Bitcoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 21, 2017

There’s good news and bad news for Bitcoin (BTC) bulls today. The bad news is that BTC hasn’t shown much in the way of gains over the past week. The good news is that it also hasn’t shown much in the way of losses, either. And considering the wild swings that took place earlier in September, a little bit of stability isn’t the end of the world.

If we’re being honest here, there are two types of people (mainly) who invest in BTC. There are the true believers, who think that cryptocurrencies are going to take over the world and become the money of.

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Bitcoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 21, 2017

Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 15, 2017

As with the rest of the cryptocurrency market, China takes center stage in our Ripple news update. It’s the only thing that matters at the moment, though one could argue that XRP is unfairly caught in the crossfire.

After all, less than five percent of Ripple’s trading volume comes from within China. Add that to the fact that the ban is on trading, and not “blockchain activities,” and it seems like Ripple’s eastward expansion is still on track.

What the regulators objected to was the “disorder” of cryptocurrency exchanges. They aren’t fond of chaos. But.

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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 15, 2017

Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 15, 2017

China is the only Ethereum news that matters today, as crypto markets continue to reel from a Chinese crackdown on local exchanges. The entire crypto market is under siege.

Ethereum to USD prices are down about 20.85% and Ethereum to Bitcoin prices dropped roughly 3.1%, suggesting that investors are coalescing around the market leader in times of uncertainty.

With ETH prices touching a two-month low at $201.62, many are wondering when the pain will stop. The truth is, there might be more pain to come.

Two of China’s largest cryptocurrency exchanges have not yet shut.

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Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 15, 2017

Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

Despite China taking a bat to Litecoin’s knees, the Litecoin-to-USD exchange rate bounced up about 9.68% to roughly $51.89. “What explosive piece of Litecoin news caused this rally?” you ask.

Oddly, nothing in particular.

This was a see-saw moment for Litecoin prices. After tilting hard towards the bearish side last week, investors pushed off the bottom to bring LTC prices back above $50.00.

Perhaps they thought the reaction to China’s ban on cryptocurrency exchanges was a tad overblown. Or perhaps they thought LTC is a buy under $50.00.

In either case, the surge in prices is likely to continue now that the fog of uncertainty has lifted.

Last week, we knew nothing.

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Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

Hallelujah! After a week of non-stop pain, investors finally moved past China’s ban on cryptocurrency exchanges. They bid up prices, bet on fundamentals, and were rewarded with flashing green numbers on their trading monitors.

For instance, the Ethereum-to-USD exchange rate jumped 17% to $280.69 on Sunday.

Considering that it slipped below $200.00 on Friday, the rebound was particularly steep. Who said there’s no resilience in cryptocurrencies? It took less than a week to shrug off China’s ban, which was definitely more than a flesh wound.

Ethereum gained.

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Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

This Cryptocurrency Could Be the Next Bitcoin

Bitcoin Turned $25 into $34 Million
Bitcoin, bitcoin, bitcoin, bitcoin, bitcoin, bitcoin…bitcoin. It’s all that anyone seems to be talking about, yet the volatility of Bitcoin is terrifying. Double-digit swings are a normal occurrence. And no one can explain what it does, at least not in plain English.

But there’s no denying that Bitcoin is a gold mine.

Investors who bought BTC coins in 2013 would have gained 2,411% by now. And those who “mined” the currency made even bigger returns..

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This Cryptocurrency Could Be the Next Bitcoin

Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

While most of the cryptocurrency market hit the snooze button on Monday, Litecoin traders were up and about. More than $408.0 million worth of LTC coins changed hands as the Litecoin to USD exchange rate jumped roughly 4.11%.

Litecoin also gained around 2.9% against Bitcoin, possibly balancing for the different speeds in their recoveries. Nevertheless, it’ll be a long time before the two currencies are disentangled.

To this day, investors perceive Litecoin as “the silver to Bitcoin’s gold.”

There were moments when the market started to value LTC based on Litecoin news alone (which led to all-time highs), but then China rained on everyone’s parade by shutting down.

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Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Ripple prices took a break from the high drama of recent weeks, ending the last 24 hours a slight twitch up to around $0.185670. The stability of the Ripple to USD exchange rate is a constructive signal for investors that grew nervous after the Chinese crackdown.

After all, XRP fell by double digits only a few days ago, putting our annual Ripple price prediction in jeopardy. Cooler heads have prevailed since then, and Ripple is back above where it was a.

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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

For the first time in a week, cryptocurrencies stuck their heads above water. The Ripple-to-USD exchange rate jumped 7.13% to $0.188622, while simultaneously falling 4.22% against Bitcoin.

China’s ban on cryptocurrency exchanges was once again the biggest piece of Ripple news. This time, however, prices moved to the upside, because investors realized that last week’s reaction was a little excessive (if not downright apocalyptic).

What makes it worse is that Ripple didn’t deserve the beating it took last week.

For one thing, less than five percent of its.

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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

As the dust settles from China’s crackdown on cryptocurrencies, Ethereum looks poised for a rally that could send it across the $300.00 level. However, the situation remains tenuous.

The Chinese ban confirmed the worst fears of some investors—that central banks and other vested interests will regulate against cryptocurrencies to keep their hold on power.

It’s not an unreasonable fear, but I should add that regulators only banned yuan to crypto exchanges, not the existence of blockchain itself. That may sound like a difference without a distinction, but it could be.

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Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Bitcoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Bitcoin (BTC) is once again nearing the all-important $4,000 threshold, a significant bounce-back compared to last week’s low point of $3,200 that came as a result of China’s crackdown on initial coin offerings (ICO).

Of course, the brightest cryptocurrency future has to include the Chinese market and its loads of cash, but for now, Bitcoin should be able to pull itself up steadily back to the $5,000 mark without China’s help.

Cryptocurrencies will need to find a way to reintegrate themselves into the Chinese market in the long term. BTC prices benefit from a surge in.

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Bitcoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

Nanotechnology (“nanotech”) is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology[1][2] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies” as well as “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size. Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Until 2012, through its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA has invested 3.7 billion dollars, the European Union has invested 1.2 billion and Japan 750 million dollars.[3]

Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, molecular engineering, etc.[4] The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.

Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials,[5] and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term “nano-technology” was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known.

Inspired by Feynman’s concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term “nanotechnology” in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale “assembler” which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute (with which he is no longer affiliated) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.

Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler’s theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era.

First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. The microscope’s developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.[6][7] Binnig, Quate and Gerber also invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year.

Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, and Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[8][9] C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology; the term was used regarding subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices.

In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society’s report on nanotechnology.[10] Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003.[11]

Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.[12][13]

Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale, and in Europe via the European Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.

By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps[14][15] which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.

Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 109, of a meter. By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.120.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200nm in length. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm diameter) since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size below which phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device.[16] These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger scale and come under the description of microtechnology.[17]

To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth.[18] Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man’s beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face.[18]

Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.[19] In the “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.[20]

Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, nanophotonics and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology.

Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, the so-called quantum realm. Additionally, a number of physical (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics. Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials.

Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances can become transparent (copper); stable materials can turn combustible (aluminium); insoluble materials may become soluble (gold). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale.[21]

Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.

These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. The WatsonCrick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole.

Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology, most notably WatsonCrick basepairing and enzyme-substrate interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones.

Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles.

When the term “nanotechnology” was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced.

It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers[22] have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification.[23] The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler’s book Nanosystems.

In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as one has to position atoms on other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno,[24] is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Richard Smalley argued that mechanosynthesis are impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules.

This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003.[25] Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley.[1] They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor, a molecular actuator,[26] and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator.[27] See nanotube nanomotor for more examples.

An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage.

The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.[30]

These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.

These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.

These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled.

These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.

Nanomaterials can be classified in 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D nanomaterials. The dimensionality play a major role in determining the characteristic of nanomaterials including physical, chemical and biological characteristics. With the decrease in dimensionality, an increase in surface-to-volume ratio is observed. This indicate that smaller dimensional nanomaterials have higher surface area compared to 3D nanomaterials. Recently, two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are extensively investigated for electronic, biomedical, drug delivery and biosensor applications.

There are several important modern developments. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy. Although conceptually similar to the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s, newer scanning probe microscopes have much higher resolution, since they are not limited by the wavelength of sound or light.

The tip of a scanning probe can also be used to manipulate nanostructures (a process called positional assembly). Feature-oriented scanning methodology may be a promising way to implement these nanomanipulations in automatic mode.[45][46] However, this is still a slow process because of low scanning velocity of the microscope.

Various techniques of nanolithography such as optical lithography, X-ray lithography dip pen nanolithography, electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography were also developed. Lithography is a top-down fabrication technique where a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern.

Another group of nanotechnological techniques include those used for fabrication of nanotubes and nanowires, those used in semiconductor fabrication such as deep ultraviolet lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam machining, nanoimprint lithography, atomic layer deposition, and molecular vapor deposition, and further including molecular self-assembly techniques such as those employing di-block copolymers. The precursors of these techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research.[47]

The top-down approach anticipates nanodevices that must be built piece by piece in stages, much as manufactured items are made. Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. By designing different tips for these microscopes, they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. By using, for example, feature-oriented scanning approach, atoms or molecules can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques.[45][46] At present, it is expensive and time-consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation.

