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Caro Hedonista,De momento o nosso site est apenas dsponivel em Ingls.Contudo, a nossa equipa tem sua disposio alguem capaz de lhe responder em Portugus.Por favor no hesite em contactar directamente o nosso especialista, Miguel.

Chers Hdonistes, notre site internet nest disponible pour le moment quen Anglais. Cependant, notre quipe se tient votre disposition pour vous rpondre en Franais. Nhsitez pas contacter directement Maxime notre spcialiste francophone.

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hedonism | Philosophy & Definition | Britannica.com

Hedonism, in ethics, a general term for all theories of conduct in which the criterion is pleasure of one kind or another. The word is derived from the Greek hedone (pleasure), from hedys (sweet or pleasant).

Hedonistic theories of conduct have been held from the earliest times. They have been regularly misrepresented by their critics because of a simple misconception, namely, the assumption that the pleasure upheld by the hedonist is necessarily purely physical in its origins. This assumption is in most cases a complete perversion of the truth. Practically all hedonists recognize the existence of pleasures derived from fame and reputation, from friendship and sympathy, from knowledge and art. Most have urged that physical pleasures are not only ephemeral in themselves but also involve, either as prior conditions or as consequences, such pains as to discount any greater intensity that they may have while they last.

The earliest and most extreme form of hedonism is that of the Cyrenaics as stated by Aristippus, who argued that the goal of a good life should be the sentient pleasure of the moment. Since, as Protagoras maintained, knowledge is solely of momentary sensations, it is useless to try to calculate future pleasures and to balance pains against them. The true art of life is to crowd as much enjoyment as possible into each moment.

No school has been more subject to the misconception noted above than the Epicurean. Epicureanism is completely different from Cyrenaicism. For Epicurus pleasure was indeed the supreme good, but his interpretation of this maxim was profoundly influenced by the Socratic doctrine of prudence and Aristotles conception of the best life. The true hedonist would aim at a life of enduring pleasure, but this would be obtainable only under the guidance of reason. Self-control in the choice and limitation of pleasures with a view to reducing pain to a minimum was indispensable. This view informed the Epicurean maxim Of all this, the beginning, and the greatest good, is prudence. This negative side of Epicureanism developed to such an extent that some members of the school found the ideal life rather in indifference to pain than in positive enjoyment.

In the late 18th century Jeremy Bentham revived hedonism both as a psychological and as a moral theory under the umbrella of utilitarianism. Individuals have no goal other than the greatest pleasure, thus each person ought to pursue the greatest pleasure. It would seem to follow that each person inevitably always does what he or she ought. Bentham sought the solution to this paradox on different occasions in two incompatible directions. Sometimes he says that the act which one does is the act which one thinks will give the most pleasure, whereas the act which one ought to do is the act which really will provide the most pleasure. In short, calculation is salvation, while sin is shortsightedness. Alternatively he suggests that the act which one does is that which will give one the most pleasure, whereas the act one ought to do is that which will give all those affected by it the most pleasure.

The psychological doctrine that a humans only aim is pleasure was effectively attacked by Joseph Butler. He pointed out that each desire has its own specific object and that pleasure comes as a welcome addition or bonus when the desire achieves its object. Hence the paradox that the best way to get pleasure is to forget it and to pursue wholeheartedly other objects. Butler, however, went too far in maintaining that pleasure cannot be pursued as an end. Normally, indeed, when one is hungry or curious or lonely, there is desire to eat, to know, or to have company. These are not desires for pleasure. One can also eat sweets when one is not hungry, for the sake of the pleasure that they give.

Moral hedonism has been attacked since Socrates, though moralists sometimes have gone to the extreme of holding that humans never have a duty to bring about pleasure. It may seem odd to say that a human has a duty to pursue pleasure, but the pleasures of others certainly seem to count among the factors relevant in making a moral decision. One particular criticism which may be added to those usually urged against hedonists is that whereas they claim to simplify ethical problems by introducing a single standard, namely pleasure, in fact they have a double standard. As Bentham said, Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. Hedonists tend to treat pleasure and pain as if they were, like heat and cold, degrees on a single scale, when they are really different in kind.

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hedonism | Philosophy & Definition | Britannica.com

Clothing Optional Resorts, Negril, Jamaica | Hedonism II

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Clothing Optional Resorts, Negril, Jamaica | Hedonism II

Nanomedicine | NEJM

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Nanomedicine | NEJM

Public ETP Nanomedicine

Workshop organized by the Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Vision Dyamics, in conjunction with the CMi annual review meeting at EPFL, 8 May 2018 at the Rolex Learning Center (RLC) at EPFL.

