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Driven by the environment – Nature.com

Nature Nanotechnology | Research Highlights

Nature Nanotechnology | Research Highlights

Nature Nanotechnology | Research Highlights

Nitrogenvacancy centres

Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 167204 (2017)

The coherent control of a spin qubit state and its time evolution between two quantum levels is usually achieved by the application of an external a.c. magnetic field whose frequency matches the separation between the energy levels resonantly. Simultaneously, local fluctuations induced by the

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Driven by the environment – Nature.com

Russian nanotechnology official arrested for fraud – ABC News – ABC News

A top official for the Russian government’s nanotechnology promotion arm has been detained on fraud charges.

The state Investigative Committee announced the arrest of Andrei Gorkov on Saturday. He is the managing director for investment of Rusnano, a state company that invests in nanotechnology projects. Rusnano has been touted by the government as important to making Russian industry more innovative.

The investigative committee said Gorkov placed Rusnano funds in a bank whose license was revoked in 2014 .The deposits were claimed to be used for settlements, but financed the bank’s activities.

The committee estimated the loss to Rusnano at more than 700 million rubles ($12 million).

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Russian nanotechnology official arrested for fraud – ABC News – ABC News

Nanotechnology Reveals Hidden Depths of Bacterial ‘Machines’ – Controlled Environments Magazine

New research from the University of Liverpool, published in the journal Nanoscale, has probed the structure and material properties of protein machines in bacteria, which have the capacity to convert carbon dioxide into sugar through photosynthesis.

Cyanobacteria are a phylum of bacteria that produce oxygen and energy during photosynthesis, similar to green plants. They are among the most abundant organisms in oceans and fresh water. Unique internal ‘machines’ in cyanobacteria, called carboxysomes, allow the organisms to convert carbon dioxide to sugar and provide impacts on global biomass production and our environment.

Carboxysomes are nanoscale polyhedral structures that are made of several types of proteins and enzymes. So far, little is known about how these ‘machines’ are constructed and maintain their organisation to perform carbon fixation activity.

Researchers from the University’s Institute of Integrative Biology, led by Royal Society University Research Fellow Dr. Luning Liu, examined in depth the native structure and mechanical stiffness of carboxysomes using advanced microscopes and biochemical approaches.

For the first time, the researchers were able to biochemically purify active carboxysomes from cyanobacteria and characterize their carbon fixation activity and protein composition. They then used electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to visualise the morphology and internal protein organization of these bacterial machines.

Furthermore, the intrinsic mechanical properties of the three-dimensional structures were determined for the first time. Though structurally resembling polyhedral viruses, carboxysomes were revealed to be much softer and structurally flexible, which is correlated to their formation dynamics and regulation in bacteria.

Liu, said: “It’s exciting that we can make the first ‘contact’ with these nano-structures and understand how they are self-organised and shaped using state-of-the-art techniques available at the University. Our findings provide new clues about the relationship between the structure and functionality of native carboxysomes.”

The self-assembly and modularity features of carboxysomes make them interesting systems for nanoscientists, synthetic biologists and bioengineers, who hope to find ways to design new nanomaterials and nano-bioreactors.

“We’re now just starting to understand how these bacterial machines are built and work in nature. Our long-term vision is to harness the knowledge to make further steps towards better design and engineering of bio-inspired machines,” added Liu, “The knowledge and techniques can be extended to other biological machines.”

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Nanotechnology Reveals Hidden Depths of Bacterial ‘Machines’ – Controlled Environments Magazine

Here is what you need to know about nanotechnology – Born2Invest

The size of a nanometer is approximately one one-millionth of a millimeter, and thats the scale at which nanotechnology is slowly starting a revolution.

Nanotechnology represents the manipulation of matter on an atomic molecular and supermolecular scale. The size of a nanometer is approximately one one-millionth of a millimeter, and thats the scale at which nanotechnology is slowly starting a revolution.

Have you ever wanted to know more about this extraordinary and emerging technology? Here are some of the revolutionary facts about nanotechnology that might interest you:

First the good news: nanomaterials have already been proven to be very effective at cleaning soil, water, and to some extent the air, and theres still more work to be done particularly in the field of green energy. The bad news: like all new ventures we dont know the long-term health impact of nanotechnologies. Nanoparticles are just so tiny that there is a potential for them to accumulate in plants and microorganisms, so nobody is sure yet what breathing in a lung full of nanoscopic particles would do to our health.

We are all familiar with 3D printers, but personal nano factories will be far more advanced. Theoretically, as soon as we can build one fabricatora nanomachine that assembles individual molecules into useful shapesthat fabricator could build more of itself and they could assemble themselves into larger and larger machines. Nanotech theorists think that these machines could build computer processors so small and efficient that laptops could house literally billions of CPUs, making them exponentially more powerful than todays computers.

This nanotech revolution is starting to sound like a paradise, but if we can build all the non-edible consumer goods we need, and nano factories enable massive gains and efficiency in every sector of society, then just what will we do for work? Granted, economies have restructured with the advent of new technologies before. But couple that level of unrest with nano factories ability to manufacture extremely powerful and complex robotic weapons, and the nanotech revolution suddenly becomes a nightmare.

According to some experts, nanotechnology will completely disrupt the economy. (Source)

Its hard to argue against technologies that will prolong human life, and this is probably the most exciting area of nanotechnology. The holy grail of nanomedicine is nanobots that swim through your bloodstream patrolling for tumors, arterial clogs, or other dangerous abnormalities. Those things are still a long way away, but in the meantime, scientists are using nanoparticles in multiple ways like targeted delivery vehicles for cancer medications. Scientists from MIT recently proved that its possible to insert nano factories into the body to manufacture drugs on demand at specific sites. Who knows, in the future, curing cancer could be as simple as getting a shot.

SEE ALSO From Underwear Nightmare to Promising Enterprise

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Here is what you need to know about nanotechnology – Born2Invest

Nanotechnology Helps Expose Workings of Bacterial ‘Machines’ – AZoNano

Written by AZoNanoJun 9 2017

Researchers at the University of Liverpool have probed the structure and material properties of protein mechanisms in bacteria, which have the ability to change carbon dioxide into sugar through photosynthesis. Details of this research have been published in the journal Nanoscale.