In contrast, bottom-up techniques build or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. These techniques include chemical synthesis, self-assembly and positional assembly. Dual polarisation interferometry is one tool suitable for characterisation of self assembled thin films. Another variation of the bottom-up approach is molecular beam epitaxy or MBE. Researchers at Bell Telephone Laboratories like John R. Arthur. Alfred Y. Cho, and Art C. Gossard developed and implemented MBE as a research tool in the late 1960s and 1970s. Samples made by MBE were key to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect for which the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. MBE allows scientists to lay down atomically precise layers of atoms and, in the process, build up complex structures. Important for research on semiconductors, MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics.

However, new therapeutic products, based on responsive nanomaterials, such as the ultradeformable, stress-sensitive Transfersome vesicles, are under development and already approved for human use in some countries.[48]

As of August 21, 2008, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies estimates that over 800 manufacturer-identified nanotech products are publicly available, with new ones hitting the market at a pace of 34 per week.[13] The project lists all of the products in a publicly accessible online database. Most applications are limited to the use of “first generation” passive nanomaterials which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics, surface coatings,[49] and some food products; Carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape; silver in food packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens and cosmetics, surface coatings, paints and outdoor furniture varnishes; and cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst.[12]

Further applications allow tennis balls to last longer, golf balls to fly straighter, and even bowling balls to become more durable and have a harder surface. Trousers and socks have been infused with nanotechnology so that they will last longer and keep people cool in the summer. Bandages are being infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster.[50]Video game consoles and personal computers may become cheaper, faster, and contain more memory thanks to nanotechnology.[51] Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner’s office and at home.[52] Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterials so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future.[53]

Scientists are now turning to nanotechnology in an attempt to develop diesel engines with cleaner exhaust fumes. Platinum is currently used as the diesel engine catalyst in these engines. The catalyst is what cleans the exhaust fume particles. First a reduction catalyst is employed to take nitrogen atoms from NOx molecules in order to free oxygen. Next the oxidation catalyst oxidizes the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and water.[54] Platinum is used in both the reduction and the oxidation catalysts.[55] Using platinum though, is inefficient in that it is expensive and unsustainable. Danish company InnovationsFonden invested DKK 15 million in a search for new catalyst substitutes using nanotechnology. The goal of the project, launched in the autumn of 2014, is to maximize surface area and minimize the amount of material required. Objects tend to minimize their surface energy; two drops of water, for example, will join to form one drop and decrease surface area. If the catalyst’s surface area that is exposed to the exhaust fumes is maximized, efficiency of the catalyst is maximized. The team working on this project aims to create nanoparticles that will not merge. Every time the surface is optimized, material is saved. Thus, creating these nanoparticles will increase the effectiveness of the resulting diesel engine catalystin turn leading to cleaner exhaust fumesand will decrease cost. If successful, the team hopes to reduce platinum use by 25%.[56]

Nanotechnology also has a prominent role in the fast developing field of Tissue Engineering. When designing scaffolds, researchers attempt to the mimic the nanoscale features of a Cell’s microenvironment to direct its differentiation down a suitable lineage.[57] For example, when creating scaffolds to support the growth of bone, researchers may mimic osteoclast resorption pits.[58]

Researchers have successfully used DNA origami-based nanobots capable of carrying out logic functions to achieve targeted drug delivery in cockroaches. It is said that the computational power of these nanobots can be scaled up to that of a Commodore 64.[59]

An area of concern is the effect that industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have on human health and the environment, as suggested by nanotoxicology research. For these reasons, some groups advocate that nanotechnology be regulated by governments. Others counter that overregulation would stifle scientific research and the development of beneficial innovations. Public health research agencies, such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are actively conducting research on potential health effects stemming from exposures to nanoparticles.[60][61]

Some nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. Researchers have discovered that bacteriostatic silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odor are being released in the wash.[62] These particles are then flushed into the waste water stream and may destroy bacteria which are critical components of natural ecosystems, farms, and waste treatment processes.[63]

Public deliberations on risk perception in the US and UK carried out by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society found that participants were more positive about nanotechnologies for energy applications than for health applications, with health applications raising moral and ethical dilemmas such as cost and availability.[64]

Experts, including director of the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski, have testified[65] that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight, risk research strategy, and public engagement. Berkeley, California is currently the only city in the United States to regulate nanotechnology;[66]Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2008 considered enacting a similar law,[67] but ultimately rejected it.[68] Relevant for both research on and application of nanotechnologies, the insurability of nanotechnology is contested.[69] Without state regulation of nanotechnology, the availability of private insurance for potential damages is seen as necessary to ensure that burdens are not socialised implicitly.

Nanofibers are used in several areas and in different products, in everything from aircraft wings to tennis rackets. Inhaling airborne nanoparticles and nanofibers may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases, e.g. fibrosis.[70] Researchers have found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles, the particles settled in the brain and lungs, which led to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response[71] and that nanoparticles induce skin aging through oxidative stress in hairless mice.[72][73]

A two-year study at UCLA’s School of Public Health found lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree “linked to all the big killers of man, namely cancer, heart disease, neurological disease and aging”.[74]

A major study published more recently in Nature Nanotechnology suggests some forms of carbon nanotubes a poster child for the “nanotechnology revolution” could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. Anthony Seaton of the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland, who contributed to the article on carbon nanotubes said “We know that some of them probably have the potential to cause mesothelioma. So those sorts of materials need to be handled very carefully.”[75] In the absence of specific regulation forthcoming from governments, Paull and Lyons (2008) have called for an exclusion of engineered nanoparticles in food.[76] A newspaper article reports that workers in a paint factory developed serious lung disease and nanoparticles were found in their lungs.[77][78][79][80]

Calls for tighter regulation of nanotechnology have occurred alongside a growing debate related to the human health and safety risks of nanotechnology.[81] There is significant debate about who is responsible for the regulation of nanotechnology. Some regulatory agencies currently cover some nanotechnology products and processes (to varying degrees) by “bolting on” nanotechnology to existing regulations there are clear gaps in these regimes.[82] Davies (2008) has proposed a regulatory road map describing steps to deal with these shortcomings.[83]

Stakeholders concerned by the lack of a regulatory framework to assess and control risks associated with the release of nanoparticles and nanotubes have drawn parallels with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow” disease), thalidomide, genetically modified food,[84] nuclear energy, reproductive technologies, biotechnology, and asbestosis. Dr. Andrew Maynard, chief science advisor to the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, concludes that there is insufficient funding for human health and safety research, and as a result there is currently limited understanding of the human health and safety risks associated with nanotechnology.[85] As a result, some academics have called for stricter application of the precautionary principle, with delayed marketing approval, enhanced labelling and additional safety data development requirements in relation to certain forms of nanotechnology.[86][87]

The Royal Society report[10] identified a risk of nanoparticles or nanotubes being released during disposal, destruction and recycling, and recommended that “manufacturers of products that fall under extended producer responsibility regimes such as end-of-life regulations publish procedures outlining how these materials will be managed to minimize possible human and environmental exposure” (p. xiii).

The Center for Nanotechnology in Society has found that people respond to nanotechnologies differently, depending on application with participants in public deliberations more positive about nanotechnologies for energy than health applications suggesting that any public calls for nano regulations may differ by technology sector.[64]

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Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

What is Nanotechnology? | Nano

Nanotechnology is science, engineering, and technologyconductedat the nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers.

Physicist Richard Feynman, the father of nanotechnology.

Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

The ideas and concepts behind nanoscience and nanotechnology started with a talk entitled Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom by physicist Richard Feynman at an American Physical Society meeting at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on December 29, 1959, long before the term nanotechnology was used. In his talk, Feynman described a process in which scientists would be able to manipulate and control individual atoms and molecules. Over a decade later, in his explorations of ultraprecision machining, Professor Norio Taniguchi coined the term nanotechnology. It wasn’t until 1981, with the development of the scanning tunneling microscope that could “see” individual atoms, that modern nanotechnology began.

Its hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology is. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9 of a meter. Here are a few illustrative examples:

Nanoscience and nanotechnology involve the ability to see and to control individual atoms and molecules. Everything on Earth is made up of atomsthe food we eat, the clothes we wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our own bodies.

But something as small as an atom is impossible to see with the naked eye. In fact, its impossible to see with the microscopes typically used in a high school science classes. The microscopes needed to see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively recentlyabout 30 years ago.

Once scientists had the right tools, such as thescanning tunneling microscope (STM)and the atomic force microscope (AFM), the age of nanotechnology was born.

Although modern nanoscience and nanotechnology are quite new, nanoscale materialswereused for centuries. Alternate-sized gold and silver particles created colors in the stained glass windows of medieval churches hundreds of years ago. The artists back then just didnt know that the process they used to create these beautiful works of art actually led to changes in the composition of the materials they were working with.

Today’s scientists andengineers are finding a wide variety of ways to deliberatelymake materials at the nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced properties such as higher strength, lighter weight,increased control oflight spectrum, and greater chemical reactivity than theirlarger-scale counterparts.

