The use of henna on hair and skin for various reasons occasionally occurs in Asia. When henna is used on hair it dyes the hair to different shades of red.[29][30]

Emigration from Europe has multiplied the population of red haired humans in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In the United States, it is estimated that 26% of the population has red hair. This would give the U.S. the largest population of redheads in the world, at 6 to 18 million, compared to approximately 420,000 in Ireland and 300,000 in Scotland.[7]

Several accounts by Greek writers mention redheaded people. A fragment by the poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red-haired.[32] The ancient peoples Budini and Sarmatians are also reported by Greek author to be blue-eyed and red-haired, and the latter even owe their names to it.[33][34]

In Asia, red hair has been found among the ancient Tocharians, who occupied the Tarim Basin in what is now the northwesternmost province of China. Caucasian Tarim mummies have been found with red hair dating to the 2nd millennium BC.[35]

Reddish-brown (auburn) hair is also found amongst some Polynesians, and is especially common in some tribes and family groups. In Polynesian culture reddish hair has traditionally been seen as a sign of descent from high-ranking ancestors and a mark of rulership.[36][37]

The pigment pheomelanin gives red hair its distinctive color. Red hair has far more of the pigment pheomelanin than it has of the dark pigment eumelanin.

The genetics of red hair, discovered in 1997, appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is found on chromosome 16. Red hair is associated with fair skin color because low concentrations of eumelanin throughout the body of those with red hair caused by a MC1R mutation can cause both. The lower melanin concentration in skin confers the advantage that a sufficient concentration of important Vitamin D can be produced under low light conditions. However, when UV-radiation is strong (as in regions close to the equator) the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer.

The MC1R recessive variant gene that gives people red hair generally results in skin that is unable to tan. Because of the natural tanning reaction to the sun’s ultraviolet light and high amounts of pheomelanin in the skin, freckles are a common but not all-inclusive feature of red-haired people. Eighty percent of redheads have an MC1R gene variant[2].

Red hair can originate from several changes on the MC1R-gene. If one of these changes is present on both chromosomes then the respective individual is likely to have red hair. This type of inheritance is described as an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Even if both parents do not have red hair themselves, both can be carriers for the gene and have a redheaded child.

Genetic studies of dizygotic (fraternal) twins indicate that the MC1R gene is not solely responsible for the red hair phenotype; unidentified modifier genes exist, making variance in the MC1R gene necessary, but not always sufficient, for red hair production.[38]

The alleles Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His, and Arg142His on MC1R are shown to be recessives for the red hair phenotype.[39] The gene HCL2 (also called RHC or RHA) on chromosome 4 may also be related to red hair.[40][41]

In species other than primates, red hair has different genetic origins and mechanisms.

Red hair is the rarest natural hair color in humans. The non-tanning skin associated with red hair may have been advantageous in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder climates by encouraging higher levels of vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin.[42] In 2000, Harding et al. concluded that red hair is not the result of positive selection but of a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm untanned skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen, so redheads can become more common through genetic drift.[39]

Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago.[43][44]

A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans.[45]

A 2007 report in The Courier-Mail, which cited the National Geographic magazine and unnamed “geneticists”, said that red hair is likely to die out in the near future.[46] Other blogs and news sources ran similar stories that attributed the research to the magazine or the “Oxford Hair Foundation”. However, a HowStuffWorks article says that the foundation was funded by hair-dye maker Procter & Gamble, and that other experts had dismissed the research as either lacking in evidence or simply bogus. The National Geographic article in fact states “while redheads may decline, the potential for red isn’t going away”.[47]

Red hair is caused by a relatively rare recessive allele (variant of a gene), the expression of which can skip generations. It is not likely to disappear at any time in the foreseeable future.[47]

Melanin in the skin aids UV tolerance through suntanning, but fair-skinned persons lack the levels of melanin needed to prevent UV-induced DNA-damage. Studies have shown that red hair alleles in MC1R increase freckling and decrease tanning ability.[48] It has been found that Europeans who are heterozygous for red hair exhibit increased sensitivity to UV radiation.[49]

Red hair and its relationship to UV sensitivity are of interest to many melanoma researchers. Sunshine can both be good and bad for a person’s health and the different alleles on MC1R represent these adaptations. It also has been shown that individuals with pale skin are highly susceptible to a variety of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.[50][51]