This is an illustration of a carboxysome. (Credit: Dr Luning Liu, University of Liverpool)

Cyanobacteria are a phylum of bacteria that yield energy and oxygen during photosynthesis, akin to green plants. They are among the most plentiful organisms in fresh water and oceans. Unique internal machines in cyanobacteria, known as carboxysomes allow the organisms to transform carbon dioxide to sugar and provide impacts on universal biomass production and the environment.

Carboxysomes are nanoscale polyhedral structures that are made up of different types of enzymes and proteins. So far, little is known about these ‘machines’ that are constructed and maintain their organization to perform carbon fixation activity.

Structure in nature

A team of Researchers from the Universitys Institute of Integrative Biology, led by Royal Society University Research Fellow Dr Luning Liu, examined in depth the native structure and mechanical stiffness of carboxysomes using advanced microscopes and biochemical techniques.

For the first time, the Researchers were successful in biochemically purifying active carboxysomes from cyanobacteria and characterizing their carbon fixation activity and protein composition. They then used atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy to visualize the morphology and internal protein organization of these bacterial machines.

Moreover, the complex mechanical properties of the 3D structures were established for the first time. Though structurally close to polyhedral viruses, carboxysomes were discovered to be a lot softer and structurally flexible, which is associated to their formation dynamics and regulation in bacteria.

Its exciting that we can make the first contact with these nano-structures and understand how they are self-organised and shaped using state-of-the-art techniques available at the University. Our findings provide new clues about the relationship between the structure and functionality of native carboxysomes.

Dr Luning Liu, Research Fellow, Royal Society University

Nanomaterial engineering

The self-assembly and modularity characteristics of carboxysomes make them fascinating systems for Nanoscientists, Bioengineers, and Synthetic Biologists, who aim to discover ways to design new nano-bioreactors and nanomaterials.

Were now just starting to understand how these bacterial machines are built and work in nature. Our long-term vision is to harness the knowledge to make further steps towards better design and engineering of bio-inspired machines. The knowledge and techniques can be extended to other biological machines.

Dr Luning Liu, Research Fellow, Royal Society University

The project was conducted in partnership with Professor Rob Beynon at the Centre for Proteome Research and the Centre for Cell Imaging and funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) and a Royal Society University Research Fellowship.

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Nanotechnology Helps Expose Workings of Bacterial ‘Machines’ – AZoNano

Nanotechnology reveals hidden depths of bacterial ‘machines’ – Phys.Org

June 8, 2017 Illustration of a carboxysome. Credit: Dr Luning Liu, University of Liverpool

New research from the University of Liverpool, published in the journal Nanoscale, has probed the structure and material properties of protein machines in bacteria, which have the capacity to convert carbon dioxide into sugar through photosynthesis.

Cyanobacteria are a phylum of bacteria that produce oxygen and energy during photosynthesis, similar to green plants. They are among the most abundant organisms in oceans and fresh water. Unique internal ‘machines’ in cyanobacteria, called carboxysomes, allow the organisms to convert carbon dioxide to sugar and provide impacts on global biomass production and our environment.

Carboxysomes are nanoscale polyhedral structures that are made of several types of proteins and enzymes. So far, little is known about how these ‘machines’ are constructed and maintain their organisation to perform carbon fixation activity.

Researchers from the University’s Institute of Integrative Biology, led by Royal Society University Research Fellow Dr Luning Liu, examined in depth the native structure and mechanical stiffness of carboxysomes using advanced microscopes and biochemical approaches.

For the first time, the researchers were able to biochemically purify active carboxysomes from cyanobacteria and characterize their carbon fixation activity and protein composition. They then used electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to visualise the morphology and internal protein organization of these bacterial machines.

Furthermore, the intrinsic mechanical properties of the three-dimensional structures were determined for the first time. Though structurally resembling polyhedral viruses, carboxysomes were revealed to be much softer and structurally flexible, which is correlated to their formation dynamics and regulation in bacteria.

Dr Liu, said: “It’s exciting that we can make the first ‘contact’ with these nano-structures and understand how they are self-organised and shaped using state-of-the-art techniques available at the University. Our findings provide new clues about the relationship between the structure and functionality of native carboxysomes.”

The self-assembly and modularity features of carboxysomes make them interesting systems for nanoscientists, synthetic biologists and bioengineers, who hope to find ways to design new nanomaterials and nano-bioreactors.

“We’re now just starting to understand how these bacterial machines are built and work in nature. Our long-term vision is to harness the knowledge to make further steps towards better design and engineering of bio-inspired machines,” added Dr Liu, “The knowledge and techniques can be extended to other biological machines.”

Explore further: Illuminating the inner ‘machines’ that give bacteria an energy boost

More information: Matthew Faulkner et al, Direct characterization of the native structure and mechanics of cyanobacterial carboxysomes, Nanoscale (2017). DOI: 10.1039/C7NR02524F

Journal reference: Nanoscale

Provided by: University of Liverpool

Scientists at the University of Liverpool have tracked how microscopic organisms called cyanobacteria make use of internal protein ‘machines’ to boost their ability to convert carbon dioxide into sugar during photosynthesis.

Cyanobacteria, found in just about every ecosystem on Earth, are one of the few bacteria that can create their own energy through photosynthesis and “fix” carbon from carbon dioxide molecules and convert it into fuel …

(Phys.org) A genetically engineered tobacco plant, developed with two genes from blue-green algae (cyanobacteria), holds promise for improving the yields of many food crops.

(PhysOrg.com) — Reduce. Reuse. Recycle. We hear this mantra time and again. When it comes to carbonthe “Most Wanted” element in terms of climate changenature has got reuse and recycle covered. However, it’s up to us …

Researchers at Michigan State University have built a molecular Swiss Army knife that streamlines the molecular machinery of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, making biofuels and other green chemical production …

An international team of scientists led by Uppsala University has developed a high-throughput method of imaging biological particles using an X-ray laser. The images show projections of the carboxysome particle, a delicate …

New research from the University of Liverpool, published in the journal Nanoscale, has probed the structure and material properties of protein machines in bacteria, which have the capacity to convert carbon dioxide into sugar …

When oil mixes with or enters into water, conventional methods of cleaning the water and removing the oil can be challenging, expensive and environmentally risky. But researchers in the Cockrell School of Engineering at The …

The endothelial cells that line blood vessels are packed tightly to keep blood inside and flowing, but scientists at Rice University and their colleagues have discovered it may be possible to selectively open gaps in those …

Recent research from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln may help future engineers of digital components get two (or more) for the space of one.