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Nanotechnology, the manipulation and manufacture of materials and devices on the scale of atoms or small groups of atoms. The nanoscale is typically measured in nanometres, or billionths of a metre (nanos, the Greek word for dwarf, being the source of the prefix), and materials built at this scale often exhibit distinctive physical and chemical properties due to quantum mechanical effects. Although usable devices this small may be decades away (see microelectromechanical system), techniques for working at the nanoscale have become essential to electronic engineering, and nanoengineered materials have begun to appear in consumer products. For example, billions of microscopic nanowhiskers, each about 10 nanometres in length, have been molecularly hooked onto natural and synthetic fibres to impart stain resistance to clothing and other fabrics; zinc oxide nanocrystals have been used to create invisible sunscreens that block ultraviolet light; and silver nanocrystals have been embedded in bandages to kill bacteria and prevent infection.

Possibilities for the future are numerous. Nanotechnology may make it possible to manufacture lighter, stronger, and programmable materials that require less energy to produce than conventional materials, that produce less waste than with conventional manufacturing, and that promise greater fuel efficiency in land transportation, ships, aircraft, and space vehicles. Nanocoatings for both opaque and translucent surfaces may render them resistant to corrosion, scratches, and radiation. Nanoscale electronic, magnetic, and mechanical devices and systems with unprecedented levels of information processing may be fabricated, as may chemical, photochemical, and biological sensors for protection, health care, manufacturing, and the environment; new photoelectric materials that will enable the manufacture of cost-efficient solar-energy panels; and molecular-semiconductor hybrid devices that may become engines for the next revolution in the information age. The potential for improvements in health, safety, quality of life, and conservation of the environment are vast.

At the same time, significant challenges must be overcome for the benefits of nanotechnology to be realized. Scientists must learn how to manipulate and characterize individual atoms and small groups of atoms reliably. New and improved tools are needed to control the properties and structure of materials at the nanoscale; significant improvements in computer simulations of atomic and molecular structures are essential to the understanding of this realm. Next, new tools and approaches are needed for assembling atoms and molecules into nanoscale systems and for the further assembly of small systems into more-complex objects. Furthermore, nanotechnology products must provide not only improved performance but also lower cost. Finally, without integration of nanoscale objects with systems at the micro- and macroscale (that is, from millionths of a metre up to the millimetre scale), it will be very difficult to exploit many of the unique properties found at the nanoscale.

Nanotechnology is highly interdisciplinary, involving physics, chemistry, biology, materials science, and the full range of the engineering disciplines. The word nanotechnology is widely used as shorthand to refer to both the science and the technology of this emerging field. Narrowly defined, nanoscience concerns a basic understanding of physical, chemical, and biological properties on atomic and near-atomic scales. Nanotechnology, narrowly defined, employs controlled manipulation of these properties to create materials and functional systems with unique capabilities.

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In contrast to recent engineering efforts, nature developed nanotechnologies over billions of years, employing enzymes and catalysts to organize with exquisite precision different kinds of atoms and molecules into complex microscopic structures that make life possible. These natural products are built with great efficiency and have impressive capabilities, such as the power to harvest solar energy, to convert minerals and water into living cells, to store and process massive amounts of data using large arrays of nerve cells, and to replicate perfectly billions of bits of information stored in molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

There are two principal reasons for qualitative differences in material behaviour at the nanoscale (traditionally defined as less than 100 nanometres). First, quantum mechanical effects come into play at very small dimensions and lead to new physics and chemistry. Second, a defining feature at the nanoscale is the very large surface-to-volume ratio of these structures. This means that no atom is very far from a surface or interface, and the behaviour of atoms at these higher-energy sites have a significant influence on the properties of the material. For example, the reactivity of a metal catalyst particle generally increases appreciably as its size is reducedmacroscopic gold is chemically inert, whereas at nanoscales gold becomes extremely reactive and catalytic and even melts at a lower temperature. Thus, at nanoscale dimensions material properties depend on and change with size, as well as composition and structure.

Using the processes of nanotechnology, basic industrial production may veer dramatically from the course followed by steel plants and chemical factories of the past. Raw materials will come from the atoms of abundant elementscarbon, hydrogen, and siliconand these will be manipulated into precise configurations to create nanostructured materials that exhibit exactly the right properties for each particular application. For example, carbon atoms can be bonded together in a number of different geometries to create variously a fibre, a tube, a molecular coating, or a wire, all with the superior strength-to-weight ratio of another carbon materialdiamond. Additionally, such material processing need not require smokestacks, power-hungry industrial machinery, or intensive human labour. Instead, it may be accomplished either by growing new structures through some combination of chemical catalysts and synthetic enzymes or by building them through new techniques based on patterning and self-assembly of nanoscale materials into useful predetermined designs. Nanotechnology ultimately may allow people to fabricate almost any type of material or product allowable under the laws of physics and chemistry. While such possibilities seem remote, even approaching natures virtuosity in energy-efficient fabrication would be revolutionary.

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Even more revolutionary would be the fabrication of nanoscale machines and devices for incorporation into micro- and macroscale systems. Once again, nature has led the way with the fabrication of both linear and rotary molecular motors. These biological machines carry out such tasks as muscle contraction (in organisms ranging from clams to humans) and shuttling little packets of material around within cells while being powered by the recyclable, energy-efficient fuel adenosine triphosphate. Scientists are only beginning to develop the tools to fabricate functioning systems at such small scales, with most advances based on electronic or magnetic information processing and storage systems. The energy-efficient, reconfigurable, and self-repairing aspects of biological systems are just becoming understood.

The potential impact of nanotechnology processes, machines, and products is expected to be far-reaching, affecting nearly every conceivable information technology, energy source, agricultural product, medical device, pharmaceutical, and material used in manufacturing. Meanwhile, the dimensions of electronic circuits on semiconductors continue to shrink, with minimum feature sizes now reaching the nanorealm, under 100 nanometres. Likewise, magnetic memory materials, which form the basis of hard disk drives, have achieved dramatically greater memory density as a result of nanoscale structuring to exploit new magnetic effects at nanodimensions. These latter two areas represent another major trend, the evolution of critical elements of microtechnology into the realm of nanotechnology to enhance performance. They are immense markets driven by the rapid advance of information technology.

In a lecture in 1959 to the American Physical Society, Theres Plenty of Room at the Bottom, American Nobelist Richard P. Feynman presented his audience with a vision of what could be done with extreme miniaturization. He began his lecture by noting that the Lords Prayer had been written on the head of a pin and asked,

Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopdia Britannica on the head of a pin? Lets see what would be involved. The head of a pin is a sixteenth of an inch across. If you magnify it by 25,000 diameters, the area of the head of the pin is then equal to the area of all the pages of the Encyclopdia Britannica. Therefore, all it is necessary to do is to reduce in size all the writing in the Encyclopdia by 25,000 times. Is that possible? The resolving power of the eye is about 1/120 of an inchthat is roughly the diameter of one of the little dots on the fine half-tone reproductions in the Encyclopdia. This, when you demagnify it by 25,000 times, is still 80 angstroms in diameter32 atoms across, in an ordinary metal. In other words, one of those dots still would contain in its area 1,000 atoms. So, each dot can easily be adjusted in size as required by the photoengraving, and there is no question that there is enough room on the head of a pin to put all of the Encyclopdia Britannica.

Feynman was intrigued by biology and pointed out that

cells are very tiny, but they are very active; they manufacture various substances; they walk around; they wiggle; and they do all kinds of marvelous thingsall on a very small scale. Also, they store information. Consider the possibility that we too can make a thing very small which does what we wantthat we can manufacture an object that maneuvers at that level!

He also considered using big tools to make smaller tools that could make yet smaller tools, eventually obtaining nanoscale tools for directly manipulating atoms and molecules. In considering what all this might mean, Feynman declared,

I can hardly doubt that when we have some control of the arrangement of things on a small scale we will get an enormously greater range of possible properties that substances can have, and of different things that we can do.

Perhaps the biggest barrier to following these prophetic thoughts was simply the immediate lack of tools to manipulate and visualize matter at such a small scale. The availability of tools has always been an enabling aspect of the advance of all science and technology, and some of the key tools for nanotechnology are discussed in the next section, Pioneers.

Starting with a 1981 paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and following with two popular books, Engines of Creation (1986) and Nanosystems (1992), American scientist K. Eric Drexler became one of the foremost advocates of nanotechnology. In fact, Drexler was the first person anywhere to receive a Ph.D. in molecular nanotechnology (from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology). In his written works he takes a molecular view of the world and envisions molecular machines doing much of the work of the future. For example, he refers to assemblers, which will manipulate individual atoms to manufacture structures, and replicators, which will be able to make multiple copies of themselves in order to save time dealing with the billions of atoms needed to make objects of useful size. In an article for Encyclopdia Britannicas 1990 Yearbook of Science and the Future, Drexler wrote:

Cells and tissues in the human body are built and maintained by molecular machinery, but sometimes that machinery proves inadequate: viruses multiply, cancer cells spread, or systems age and deteriorate. As one might expect, new molecular machines and computers of subcellular size could support the bodys own mechanisms. Devices containing nanocomputers interfaced to molecular sensors and effectors could serve as an augmented immune system, searching out and destroying viruses and cancer cells. Similar devices programmed as repair machines could enter living cells to edit out viral DNA sequences and repair molecular damage. Such machines would bring surgical control to the molecular level, opening broad new horizons in medicine.

Drexlers futurist visions have stimulated much thought, but the assembler approach has failed to account for the strong influence of atomic and molecular forces (i.e., the chemistry) at such dimensions. The controversy surrounding these popularizations, and the potential dangers of entities such as intelligent replicators (however remote), have stimulated debate over the ethical and societal implications of nanotechnology.