ETPN2018, the 13th annual meeting of the European Technology Platform on Nanomedicine, will be held in Berlin on May 28-30 2018. Three days to bring the European Nanomedicine community together!

International conference of Nanotechnologies and Bionanoscience in Heraklion, Crete.

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Public ETP Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine Lab

In Vivo Reprogramming in Regenerative Medicine, originally published: 21 November 2017, 83-98

In Vivo Reprogramming in Regenerative Medicine, originally published: 21 November 2017, 65-82

ACS Nano, 2018, in press

Chem, 2018, in press

Nanoscale, 2018, in press

Science Robotics, 2017, 2, 12, eaaq1155

Nanoscale, 2017, in press

Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2017, in press

2D Materials, 2017, in press

npj 2D Materials and Applications, 2017, in press

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Nanomedicine Lab

Nanomedicine | NEJM

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Nanomedicine | NEJM

Nanomedicine Lab

In Vivo Reprogramming in Regenerative Medicine, originally published: 21 November 2017, 83-98

In Vivo Reprogramming in Regenerative Medicine, originally published: 21 November 2017, 65-82

ACS Nano, 2018, in press

Chem, 2018, in press

Nanoscale, 2018, in press

Science Robotics, 2017, 2, 12, eaaq1155

Nanoscale, 2017, in press

Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2017, in press

2D Materials, 2017, in press

npj 2D Materials and Applications, 2017, in press

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Nanomedicine Lab

Public ETP Nanomedicine

Workshop organized by the Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Vision Dyamics, in conjunction with the CMi annual review meeting at EPFL, 8 May 2018 at the Rolex Learning Center (RLC) at EPFL.

ETPN2018, the 13th annual meeting of the European Technology Platform on Nanomedicine, will be held in Berlin on May 28-30 2018. Three days to bring the European Nanomedicine community together!

International conference of Nanotechnologies and Bionanoscience in Heraklion, Crete.

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Nanomedicine | NEJM

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Read the original post:

Nanomedicine | NEJM

Nanomedicine Lab

In Vivo Reprogramming in Regenerative Medicine, originally published: 21 November 2017, 83-98

In Vivo Reprogramming in Regenerative Medicine, originally published: 21 November 2017, 65-82

ACS Nano, 2018, in press

Chem, 2018, in press

Nanoscale, 2018, in press

Science Robotics, 2017, 2, 12, eaaq1155

Nanoscale, 2017, in press

Advanced Healthcare Materials, 2017, in press

2D Materials, 2017, in press

npj 2D Materials and Applications, 2017, in press

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Nanomedicine Lab

Public ETP Nanomedicine

Workshop organized by the Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Vision Dyamics, in conjunction with the CMi annual review meeting at EPFL, 8 May 2018 at the Rolex Learning Center (RLC) at EPFL.

ETPN2018, the 13th annual meeting of the European Technology Platform on Nanomedicine, will be held in Berlin on May 28-30 2018. Three days to bring the European Nanomedicine community together!

International conference of Nanotechnologies and Bionanoscience in Heraklion, Crete.

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Public ETP Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, In Press

Note to users: The section “Articles in Press” contains peer reviewed and accepted articles to be published in this journal. When the final article is assigned to an issue of the journal, the “Article in Press” version will be removed from this section and will appear in the associated journal issue.

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Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, In Press

Nanomedicine | NEJM

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Nanomedicine | NEJM

Regenerative Nanomedicine Lab – yimlab.com

Our recent research article “In-vitro Topographical Model of Fuchs Dystrophy for Evaluation of Corneal Endothelial Cell Monolayer Formation” appeared on theBack cover of Advanced Healthcare Materials latest issue.

Several diseases have been known to be caused by microstructural changes in the extracellular microenvironment. Therefore, the knowledge of the interaction of cells with the altered extracellular micro-structures or surface topography is critical to develop a better understanding of the disease for therapeutic development. One such disease is Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy (FED). FED is the primary disease and major reason of corneal endothelial cell death. If left untreated, corneal blindness will be resulted; thus, FED is the leading indication for corneal transplantation. In the USA, 4% of population over the age of 40 is believed to have compromised corneal endothelium due to FED, which will further increase due to increasing life expectancy and rapidly ageing population. A diagnostic clinical hallmark of FED is the development of discrete pillar or dome-like microstructures on the corneal endothelial basement membrane (Descemet membrane). These microstructures are called corneal guttata or guttae. Cell therapies have been proposed as an alternative treatment method for Fuchs dystrophy patients. However, currently, no in-vitro or in-vivo FED disease model is available to study the cell therapies before clinical trials.