Scientists at Johns Hopkins have created a nanoparticle that carries two different antibodies capable of simultaneously switching off cancer cells’ defensive properties while switching on a robust anticancer immune response …

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a new way to track dynamic molecular features in soft materials, including the high-frequency molecular vibrations that transmit …

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Nanotechnology reveals hidden depths of bacterial ‘machines’ – Phys.Org

NSF Announces 2017 Winners for Generation Nano: Small Science, Superheroes – Controlled Environments Magazine

On June 6, the National Science Foundation (NSF), in partnership with the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), named the first- and second-place winners, as well as the People’s Choice winner, for the second annual Generation Nano competition.

Generation Nano challenges high school students to imagine novel superheroes who use the power of nanotechnology — technology on the scale of a nanometer, or 1 billionth of a meter — to solve crimes or tackle a societal challenge. Students then tell their hero’s story in a comic and video. Students learn about the science behind nanotechnology before applying nanotechnology-enabled tools and concepts to futuristic characters, said Mihail C. Roco, NSF senior advisor for science and engineering and a key architect of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI).

“This competition is like a real-life exercise in modern society, where creativity and rigor combine to engineer novel products, smart infrastructure, life-saving medical treatments and more,” Roco said. “Students use their imaginations to join emerging uses of nanotechnology with other fields, bringing new viewpoints and collective interest to scientific progress. The younger generation needs such skills, as they will live and work in a more advanced society than their teachers, and we wish success to all of them as they help create the future of nanotechnology.”

The winners

“I was so impressed by the imaginative ways that students used nanotechnology to ease human suffering, cure disease, fight criminals and clean up the environment in this year’s Generation Nano contest,” said Lisa Friedersdorf, director of the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office. “The winning comics showcase the importance of creatively applying science to solve problems. I am sure these comics and videos will excite other students and inspire them to think about how they can use nanotechnology to improve the world.”

Students’ superhero creations had to address one of four missions using their nanotechnology powers:

Generation Nano participants were required to submit a short, written entry about their superheroes, a two- to three-page comic and a 90-second video. A panel of judges with expertise in either nanotechnology or comics evaluated each entry and selected semifinalists and finalists. The public selected the People’s Choice winner from the list of finalists.

The judges

The winners will be at the NSF booth at Awesome Con in Washington, D.C. June 16-18, and will also visit Capitol Hill. In addition, each winner is invited to tour the nearest NNI center.

Visit the Generation Nano website for competition details, such as eligibility criteria, entry guidelines, timeline, prizes, and videos and comics from the winners and finalists.

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NSF Announces 2017 Winners for Generation Nano: Small Science, Superheroes – Controlled Environments Magazine

Benefits and Applications | Nano

After more than 20 years of basic nanoscience research andmore than fifteen years of focused R&D under the NNI, applications of nanotechnology are delivering in both expected and unexpected ways on nanotechnologys promise to benefit society.

Nanotechnology is helping to considerably improve, even revolutionize, many technology and industry sectors: information technology, homeland security, medicine, transportation, energy, food safety, and environmental science, and among many others. Described below is a sampling of the rapidly growing list of benefits and applications of nanotechnology.

Many benefits of nanotechnology depend on the fact that it is possible to tailor the structures of materials at extremely small scales to achieve specific properties, thus greatly extending the materials science toolkit. Using nanotechnology, materials can effectively be made stronger, lighter, more durable, more reactive, more sieve-like, or better electrical conductors, among many other traits. Many everyday commercial products are currently on the market and in daily use that rely on nanoscale materials and processes:

Nanotechnology has greatly contributed to major advances in computing and electronics, leading to faster, smaller, and more portable systems that can manage and store larger and larger amounts of information. These continuously evolving applications include:

Nanotechnology is already broadening the medical tools, knowledge, and therapies currently available to clinicians. Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology in medicine, draws on the natural scale of biological phenomena to produce precise solutions for disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Below are some examples of recent advances in this area:

Nanotechnology is finding application in traditional energy sources and is greatly enhancing alternative energy approaches to help meet the worlds increasing energy demands. Many scientists are looking into ways to develop clean, affordable, and renewable energy sources, along with means to reduce energy consumption and lessen toxicity burdens on the environment:

In addition to the ways that nanotechnology can help improve energy efficiency (see the section above), there are also many ways that it can help detect and clean up environmental contaminants:

Nanotechnology offers the promise of developing multifunctional materials that will contribute to building and maintaining lighter, safer, smarter, and more efficient vehicles, aircraft, spacecraft, and ships. In addition, nanotechnology offers various means to improve the transportation infrastructure:

Please visit the Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues and the Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues pages on nano.gov to learn more about how the National Nanotechnology Initiative is committed to responsibly addressing these issues.

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Benefits and Applications | Nano

Nanotechnology: A simple and fun introduction – Explain …

by Chris Woodford. Last updated: May 17, 2017.

Imagine if you climbed out of the shower only to discover you’d shrunk in the wash by about 1500 million times! If you stepped into your living room, what you’d see around you would not be chairs, tables, computers, and your family but atoms, molecules, proteins, and cells. Shrunk down to the “nanoscale,” you’d not only see the atoms that everything is made fromyou’d actually be able to move them around! Now suppose you started sticking those atoms together in interesting new ways, like tiny LEGO bricks of nature. You could build all kinds of fantastic materials, everything from brand new medicines to ultra-fast computer chips. Making new things on this incredibly small scale is called nanotechnology and it’s one of the most exciting and fast-moving areas of science and technology today.

Photo: Looking into the nanoworld: Sulfur atoms arranged on a layer of copper deposited onto a crystal of ruthenium. By courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory.