A number of key technological milestones have been achieved by working pioneers. Molecular beam epitaxy, invented by Alfred Cho and John Arthur at Bell Labs in 1968 and developed in the 1970s, enabled the controlled deposition of single atomic layers. This tool provided for nanostructuring in one dimension as atomic layers were grown one upon the next. It subsequently became important in the area of compound semiconductor device fabrication. For example, sandwiching one-nanometre-thick layers of nonmagnetic-sensor materials between magnetic layers in computer disk drives resulted in large increases in storage capacity, and a similar use of nanostructuring resulted in more energy-efficient semiconductor lasers for use in compact disc players.

In 1981 Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer developed the scanning tunneling microscope at IBMs laboratories in Switzerland. This tool provided a revolutionary advance by enabling scientists to image the position of individual atoms on surfaces. It earned Binnig and Rohrer a Nobel Prize in 1986 and spawned a wide variety of scanning probe tools for nanoscale observations.

The observation of new carbon structures marked another important milestone in the advance of nanotechnology, with Nobel Prizes for the discoverers. In 1985 Robert F. Curl, Jr., Harold W. Kroto, and Richard E. Smalley discovered the first fullerene, the third known form of pure carbon (after diamond and graphite). They named their discovery buckminsterfullerene (buckyball) for its resemblance to the geodesic domes promoted by the American architect R. Buckminster Fuller. Technically called C60 for the 60 carbon atoms that form their hollow spherical structure, buckyballs resemble a football one nanometre in diameter (see figure). In 1991 Sumio Iijima of NEC Corporation in Japan discovered carbon nanotubes, in which the carbon ringlike structures are extended from spheres into long tubes of varying diameter. Taken together, these new structures surprised and excited the imaginations of scientists about the possibilities of forming well-defined nanostructures with unexpected new properties.

The scanning tunneling microscope not only allowed for the imaging of atoms by scanning a sharp probe tip over a surface, but it also allowed atoms to be pushed around on the surface. With a slight bias voltage applied to the probe tip, certain atoms could be made to adhere to the tip used for imaging and then to be released from it. Thus, in 1990 Donald Eigler spelled out the letters of his companys logo, IBM, by moving 35 xenon atoms into place on a nickel surface. This demonstration caught the publics attention because it showed the precision of the emerging nanoscale tools.

At nanoscale dimensions the properties of materials no longer depend solely on composition and structure in the usual sense. Nanomaterials display new phenomena associated with quantized effects and with the preponderance of surfaces and interfaces.

Quantized effects arise in the nanometre regime because the overall dimensions of objects are comparable to the characteristic wavelength for fundamental excitations in materials. For example, electron wave functions (see also de Broglie wave) in semiconductors are typically on the order of 10 to 100 nanometres. Such excitations include the wavelength of electrons, photons, phonons, and magnons, to name a few. These excitations carry the quanta of energy through materials and thus determine the dynamics of their propagation and transformation from one form to another. When the size of structures is comparable to the quanta themselves, it influences how these excitations move through and interact in the material. Small structures may limit flow, create wave interference effects, and otherwise bring into play quantum mechanical selection rules not apparent at larger dimensions.

Quantum mechanical properties for confinement of electrons in one dimension have long been exploited in solid-state electronics. Semiconductor devices are grown with thin layers of differing composition so that electrons (or holes in the case of missing electron charges) can be confined in specific regions of the structure (known as quantum wells). Thin layers with larger energy bandgaps can serve as barriers that restrict the flow of charges to certain conditions under which they can tunnel through these barriersthe basis of resonant tunneling diodes. Superlattices are periodic structures of repeating wells that set up a new set of selection rules which affect the conditions for charges to flow through the structure. Superlattices have been exploited in cascade lasers to achieve far infrared wavelengths. Modern telecommunications is based on semiconductor lasers that exploit the unique properties of quantum wells to achieve specific wavelengths and high efficiency.

The propagation of photons is altered dramatically when the size and periodicity of the transient structure approach the wavelength of visible light (400 to 800 nanometres). When photons propagate through a periodically varying dielectric constantfor example, semiconductor posts surrounded by airquantum mechanical rules define and limit the propagation of the photons depending on their energy (wavelength). This new behaviour is analogous to the quantum mechanical rules that define the motion of electrons through crystals, giving bandgaps for semiconductors. In one dimension, compound semiconductor superlattices can be grown epitaxially with the alternating layers having different dielectric constants, thus providing highly reflective mirrors for specific wavelengths as determined by the repeat distance of layers in the superlattice. These structures are used to provide built-in mirrors for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, which are used in communications applications. In two and three dimensions, periodic structures known as photonic crystals offer additional control over photon propagation.

Photonic crystals are being explored in a variety of materials and periodicities, such as two-dimensional hexagonal arrays of posts fabricated in compound semiconductors or stacked loglike arrays of silicon bars in three dimensions. The dimensions of these structures depend on the wavelength of light being propagated and are typically in the range of a few hundred nanometres for wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. Photonic crystal properties based on nanostructured materials offer the possibility of confining, steering, and separating light by wavelength on unprecedented small scales and of creating new devices such as lasers that require very low currents to initiate lasing (called near-thresholdless lasers). These structures are being extensively investigated as the tools for nanostructuring materials are steadily advancing. Researchers are particularly interested in the infrared wavelengths, where dimensional control is not as stringent as at the shorter visible wavelengths and where optical communications and chemical sensing provide motivation for potential new applications.

Nanoscale materials also have size-dependent magnetic behaviour, mechanical properties, and chemical reactivity. At very small sizes (a few nanometres), magnetic nanoclusters have a single magnetic domain, and the strongly coupled magnetic spins on each atom combine to produce a particle with a single giant spin. For example, the giant spin of a ferromagnetic iron particle rotates freely at room temperature for diameters below about 16 nanometres, an effect termed superparamagnetism. Mechanical properties of nanostructured materials can reach exceptional strengths. As a specific example, the introduction of two-nanometre aluminum oxide precipitates into thin films of pure nickel results in yield strengths increasing from 0.15 to 5 gigapascals, which is more than twice that for a hard bearing steel. Another example of exceptional mechanical properties at the nanoscale is the carbon nanotube, which exhibits great strength and stiffness along its longitudinal axis.

The preponderance of surfaces is a major reason for the change in behaviour of materials at the nanoscale. Since up to half of all the atoms in nanoparticles are surface atoms, properties such as electrical transport are no longer determined by solid-state bulk phenomena. Likewise, the atoms in nanostructures have a higher average energy than atoms in larger structures, because of the large proportion of surface atoms. For example, catalytic materials have a greater chemical activity per atom of exposed surface as the catalyst is reduced in size at the nanoscale. Defects and impurities may be attracted to surfaces and interfaces, and interactions between particles at these small dimensions can depend on the structure and nature of chemical bonding at the surface. Molecular monolayers may be used to change or control surface properties and to mediate the interaction between nanoparticles.

Surfaces and their interactions with molecular structures are basic to all biology. The intersection of nanotechnology and biotechnology offers the possibility of achieving new functions and properties with nanostructured surfaces. In this surface- and interface-dominated regime, biology does an exquisite job of selectively controlling functions through a combination of structure and chemical forces. The transcription of information stored in genes and the selectivity of biochemical reactions based on chemical recognition of complex molecules are examples where interfaces play the key role in establishing nanoscale behaviour. Atomic forces and chemical bonds dominate at these dimensions, while macroscopic effectssuch as convection, turbulence, and momentum (inertial forces)are of little consequence.

As discussed in the section Properties at the nanoscale, material propertieselectrical, optical, magnetic, mechanical, and chemicaldepend on their exact dimensions. This opens the way for development of new and improved materials through manipulation of their nanostructure. Hierarchical assemblies of nanoscale-engineered materials into larger structures, or their incorporation into devices, provide the basis for tailoring radically new materials and machines.

Natures assemblies point the way to improving structural materials. The often-cited abalone seashell provides a beautiful example of how the combination of a hard, brittle inorganic material with nanoscale structuring and a soft, tough organic material can produce a strong, durable nanocompositebasically, these nanocomposites are made of calcium carbonate bricks held together by a glycoprotein glue. New engineered materials are emergingsuch as polymer-clay nanocompositesthat are not only strong and tough but also lightweight and easier to recycle than conventional reinforced plastics. Such improvements in structural materials are particularly important for the transportation industry, where reduced weight directly translates into improved fuel economy. Other improvements can increase safety or decrease the impact on the environment of fabrication and recycling. Further advances, such as truly smart materials that signal their impending failure or are even able to self-repair flaws, may be possible with composites of the future.

Sensors are central to almost all modern control systems. For example, multiple sensors are used in automobiles for such diverse tasks as engine management, emission control, security, safety, comfort, vehicle monitoring, and diagnostics. While such traditional applications for physical sensing generally rely on microscale sensing devices, the advent of nanoscale materials and structures has led to new electronic, photonic, and magnetic nanosensors, sometimes known as smart dust. Because of their small size, nanosensors exhibit unprecedented speed and sensitivity, extending in some cases down to the detection of single molecules. For example, nanowires made of carbon nanotubes, silicon, or other semiconductor materials exhibit exceptional sensitivity to chemical species or biological agents. Electrical current through nanowires can be altered by having molecules attached to their surface that locally perturb their electronic band structure. By means of nanowire surfaces coated with sensor molecules that selectively attach particular species, charge-induced changes in current can be used to detect the presence of those species. This same strategy is adopted for many classes of sensing systems. New types of sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity and specificity will have many applications; for example, sensors that can detect cancerous tumours when they consist of only a few cells would be a very significant advance.

