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Q: What is an interaction?

A: Mixing certain medicines together may cause a bad reaction. This is called an interaction. For example, one medicine may cause side effects that create problems with other medicines. Or one medicine may make another medicine stronger or weaker.

Q: How do you classify the seriousness of an interaction?

A: The following classification is used:

Contraindicated: Never use this combination of drugs because of high risk for dangerous interaction

Serious: Potential for serious interaction; regular monitoring by your doctor required or alternate medication may be needed

Significant: Potential for significant interaction (monitoring by your doctor is likely required)

Mild: Interaction is unlikely, minor, or nonsignificant

Q: What should I do if my medications show interactions?

A: Call your doctor or pharmacist if you are concerned about an interaction. Do not stop taking any prescribed medication without your doctor’s approval. Sometimes the risk of not taking the medication outweighs the risk or the interaction.

Q: Why can’t I enter my medication?

A: There may be medications, especially otc or supplements, that have not been adequately studied for interactions. If we do not have interaction information for a certain medication it can’t be saved in My Medicine.

Q: Do you cover all FDA warnings?

A: WebMD will alert users to the most important FDA warnings and alerts affecting consumers such as recalls, label changes and investigations. Not all FDA actions are included. Go to the FDA for a comprehensive list of warnings.

Q: Can I be alerted by email if there is an FDA warning or alert?

A: Yes. If you are signed in to WebMD.com and using My Medicine you can sign up to receive email alerts when you add a medicine. To unsubscribe click here.

Q: Can I add medicines for family members?

A: Yes. Click the arrow next to your picture to add drug profiles for family or loved ones.

Q: Can I access My Medicine from my mobile phone?

A: Yes. Sign in to the WebMD Mobile App. Your saved medicine can be found under “Saved.”

Q: Why are there already medicines saved when this my first time using this tool?

A: If you have previously saved a medication on WebMD, for example, in the WebMD Mobile App, these may display in My Medicine.

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My Medicine – WebMD – Better information. Better health.

Medicine | Definition of Medicine by Merriam-Webster

1 a : a substance or preparation used in treating disease b : something that affects well-being

b : the branch of medicine concerned with the nonsurgical treatment of disease

3 : a substance (such as a drug or potion) used to treat something other than disease

4 : an object held in traditional American Indian belief to give control over natural or magical forces; also : magical power or a magical rite

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Medicine | Definition of Medicine by Merriam-Webster

My Medicine – WebMD – Better information. Better health.

WebMD My Medicine Help

Q: What is an interaction?

A: Mixing certain medicines together may cause a bad reaction. This is called an interaction. For example, one medicine may cause side effects that create problems with other medicines. Or one medicine may make another medicine stronger or weaker.

Q: How do you classify the seriousness of an interaction?

A: The following classification is used:

Contraindicated: Never use this combination of drugs because of high risk for dangerous interaction

Serious: Potential for serious interaction; regular monitoring by your doctor required or alternate medication may be needed

Significant: Potential for significant interaction (monitoring by your doctor is likely required)

Mild: Interaction is unlikely, minor, or nonsignificant

Q: What should I do if my medications show interactions?

A: Call your doctor or pharmacist if you are concerned about an interaction. Do not stop taking any prescribed medication without your doctor’s approval. Sometimes the risk of not taking the medication outweighs the risk or the interaction.

Q: Why can’t I enter my medication?

A: There may be medications, especially otc or supplements, that have not been adequately studied for interactions. If we do not have interaction information for a certain medication it can’t be saved in My Medicine.

Q: Do you cover all FDA warnings?

A: WebMD will alert users to the most important FDA warnings and alerts affecting consumers such as recalls, label changes and investigations. Not all FDA actions are included. Go to the FDA for a comprehensive list of warnings.

Q: Can I be alerted by email if there is an FDA warning or alert?

A: Yes. If you are signed in to WebMD.com and using My Medicine you can sign up to receive email alerts when you add a medicine. To unsubscribe click here.

Q: Can I add medicines for family members?

A: Yes. Click the arrow next to your picture to add drug profiles for family or loved ones.

Q: Can I access My Medicine from my mobile phone?

A: Yes. Sign in to the WebMD Mobile App. Your saved medicine can be found under “Saved.”

Q: Why are there already medicines saved when this my first time using this tool?

A: If you have previously saved a medication on WebMD, for example, in the WebMD Mobile App, these may display in My Medicine.

View original post here:

My Medicine – WebMD – Better information. Better health.