Two studies have demonstrated that people with red hair have different sensitivity to pain compared to people with other hair colors. One study found that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain (associated with naturally occurring low vitamin K levels),[52] while another study concluded that redheads are less sensitive to pain from multiple modalities, including noxious stimuli such as electrically induced pain.[53][54][55]

Researchers have found that people with red hair require greater amounts of anesthetic.[56] Other research publications have concluded that women with naturally red hair require less of the painkiller pentazocine than do either women of other hair colors or men of any hair color. A study showed women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to that particular pain medication than men.[57] A follow-up study by the same group showed that men and women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to morphine-6-glucuronide.[55]

The unexpected relationship of hair color to pain tolerance appears to exist because redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two types of hormones: the pigmentation-driving melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and the pain-relieving endorphins. (Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH.[58] Melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in skin and hair, use the MC1R to recognize and respond to MSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone normally stimulates melanocytes to make black eumelanin, but if the melanocytes have a mutated receptor, they will make reddish pheomelanin instead. MC1R also occurs in the brain, where it is one of a large set of POMC-related receptors that are apparently involved not only in responding to MSH, but also in responses to endorphins and possibly other POMC-derived hormones.[58] Though the details are not clearly understood, it appears that there is some crosstalk between the POMC hormones; this may explain the link between red hair and pain tolerance.

There is little or no evidence to support the belief that people with red hair have a higher chance than people with other hair colors to hemorrhage or suffer other bleeding complications.[59][60] One study, however, reports a link between red hair and a higher rate of bruising.[60]

Most red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. However, in rare cases red hair can be associated with disease or genetic disorder:

In various times and cultures, red hair has been prized, feared, and ridiculed.

A common belief about redheads is that they have fiery tempers and sharp tongues. In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that “her temper matches her hair”, while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that “People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair.”

During the early stages of modern medicine, red hair was thought to be a sign of a sanguine temperament.[64] In the Indian medicinal practice of Ayurveda, redheads are seen as most likely to have a Pitta temperament.

Another belief is that redheads are highly sexed; for example, Jonathan Swift satirizes redhead stereotypes in part four of Gulliver’s Travels, “A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms,” when he writes that: “It is observed that the red-haired of both sexes are more libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet they much exceed in strength and activity.” Swift goes on to write that “neither was the hair of this brute [a Yahoo] of a red colour (which might have been some excuse for an appetite a little irregular) but black as a sloe”.[65] Such beliefs were given a veneer of scientific credibility in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero. They concluded that red hair was associated with crimes of lust, and claimed that 48% of “criminal women” were redheads.[66]

Queen Elizabeth I of England was a redhead, and during the Elizabethan era in England, red hair was fashionable for women. In modern times, red hair is subject to fashion trends; celebrities such as Nicole Kidman, Alyson Hannigan, Marcia Cross, Christina Hendricks, Emma Stone and Geri Halliwell can boost sales of red hair dye.[citation needed]

Sometimes, red hair darkens as people get older, becoming a more brownish color or losing some of its vividness. This leads some to associate red hair with youthfulness, a quality that is generally considered desirable. In several countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh and Pakistan, henna and saffron are used on hair to give it a bright red appearance.[67]

Many painters have exhibited a fascination with red hair. The hair color “Titian” takes its name from the artist Titian, who often painted women with red hair. Early Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli’s famous painting The Birth of Venus depicts the mythological goddess Venus as a redhead. Other painters notable for their redheads include the Pre-Raphaelites, Edmund Leighton, Modigliani,[68] and Gustav Klimt.[69]

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story “The Red-Headed League” (1891) involves a man who is asked to become a member of a mysterious group of red-headed people. The 1943 film DuBarry Was a Lady featured red-heads Lucille Ball and Red Skelton in Technicolor.