Nanomaterials also make excellent filters for trapping heavy metals and other pollutants from industrial wastewater. One of the greatest potential impacts of nanotechnology on the lives of the majority of people on Earth will be in the area of economical water desalination and purification. Nanomaterials will very likely find important use in fuel cells, bioconversion for energy, bioprocessing of food products, waste remediation, and pollution-control systems.

A recent concern regarding nanoparticles is whether their small sizes and novel properties may pose significant health or environmental risks. In general, ultrafine particlessuch as the carbon in photocopier toners or in soot produced by combustion engines and factorieshave adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects on people and animals. Studies are under way to determine if specific nanoscale particles pose higher risks that may require special regulatory restrictions. Of particular concern are potential carcinogenic risks from inhaled particles and the possibility for very small nanoparticles to cross the blood-brain barrier to unknown effect. Nanomaterials currently receiving attention from health officials include carbon nanotubes, buckyballs, and cadmium selenide quantum dots. Studies of the absorption through the skin of titanium oxide nanoparticles (used in sunscreens) are also planned. More far-ranging studies of the toxicity, transport, and overall fate of nanoparticles in ecosystems and the environment have not yet been undertaken. Some early animal studies, involving the introduction of very high levels of nanoparticles which resulted in the rapid death of many of the subjects, are quite controversial.

Nanotechnology promises to impact medical treatment in multiple ways. First, advances in nanoscale particle design and fabrication provide new options for drug delivery and drug therapies. More than half of the new drugs developed each year are not water-soluble, which makes their delivery difficult. In the form of nanosized particles, however, these drugs are more readily transported to their destination, and they can be delivered in the conventional form of pills.

More important, nanotechnology may enable drugs to be delivered to precisely the right location in the body and to release drug doses on a predetermined schedule for optimal treatment. The general approach is to attach the drug to a nanosized carrier that will release the medicine in the body over an extended period of time or when specifically triggered to do so. In addition, the surfaces of these nanoscale carriers may be treated to seek out and become localized at a disease sitefor example, attaching to cancerous tumours. One type of molecule of special interest for these applications is an organic dendrimer. A dendrimer is a special class of polymeric molecule that weaves in and out from a hollow central region. These spherical fuzz balls are about the size of a typical protein but cannot unfold like proteins. Interest in dendrimers derives from the ability to tailor their cavity sizes and chemical properties to hold different therapeutic agents. Researchers hope to design different dendrimers that can swell and release their drug on exposure to specifically recognized molecules that indicate a disease target. This same general approach to nanoparticle-directed drug delivery is being explored for other types of nanoparticles as well.

Another approach involves gold-coated nanoshells whose size can be adjusted to absorb light energy at different wavelengths. In particular, infrared light will pass through several centimetres of body tissue, allowing a delicate and precise heating of such capsules in order to release the therapeutic substance within. Furthermore, antibodies may be attached to the outer gold surface of the shells to cause them to bind specifically to certain tumour cells, thereby reducing the damage to surrounding healthy cells.

A second area of intense study in nanomedicine is that of developing new diagnostic tools. Motivation for this work ranges from fundamental biomedical research at the level of single genes or cells to point-of-care applications for health delivery services. With advances in molecular biology, much diagnostic work now focuses on detecting specific biological signatures. These analyses are referred to as bioassays. Examples include studies to determine which genes are active in response to a particular disease or drug therapy. A general approach involves attaching fluorescing dye molecules to the target biomolecules in order to reveal their concentration.

Another approach to bioassays uses semiconductor nanoparticles, such as cadmium selenide, which emit light of a specific wavelength depending on their size. Different-size particles can be tagged to different receptors so that a wider variety of distinct colour tags are available than can be distinguished for dye molecules. The degradation in fluorescence with repeated excitation for dyes is avoided. Furthermore, various-size particles can be encapsulated in latex beads and their resulting wavelengths read like a bar code. This approach, while still in the exploratory stage, would allow for an enormous number of distinct labels for bioassays.

Another nanotechnology variation on bioassays is to attach one half of the single-stranded complementary DNA segment for the genetic sequence to be detected to one set of gold particles and the other half to a second set of gold particles. When the material of interest is present in a solution, the two attachments cause the gold balls to agglomerate, providing a large change in optical properties that can be seen in the colour of the solution. If both halves of the sequence do not match, no agglomeration will occur and no change will be observed.

Approaches that do not involve optical detection techniques are also being explored with nanoparticles. For example, magnetic nanoparticles can be attached to antibodies that in turn recognize and attach to specific biomolecules. The magnetic particles then act as tags and handlebars through which magnetic fields can be used for mixing, extracting, or identifying the attached biomolecules within microlitre- or nanolitre-sized samples. For example, magnetic nanoparticles stay magnetized as a single domain for a significant period, which enables them to be aligned and detected in a magnetic field. In particular, attached antibodymagnetic-nanoparticle combinations rotate slowly and give a distinctive magnetic signal. In contrast, magnetically tagged antibodies that are not attached to the biological material being detected rotate more rapidly and so do not give the same distinctive signal.

Microfluidic systems, or labs-on-chips, have been developed for biochemical assays of minuscule samples. Typically cramming numerous electronic and mechanical components into a portable unit no larger than a credit card, they are especially useful for conducting rapid analysis in the field. While these microfluidic systems primarily operate at the microscale (that is, millionths of a metre), nanotechnology has contributed new concepts and will likely play an increasing role in the future. For example, separation of DNA is sensitive to entropic effects, such as the entropy required to unfold DNA of a given length. A new approach to separating DNA could take advantage of its passage through a nanoscale array of posts or channels such that DNA molecules of different lengths would uncoil at different rates.

Other researchers have focused on detecting signal changes as nanometre-wide DNA strands are threaded through a nanoscale pore. Early studies used pores punched in membranes by viruses; artificially fabricated nanopores are also being tested. By applying an electric potential across the membrane in a liquid cell to pull the DNA through, changes in ion current can be measured as different repeating base units of the molecule pass through the pores. Nanotechnology-enabled advances in the entire area of bioassays will clearly impact health care in many ways, from early detection, rapid clinical analysis, and home monitoring to new understanding of molecular biology and genetic-based treatments for fighting disease.

Another biomedical application of nanotechnology involves assistive devices for people who have lost or lack certain natural capabilities. For example, researchers hope to design retinal implants for vision-impaired individuals. The concept is to implant chips with photodetector arrays to transmit signals from the retina to the brain via the optic nerve. Meaningful spatial information, even if only at a rudimentary level, would be of great assistance to the blind. Such research illustrates the tremendous challenge of designing hybrid systems that work at the interface between inorganic devices and biological systems.

Closely related research involves implanting nanoscale neural probes in brain tissue to activate and control motor functions. This requires effective and stable wiring of many electrodes to neurons. It is exciting because of the possibility of recovery of control for motor-impaired individuals. Studies employing neural stimulation of damaged spinal cords by electrical signals have demonstrated the return of some locomotion. Researchers are also seeking ways to assist in the regeneration and healing of bone, skin, and cartilagefor example, developing synthetic biocompatible or biodegradable structures with nanosized voids that would serve as templates for regenerating specific tissue while delivering chemicals to assist in the repair process. At a more sophisticated level, researchers hope to someday build nanoscale or microscale machines that can repair, assist, or replace more-complex organs.

Semiconductor experts agree that the ongoing shrinkage in conventional electronic devices will inevitably reach fundamental limits due to quantum effects such as tunneling, in which electrons jump out of their prescribed circuit path and create atomic-scale interference between devices. At that point, radical new approaches to data storage and information processing will be required for further advances. For example, radically new systems have been imagined that are based on quantum computing or biomolecular computing.

The use of molecules for electronic devices was suggested by Mark Ratner of Northwestern University and Avi Aviram of IBM as early as the 1970s, but proper nanotechnology tools did not become available until the turn of the 21st century. Wiring up molecules some half a nanometre wide and a few nanometres long remains a major challenge, and an understanding of electrical transport through single molecules is only beginning to emerge. A number of groups have been able to demonstrate molecular switches, for example, that could conceivably be used in computer memory or logic arrays. Current areas of research include mechanisms to guide the selection of molecules, architectures for assembling molecules into nanoscale gates, and three-terminal molecules for transistor-like behaviour. More-radical approaches include DNA computing, where single-stranded DNA on a silicon chip would encode all possible variable values and complementary strand interactions would be used for a parallel processing approach to finding solutions. An area related to molecular electronics is that of organic thin-film transistors and light emitters, which promise new applications such as video displays that can be rolled out like wallpaper and flexible electronic newspapers.