Medicine | Definition of Medicine by Merriam-Webster

1 a : a substance or preparation used in treating disease b : something that affects well-being

b : the branch of medicine concerned with the nonsurgical treatment of disease

3 : a substance (such as a drug or potion) used to treat something other than disease

4 : an object held in traditional American Indian belief to give control over natural or magical forces; also : magical power or a magical rite

Originally posted here:

Medicine | Definition of Medicine by Merriam-Webster

Medications Information – Index of drug monographs …

ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors-Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are used to treat high blood pressure. They cause the blood vessels to relax and become larger and, as a result, blood pressure is lowered. When blood pressure is reduced, the heart has an easier time pumping blood. This is especially beneficial when the heart is failing. ACE inhibitors also cause the process of hypertensive- and diabetes-related kidney diseases to slow down and prevent early deaths associated with high blood pressure. ACE inhibitors cannot be taken during pregnancy since they may cause birth defects. Generic ACE inhibitors are available.

acetaminophen (brand name: Tylenol)-A pain reliever and fever reducer. The exact mechanism of action of acetaminophen is not known. Acetaminophen relieves pain by elevating the pain threshold (that is, by requiring a greater amount of pain to develop before it is felt by a person). Acetaminophen reduces fever through its action on the heat-regulating center of the brain. Generic is available.

alprazolam (brand name: Xanax)- A benzodiazepine sedative that causes dose-related depression of the central nervous system. Alprazolam is useful in treating anxiety, panic attacks, insomnia, and muscle spasms. Generic is available.

amoxicillin (brand names: Amoxil, Polymox, Trimox)-An antibiotic of the penicillin type that is effective against different bacteria such as Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Escherichia coli, Pneumococci, Streptococci, and certain strains of Staphylococci, particularly infections of the middle ear, tonsillitis, throat infections, laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Amoxicillin is also used in treating urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gonorrhea. Generic is available.

atenolol (brand name: Tenormin)-A medication that blocks the action of a portion of the involuntary nervous system that stimulates the pace of the heartbeat. By blocking the action of these nerves, atenolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms. Atenolol also reduces the force of heart muscle contraction, lowers blood pressure, and is helpful in treating angina. It is also used for the prevention of migraine headaches and the treatment of certain types of tremors. Generic is available.

bupropion (brand names: Wellbutrin, Zyban, Wellbutrin SR)-An antidepressant medication that affects chemicals within the brain that nerves use to send messages to each other. These chemical messengers are called neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters that are released by nerves are taken up again by the nerves that release them for reuse (referred to as reuptake). Many experts believe that depression is caused by an imbalance among the amounts of neurotransmitters that are released. Bupropion is unrelated to other antidepressants. It works by inhibiting the reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, resulting in more of these chemicals being available to transmit messages to other nerves. Bupropion is unique in that its major effect is on dopamine. Wellbutrin and Wellbutrin SR are used for the management of depression. Zyban has been approved as an aid to patients who want to quit smoking. Generic is not available.

cephalexin (brand names: Keflex, Keftabs)-A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic that is chemically similar to penicillin. Cephalexin is effective against a wide variety of bacterial organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Escherichia coli, particular involving infections of the middle ear, tonsillitis, throat infections, laryngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. Cephalexin is also used in treating urinary tract infections and skin and bone infections. Generic is available.

ciprofloxacin (brand name: Cipro)-An antibiotic that stops multiplication of bacteria by inhibiting the reproduction and repair of their genetic material (DNA). Ciprofloxacin is used to treat infections of the skin, lungs, airways, bones, and joints that are caused by susceptible bacteria. Ciprofloxacin is also frequently used to treat urinary infections caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Ciprofloxacin is effective in treating infectious diarrheas caused by E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and shigella bacteria. Generic is not available.

citalopram (brand name: Celexa)-An antidepressant medication that affects neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers within the brain. Neurotransmitters manufactured and released by nerves attach to adjacent nerves and alter their activities. Thus, neurotransmitters can be thought of as the communication system of the brain. Many experts believe that an imbalance among neurotransmitters is the cause of depression. Citalopram works by preventing the uptake of one neurotransmitter, serotonin, by nerve cells after it has been released. The reduced uptake caused by citalopram results in more free serotonin being available in the brain to stimulate nerve cells. Citalopram is in the class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Generic is not available.