We live on a scale of meters and kilometers (thousands of meters), so it’s quite hard for us to imagine a world that’s too small to see. You’ve probably looked at amazing photos in science books of things like dust mites and flies photographed with electron microscopes. These powerful scientific instruments make images that are microscopic, which means on a scale millionths of a meter wide. Nanoscopic involves shrinking things down to a whole new level. Nano means “billionth”, so a nanometer is one billionth of a meter. In other words, the nanoscale is 1000 times smaller than the microscopic scale and a billion (1000 million) times smaller than the world of meters that we live in.

This is all very interesting and quite impressive, but what use is it? Our lives have some meaning on a scale of meters, but it’s impossible to think about ordinary, everyday existence on a scale 1000 times smaller than a fly’s eye. We can’t really think about problems like AIDS, world poverty, or global warming, because they lose all meaning on the nanoscale. Yet the nanoscalethe world where atoms, molecules (atoms joined together), proteins, and cells rule the roostis a place where science and technology gain an entirely new meaning.

By zooming in to the nanoscale, we can figure out how some of the puzzling things in our world actually work by seeing how atoms and molecules make them happen. You’ve probably seen that trick TV programs do with satellite photos, where they start off with a picture of the green and blue Earth and zoom in really fast, at ever-increasing scale, until you’re suddenly staring at someone’s back garden. You realize Earth is green because it’s made from a patchwork of green grass. Keep zooming in and you’ll see the chloroplasts in the grass: the green capsules inside the plant cells that make energy from sunlight. Zoom in some more and you’ll eventually see molecules made from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen being split apart and recombined inside the chloroplasts. So the nanoscale is good because it lets us do nanoscience: it helps us understand why things happen by studying them at the smallest possible scale. Once we understand nanoscience, we can do some nanotechnology: we can put the science into action to help solve our problems. That’s what the word “technology” means and it’s how technology (applied science) differs from pure science, which is about studying things for their own sake.

It turns out there are some very interesting things about the nanoscale. Lots of substances behave very differently in the world of atoms and molecules. For example, the metal copper is transparent on the nanoscale while gold, which is normally unreactive, becomes chemically very active. Carbon, which is quite soft in its normally occurring form (graphite), becomes incredibly hard when it’s tightly packed into a nanoscopic arrangement called a nanotube. In other words, materials can have different physical properties on the nanoscale even though they’re still the same materials! On the nanoscale, it’s easier for atoms and molecules to move around and between one another, so the chemical properties of materials can also be different. Nanoparticles have much more surface area exposed to other nanoparticles, so they are very good as catalysts (substances that speed up chemical reactions).

Photo: Looking at the nanoscale with electron holography. By courtesy of US Department of Energy/Brookhaven National Laboratory.

One reason for these differences is that different factors become important on the nanoscale. In our everyday world, gravity is the most important force we encounter: it dominates everything around us, from the way our hair hangs down around our head to the way Earth has different seasons at different times of year. But on the nanoscale, gravity is much less important than the electromagnetic forces between atoms and molecules. Factors like thermal vibrations (the way atoms and molecules store heat by jiggling about) also become extremely significant. In short, the game of science has different rules when you play it on the nanoscale.

Your fingers are millions of nanometers long, so it’s no good trying to pick up atoms and molecules and move them around with your bare hands. That would be like trying to eat your dinner with a fork 300 km (186 miles) long! Amazingly, scientists have developed electron microscopes that allow us to “see” things on the nanoscale and also manipulate them. They’re called atomic force microscopes (AFMs), scanning probe microscopes (SPMs), and scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs).

Photo: The eight tiny probe tips on the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) built into NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander. The tip enlarged in the circle is the same size as a smoke particle at its base (2 microns). Photo by courtesy of NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA-JPL).

The basic idea of an electron microscope is to use a beam of electrons to see things that are too small to see using a beam of light. A nanoscopic microscope uses electronic and quantum effects to see things that are even smaller. It also has a tiny probe on it that can be used to shift atoms and molecules around and rearrange them like tiny building blocks. In 1989, IBM researcher Don Eigler used a microscope like this to spell out the word I-B-M by moving individual atoms into position. Other scientists have used similar techniques to draw pictures of nanoscopic guitars, books, and all kinds of other things. These are mostly frivolous exercises, designed to wow people with nanopower. But they also have important practical applications. There are lots of other ways of working with nanotechnology, including molecular beam epitaxy, which is a way of growing single crystals one layer of atoms at a time.

Most of nanotechnology’s benefits will happen decades in the future, but it’s already helping to improve our world in many different ways. We tend to think of nanotechnology as something new and alien, perhaps because the word “technology” implies artificial and human-made, but life itself is an example of nanotechnology: proteins, bacteria, viruses, and cells all work on the nanoscopic scale.

It could be you’re already using nanotechnology. You might be wearing nanotechnology pants (that’s “trousers” to you in the UK), walking on a nanotechnology rug, sleeping on nanotechnology sheets, or hauling nanotechnology luggage to the airport. All these products are made from fabrics coated with “nanowhiskers.” These tiny surface fibers are so small that dirt cannot penetrate into them, which means the deeper layers of material stay clean. Some brands of sunscreens use nanotechnology in a similar way: they coat your skin with a layer of nanoscopic titanium dioxide or zinc oxide that blocks out the Sun’s harmful ultraviolet rays. Nano-coatings are also appearing on scratch-resistant car bumpers, anti-slip steps on vans and buses, corrosion resistant paints, and wound dressings.

Carbon nanotubes are among the most exciting of nanomaterials. These rod-shaped carbon molecules are roughly one nanometer across. Although they’re hollow, their densely packed structure makes them incredibly strong and they can be grown into fibers of virtually any length. NASA scientists have recently proposed carbon nanotubes could be used to make a gigantic elevator stretching all the way from Earth into space. Equipment and people could be shuttled slowly up and down this “carbon ladder to the stars,” saving the need for expensive rocket flights.

Photo: Making an electric circuit with carbon nanotubes. A carbon nanotube (shown here in light blue at the top) is connected to an electricity supply using aluminum (shown in dark blue at the bottom). Picture by courtesy of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC).