Carbon nanotubes have remarkable electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties. Depending on their specific diameter and the bonding arrangement of their carbon atoms, nanotubes exhibit either metallic or semiconducting behaviour. Electrical conduction within a perfect nanotube is ballistic (negligible scattering), with low thermal dissipation. As a result, a wire made from a nanotube, or a nanowire, can carry much more current than an ordinary metal wire of comparable size. At 1.4 nanometres in diameter, nanotubes are about a hundred times smaller than the gate width of silicon semiconductor devices. In addition to nanowires for conduction, transistors, diodes, and simple logic circuits have been demonstrated by combining metallic and semiconductor carbon nanotubes. Similarly, silicon nanowires have been used to build experimental devices, such as field-effect transistors, bipolar transistors, inverters, light-emitting diodes, sensors, and even simple memory. A major challenge for nanowire circuits, as for molecular electronics, is connecting and integrating these devices into a workable high-density architecture. Ideally, the structure would be grown and assembled in place. Crossbar architectures that combine the function of wires and devices are of particular interest.

At nanoscale dimensions the energy required to add one additional electron to a small island (isolated physical region)for example, through a tunneling barrierbecomes significant. This change in energy provides the basis for devising single-electron transistors. At low temperatures, where thermal fluctuations are small, various single-electron-device nanostructures are readily achievable, and extensive research has been carried out for structures with confined electron flow. However, room-temperature applications will require that sizes be reduced significantly, to the one-nanometre range, to achieve stable operation. For large-scale application with millions of devices, as found in current integrated circuits, the need for structures with very uniform size to maintain uniform device characteristics presents a significant challenge. Also, in this and many new nanodevices being explored, the lack of gain is a serious drawback limiting implementation in large-scale electronic circuits.

Spintronics refers to electronic devices that perform logic operations based on not just the electrical charge of carriers but also their spin. For example, information could be transported or stored through the spin-up or spin-down states of electrons. This is a new area of research, and issues include the injection of spin-polarized carriers, their transport, and their detection. The role of nanoscale structure and electronic properties of the ferromagnetic-semiconductor interface on the spin injection process, the growth of new ferromagnetic semiconductors with nanoscale control, and the possible use of nanostructured features to manipulate spin are all of interest.

Current approaches to information storage and retrieval include high-density, high-speed, solid-state electronic memories, as well as slower (but generally more spacious) magnetic and optical discs (see computer memory). As the minimum feature size for electronic processing approaches 100 nanometres, nanotechnology provides ways to decrease further the bit size of the stored information, thus increasing density and reducing interconnection distances for obtaining still-higher speeds. For example, the basis of the current generation of magnetic disks is the giant magnetoresistance effect. A magnetic read/write head stores bits of information by setting the direction of the magnetic field in nanometre-thick metallic layers that alternate between ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic. Differences in spin-dependent scattering of electrons at the interface layers lead to resistance differences that can be read by the magnetic head. Mechanical properties, particularly tribology (friction and wear of moving surfaces), also play an important role in magnetic hard disk drives, since magnetic heads float only about 10 nanometres above spinning magnetic disks.

Another approach to information storage that is dependent on designing nanometre-thick magnetic layers is under commercial development. Known as magnetic random access memory (MRAM), a line of electrically switchable magnetic material is separated from a permanently magnetized layer by a nanoscale nonmagnetic interlayer. A resistance change that depends on the relative alignment of the fields is read electrically from a large array of wires through cross lines. MRAM will require a relatively small evolution from conventional semiconductor manufacturing, and it has the added benefit of producing nonvolatile memory (no power or batteries are needed to maintain stored memory states).

Still at an exploratory stage, studies of electrical conduction through molecules have generated interest in their possible use as memory. While still very speculative, molecular and nanowire approaches to memory are intriguing because of the small volume in which the bits of memory are stored and the effectiveness with which biological systems store large amounts of information.

Nanoscale structuring of optical devices, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), quantum dot lasers, and photonic crystal materials, is leading to additional advances in communications technology.

VCSELs have nanoscale layers of compound semiconductors epitaxially grown into their structurealternating dielectric layers as mirrors and quantum wells. Quantum wells allow the charge carriers to be confined in well-defined regions and provide the energy conversion into light at desired wavelengths. They are placed in the lasers cavity to confine carriers at the nodes of a standing wave and to tailor the band structure for more efficient radiative recombination. One-dimensional nanotechnology techniques involving precise growth of very thin epitaxial semiconductor layers were developed during the 1990s. Such nanostructuring has enhanced the efficiency of VCSELs and reduced the current required for lasing to start (called the threshold current). Because of improving performance and their compatibility with planar manufacturing technology, VCSELs are fast becoming a preferred laser source in a variety of communications applications.

More recently, the introduction of quantum dots (regions so small that they can be given a single electric charge) into semiconductor lasers has been investigated and found to give additional benefitsboth further reductions in threshold current and narrower line widths. Quantum dots further confine the optical emission modes within a very narrow spectrum and give the lowest threshold current densities for lasing achieved to date in VCSELs. The quantum dots are introduced into the laser during the growth of strained layers, by a process called Stransky-Krastanov growth. They arise because of the lattice mismatch stress and surface tension of the growing film. Improvements in ways to control precisely the resulting quantum dots to a more uniform single size are still being sought.

Photonic crystals provide a new means to control the steering and manipulation of photons based on periodic dielectric lattices with repeat dimensions on the order of the wavelength of light. These materials can have very exotic properties, such as not allowing light within certain wavelengths to be propagated in a material based on the particular periodic structure. Photonic lattices can act as perfect wavelength-selective mirrors to reflect back incident light from all orientations. They provide the basis for optical switching, steering, and wavelength separation on unprecedented small scales. The periodic structures required for these artificial crystals can be configured as both two- and three-dimensional lattices. Optical sources, switches, and routers are being considered, with two-dimensional planar geometries receiving the most attention, because of their greater ease of fabrication.

Another potentially important communications application for nanotechnology is microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), devices sized at the micrometre level (millionths of a metre). MEMS are currently poised to have a major impact on communications via optical switching. In the future, electromechanical devices may shrink to nanodimensions to take advantage of the higher frequencies of mechanical vibration at smaller masses. The natural (resonant) frequency of vibration for small mechanical beams increases as their size decreases, so that little power is needed to drive them as oscillators. Their efficiency is rated by a quality factor, known as Q, which is a ratio of the energy stored per cycle versus the energy dissipated per cycle. The higher the Q, the more precise the absolute frequency of an oscillator. The Q is very high for micro- and nanoscale mechanical oscillators, and these devices can reach very high frequencies (up to microwave frequencies), making them potential low-power replacements for electronic-based oscillators and filters.

Mechanical oscillators have been made from silicon at dimensions of 10 100 nanometres, where more than 10 percent of the atoms are less than one atomic distance from the surface. While highly homogeneous materials can be made at these dimensionsfor example, single-crystal silicon barssurfaces play an increasing role at nanoscales, and energy losses increase, presumably because of surface defects and molecular species absorbed on surfaces.

It is possible to envision even higher frequencies, in what might be viewed as the ultimate in nanomechanical systems, by moving from nanomachined structures to molecular systems. As an example, multiwalled carbon nanotubes are being explored for their mechanical properties. When the ends of the outer nanotube are removed, the inner tube may be pulled partway out from the outer tube where van der Waals forces between the two tubes will supply a restoring force. The inner tube can thus oscillate, sliding back and forth inside the outer tube. The resonant frequency of oscillation for such structures is predicted to be above one gigahertz (one billion cycles per second). It is unknown whether connecting such systems to the macro world and protecting them from surface effects will ever be practical.

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The rise of nanotechnology research at Notre Dame – ND Newswire

Professor Porod in the lab with a graduate student

Notre Dames nanotechnology research efforts date back to the 1980s, when the studies were mostly simulation based and focused on computation advancements. In the three decades since, research at the Universitys Center for Nano Science and Technology (NDnano) has grown and evolved in a forward-thinking and distinctive way.

To differentiate and accelerate their work, Wolfgang Porod, the Frank M. Freimann Professor of Electrical Engineering and director of NDnano, and his colleagues turned to Moores Law an observation that states the number of components per integrated circuit, or a microchip, doubles approximately every two years as their strategy for standing apart in a competitive and fast-paced discipline. In explaining this, Porod said, My colleague, Gary Bernstein, the Frank M. Freimann Professor of Electrical Engineering, wanted to carve out our own area of expertise and we knew that wherever the current technological capabilities were, the more crowded the field would be. So instead, we looked beyond the popular topics and focused not just on device physics, but also on how our advancements could be applied to a variety of technologies.

A Notre Dame researcher working in the NDNF

This strategy allowed Notre Dame researchers like Porod, Bernstein, Craig Lent, the Frank M. Freimann Chair Professor of Electrical Engineering, and others to leverage developments to not only attract new faculty, but also to fund research centers, including the Midwest Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery (MIND) and the Center for Low Energy Systems Technology (LEAST), which were both directed by Alan Seabaugh, the Frank M. Freimann Chair Professor of Electrical Engineering. This growth of nanotechnology also supported the eventual construction of the Notre Dame Nanofabrication Facility (NDNF), a 9,000-square-foot cleanroom that opened in 2010 and allows researchers to use a wide range of materials and a variety of processes and techniques.

Not only has our state-of-the-art cleanroom advanced the kind of research we can do on campus, but it is also a great benefit to all levels of students, said Porod. Currently, undergraduate engineering students have the option to take a fabrication course with Greg Snider, professor of electrical engineering, in the NDNF. In the class, the students begin with blank silicon wafers and ultimately create integrated circuits that contain thousands of individual devices. This course focuses on repeatability and yield, which is essential for real-world applications when these students enter the workforce.