clonazepam (Klonopin)-Used to treat anxiety, clonazepam works by enhancing the response to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, a neurotransmitter that inhibits the activity of many parts of the brain. It is believed that too much activity can lead to anxiety. By enhancing the response to GABA, clonazepam inhibits activity in the brain and relieves the short-term symptoms of anxiety. Clonazepam should not be taken during pregnancy, as the effects are known to cause damage to the fetus. More than half of those who take clonazepam experience the side effect of sedation. Generic clonazepam is available.

codeine (brand name: Empirin 2, 3, 4, Tylenol 2, 3, 4, Tylenol with Codeine Elixir)-Codeine is a pain reliever used to temporarily relieve mild to severe pain. Codeine has the ability to impair thinking and physical ability necessary for driving, and, when combined with alcohol, the impairment can be worsened. Those taking codeine have the ability to become dependent on the drug mentally and physically. Those patients allergic to aspirin and pregnant mothers should not take codeine. Codeine often is combined with acetaminophen (Tylenol) or aspirin to add to its effectiveness. Side effects of codeine include light-headedness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, and sedation. Generic codeine is available.

doxycycline (brand name: Vibramycin)-A synthetic broad-spectrum antibiotic that is derived from tetracycline and is effective against a wide variety of bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoea. Doxycycline is particularly helpful for treating respiratory tract infections and for treating nongonococcal urethritis (due to ureaplasma), Rocky mountain spotted fever, typhus, chancroid, cholera, brucellosis, anthrax, syphilis, and acne. Generic is available.

fluoxetine (brand name: Prozac)-A class of antidepressant medications that affects chemical messengers within the brain. These chemical messengers are called neurotransmitters. Many experts believe that an imbalance in these neurotransmitters is the cause of depression. Fluoxetine is used in the treatment of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Fluoxetine is believed to work by inhibiting the release of or affecting the action of serotonin. Generic is available.

hydrocodone/acetaminophen (brand names: Vicodin, Vicodin ES, Anexsia, Lorcet, Lorcet Plus, Norco)-A narcotic pain reliever and a cough suppressant that is similar to codeine and is used for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain. The precise mechanism of pain relief by hydrocodone and other narcotics is not known. Acetaminophen is a nonnarcotic pain reliever and fever reducer. It relieves pain by elevating the pain threshold and reduces fever through its action on the heat-regulating center of the brain. Generic is available.

hydroxyzine (brand names: Vistaril, Atarax)-An antihistamine with anticholinergic (drying) and sedative properties that is used to treat allergic reactions and to relieve nasal and nonnasal symptoms such as those from seasonal allergic rhinitis. Histamine is released by the body during several types of allergic reactions and to a lesser extent during some viral infections, such as the common cold. When histamine binds to its receptors on cells, it causes changes within the cells that lead to sneezing, itching, and increased mucus production. Antihistamines compete with histamine for cell receptors; however, when they bind to the receptors, antihistamines do not stimulate the cells. In addition, antihistamines prevent histamine from binding and stimulating the cells. Generic is available.

ibuprofen (brand names: Advil, Motrin, Medipren, Nuprin)-A traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is effective in treating fever, pain, and inflammation in the body. As a group, NSAIDs are nonnarcotic relievers of mild to moderate pain of many causes, including injury, menstrual cramps, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions. Generic is available.

levothyroxine sodium (brand names: Synthroid, Levoxyl, Levothroid, Unithroid)-A synthetic version of the principal thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), which is made and released by the thyroid gland. Levothyroxine sodium is used to treat hypothyroidism and to suppress thyroid hormone release in the management of cancerous thyroid nodules and growth of goiters. Thyroid hormone increases the metabolic rate of cells of all tissues in the body. Thyroid hormone helps to maintain brain function, food metabolism, and body temperature, among other effects. Generic is available.

lisinopril (brand name: Zestril, Prinivil)-Lisinopril is an ACE inhibitor that works to lower blood pressure by relaxing and enlarging blood vessels. It also is used to treat heart failure. Lisinopril should be taken at the same time each day in order to ensure consistent blood levels. Pregnant mothers should avoid lisinopril, and it is important to avoid taking lisinopril within two hours of an antacid since antacid binds the lisinopril and prevents it from being absorbed into the body. Side effects of lisinopril include dizziness that is felt when the blood pressure begins to drop, and kidney damage as well. Those taking potassium supplements or diuretics that cause potassium to be retained by the body should not take lisinopril because blood potassium levels may rise to dangerously high levels. Generic lisinopril is available.