One form of nanotechnology we all use is microelectronics. The “micro” part of that word suggests computer chips work on the microscopic scaleand they do. But since terms like “microchip” were coined in the 1970s, electronic engineers have found ways of packing even more transistor switches into integrated circuits to make computers that are smaller, faster, and cheaper than ever before. This constant increase in computing power goes by the name of Moore’s Law, and nanotechnology will ensure it continues well into the future. Everyday transistors in the early 21st-century are just 100200 nanometers wide, but cutting-edge experiments are already developing much smaller devices. In 1998, scientists made a transistor from a single carbon nanotube.

Photo: Creatures of the nanoworld? This is what a single molecule of the semiconductor material cadmium sulfide looks like. Nanoparticles like this could be used to make improved electronic displays and lasers. Picture by courtesy of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC).

And it’s not just the chips inside computers that use nanotechnology. The displays on everything from iPods and cellphones to laptops and flatscreen TVs are shifting to organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), made from plastic films built on the nanoscale.

Photo: The world’s smallest chain drive. An example of a nanomachine, this nanotechnology “bike chain” and gear system was developed by scientists at Sandia National Laboratory. By courtesy of US Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratory.

One of the most exciting areas of nanotechnology is the possibility of building incredibly small machinesthings like gears, switches, pumps, or enginesfrom individual atoms. Nanomachines could be made into nanorobots (sometimes called nanobots) that could be injected into our bodies to carry out repairs or sent into hazardous or dangerous environments, perhaps to clean up disused nuclear power plants. As is so often the case, nature leads humans here. Scientists have already found numerous examples of nanomachines in the natural world. For example, a common bacteria called E.coli can build itself a little nanotechnology tail that it whips around like a kind of propeller to move it closer to food. Making nanomachines is also known as molecular manufacturing and molecular nanotechnology (MNT).

A machine is something with moving wheels, gears, and levers that can do useful jobs for us, but how do you make moving parts from something as tiny as a molecule? Just imagine trying to build a clock from gears that are millions of times smaller than usual!

It turns out there is a way to do it. Some molecules are regularly shaped and symmetrical so they have no overall positive or negative charges. Other molecules are not symmetrical, which means they have slightly more positive charge at one end and slightly more negative charge at the other. These are called polar molecules and water is the best known example. Water sticks to a lot of things and cleans them well because it has a positive “pole” at one end and a negative pole at the other. We can use this idea to make a molecular machine.

Artwork: A simple “nano-escalator.” It works by making one molecule (green) move up and down another one (blue and red).

Suppose you take a molecule made from a ring of atoms that has a slightly positive charge in one place. Now thread it over another molecule made from a rod of atoms, which has slightly negative charges at its two ends. The positive ring will pull toward one of the negative charges so the ring will lift upward. Now add some energy and you can make the ring move back down, toward the other negative charge. In this way, you can make the ring shunt back and forth or up and down, a bit like a nanoscopic elevator! By extending this idea, we can gradually make more complex machines with parts that shuffle back and forth, move around one another, or even rotate like tiny electric motors.

Ingenious ideas like this were developed by three brilliant scientists who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 (more about that below).

Natural examples like this tell us that nanotechnology is as old as life itself, but the concept of the nanoscale, nanoscience we can study, and nanotechnology we can harness are all relatively new developments. The brilliant American physicist Richard Feynman (19181988) is widely credited with kick-starting modern interest in nanotechnology. In 1959, in a famous after-dinner speech called “There’s plenty of room at the bottom,” the ever-imaginative Feynman speculated about an incredibly tiny world where people could use tiny tools to rearrange atoms and molecules. By 1974, Japanese engineering professor Norio Taniguchi had named this field “nanotechnology.”

Nanotechnology really took off in the 1980s. That was when nanotech-evangelist Dr K. Eric Drexler first published his groundbreaking book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. It was also the decade when microscopes appeared that were capable of manipulating atoms and molecules on the nanoscale. In 1991, carbon nanotubes were discovered by another Japanese scientist, Sumio Iijima, opening up huge interest in new engineering applications. The graphite in pencils is a soft form of carbon. In 1998, some American scientists built themselves another kind of pencil from a carbon nanotube and then used it, under a microscope, to write the words “NANOTUBE NANOPENCIL” with letters only 10 nanometers across.

Stunts like this captured the public imagination, but they also led to nanotechnology being recognized and taken seriously at the highest political levels. In 2000, President Bill Clinton sealed the importance of nanotechnology when he launched a major US government program called the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), designed to fund groundbreaking research and inspire public interest. By 2016, the US government was investing over $1 billion a year in nanotechnology through the NNI alone. Nanotechnology reached another important milestone that year with the award of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart, and Bernard Feringa, three scientists whose groundbreaking work had spawned the idea of turning molecules into machines.

Engineers the world over are raving about nanotechnology. This is what scientists at one of America’s premier research institutions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, have to say: “The new concepts of nanotechnology are so broad and pervasive, that they will influence every area of technology and science, in ways that are surely unpredictable…. The total societal impact of nanotechnology is expected to be greater than the combined influences that the silicon integrated circuit, medical imaging, computer-aided engineering, and man-made polymers have had in this century.” That’s a pretty amazing claim: 21st-century nanotechnology will be more important than all the greatest technologies of the 20th century put together!

Photo: These nanogears were made by attaching benzene molecules (outer white blobs) to the outsides of carbon nanotubes (inner gray rings). Image by NASA Ames Research Center courtesy of Internet Archive.

Nanotechnology sounds like a world of great promise, but there are controversial issues too that must be considered and resolved. Some people have raised concerns that nanoscale organisms or machines could harm human life or the environment. One problem is that tiny particles can be extremely toxic to the human body. No-one really knows what harmful effect new nanomaterials or substances could have. Chemical pesticides were not considered harmful when they were first used in the early decades of the 20th century; it wasn’t until the 1960s and 1970s that their potentially harmful effects were properly understood. Could the same happen with nanotechnology?