A silicon wafer being developed at the NDNF

One of Porods current projects, which is supported by a gift from the Joseph F. Trustey Endowments for Excellence, is a collaboration with Bernstein that focuses on electromagnetic radiation to detect infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) frequencies. The THz frequency range is much faster than gigahertz, which is what cell phones and radar currently operate on. THz, therefore, has the potential to improve broadband communication systems, but there are few electronic devices that operate on it. For this research, the Notre Dame researchers are developing nanoscale antennas; as the THz currents heat up the antennas, thermo-electronic detection is used to identify the current at that frequency.

Since the term nanotechnology really refers to a scale of size rather than a specific type of technology, it brings together not only experimentalists and theorists like Bernstein and me, but also all kinds of research across campus, said Porod. At NDnano, our researchers are working on everything from developing new materials, to energy harvesting technologies, to cancer diagnostics ultimately working to use their research as a powerful means for doing good in the world.

NDnano is a world-class, collaborative research center that includes faculty from departments across the Colleges of Engineering and Science. The Center is focused on developing, characterizing, and applying new nanotechnology-based materials, processes, devices, and solutions that will better society. To learn more about NDnano, please visit nano.nd.edu.

Contact:Heidi Deethardt, NDnano,deethardt.1@nd.edu, 574-631-0279

nano.nd.edu / @NDnano

About Notre Dame Research:

The University of Notre Dame is a private research and teaching university inspired by its Catholic mission. Located in South Bend, Indiana, its researchers are advancing human understanding through research, scholarship, education, and creative endeavor in order to be a repository for knowledge and a powerful means for doing good in the world. For more information, please see research.nd.edu or @UNDResearch.

Originally published by Brandi Klingerman at research.nd.edu on August 23, 2017.

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The rise of nanotechnology research at Notre Dame – ND Newswire

NSF Funding to Aid Penn State CNEU in Developing Nanotechnology Workforce – Newswise (press release)

Newswise UNIVERSITY PARK, Pa. With two grants awarded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Penn State Center for Nanotechnology Education and Utilization (CNEU) will develop a Nanotechnology Professional Development Partnership (NPDP) to continue providing leading-edge nanotechnology education to post-secondary educators and students to address the growing national need for a skilled nanotechnology workforce.

Totaling more than $2.5 million, the awards, administered through the NSFs Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program, will provide funding through Aug. 2020. This financial support will allow CNEU to offer new and more affordable and accessible training to a much larger and diverse nanotechnology audience through its Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK) Network, which recently became an ATE support center.

The support center is establishing a larger national infrastructure for more advanced nanotechnology workforce education, said Osama Awadelkarim, CNEU director and professor of engineering science and mechanics. Several support center initiatives include the creation of national skill standards and certificates via ASTM International, continuing the growth of the RAIN (Remotely Accessible Instruments for Nanotechnology) national network and ongoing distribution of classroom resources for emerging nanotechnology programs.

Since 2008 NACK has functioned as an ATE national center, establishing itself as a national leader in nanotechnology workforce development, primarily for students and educators at four-year universities and two-year community colleges and technical colleges. NACK offered hands-on professional development workshops on the University Park campus several times per year. These intensive, three-to-four-day workshops included classroom instruction, as well as laboratory training.

Although highly successful, the workshops, due to their length and singular location, could be difficult for individuals from across the country to attend. Also, the majority of NSF funding was used to conduct these workshops and provide travel support for participants, thereby limiting financial resources required to offer new and improved methods of educating a larger future nanotechnology workforce.

With NACK functioning as a support center, CNEU will redirect its funding towards developing free, live-streaming, fully-interactive workshops for any educator at any levelat any locationthus, increasing its reach and effectiveness to a much broader audience.

For many years, CNEU has worked with multiple entities across the country that are dedicated to preparing the nanotechnology workforce, said Bob Ehrmann, CNEU managing director. This exciting new project will enable a subset of these educators to assist us in providing real-time, diverse, effective and affordable professional development to a much larger audience. We are eager to take on the challenge of creating and evaluating a cutting-edge multimodal professional development model.

The live-streaming workshops will include new content and adapted versions of the lectures, demonstrations and courses offered from the in-person workshops: Introduction to Nanotechnology and Nanotechnology Course Resource I/II. The new workshops will also include virtual labs and cleanroom experiences with remote access to nanoscale measurement equipment at different NACK partner sites that will allow attendees to access state-of-the-art characterization tools and lab software to conduct simulated experiments and data analysis exercises.

Remote access to the equipment will also provide opportunities for individuals at rural colleges or K-12 schools, who arent necessarily able to attend the in-person workshops, to gain valuable nanotechnology knowledge and experience.

CNEU will utilize its university and college partners located across the country to help conduct the workshops and provide hands-on experiences within their respective labs for those individuals who are able to travel to a physical location.

As part of the NPDP and via strategic partnerships, CNEU will increase its outreach to underrepresented student groups to increase participation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics education, in general, and participation in nanotechnology, in particular. Special efforts will be made to bring the professional development workshops to the attention of educators and administrators at historically black colleges and universities and Hispanic-serving institutions.

Along with its new program offerings, CNEU will continue to provide hands-on, in-person workshops for educators who are able to secure funding from their respective institutions or companies. CNEU will also continue to provide online nanotechnology courses, webinars and mini-workshops as part of its program offerings to secondary and post-secondary students, educators and industry personnel.

CNEU is dedicated to research, development and education across all aspects of micro- and nanotechnology, and its resources are focused on the incorporation of nanotechnology into secondary education, post-secondary education and industry applications. The Center is the home of the Pennsylvania Nanofabrication Manufacturing Technology (NMT) Partnershipa higher education collaborative dedicated to creating and updating a workforce in Pennsylvania, trained in the rapidly advancing and exciting field of nanotechnology. NMT academic programs are offered by partner institutions and include associate degree, baccalaureate degree and certificate pathways to an education in nanotechnology.

CNEU partners in the NPDP project include Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana, South Bend, Indiana; Forsyth Technical Community College, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Erie Community College, Buffalo, New York; North Seattle College, Seattle, Washington; Atlanta Technical College, Atlanta, Georgia; and Northwest Vista College, San Antonio, Texas. Additional collaborators include Coppin State University, ATE Central and nanoHUB.

With an emphasis on two-year colleges, the ATE program focuses on the education of technicians for the high-technology fields that drive our nation’s economy. The program involves partnerships between academic institutions and industry to promote improvement in the education of science and engineering technicians at the undergraduate and secondary school levels. The ATE program supports curriculum development, professional development of college faculty and secondary school teachers, career pathways and other activities.

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NSF Funding to Aid Penn State CNEU in Developing Nanotechnology Workforce – Newswise (press release)

Nanotechnology, climate change and pollution – Daily Pioneer

Nano-material is the future technology for countries around the world that is equipped to tackle the toughest of environmental challenges that the mankind face today, but it needs to be harnessed quickly and made mainstream

The world today faces environmental problems and challenges of staggering proportions. With every passing year, threats to ecological biodiversity of the planet are multiplying. As countries scramble to find effective solutions, it is quickly emerging that traditional practices for conserving the environment and the time-tested methods of preventing pollution may not prove to be successful in getting the desired results.

Nanotechnology and nanomaterial-driven pollution control strategies are rapidly emerging as a small, but ultra powerful source of solutions for todays vexing environmental problems. First explored for applications in microscopy and computing, nanomaterial made up of units that are each thousands of times smaller than the thickness of a human hair, are emerging as useful tools for tackling threats to our planets well-being.

Nano-material is increasingly forming the foundation of eco-friendly technology that can capture carbon dioxide from air and toxic pollutants from water and degrade solid waste into useful products. Scientists, researchers and innovators are relying on this technology to slowly but steadily mitigate climate change process. Thanks to the amount of research and development in this sector, nano-material are now not only dependable and recyclable but also efficient catalysts. These features have spurred a bevy of technical innovations in which nano-material plays an integral and pivotal part.

For instance, in order to slow down the concerning increases in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere and also mitigate climate change, researchers have developed Nano CO2 harvesters that can absorb atmospheric carbon dioxide and deploy it for industrial purposes. For instance, alcohol is a useful by product of CO2 extraction from the atmosphere using Nano CO2 harvesters.

Nano-material is simple chemical catalysts which is photochemical in nature that works in the presence of sunlight. But this technology still has a long way to go before it becomes a widely accepted mainstream solution. Nano-particles offer a promising approach to this because they have a large surface-area-to-volume ratio for interacting with CO2 and properties that allow them to facilitate the conversion of CO2 into other useful substances.

The challenge is to make them economically viable, and in pursuit of the same, researchers have tried everything from metallic to carbon-based nano-particles to reduce the cost, but so far they havent become efficient enough for industrial-scale volume application. But research in this area is slowly but surely yielding results.

One of the recent progresses made in this area is by research conducted by scientists of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Indian Institute of Petroleum and The Lille University of Science & Technology, France. In this project, researchers developed a Nano CO2 harvester that used water and sunlight to convert atmospheric CO2 into methanol, which can be employed as an engine fuel, a solvent, an anti-freeze agent and a diluent of ethanol. Made by wrapping a layer of modified graphene oxide around spheres of copper zinc oxide and magnetite, the material looks like a miniature golf ball and is capable of capturing CO2 more efficiently than conventional catalysts and can be readily reused.