lithium (brand name: Lithobid)-Since the 1950s, lithium has been used in the treatment of bipolar disorder as well as depression. Lithium is a mineral that has a positive charge, similar to sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. It works by interfering inside cells with other minerals with positive charges such as potassium, calcium and magnesium. Lithium impacts the brain by affecting both the concentrations of tryptophan and serotonin within the brain’s cells, and neurotransmitters, chemical messengers that nerves use to communicate with each other. It is recommended that lithium be taken together with food. The full clinical effects of lithium are seen about 2-3 weeks after beginning treatment. Goiters of the thyroid gland develop in one out of every 25 persons taking lithium. Generic lithium is available.

lorazepam (brand names: Ativan)-An antianxiety medication in the benzodiazepine family. Lorazepam and other benzodiazepines act by enhancing the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. GABA is a neurotransmitter, a chemical that nerves in the brain use to send messages to one another. GABA inhibits activity in many of the nerves of the brain, and it is thought that this excessive activity is what causes anxiety and other psychological disorders. Lorazepam has fewer interactions with other medications and is felt to be potentially less toxic than most of the other benzodiazepines. Lorazepam is also used to treat insomnia and panic attacks. Generic is available.

meloxicam (brand name: Mobic)-Meloxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is used in the treatment of inflammation due to osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Meloxicam, like other NSAIDs, reduces the pain, tenderness and swelling caused by inflammation by preventing the formation of chemicals that contribute to inflammation. Individuals who are prone to asthma attacks, hives or have an allergy to aspirin and other NSAIDs should not take meloxicam. Aspirin should not be taken with meloxicam as such a combination raises the risk for developing ulcers of the stomach or small intestine. Generic meloxicam is available..

metformin (brand name: Glucophage)-Approved by the FDA in 1994, metformin is used to lower blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes in adults and children. Metformin also reduces complications of diabetes including heart disease, blindness and kidney disease. When used alone, metformin does not increase insulin levels in the blood and, therefore, does not result in extremely low blood glucose levels. Metformin increases the effects that insulin has on the liver, muscle, fat, and other tissues. As a result, the reduced levels of insulin have more of an effect than they otherwise would. Metformin also has been used to prevent diabetes from worsening and also has been used to treat polycystic ovaries. Side effects of metformin include nausea, vomiting, gas, bloating, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Generic metformin is available.

methotrexate (brand names: Rheumatrex, Trexall)-A drug that is capable of blocking the metabolism of cells (an antimetabolite). As a result of this effect, methotrexate has been found to be helpful in treating certain diseases associated with abnormally rapid cell growth, such as cancer of the breast and psoriasis. Recently, methotrexate has been shown to be effective in inducing miscarriage (for example, in patients with ectopic pregnancy). This effect of methotrexate is attributed to its action of killing the rapidly growing cells of the placenta. Methotrexate has also been found to be very helpful in treating rheumatoid arthritis, although its mechanism of action in this illness is not known. Methotrexate seems to work, in part, by altering aspects of immune function that may play a role in causing rheumatoid arthritis. Generic is available.

methylprednisolone (brand name: Medrol, Depo-Medrol)-Methylprednisolone is a synthetic corticosteroid that is used to reduce inflammation in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, lupus, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. The body produces corticosteroids naturally in the adrenal glands. Methylprednisolone may be used during pregnancy as it does not cause abnormalities in the fetus. However, using methylprednisolone for long periods of time can cause the body to stop producing its own corticosteroids. This can lead to a serious problem, i.e., inadequate amounts of corticosteroids, if the methylprednisolone is stopped for any reason. Generic methylprednisolone is available.

metoprolol (brand names: Lopressor, Toprol XL)-A medication that blocks the action of a portion of the involuntary nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the pace of the heart beat. By blocking the action of these nerves, metoprolol reduces the heart rate and is useful in treating abnormally rapid heart rhythms. Metoprolol also reduces the force of heart muscle contraction, lowers blood pressure, and is helpful in treating angina. Generic is available.

metronidazole (brand name: Flagyl)-Metronidazole is an antibiotic used to fight infections caused by a class of bacteria called anaerobic bacteria as well as some parasites. Metronidazole is used for infections of the small intestine, amebic liver abscesses, dysentery and trichomonas vaginal infections. It also is used to treat infections of the colon caused by the bacterium, Clostridium difficile. Taking metronidazole with alcohol is dangerous as it can cause nausea, vomiting, cramps, flushing and headache. Pregnant mothers and nursing mothers should not use metronidazole. Side effects of metronidazole, although they are few, include seizures and nerve damage that can lead to numbness and tingling of the hands and feet. Generic metronidazole is available.