Notable fictional characters with red hair includes Red Sonja, Mystique, and Poison Ivy.[70]

Red hair was thought to be a mark of a beastly sexual desire and moral degeneration. A savage red-haired man is portrayed in the fable by Grimm brothers (Der Eisenhans) as the spirit of the forest of iron. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper, in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk.[71]

Montague Summers, in his translation of the Malleus Maleficarum,[72] notes that red hair and green eyes were thought to be the sign of a witch, a werewolf or a vampire during the Middle Ages;

Those whose hair is red, of a certain peculiar shade, are unmistakably vampires. It is significant that in ancient Egypt, as Manetho tells us, human sacrifices were offered at the grave of Osiris, and the victims were red-haired men who were burned, their ashes being scattered far and wide by winnowing-fans. It is held by some authorities that this was done to fertilize the fields and produce a bounteous harvest, red-hair symbolizing the golden wealth of the corn. But these men were called Typhonians, and were representatives not of Osiris but of his evil rival Typhon, whose hair was red.

During the Spanish Inquisition, people of red hair were identified as Jewish and isolated for persecution.[25] In Medieval Italy and Spain, red hair was associated with the heretical nature of Jews and their rejection of Jesus, and thus Judas Iscariot was commonly depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[26] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair, with red-hair being given by the authors to villainous Jewish characters such as Shylock and Fagin.[27] The antisemitic association persisted into modern times in Soviet Russia.[28] The medieval prejudice against red-hair may have derived from the Ancient biblical tradition, in relation to biblical figures such as Esau and King David. The Ancient historian Josephus would mistranslate the Hebrew Torah to describe the more positive figure of King David as ‘golden haired’, in contrast to the negative figure of Esau, even though the original Hebrew Torah implies that both King David and Esau had ‘fiery red hair’.[73]

In his 1885 book I Say No, Wilkie Collins wrote “The prejudice against habitual silence, among the lower order of the people, is almost as inveterate as the prejudice against red hair.”

In his 1895 memoir and history The Gurneys of Earlham, Augustus John Cuthbert Hare described an incident of harassment: “The second son, John, was born in 1750. As a boy he had bright red hair, and it is amusingly recorded that one day in the streets of Norwich a number of boys followed him, pointing to his red locks and saying, “Look at that boy; he’s got a bonfire on the top of his head,” and that John Gurney was so disgusted that he went to a barber’s, had his head shaved, and went home in a wig. He grew up, however, a remarkably attractive-looking young man.”[74]

In British English, the word “ginger” is sometimes used to describe red-headed people (at times in an insulting manner),[75] with terms such as “gingerphobia”[76] and “gingerism”[77] used by the British media. In Britain, redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as “carrot tops” and “carrot heads”. (The comedian “Carrot Top” uses this stage name.) “Gingerism” has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed, and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads.[77]

Nonetheless, individuals and families in Britain are targeted for harassment and violence because of their hair colour. In 2003, a 20-year-old was stabbed in the back for “being ginger”.[78] In 2007, a UK woman won an award from a tribunal after being sexually harassed and receiving abuse because of her red hair;[79] in the same year, a family in Newcastle upon Tyne, was forced to move twice after being targeted for abuse and hate crime on account of their red hair.[80] In May 2009, a schoolboy committed suicide after being bullied for having red hair.[81] In 2013, a fourteen-year-old boy in Lincoln had his right arm broken and his head stamped on by three men who attacked him “just because he had red hair”. The three men were subsequently jailed for a combined total of ten years and one month for the attack.[82]

This prejudice has been satirised on a number of TV shows. The British comedian Catherine Tate (herself a redhead) appeared as a red-haired character in a running sketch of her series The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch saw fictional character Sandra Kemp, who was forced to seek solace in a refuge for ginger people because she had been ostracised from society.[83] The British comedy Bo’ Selecta! (starring redhead Leigh Francis) featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people. (Hucknall, who says that he has repeatedly faced prejudice or been described as ugly on account of his hair colour, argues that Gingerism should be described as a form of racism.[84][85]) Comedian Tim Minchin, himself a redhead, also covered the topic in his song “Prejudice”.[86]

The pejorative use of the word “ginger” and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the “Ginger Kids”, “Le Petit Tourette”, “It’s a Jersey Thing” and “Fatbeard” episodes of South Park.