The ultimate nano-nightmare, the problem of “gray goo,” was first highlighted by Eric Drexler. What happens if well-meaning humans create nanobots that run riot through the biosphere, gobbling up all living things and leaving behind nothing but a chewed-up mass of “gray goo”? Drexler later backed away from that claim. But critics of nanotechnology still argue humans shouldn’t meddle with worlds they don’t understand, but if we took that argument to its logical conclusion, we’d have no inventions at allno medicines, no transportation, no agriculture, and no educationand we’d still be living in the Stone Age. The real question is whether the promise of nanotechnology is greater than any potential risks that go with it. And that will determine whether our nano-future becomes dreamor nightmare.

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Nanotechnology: A simple and fun introduction – Explain …

U of A uses nanotechnology to develop new test for aggressive prostate cancer – Edmonton Journal


Edmonton Journal
U of A uses nanotechnology to develop new test for aggressive prostate cancer
Edmonton Journal
The new test takes advantage of advances in nanotechnology and machine learning to test for tiny fragments of prostate cancer in the bloodstream and recognize aggressive forms of cancer. The blood test was studied on 377 Alberta men who were …

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U of A uses nanotechnology to develop new test for aggressive prostate cancer – Edmonton Journal

John Keells Research opens research lab at SLINTEC Nanotechnology & Science Park – Daily Mirror

The official opening of the research laboratory of John Keells Research (JKR), the R&D and innovation arm of John Keells Holdings PLC, was held recently. This facility, which is located at the Technology Incubation Centre Building at the SLINTEC Nanotechnology & Science Park in Mahenwatta, Pitipana, Homagama, will greatly enhance JKRs capabilities in its core areas of nanotechnology and advanced materials, sustainable energy and energy storage, biotechnology and synthetic biology, food and water and physics and Internet of things (IoT). Amongst the invitees at the occasion were John Keells Holdings PLC Chairman Susantha Ratnayake, Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology CEO Harin de S. Wijeyerathne, John Keells Group Deputy Chairman Ajit Gunewardena, John Keells Group Executive Directors Krishan Balendra and Gihan Cooray, John Keells Group President HR, Legal, Sustainability and ERM Dilani Alagaratnam and representatives from partnering research institutions and universities. JKR Head Dr. Muditha Senarath-Yapa in his welcome address said, Innovation is one of the core values of John Keells Group; therefore, the environment and practices at JKH make it easier for our team of scientists to create value through innovation. Speaking at the occasion Rathnayake said, We are pleased to see the progress that John Keells Research has made, since its launch just five years ago filing the first patent within this short time, is indeed a significant achievement. Preceding the opening of research laboratory the invitees were taken on a tour of the Science Park by SLINTEC representatives, to highlight the key facilities available and the tour was followed by a presentation by Harin de S. Wijeyerathne about SLINTEC, which manages the Nanotechnology and Science Park and is a public-private partnership between the Sri Lankan government and the local corporates – MAS Holdings, Brandix, Dialog, Hayleys, Loadstar and Lankem. Cooray, who is also Group President overseeing JKR said that he was proud of the achievements of the JKR team and their commitment towards the work we do. Based on an idea generated by the JKR, John Keells Holdings PLC filed its first patent in December 2016 jointly with the Council for Scientific & Industrial Research India, in the area of energy storage materials. This patent application was a result of a research project carried out in India at the National Metallurgical Lab.

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John Keells Research opens research lab at SLINTEC Nanotechnology & Science Park – Daily Mirror

The Energy Efficiency Paint With Built-in Nanotechnology – Manufacturing America

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Graphene, the super strong, super thin, highly conductive nano-material, has been a groundbreaking substance for semiconductor, electronics, battery, and composites industries. Its unique properties are now being applied to other applications, giving everyday consumers a chance to see how nanotechnology can improve a range of products. Graphene house paint is the latest example of that and its showing how it can greatly improve the energy efficiency of homes and other buildings.

Image Source: Inhabitat

The Most Eco-friendly Paint In The World

Soon to be distributed in the UK by The Graphene Company, Graphenstone is a lime-based interior and exterior wall paint that contains graphene. Its being called the most environmentally friendly paint in the world. Its 98 percent lime content is capable of absorbing carbon dioxide, which contributes to passive air purification indoors. Its also notably thin and requires less paint to achieve good coverage and durability compared to acrylic and other types of house paint.

Image Source: Woodworking Network

Built-In Thermal Insulation

The most notable advantage of Graphenstone is its ability to thermally insulate the area in which its used. As a result of graphenes hexagonal lattice carbon structure coat, it provides superconductivity. A coat of paint means that less heating and air conditioning would be required to maintain comfortable air temperatures, and that can add up to notable reduction in energy bills. The paint has already been used in hospitals, hotels, and schools, and is now hitting store shelves for DIY use in the UK.

A Game-changer For The DIY Market?

As consumers and homeowners have become more sustainably minded in their product choices and home improvements, could graphene-based paint become a game-changer for the paint and home DIY industry? If its a product success for consumers in Europe, will we soon see it available in the U.S.?

Comment and tell us what you think of this interesting nanotechnological development.

Articles Sources

http://inhabitat.com https://www.dezeen.com http://www.woodworkingnetwork.com

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The Energy Efficiency Paint With Built-in Nanotechnology – Manufacturing America

KAN Reviews Nanotechnology Standardization Documents from OSH Perspective: Germany’s Commission for … – The National Law Review

Since 1996, Carla Hutton has monitored, researched, and written about regulatory and legislative issues that may potentially affect Bergeson & Campbell, P.C. (B&C) clients. She is responsible for creating a number of monthly and quarterly regulatory updates for B&C’s clients, as well as other documents, such as chemical-specific global assessments of regulatory developments and trends. She authors memoranda for B&C clients on regulatory and legislative developments, providing information that is focused, timely and applicable to client initiatives. These tasks have proven invaluable to many clients, keeping them aware and abreast of developing issues so that they can respond in kind and prepare for the future of their business.

Ms. Hutton brings a wealth of experience and judgment to her work in federal, state, and international chemical regulatory and legislative issues, including green chemistry, nanotechnology, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), Proposition 65, and the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) program.

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KAN Reviews Nanotechnology Standardization Documents from OSH Perspective: Germany’s Commission for … – The National Law Review

Revolutionary Nanotechnology Research by PhD Student Receives Award Recognition – AZoNano

Written by AZoNanoJun 5 2017

Recently, Electronics and Computer Science (ECS) PhD student Isha Gupta received the third prize for Engineering Sciences at the 2017 Association of British Turkish Academics (ABTA) Doctoral Awards.