naproxen (brand names: Naprosyn, Naprelan, Anaprox, Aleve)-A traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is effective in treating fever, pain, and inflammation in the body. As a group, NSAIDs are nonnarcotic relievers of mild to moderate pain of many causes, including injury, menstrual cramps, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions. Generic is available.

phentermine (brand names: Adipex-P, Fastin, Obenix, Oby-Trim)-An appetite suppressor that decreases appetite by possibly changing brain levels of serotonin. Phentermine is a nervous system stimulator like the amphetamines, causing stimulation, elevation of blood pressure, and increased heart rates. Phentermine is used for short periods, along with diet and behavior modification, to treat obesity. Generic is available.

prednisone (brand names: Deltasone, Liquid Pred, Prednisolone, Pediapred Oral Liquid, Medrol)-An oral, synthetic corticosteroid that is used for suppressing the immune system and inflammation. Synthetic corticosteroids mimic the action of cortisol (hydrocortisone), the naturally occurring corticosteroid that is produced in the body by the adrenal glands. Corticosteroids have many effects on the body, but they most often are used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects, particularly in conditions in which the immune system plays an important role. Such conditions include arthritis, colitis, asthma, bronchitis, certain skin rashes, and allergic or inflammatory conditions of the nose and eyes. Generic is available.

tramadol (brand name: Ultram)-A pain reliever (analgesic) that is used in the management of moderate to moderately severe pain. Its mode of action resembles that of narcotics, but tramadol has significantly less potential for abuse and addiction than narcotics. Tramadol is as effective as narcotics in relieving pain, but it does not depress respiration, which is a side effect of most narcotics. Generic is not available.

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Medications Information – Index of drug monographs …

Indiana University School of Medicine

Bucking a national trend of tight resources for biomedical research, IU School of Medicine scientists received a record $302.3 million in research grants and awards in fiscal year 2015, a 17% increase over 2014. The school attracted $111.5 million in research funds from National Institutes of Health, the single largest source of research dollars for the school and the nations primary source of funds for academic biomedical research. NIH awards to IU School of Medicine increased by nearly 10%, or nearly $10 million, in 2015 over fiscal year 2014.

IU School of Medicine Research

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Indiana University School of Medicine

Home | Yale School of Medicine

When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If you’re eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator.

If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate.

In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile.

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Home | Yale School of Medicine

The New England Journal of Medicine: Research & Review …

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The New England Journal of Medicine: Research & Review …

Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

a specialized dictionary covering terms used in the health professions by doctors, nurses, and others involved in allied health care services. A dictionary with authoritative spellings and definitions is a particularly crucial resource in medicine, where a misspelling or misunderstanding can have unfortunate consequences for people under care. Print dictionaries in this field may be sorted alphabetically or may be categorized according to medical specializations or by the various systems in the body, as the immune system and the respiratory system. The online Medical Dictionary on Dictionary.com allows alphabetical browsing in the combined electronic versions of more than one authoritative medical reference, insuring access to correct spellings, as well as immediate, direct access to a known search term typed into the search box on the site:

A medical dictionary reveals that large numbers of medical terms are formed from the same Latin and Greek parts combined and recombined.

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Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health

Please turn on Javascript For an enhanced version of the page

Read the plan and share your comments at: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/plan/lrp17/NLM_StrategicReport2017_2027.html

Learn more about the health status of racial and ethnic minority populations in the US and become a partner for health equity.

Featuring actor Jim Parsons sharing his experience with NIH’s Clinical Center, plus antibiotic resistance, sickle cell disease, and more.

Find healthy nutrition resources to help you meet your 2018 goals on MedlinePlus.

See the original post here:

National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health

Medicine | Definition of Medicine by Merriam-Webster

1 a : a substance or preparation used in treating disease b : something that affects well-being

b : the branch of medicine concerned with the nonsurgical treatment of disease

3 : a substance (such as a drug or potion) used to treat something other than disease

4 : an object held in traditional American Indian belief to give control over natural or magical forces; also : magical power or a magical rite

Excerpt from:

Medicine | Definition of Medicine by Merriam-Webster

Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

a specialized dictionary covering terms used in the health professions by doctors, nurses, and others involved in allied health care services. A dictionary with authoritative spellings and definitions is a particularly crucial resource in medicine, where a misspelling or misunderstanding can have unfortunate consequences for people under care. Print dictionaries in this field may be sorted alphabetically or may be categorized according to medical specializations or by the various systems in the body, as the immune system and the respiratory system. The online Medical Dictionary on Dictionary.com allows alphabetical browsing in the combined electronic versions of more than one authoritative medical reference, insuring access to correct spellings, as well as immediate, direct access to a known search term typed into the search box on the site:

A medical dictionary reveals that large numbers of medical terms are formed from the same Latin and Greek parts combined and recombined.