Film and television programmes often portray school bullies as having red hair.[87] However, children with red hair are often themselves targeted by bullies; “Somebody with ginger hair will stand out from the crowd,” says anti-bullying expert Louise Burfitt-Dons.[88]

In Australian slang, redheads are often nicknamed “Blue” or “Bluey”.[89] More recently, they have been referred to as “rangas” (a word derived from the red-haired ape, the orangutan), sometimes with derogatory connotations.[90] The word “rufus” has been used in both Australian and British slang to refer to red-headed people;[91] based on a variant of rufous, a reddish-brown color.

In November 2008 social networking website Facebook received criticism after a ‘Kick a Ginger’ group, which aimed to establish a “National Kick a Ginger Day” on 20 November, acquired almost 5,000 members. A 14-year-old boy from Vancouver who ran the Facebook group was subjected to an investigation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for possible hate crimes.[92]

In December 2009 British supermarket chain Tesco withdrew a Christmas card which had the image of a child with red hair sitting on the lap of Santa Claus, and the words: “Santa loves all kids. Even ginger ones” after customers complained the card was offensive.[93]

In October 2010, Harriet Harman, the former Equality Minister in the British government under Labour, faced accusations of prejudice after she described the red-haired Treasury secretary Danny Alexander as a “ginger rodent”.[94] Alexander responded to the insult by stating that he was “proud to be ginger”.[95] Harman was subsequently forced to apologise for the comment, after facing criticism for prejudice against a minority group.[96]

In September 2011, Cryos International, one of the world’s largest sperm banks, announced that it would no longer accept donations from red-haired men due to low demand from women seeking artificial insemination.[97]

The term ang mo (Chinese: ; pinyin: hng mo; Peh-e-j: ng-mo) in Hokkien (Min Nan) Chinese means “red-haired”,[98] and is used in Malaysia and Singapore to refer to white people. The epithet is sometimes rendered as ang mo kui () meaning “red-haired devil”, similar to the Cantonese term gweilo (“foreign devil”). Thus it is viewed as racist and derogatory by some people.[99] Others, however, maintain it is acceptable.[100] Despite this ambiguity, it is a widely used term. It appears, for instance, in Singaporean newspapers such as The Straits Times,[101] and in television programmes and films.

The Chinese characters for ang mo are the same as those in the historical Japanese term Km (), which was used during the Edo period (16031868) as an epithet for Dutch or Northern European people. It primarily referred to Dutch traders who were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan during Sakoku, its 200-year period of isolation.[102]

There has been an annual Redhead Day festival in the Netherlands that attracts red-haired participants from around the world. The festival is paid for by the local government in Breda, a city in the south east of the Netherlands.[103] It attracts participants from over 80 different countries. The international event began in 2005, when Dutch painter Bart Rouwenhorst decided he wanted to paint 15 redheads. Today, the festival includes music, fashion shows, art exhibitions and a picnic[104]

The Irish Redhead Convention, held in late August in County Cork since 2011, claims to be a global celebration and attracts people from several continents. The celebrations include crowning the ginger King and Queen, competitions for the best red eyebrows and most freckles per square inch, orchestral concerts and carrot throwing competitions.[105]

A smaller red-hair day festival is held since 2013 by the UK’s anti bullying alliance in London, with the aim of instilling pride in having red-hair.[106]

Since 2014, a red-hair event is held in Israel, at Kibbutz Gezer (Carrot), held for the local Israeli red hair community,[107] including both Ashkenazi and Mizrahi red-heads.[108] However, the number of attendees has to be restricted due to the risk of rocket attacks, leading to anger in the red-hair community.[109] The organizers state; “The event is a good thing for many redheads, who had been embarrassed about being redheads before.[109]

The first and only festival for red heads in the United States was launched in 2015. Held in Highwood, Illinois, Redhead Days draws participants from across the United States.[110]

In the Iliad, Achilles’ hair is described as [111] (ksanths), usually translated as blonde, or golden[112] but sometimes as red or tawny.[113][114] His son Neoptolemus also bears the name Pyrrhus, a possible reference to his own red hair.[115]

The Norse god Thor is usually described as having red hair.[116]

The Hebrew word usually translated “ruddy” or “reddish-brown” (admoni , from the root ADM , see also Adam and Edom)[117][118][119][120] was used to describe both Esau and David.

Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint.