In this study, the pathological changes in the micro-structure of basement membranes resulting from FED disease was analyzed, to identify geometrical dimension to develop an in-vitro disease model of synthetic corneal guttata pillars/domes by using microfabrication techniques. This model was used to study the monolayer formation of donor-derived human corneal endothelial cells to test the effectiveness of the corneal endothelial cell regenerative therapies. The results suggest that the corneal cell therapies may not be equally effective for patients at different stages of disease progression. The pre-existing guttata in patients could interfere with the cells thus hampering monolayer formation within the eye. Surgical removal of the guttata from the diseased Descemet membrane prior to cell regenerative therapy could increase the success rate of monolayer formation, which could potentially increase the chances of cell therapy success. This study also demonstrate how biomaterial design can be employed to mimic the pathological microstructural changes in basement membranes for better understanding of cellular responses in disease conditions.

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Regenerative Nanomedicine Lab – yimlab.com

Public ETP Nanomedicine

Workshop organized by the Ecole Polytechnique Fdrale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Vision Dyamics, in conjunction with the CMi annual review meeting at EPFL, 8 May 2018 at the Rolex Learning Center (RLC) at EPFL.

ETPN2018, the 13th annual meeting of the European Technology Platform on Nanomedicine, will be held in Berlin on May 28-30 2018. Three days to bring the European Nanomedicine community together!

International conference of Nanotechnologies and Bionanoscience in Heraklion, Crete.

Continue reading here:

Public ETP Nanomedicine

Nanomedicine | NEJM

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NEJM.org uses cookies to improve performance by remembering your session ID when you navigate from page to page. This cookie stores just a session ID; no other information is captured. Accepting the NEJM cookie is necessary to use the website.

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More:

Nanomedicine | NEJM

Regenerative Nanomedicine Lab – yimlab.com

Our recent research article “In-vitro Topographical Model of Fuchs Dystrophy for Evaluation of Corneal Endothelial Cell Monolayer Formation” appeared on theBack cover of Advanced Healthcare Materials latest issue.

Several diseases have been known to be caused by microstructural changes in the extracellular microenvironment. Therefore, the knowledge of the interaction of cells with the altered extracellular micro-structures or surface topography is critical to develop a better understanding of the disease for therapeutic development. One such disease is Fuchs corneal endothelial dystrophy (FED). FED is the primary disease and major reason of corneal endothelial cell death. If left untreated, corneal blindness will be resulted; thus, FED is the leading indication for corneal transplantation. In the USA, 4% of population over the age of 40 is believed to have compromised corneal endothelium due to FED, which will further increase due to increasing life expectancy and rapidly ageing population. A diagnostic clinical hallmark of FED is the development of discrete pillar or dome-like microstructures on the corneal endothelial basement membrane (Descemet membrane). These microstructures are called corneal guttata or guttae. Cell therapies have been proposed as an alternative treatment method for Fuchs dystrophy patients. However, currently, no in-vitro or in-vivo FED disease model is available to study the cell therapies before clinical trials.

In this study, the pathological changes in the micro-structure of basement membranes resulting from FED disease was analyzed, to identify geometrical dimension to develop an in-vitro disease model of synthetic corneal guttata pillars/domes by using microfabrication techniques. This model was used to study the monolayer formation of donor-derived human corneal endothelial cells to test the effectiveness of the corneal endothelial cell regenerative therapies. The results suggest that the corneal cell therapies may not be equally effective for patients at different stages of disease progression. The pre-existing guttata in patients could interfere with the cells thus hampering monolayer formation within the eye. Surgical removal of the guttata from the diseased Descemet membrane prior to cell regenerative therapy could increase the success rate of monolayer formation, which could potentially increase the chances of cell therapy success. This study also demonstrate how biomaterial design can be employed to mimic the pathological microstructural changes in basement membranes for better understanding of cellular responses in disease conditions.

See the original post here:

Regenerative Nanomedicine Lab – yimlab.com


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