Similarly, nano-particles can also be used to cleanse water from pollution created due to toxic dyes used in textile and leather industries. The dyes from tanneries tend to leach into natural sources of water like deep tube wells or groundwater and, if wastewater from these industries is left untreated, it creates a problem that is rather difficult to solve.

An international group of researchers at the University of Warsaw in Poland have established that nano-material can be widely used for removing heavy metals and dyes from wastewater. The absorption processes, using materials containing magnetic nano-particles, are effective and can be easily performed because such nano-particles have a large number of sites on their surface that can capture pollutants and dont readily degrade in water.

Using the same concept, appropriately designed magnetic nano-material can be used to separate pollutants such as arsenic, lead, chromium and mercury from water. In addition to removing dyes and metals, nano-material can also be used to clean up oil spills. Researchers at the Rice University in Houston, Texas, have developed a reusable nanosponge that can remove oil from contaminated seawater. Apart from this, nanomaterial can also be effectively used to manage organic waste, which can pollute land and water if not handled properly. Farms and food industry generate humongous amounts of biodegradable waste. One of the oldest methods to treat biodegradable waste is to dump it into tanks called digesters.

These are full of anaerobic microbes that consume the material, converting it into bio-gas fuel and solids that can be used as fertilisers. But anaerobic digestion is slow. Nano-particles can accelerate the anaerobic digestion of the sludge, thus making it more efficient in terms of duration and enhanced production of the biogas.

Nano-material is the future technology that is equipped to tackle the toughest of environmental challenges that the mankind face today, but it needs to be harnessed quickly and made mainstream.

(The writer is an environmental journalist)

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Nanotechnology, climate change and pollution – Daily Pioneer

Nanotechnology Helps Rewarm Fast-Frozen Donor Tissue … – Newswise (press release)

Newswise A team funded in part by the National Institute ofBiomedical ImagingandBioengineering(NIBIB) and led by University of Minnesota (UMN) researchers has developed a new method for thawing frozen tissue that may enable long-term storage and subsequent viability of tissues and organs for transplantation. The method, called nanowarming, prevents tissue damage during the rapid thawing process that would precede a transplant. The teams study in the March 1, 2017, issue of Science Translational Medicine, demonstrated how a bath of solution with evenly distributed and magnetized iron-oxidenanoparticles can be heated with electromagnetic waves to quickly and non-destructively thaw larger volumes of solution and tissue than had previously been rewarmed. With additional development, the researchers hope the method can be applied to revolutionize and dramatically improve organ storage for transplants. To make preserved-then-nanowarmed tissues usable, the iron-oxide first must be washed out of the sample. This key element in assuring tissue viability required a novel imaging technique to confirm elimination ofnanoparticles. The research team included NIBIB-funded experts inbiomedical imagingfrom the UMNs Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, who adapted a non-invasive imaging technique, called SWIFT, to study samples following the rewarming process. SWIFT is based onmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

The underlying goal of the technology is saving lives through transplants. In the United States, more than 100,000 patients are waiting for life-saving organ transplants, and many more could potentially benefit from transplanted organs or tissue. The short preservation time during which donors and recipients must be matched limits optimal screening and some transplantation. Long-term preservation methods would enable screening that could help transplant clinicians find optimal matches for donated organs that would reduce transplantation risks, such as organ rejection.

This cryopreservation study, particularly the contribution of SWIFT technology to the work, was funded in part by NIBIB (EB 015894)

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Nanotechnology Helps Rewarm Fast-Frozen Donor Tissue … – Newswise (press release)

Engineering Professor Selected as Associate Editor of Nanotechnology Journal – University of Arkansas Newswire

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Donald Keith Roper

Donald Keith Roper, associate professor of chemical engineering, has been named associate editor of IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology. IEEE is the world’s largest technical professional organization for the advancement of technology.

According to IEEE’s website, Transactions on Nanotechnology “is devoted to the publication of manuscripts of archival value in the general area of nanotechnology, which is rapidly emerging as one of the fastest growing and most promising new technological developments for the next generation and beyond.”

As associate editor, Roper will be jointly responsible for a recently announced Letters section of the journal. Letters are short, one or two page peer reviewed articles that highlight discoveries and scientific breakthroughs using a rapid peer-review mechanism. They often precede more traditional full-length papers. The publishers hope that this format will attract emerging research by authors from a broader spectrum of nanotechnology, as well as facilitate the quick dissemination of important developments.

“The letters section will feature nanoscience breakthroughs using a rapid review cycle,” Roper explained. “Letters are intended to be brief but impactful announcements of a marked advance relative to state of the art in a particular field.”

Roper will also be responsible for soliciting material in the field of biotechnology, initiating special and thematic issues and managing the peer review process in this area.

Editor-selected comments will be published below. No abusive material, personal attacks, profanity, spam or material of a similar nature will be considered for publication.

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Engineering Professor Selected as Associate Editor of Nanotechnology Journal – University of Arkansas Newswire

Nanotechnology May Be Used to Heal Wounds, Repair Organs – Healthline

Researchers in Ohio are using skin cells and small chips to develop treatments that can repair damage from wounds, stroke, and organ failure.

Your skin cells are programmable, allowing them to be converted into other types of cells.

And now researchers have discovered how to reprogram them, making your body a potential gold mine of cells that can be used to heal wounds, treat stroke damage, and even restore function to aging organs.

A recent study published in Nature Nanotechnology describes the development of Tissue Nanotransfection (TNT), a technology that can convert an adult cell from one type to another.

The study was led by Chandan Sen, PhD, and L. James Lee, PhD, researchers at The Ohio State University. Sen and his colleagues applied the chip to the injured legs of mice, reprogramming the mices skin cells into vascular cells.

Within weeks, active blood vessels formed, saving the legs of the mice.

The technology is expected to be approved for human trials within a year.

This breakthrough in gene therapy is made possible by nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter at a size at which unique properties of material emerge.

That means the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of materials are different at the atomic scale than at the larger scale were seeing on an everyday basis.

A nanometer is a billionth of a meter. A DNA molecule is 2 nanometers in diameter. Nanotechnologys scale is roughly 1 to 100 nanometers.

At the nanoscale, gold reflects colors other than what it does at the scale visible to the unaided eye. This physical property can be used in medical tests to indicate infection or disease.

Gold is yellow in color at the bulk level, but at the nanoscale level gold appears red, said Dr. Lisa Friedersdorf, director of the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO) of the National Nanotechnology Initiative.

The NNCO coordinates the nanotechnology efforts of 20 federal government agencies.

We now have tools to enable us to fabricate and control materials at the nanoscale, Friedersdorf told Healthline. Researchers can create a nanoparticle with a payload inside to deliver a concentrated drug release directly to targeted cells, for instance. Soon well be able to identify and treat disease with precision. We could have personalized medicine and be able to target disease very carefully.

TNT works by delivering a specific biological cargo (DNA, RNA, and plasma molecules) for cell conversion to a live cell using a nanotechnology-based chip.

This cargo is delivered by briefly zapping a chip with a small electrical charge.

Nanofabrication enabled Sen and his colleagues to create a chip that can deliver a cargo of genetic code into a cell.

Think of the chip as a syringe but miniaturized, Sen told Healthline. Were shooting genetic code into cells.

The brief (one-tenth of a second) electrical charge of the postage stamp-sized device creates a pathway on the surface of the target cell that allows for the insertion of the genetic load.

Imagine the cell as a tennis ball, Sen said. If the entire surface is electrocuted, the cell is damaged and its abilities are suppressed. Our technology opens up just 2 percent of the surface of the tennis ball. We insert the active cargo into the cell through that window, and then the window closes, so there is no damage.

Cell reprogramming isnt new, but scientists have previously focused on converting primarily stem cells into other types of cells. The process took place in labs.

We disagreed with this approach, Sen said. When switching a cell in the lab, its in an artificial, sterile, and simple environment such as a petri dish. When its introduced into the body, it doesnt perform as intended.

We went upside-down. We bypassed the lab process and moved the reprogramming process to the live body, he explained.

This point-of-action capability will allow hospitals to adopt TNT sooner than if the process was limited to research facilities.

Sens teams approach was to act first, figure it out second.

There are a number of procedures and processes at play, Sen said. We dont understand all of them, but we achieved our goal. Now that weve achieved our goal, we can get into the details of how it works.

The healing of injuries by converting skin cells into vascular cells to regenerate blood vessels is one proven application of TNT.

Sens team also created nerve cells by the conversion process, injecting the newly formed neurotissue from the skin of a mouse with brain damage from stroke into its skull. The replacement rescued brain function that would otherwise have been lost.

Sen envisions additional uses for TNT, including organ recovery.

We could go into a failing organ via an endoscopic catheter with a chip to reprogram cells and restore organ function, Sen said. It doesnt have to be a skin cell. It could be excessive fat tissue.

TNT could improve our quality of life as we age, too.

Im a runner, so I have joint issues, Friedersdorf said. Nanotechnology could enable the regeneration of cartilage. Im hoping these technologies will be available when Im in need of them.

Sen and his team are currently searching for an industrial partner to manufacture chips designed to work for humans.

Then comes testing.

Ultimately, Sen hopes to drive rapid advancement in nanoscience and health.

Im a scientist, but this was inspired by the need to make an impact on health, Sen said. Our main goal is impact.

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Nanotechnology May Be Used to Heal Wounds, Repair Organs – Healthline