Judas Iscariot is also represented with red hair in Spanish culture[121][122] and in the works of William Shakespeare,[123] reinforcing the negative stereotype.

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Red hair – Wikipedia

Hedonism – Wikipedia

Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that pleasure and happiness are the primary or most important intrinsic goods and the aim of human life.[1] A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure (pleasure minus pain), but when having finally gained that pleasure, happiness remains stationary.

Ethical hedonism is the idea that all people have the right to do everything in their power to achieve the greatest amount of pleasure possible to them. It is also the idea that every person’s pleasure should far surpass their amount of pain. Ethical hedonism is said to have been started by Aristippus of Cyrene, a student of Socrates. He held the idea that pleasure is the highest good.[2]

The name derives from the Greek word for “delight” ( hdonismos from hdon “pleasure”, cognate[according to whom?] with English sweet + suffix – -ismos “ism”). An extremely strong aversion to hedonism is hedonophobia.

In the original Old Babylonian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, which was written soon after the invention of writing, Siduri gave the following advice “Fill your belly. Day and night make merry. Let days be full of joy. Dance and make music day and night […] These things alone are the concern of men”, which may represent the first recorded advocacy of a hedonistic philosophy.[3]

Scenes of a harper entertaining guests at a feast were common in ancient Egyptian tombs (see Harper’s Songs), and sometimes contained hedonistic elements, calling guests to submit to pleasure because they cannot be sure that they will be rewarded for good with a blissful afterlife. The following is a song attributed to the reign of one of the pharaohs around the time of the 12th dynasty, and the text was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties.[4][5]

Let thy desire flourish,In order to let thy heart forget the beatifications for thee.Follow thy desire, as long as thou shalt live.Put myrrh upon thy head and clothing of fine linen upon thee,Being anointed with genuine marvels of the gods’ property.Set an increase to thy good things;Let not thy heart flag.Follow thy desire and thy good.Fulfill thy needs upon earth, after the command of thy heart,Until there come for thee that day of mourning.

Democritus seems to be the earliest philosopher on record to have categorically embraced a hedonistic philosophy; he called the supreme goal of life “contentment” or “cheerfulness”, claiming that “joy and sorrow are the distinguishing mark of things beneficial and harmful” (DK 68 B 188).[6]

The Cyrenaics were an ultra-hedonist Greek school of philosophy founded in the 4th century BC, supposedly by Aristippus of Cyrene, although many of the principles of the school are believed to have been formalized by his grandson of the same name, Aristippus the Younger. The school was so called after Cyrene, the birthplace of Aristippus. It was one of the earliest Socratic schools. The Cyrenaics taught that the only intrinsic good is pleasure, which meant not just the absence of pain, but positively enjoyable sensations. Of these, momentary pleasures, especially physical ones, are stronger than those of anticipation or memory. They did, however, recognize the value of social obligation, and that pleasure could be gained from altruism[citation needed]. Theodorus the Atheist was a latter exponent of hedonism who was a disciple of younger Aristippus,[7] while becoming well known for expounding atheism. The school died out within a century, and was replaced by Epicureanism.

The Cyrenaics were known for their skeptical theory of knowledge. They reduced logic to a basic doctrine concerning the criterion of truth.[8] They thought that we can know with certainty our immediate sense-experiences (for instance, that I am having a sweet sensation now) but can know nothing about the nature of the objects that cause these sensations (for instance, that the honey is sweet).[9] They also denied that we can have knowledge of what the experiences of other people are like.[10] All knowledge is immediate sensation. These sensations are motions which are purely subjective, and are painful, indifferent or pleasant, according as they are violent, tranquil or gentle.[9][11] Further they are entirely individual, and can in no way be described as constituting absolute objective knowledge. Feeling, therefore, is the only possible criterion of knowledge and of conduct.[9] Our ways of being affected are alone knowable. Thus the sole aim for everyone should be pleasure.