Follow this link:

Medicine | Define Medicine at Dictionary.com

National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health

Please turn on Javascript For an enhanced version of the page

Read the plan and share your comments at: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/plan/lrp17/NLM_StrategicReport2017_2027.html

Learn more about the health status of racial and ethnic minority populations in the US and become a partner for health equity.

Featuring actor Jim Parsons sharing his experience with NIH’s Clinical Center, plus antibiotic resistance, sickle cell disease, and more.

Find healthy nutrition resources to help you meet your 2018 goals on MedlinePlus.

The rest is here:

National Library of Medicine – National Institutes of Health

My Medicine – WebMD – Better information. Better health.

WebMD My Medicine Help

Q: What is an interaction?

A: Mixing certain medicines together may cause a bad reaction. This is called an interaction. For example, one medicine may cause side effects that create problems with other medicines. Or one medicine may make another medicine stronger or weaker.

Q: How do you classify the seriousness of an interaction?

A: The following classification is used:

Contraindicated: Never use this combination of drugs because of high risk for dangerous interaction

Serious: Potential for serious interaction; regular monitoring by your doctor required or alternate medication may be needed

Significant: Potential for significant interaction (monitoring by your doctor is likely required)

Mild: Interaction is unlikely, minor, or nonsignificant

Q: What should I do if my medications show interactions?

A: Call your doctor or pharmacist if you are concerned about an interaction. Do not stop taking any prescribed medication without your doctor’s approval. Sometimes the risk of not taking the medication outweighs the risk or the interaction.

Q: Why can’t I enter my medication?

A: There may be medications, especially otc or supplements, that have not been adequately studied for interactions. If we do not have interaction information for a certain medication it can’t be saved in My Medicine.

Q: Do you cover all FDA warnings?

A: WebMD will alert users to the most important FDA warnings and alerts affecting consumers such as recalls, label changes and investigations. Not all FDA actions are included. Go to the FDA for a comprehensive list of warnings.

Q: Can I be alerted by email if there is an FDA warning or alert?

A: Yes. If you are signed in to WebMD.com and using My Medicine you can sign up to receive email alerts when you add a medicine. To unsubscribe click here.

Q: Can I add medicines for family members?

A: Yes. Click the arrow next to your picture to add drug profiles for family or loved ones.

Q: Can I access My Medicine from my mobile phone?

A: Yes. Sign in to the WebMD Mobile App. Your saved medicine can be found under “Saved.”

Q: Why are there already medicines saved when this my first time using this tool?

A: If you have previously saved a medication on WebMD, for example, in the WebMD Mobile App, these may display in My Medicine.

See the original post:

My Medicine – WebMD – Better information. Better health.

medicine | Definition, Fields, Research, & Facts …

Organization of health services

It is generally the goal of most countries to have their health services organized in such a way to ensure that individuals, families, and communities obtain the maximum benefit from current knowledge and technology available for the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health. In order to play their part in this process, governments and other agencies are faced with numerous tasks, including the following: (1) They must obtain as much information as is possible on the size, extent, and urgency of their needs; without accurate information, planning can be misdirected. (2) These needs must then be revised against the resources likely to be available in terms of money, manpower, and materials; developing countries may well require external aid to supplement their own resources. (3) Based on their assessments, countries then need to determine realistic objectives and draw up plans. (4) Finally, a process of evaluation needs to be built into the program; the lack of reliable information and accurate assessment can lead to confusion, waste, and inefficiency.

Health services of any nature reflect a number of interrelated characteristics, among which the most obvious, but not necessarily the most important from a national point of view, is the curative function; that is to say, caring for those already ill. Others include special services that deal with particular groups (such as children or pregnant women) and with specific needs such as nutrition or immunization; preventive services, the protection of the health both of individuals and of communities; health education; and, as mentioned above, the collection and analysis of information.

In the curative domain there are various forms of medical practice. They may be thought of generally as forming a pyramidal structure, with three tiers representing increasing degrees of specialization and technical sophistication but catering to diminishing numbers of patients as they are filtered out of the system at a lower level. Only those patients who require special attention either for diagnosis or treatment should reach the second (advisory) or third (specialized treatment) tiers where the cost per item of service becomes increasingly higher. The first level represents primary health care, or first contact care, at which patients have their initial contact with the health-care system.