Credit: University of Southampton

Isha, an Entrepreneurial Lead in a revolutionary nanotechnology research covering Extracellular Neural Signal Compression with Nanoscale Memristors, was bestowed the accolade at an award ceremony at University College London on May 20, 2017.

The ABTA, a non-profit organization for scholars in the U.K and Turkey devoted to developing academic partnerships and bridges between two countries, has congratulated finalists on the exceptional quality of applications this year after considering more than 180 entries from 45 leading Universities.

These Doctoral Awards have provided a great opportunity for our Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology research group to present our work to a wider audience. We are excited and proud that the technology we are developing in our labs reached the final, and I really appreciate that we have been recognised in this way. I have learned a great deal of new things by working in a team of world class experts. People in the University, Department and the group have been extremely supportive and helpful throughout my time here.

Isha Gupta, PhD Student, Electronics and Computer Science (ECS)

Ishas research within Southamptons Department of Electronics and Computer Science is designing novel bio-inspired nano-sensors using memristors. The project, referred as NeuroLink, is progressing under the guidance of Senior Advisor Professor Themis Prodromakis, an Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Fellow and Reader in Nanoelectronics at the University.

NeuroLink is making use of expertise from the SETsquared business acceleration partnership and the Universitys Future Worlds incubator as it seeks to commercialize memristor-based neural data compression technologies while addressing restrictions in power, bandwidth and computation capacity. Such technologies could make an impact in applications such as brain-computer interfaces and implants that use electrical signals to cure medical conditions.

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Revolutionary Nanotechnology Research by PhD Student Receives Award Recognition – AZoNano

Oleophobic Coatings Market Inspired By Development Of … – DC Velocity

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Oleophobic Coatings Market Inspired By Development Of … – DC Velocity

Triad surgeon taps into nanotechnology with new spinal fusion process – Triad Business Journal


Triad Business Journal
Triad surgeon taps into nanotechnology with new spinal fusion process
Triad Business Journal
A Greensboro orthopedic surgeon is turning to a spinal implant device that utilizes nanotechnology in surgeries for back pain. Dahari Brooks of Greensboro Orthopaedics is using nanoLOCK, the first FDA-approved fusion device to feature nanotechnology.

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Triad surgeon taps into nanotechnology with new spinal fusion process – Triad Business Journal

Can nanotechnology clean Bellandur lake? – The New Indian Express

Kirubas solution is made of nanoclusters of iron and copper

BENGALURU: The pollution levels at Bellandur lake is a hot topic among one and all in Bengaluru. Civic agencies have been grappling with the issue for a few years now with no solution in sight.

A startup by an Indian Institute of Science alumnus has, however, developed a solution and to clean the lake and the much-dreaded foam from itusing nanotechnology.

Dr Kiruba Daniel, CTO, J K Nano Solutions, says, The pollution levels at Bellandur lake is much lower than the kind of waste we see from textile or pharma industry where dyes are used and pollute not only lakes but also groundwater.

Kirubas company has devised a nano solution that acts as a catalyst on the surface of toxic solids. The nanosolution consists of iron and copper nanoclusters and nanoparticles which due to its high surface and small size work on the dissolved and suspended pollutants to precipitate down. Usually pollutants settle down after nanosolution treatment which can filtered by sand filters and used in landfills. Also the nanoparticles and clusters aggregate leading to micro and macro sized particles after treatment, which acts as micronutrients for plants, says Kiruba who studied at the Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, IISc.

Kiruba recently gave a demonstration of his technology to the public in the city and it was meant to attract the attention of authorities. I took 1 litre of water from Bellandur lake and added one single drop of the nano solution. It cleared the water immediately. The Mayor has asked us to give a demonstration and hopefully we can appeal to the authorities to use our solution, he says.

He says that much talked about foam from Bellandur lake can be immediately taken care of with his solution. With a number of industries around Bellandur lake having been asked to shut shop, Kiruba says that there he also proposes to go to them and suggest treating the polluted water at source before its release. Although I have not yet conducted a thorough study of the exact pollutants of the water in the lake, most of it seems also to be coming from households nearby. The foam can be attributed to the high use of detergent that has gone into the water, adds Kiruba.

The startup already has six barrels of the nano solution so that they can immediately use on the lake with the permission of the authorities.

The team at JK Solutions won the Dev Tech Award (that recognizes innovation that helps lower income groups) from the UK and Indian government on December 2016. This is an innovative cost-effective solution for this problem in Varthur and Bellandur lakes. We have informed the environment minister and are hoping to get support from BBMP for the same, he adds.

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Can nanotechnology clean Bellandur lake? – The New Indian Express

Nanotechnology breakthrough means almost any surface can become a touchscreen – RT

Published time: 7 Apr, 2017 14:47

Nanotechnology has occupied the pages of sci-fi novels for decades, but now a major new breakthrough could bring the super advanced tech into the average household.

Researchers at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, have created two-dimensional nanomaterials, only a few billionths of a meter thick, making it possible to turn almost any surface into a screen or a computer.

Using standard printing techniques, scientists combined graphene nanosheets, an ultra-thin form of carbon just one atom thick, with two other nanomaterials named tungsten diselenide and boron nitride.

The research published in the journal Science could have wide-ranging implications from the mundane to the extraordinary.

Futuristic uses could include a touchscreen pad superimposed onto your skin, reading an electronic newspaper that could be rolled up or folded to be placed neatly inside a jacket pocket or even receiving an alert message saying the milk in the fridge is about to go sour.

The technology could also enhance security capabilities of valuable items, allowing for the encoding of biometric data on passports and the marking of banknotes to make them virtually impossible to forge.

This technology could also have advantages for solar power, one day making it possible to turn a variety of materials into solar cells, making it cheaper to harness energy from the sun, theoretically reducing our collective dependence on oil and gas.

In the future, printed devices will be incorporated into even the most mundane objects such as labels, posters and packaging, senior author of the paper Jonathan Coleman, professor of chemical physics at Trinity College said in a statement.