Cyrenaicism deduces a single, universal aim for all people which is pleasure. Furthermore, all feeling is momentary and homogeneous. It follows that past and future pleasure have no real existence for us, and that among present pleasures there is no distinction of kind.[11] Socrates had spoken of the higher pleasures of the intellect; the Cyrenaics denied the validity of this distinction and said that bodily pleasures, being more simple and more intense, were preferable.[12] Momentary pleasure, preferably of a physical kind, is the only good for humans. However some actions which give immediate pleasure can create more than their equivalent of pain. The wise person should be in control of pleasures rather than be enslaved to them, otherwise pain will result, and this requires judgement to evaluate the different pleasures of life.[13] Regard should be paid to law and custom, because even though these things have no intrinsic value on their own, violating them will lead to unpleasant penalties being imposed by others.[12] Likewise, friendship and justice are useful because of the pleasure they provide.[12] Thus the Cyrenaics believed in the hedonistic value of social obligation and altruistic behaviour.

Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. 341c. 270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus and Leucippus. His materialism led him to a general stance against superstition or the idea of divine intervention. Following Aristippusabout whom very little is knownEpicurus believed that the greatest good was to seek modest, sustainable “pleasure” in the form of a state of tranquility and freedom from fear (ataraxia) and absence of bodily pain (aponia) through knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of our desires. The combination of these two states is supposed to constitute happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism, insofar as it declares pleasure as the sole intrinsic good, its conception of absence of pain as the greatest pleasure and its advocacy of a simple life make it different from “hedonism” as it is commonly understood.

In the Epicurean view, the highest pleasure (tranquility and freedom from fear) was obtained by knowledge, friendship and living a virtuous and temperate life. He lauded the enjoyment of simple pleasures, by which he meant abstaining from bodily desires, such as sex and appetites, verging on asceticism. He argued that when eating, one should not eat too richly, for it could lead to dissatisfaction later, such as the grim realization that one could not afford such delicacies in the future. Likewise, sex could lead to increased lust and dissatisfaction with the sexual partner. Epicurus did not articulate a broad system of social ethics that has survived but had a unique version of the Golden Rule.

It is impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely and well and justly (agreeing “neither to harm nor be harmed”),[14] and it is impossible to live wisely and well and justly without living a pleasant life.[15]

Epicureanism was originally a challenge to Platonism, though later it became the main opponent of Stoicism. Epicurus and his followers shunned politics. After the death of Epicurus, his school was headed by Hermarchus; later many Epicurean societies flourished in the Late Hellenistic era and during the Roman era (such as those in Antiochia, Alexandria, Rhodes and Ercolano). The poet Lucretius is its most known Roman proponent. By the end of the Roman Empire, having undergone Christian attack and repression, Epicureanism had all but died out, and would be resurrected in the 17th century by the atomist Pierre Gassendi, who adapted it to the Christian doctrine.

Some writings by Epicurus have survived. Some scholars consider the epic poem On the Nature of Things by Lucretius to present in one unified work the core arguments and theories of Epicureanism. Many of the papyrus scrolls unearthed at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum are Epicurean texts. At least some are thought to have belonged to the Epicurean Philodemus.

Yangism has been described as a form of psychological and ethical egoism. The Yangist philosophers believed in the importance of maintaining self-interest through “keeping one’s nature intact, protecting one’s uniqueness, and not letting the body be tied by other things.” Disagreeing with the Confucian virtues of li (propriety), ren (humaneness), and yi (righteousness) and the Legalist virtue of fa (law), the Yangists saw wei wo, or “everything for myself,” as the only virtue necessary for self-cultivation. Individual pleasure is considered desirable, like in hedonism, but not at the expense of the health of the individual. The Yangists saw individual well-being as the prime purpose of life, and considered anything that hindered that well-being immoral and unnecessary.

The main focus of the Yangists was on the concept of xing, or human nature, a term later incorporated by Mencius into Confucianism. The xing, according to sinologist A. C. Graham, is a person’s “proper course of development” in life. Individuals can only rationally care for their own xing, and should not naively have to support the xing of other people, even if it means opposing the emperor. In this sense, Yangism is a “direct attack” on Confucianism, by implying that the power of the emperor, defended in Confucianism, is baseless and destructive, and that state intervention is morally flawed.

The Confucian philosopher Mencius depicts Yangism as the direct opposite of Mohism, while Mohism promotes the idea of universal love and impartial caring, the Yangists acted only “for themselves,” rejecting the altruism of Mohism. He criticized the Yangists as selfish, ignoring the duty of serving the public and caring only for personal concerns. Mencius saw Confucianism as the “Middle Way” between Mohism and Yangism.