Primary health care is an integral part of a countrys health maintenance system, of which it forms the largest and most important part. As described in the declaration of Alma-Ata, primary health care should be based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development. Primary health care in the developed countries is usually the province of a medically qualified physician; in the developing countries first contact care is often provided by nonmedically qualified personnel.

The vast majority of patients can be fully dealt with at the primary level. Those who cannot are referred to the second tier (secondary health care, or the referral services) for the opinion of a consultant with specialized knowledge or for X-ray examinations and special tests. Secondary health care often requires the technology offered by a local or regional hospital. Increasingly, however, the radiological and laboratory services provided by hospitals are available directly to the family doctor, thus improving his service to patients and increasing its range. The third tier of health care, employing specialist services, is offered by institutions such as teaching hospitals and units devoted to the care of particular groupswomen, children, patients with mental disorders, and so on. The dramatic differences in the cost of treatment at the various levels is a matter of particular importance in developing countries, where the cost of treatment for patients at the primary health-care level is usually only a small fraction of that at the third level; medical costs at any level in such countries, however, are usually borne by the government.

Ideally, provision of health care at all levels will be available to all patients; such health care may be said to be universal. The well-off, both in relatively wealthy industrialized countries and in the poorer developing world, may be able to get medical attention from sources they prefer and can pay for in the private sector. The vast majority of people in most countries, however, are dependent in various ways upon health services provided by the state, to which they may contribute comparatively little or, in the case of poor countries, nothing at all.

The costs to national economics of providing health care are considerable and have been growing at a rapidly increasing rate, especially in countries such as the United States, Germany, and Sweden; the rise in Britain has been less rapid. This trend has been the cause of major concerns in both developed and developing countries. Some of this concern is based upon the lack of any consistent evidence to show that more spending on health care produces better health. There is a movement in developing countries to replace the type of organization of health-care services that evolved during European colonial times with some less expensive, and for them, more appropriate, health-care system.

In the industrialized world the growing cost of health services has caused both private and public health-care delivery systems to question current policies and to seek more economical methods of achieving their goals. Despite expenditures, health services are not always used effectively by those who need them, and results can vary widely from community to community. In Britain, for example, between 1951 and 1971 the death rate fell by 24 percent in the wealthier sections of the population but by only half that in the most underprivileged sections of society. The achievement of good health is reliant upon more than just the quality of health care. Health entails such factors as good education, safe working conditions, a favourable environment, amenities in the home, well-integrated social services, and reasonable standards of living.

The developing countries differ from one another culturally, socially, and economically, but what they have in common is a low average income per person, with large percentages of their populations living at or below the poverty level. Although most have a small elite class, living mainly in the cities, the largest part of their populations live in rural areas. Urban regions in developing and some developed countries in the mid- and late 20th century have developed pockets of slums, which are growing because of an influx of rural peoples. For lack of even the simplest measures, vast numbers of urban and rural poor die each year of preventable and curable diseases, often associated with poor hygiene and sanitation, impure water supplies, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and chronic preventable infections. The effect of these and other deprivations is reflected by the finding that in the 1980s the life expectancy at birth for men and women was about one-third less in Africa than it was in Europe; similarly, infant mortality in Africa was about eight times greater than in Europe. The extension of primary health-care services is therefore a high priority in the developing countries.

The developing countries themselves, lacking the proper resources, have often been unable to generate or implement the plans necessary to provide required services at the village or urban poor level. It has, however, become clear that the system of health care that is appropriate for one country is often unsuitable for another. Research has established that effective health care is related to the special circumstances of the individual country, its people, culture, ideology, and economic and natural resources.

The rising costs of providing health care have influenced a trend, especially among the developing nations, to promote services that employ less highly trained primary health-care personnel who can be distributed more widely in order to reach the largest possible proportion of the community. The principal medical problems to be dealt with in the developing world include undernutrition, infection, gastrointestinal disorders, and respiratory complaints, which themselves may be the result of poverty, ignorance, and poor hygiene. For the most part, these are easy to identify and to treat. Furthermore, preventive measures are usually simple and cheap. Neither treatment nor prevention requires extensive professional training: in most cases they can be dealt with adequately by the primary health worker, a term that includes all nonprofessional health personnel.

Those concerned with providing health care in the developed countries face a different set of problems. The diseases so prevalent in the Third World have, for the most part, been eliminated or are readily treatable. Many of the adverse environmental conditions and public health hazards have been conquered. Social services of varying degrees of adequacy have been provided. Public funds can be called upon to support the cost of medical care, and there are a variety of private insurance plans available to the consumer. Nevertheless, the funds that a government can devote to health care are limited and the cost of modern medicine continues to increase, thus putting adequate medical services beyond the reach of many. Adding to the expense of modern medical practices is the increasing demand for greater funding of health education and preventive measures specifically directed toward the poor.