Printed electronic circuitry (constructed from the devices we have created) will allow consumer products to gather, process, display and transmit information: for example, milk cartons could send messages to your phone warning that the milk is about to go out-of-date.

We believe that 2D nanomaterials can compete with the materials currently used for printed electronics. Compared to other materials employed in this field, our 2D nanomaterials have the capability to yield more cost effective and higher performance printed devices, he added.

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Nanotechnology breakthrough means almost any surface can become a touchscreen – RT

Nanotechnology in 2017: The Story So Far January – April – AZoNano

By Benedette CuffariApr 4 2017

While the actual term nanotechnology was not introduced until 1974 by Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi, the original concept behind this massively developed field of science was introduced by Richard Feynman in his 1959 speech titled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom.1

In his speech, Feynman discussed that by manipulating the size of a material to be in its smallest form, we are able to learn much more about the phenomena exerted by this material, particularly when presented in complex situations.

Since its initial introduction into the world, the application of nanotechnology has found an ability to revolutionize and improve almost every technology and industry sector of the world today. By converting bulk materials to a nanoscale, this technology has allowed for specific properties such as strength, durability, reactivity, conductance, and several other traits to be tailored towards each project of interest2.

The industries that have found the greatest advantages by manipulating materials into its nanoscale include information technology, homeland security, medicine, energy, food safety, environmental science, transportation and many others.

Many commercial and everyday products now rely on the presence of nanoengineered materials in order to deliver the best possible outcomes following their use, however the application of this technology in advancing scientific fields is also quite impressive.

As researchers around the world are discovering remarkable properties and uses for nanosized particles, scientific meetings such as the international Trends in Nanotechnology meeting, aim at publishing the work that is being done in this revolutionary field. During the week of June 5-9, 2017, researchers from around the world will gather in Dresden, Germany to discuss some of the following hot topics that are going to pave the way in nanotechnology this year:

Find out more about TNT 2017

The application of nanotechnology into the field of photovoltaics is not a new thought, however, the future range of possible nanoapplications in this industry is expected to rise in 2017. Photovoltaics, which describes the ability to generate electricity from light, is a growing market that has faced several challenges due to the high costs associated with the materials required for most solar cells.

While the cost is likely to decrease in the future following the development of thinner wafers and devices capable of exhibiting a higher conversion efficiency, the role of nanotechnology is expected to play an important role in enhancing these properties.

PV Nano Cell has developed an innovative and conductive ink that has found use in solar photovoltaics and other printed electronics applications. The PV Nano Cell SicrysTM product is a single-crystal, nanometric silver, or copper-based, conductive ink, that is capable of delivering the products properties at an enhanced performance rate while also reducing the cost required to do so4.

Photovoltaic ink typically takes only about a minute to dry onto a surface at 100 C, which allows for roll-to-roll manufacturing to occur. This type of manufacturing technique describes a sheet of material being spun off one roll, coated, and rolled back onto a new one in a consecutive and rapid manner, which not only increases production time, but has also been found to enhance the efficiency the functioning capability of solar cells5.

The use of graphene has already found an untenable amount of applications over the last few years, and its use in combination with nanotechnology is no different. The term graphene is used to describe a single atom-thick layer of carbon, and its use has found a successfully applications such as batteries, capacitors, mobile devices, fuel cell-powered cars, water purification, solar cell dyes and many others6.

For example, a graphene-based electrode has recently been developed by researchers from RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, which has the potential to apply solar technology in future devices such as smart phones, laptops, cars and quite possibly buildings7. Not only does this electrode exhibit a storage capacity that is estimated to be 30 times greater, while also being comprised of a much thinner and flexible material as compared to its predecessors.

Learn more about the PV Nano Cell SicrysTM

The future of nanotechnology is expected to have major impacts on all aspects of the world, and its ability to further improve daily life is limitless. From changing the way in which medicine and diagnostic procedures is given to patients to generating new and increasingly efficient ways to generate electricity, nanotechnology seems to hold the key into the future of the world.

References

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

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Nanotechnology in 2017: The Story So Far January – April – AZoNano

Nick champions nanotechnology – Whyalla News

Federal Member for Wakefield Nick Champion has said nanotechnology could provide a boost for Australia’s steel industry in the future.

TECH: Federal Member for Wakefield Nick Champion has said nanotechnology could provide a boost for Australia’s steel industry in the future.

Shadow AssistantMinister for Manufacturing Nick Champion believes nanotechnology could play a big part in the future of Australia’s steel industry, and in particular at the Whyalla Steelworks.

Mr Champion, who visited Whyalla on Thursday, said he had recently been in discussions about the benefits of nanotechnology in steelmaking with the University of Sydney.

I’ve had a couple of pretty interesting meetings…there is some interest in looking at how nanotechnology might affect advanced manufacturing of steel in this country, he said.

[With nanotechnology] you can make steel at a lighter weight and a higher strength, andimprove production processes…there’s definitely some applications.

Mr Champion said he would be discussing the idea with the Whyalla City Council.

Obviously we’re a long ways from determining whether it is commercially applicable, but I do think the way we advance all industries is through the application of technology, he said.

We have to make sure we are commercialising and applying some of the great technology and research that is coming out of our universities.

Speaking on the potential forcogeneration at the Whyalla Steelworks, Mr Champion described it as a very good idea.

The technology is certainly there, it’s a big capital investment, but that of course pays off in the short to medium termthrough being able to recoup those costs through either credits or direct payments from power generation, he said.

Of course we will have to wait and see which company emerges as the buyer for Arrium…given the state is facing the sort of power issues that it is, anytime we can put power in the grid it’s a good thing.

Mr Champion said he was happy to hear that the two remaining bidders for Arrium were seeking buy the company’s operations in one line.

Of course it’s reassuring, we should make this a great national project because there’s always been great productive capacity at the Whyalla Steelworks, he said.

There’s a great workforce there who are really keen to get on with things, and we know that we can produce top grade steel, so it’s important for the country to have the ability to do that.

It should give everyone confidence that this process is working, we’ve got good administrators, a good state government…if we all get behind the community and the steelworks, we should have a good outcome.

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Nick champions nanotechnology – Whyalla News


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