Judaism believes that mankind was created for pleasure, as God placed Adam and Eve in the Garden of EdenEden being the Hebrew word for “pleasure.” In recent years, Rabbi Noah Weinberg articulated five different levels of pleasure; connecting with God is the highest possible pleasure.

Christian doctrine current in some evangelical circles, particularly those of the Reformed tradition.[16] The term was first coined by Reformed Baptist theologian John Piper in his 1986 book Desiring God: My shortest summary of it is: God is most glorified in us when we are most satisfied in him. Or: The chief end of man is to glorify God by enjoying him forever. Does Christian Hedonism make a god out of pleasure? No. It says that we all make a god out of what we take most pleasure in. [16] Piper states his term may describe the theology of Jonathan Edwards, who referred to a future enjoyment of him [God] in heaven.[17] In the 17th century, the atomist Pierre Gassendi adapted Epicureanism to the Christian doctrine.

The concept of hedonism is also found in the Hindu scriptures.[18][19]

Utilitarianism addresses problems with moral motivation neglected by Kantianism by giving a central role to happiness. It is an ethical theory holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes the overall good of the society.[20] It is thus one form of consequentialism, meaning that the moral worth of an action is determined by its resulting outcome. The most influential contributors to this theory are considered to be the 18th and 19th-century British philosophers Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. Conjoining hedonismas a view as to what is good for peopleto utilitarianism has the result that all action should be directed toward achieving the greatest total amount of happiness (see Hedonic calculus). Though consistent in their pursuit of happiness, Bentham and Mill’s versions of hedonism differ. There are two somewhat basic schools of thought on hedonism:[1]

Contemporary proponents of hedonism include Swedish philosopher Torbjrn Tnnsj,[21] Fred Feldman.[22] and Spanish ethic philosopher Esperanza Guisn (published a “Hedonist manifesto” in 1990).[23]

A dedicated contemporary hedonist philosopher and writer on the history of hedonistic thought is the French Michel Onfray. He has written two books directly on the subject (L’invention du plaisir: fragments cyraniques[24] and La puissance d’exister: Manifeste hdoniste).[25] He defines hedonism “as an introspective attitude to life based on taking pleasure yourself and pleasuring others, without harming yourself or anyone else.”[26] Onfray’s philosophical project is to define an ethical hedonism, a joyous utilitarianism, and a generalized aesthetic of sensual materialism that explores how to use the brain’s and the body’s capacities to their fullest extent — while restoring philosophy to a useful role in art, politics, and everyday life and decisions.”[27]

Onfray’s works “have explored the philosophical resonances and components of (and challenges to) science, painting, gastronomy, sex and sensuality, bioethics, wine, and writing. His most ambitious project is his projected six-volume Counter-history of Philosophy,”[27] of which three have been published. For him “In opposition to the ascetic ideal advocated by the dominant school of thought, hedonism suggests identifying the highest good with your own pleasure and that of others; the one must never be indulged at the expense of sacrificing the other. Obtaining this balance my pleasure at the same time as the pleasure of others presumes that we approach the subject from different angles political, ethical, aesthetic, erotic, bioethical, pedagogical, historiographical.”

For this he has “written books on each of these facets of the same world view.”[28] His philosophy aims for “micro-revolutions”, or “revolutions of the individual and small groups of like-minded people who live by his hedonistic, libertarian values.”[29]

The Abolitionist Society is a transhumanist group calling for the abolition of suffering in all sentient life through the use of advanced biotechnology. Their core philosophy is negative utilitarianism. David Pearce is a theorist of this perspective and he believes and promotes the idea that there exists a strong ethical imperative for humans to work towards the abolition of suffering in all sentient life. His book-length internet manifesto The Hedonistic Imperative[30] outlines how technologies such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, pharmacology, and neurosurgery could potentially converge to eliminate all forms of unpleasant experience among human and non-human animals, replacing suffering with gradients of well-being, a project he refers to as “paradise engineering”.[31] A transhumanist and a vegan,[32] Pearce believes that we (or our future posthuman descendants) have a responsibility not only to avoid cruelty to animals within human society but also to alleviate the suffering of animals in the wild.

In a talk David Pearce gave at the Future of Humanity Institute and at the Charity International ‘Happiness Conference’ he said “Sadly, what won’t abolish suffering, or at least not on its own, is socio-economic reform, or exponential economic growth, or technological progress in the usual sense, or any of the traditional panaceas for solving the world’s ills. Improving the external environment is admirable and important; but such improvement can’t recalibrate our hedonic treadmill above a genetically constrained ceiling. Twin studies confirm there is a [partially] heritable set-point of well-being – or ill-being – around which we all tend to fluctuate over the course of a lifetime. This set-point varies between individuals. [It’s possible to lower an individual’s hedonic set-point by inflicting prolonged uncontrolled stress; but even this re-set is not as easy as it sounds: suicide-rates typically go down in wartime; and six months after a quadriplegia-inducing accident, studies[citation needed] suggest that we are typically neither more nor less unhappy than we were before the catastrophic event.] Unfortunately, attempts to build an ideal society can’t overcome this biological ceiling, whether utopias of the left or right, free-market or socialist, religious or secular, futuristic high-tech or simply cultivating one’s garden. Even if everything that traditional futurists have asked for is delivered – eternal youth, unlimited material wealth, morphological freedom, superintelligence, immersive VR, molecular nanotechnology, etc – there is no evidence that our subjective quality of life would on average significantly surpass the quality of life of our hunter-gatherer ancestors – or a New Guinea tribesman today – in the absence of reward pathway enrichment. This claim is difficult to prove in the absence of sophisticated neuroscanning; but objective indices of psychological distress e.g. suicide rates, bear it out. Unenhanced humans will still be prey to the spectrum of Darwinian emotions, ranging from terrible suffering to petty disappointments and frustrations – sadness, anxiety, jealousy, existential angst. Their biology is part of “what it means to be human”. Subjectively unpleasant states of consciousness exist because they were genetically adaptive. Each of our core emotions had a distinct signalling role in our evolutionary past: they tended to promote behaviours that enhanced the inclusive fitness of our genes in the ancestral environment.”[33]

Russian physicist and philosopher Victor Argonov argues that hedonism is not only a philosophical but also a verifiable scientific hypothesis. In 2014 he suggested “postulates of pleasure principle” confirmation of which would lead to a new scientific discipline, hedodynamics. Hedodynamics would be able to forecast the distant future development of human civilization and even the probable structure and psychology of other rational beings within the universe.[34] In order to build such a theory, science must discover the neural correlate of pleasure – neurophysiological parameter unambiguously corresponding to the feeling of pleasure (hedonic tone).

According to Argonov, posthumans will be able to reprogram their motivations in an arbitrary manner (to get pleasure from any programmed activity).[35] And if pleasure principle postulates are true, then general direction of civilization development is obvious: maximization of integral happiness in posthuman life (product of life span and average happiness). Posthumans will avoid constant pleasure stimulation, because it is incompatible with rational behavior required to prolong life. However, in average, they can become much happier than modern humans.

Many other aspects of posthuman society could be predicted by hedodynamics if the neural correlate of pleasure were discovered. For example, optimal number of individuals, their optimal body size (whether it matters for happiness or not) and the degree of aggression.

Critics of hedonism have objected to its exclusive concentration on pleasure as valuable.

In particular, G. E. Moore offered a thought experiment in criticism of pleasure as the sole bearer of value: he imagined two worldsone of exceeding beauty and the other a heap of filth. Neither of these worlds will be experienced by anyone. The question, then, is if it is better for the beautiful world to exist than the heap of filth. In this Moore implied that states of affairs have value beyond conscious pleasure, which he said spoke against the validity of hedonism.[36]

In Quran, God admonished mankind not to love the worldly pleasures, since it is related with greedy and source of sinful habit. He also threatened those who prefer worldly life rather than hereafter with Hell.

Those who choose the worldly life and its pleasures will be given proper recompense for their deeds in this life and will not suffer any loss. Such people will receive nothing in the next life except Hell fire. Their deeds will be made devoid of all virtue and their efforts will be in vain.

“Hedonism”. Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.

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Hedonism – Wikipedia