In many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries, people get their primary health care, or first-contact care, where available at all, from nonmedically qualified personnel; these cadres of medical auxiliaries are being trained in increasing numbers to meet overwhelming needs among rapidly growing populations. Even among the comparatively wealthy countries of the world, containing in all a much smaller percentage of the worlds population, escalation in the costs of health services and in the cost of training a physician has precipitated some movement toward reappraisal of the role of the medical doctor in the delivery of first-contact care.

In advanced industrial countries, however, it is usually a trained physician who is called upon to provide the first-contact care. The patient seeking first-contact care can go either to a general practitioner or turn directly to a specialist. Which is the wisest choice has become a subject of some controversy. The general practitioner, however, is becoming rather rare in some developed countries. In countries where he does still exist, he is being increasingly observed as an obsolescent figure, because medicine covers an immense, rapidly changing, and complex field of which no physician can possibly master more than a small fraction. The very concept of the general practitioner, it is thus argued, may be absurd.

The obvious alternative to general practice is the direct access of a patient to a specialist. If a patient has problems with vision, he goes to an eye specialist, and if he has a pain in his chest (which he fears is due to his heart), he goes to a heart specialist. One objection to this plan is that the patient often cannot know which organ is responsible for his symptoms, and the most careful physician, after doing many investigations, may remain uncertain as to the cause. Breathlessnessa common symptommay be due to heart disease, to lung disease, to anemia, or to emotional upset. Another common symptom is general malaisefeeling run-down or always tired; others are headache, chronic low backache, rheumatism, abdominal discomfort, poor appetite, and constipation. Some patients may also be overtly anxious or depressed. Among the most subtle medical skills is the ability to assess people with such symptoms and to distinguish between symptoms that are caused predominantly by emotional upset and those that are predominantly of bodily origin. A specialist may be capable of such a general assessment, but, often, with emphasis on his own subject, he fails at this point. The generalist with his broader training is often the better choice for a first diagnosis, with referral to a specialist as the next option.

It is often felt that there are also practical advantages for the patient in having his own doctor, who knows about his background, who has seen him through various illnesses, and who has often looked after his family as well. This personal physician, often a generalist, is in the best position to decide when the patient should be referred to a consultant.

The advantages of general practice and specialization are combined when the physician of first contact is a pediatrician. Although he sees only children and thus acquires a special knowledge of childhood maladies, he remains a generalist who looks at the whole patient. Another combination of general practice and specialization is represented by group practice, the members of which partially or fully specialize. One or more may be general practitioners, and one may be a surgeon, a second an obstetrician, a third a pediatrician, and a fourth an internist. In isolated communities group practice may be a satisfactory compromise, but in urban regions, where nearly everyone can be sent quickly to a hospital, the specialist surgeon working in a fully equipped hospital can usually provide better treatment than a general practitioner surgeon in a small clinic hospital.

Before 1948, general practitioners in Britain settled where they could make a living. Patients fell into two main groups: weekly wage earners, who were compulsorily insured, were on a doctors panel and were given free medical attention (for which the doctor was paid quarterly by the government); most of the remainder paid the doctor a fee for service at the time of the illness. In 1948 the National Health Service began operation. Under its provisions, everyone is entitled to free medical attention with a general practitioner with whom he is registered. Though general practitioners in the National Health Service are not debarred from also having private patients, these must be people who are not registered with them under the National Health Service. Any physician is free to work as a general practitioner entirely independent of the National Health Service, though there are few who do so. Almost the entire population is registered with a National Health Service general practitioner, and the vast majority automatically sees this physician, or one of his partners, when they require medical attention. A few people, mostly wealthy, while registered with a National Health Service general practitioner, regularly see another physician privately; and a few may occasionally seek a private consultation because they are dissatisfied with their National Health Service physician.

A general practitioner under the National Health Service remains an independent contractor, paid by a capitation fee; that is, according to the number of people registered with him. He may work entirely from his own office, and he provides and pays his own receptionist, secretary, and other ancillary staff. Most general practitioners have one or more partners and work more and more in premises built for the purpose. Some of these structures are erected by the physicians themselves, but many are provided by the local authority, the physicians paying rent for using them. Health centres, in which groups of general practitioners work have become common.

In Britain only a small minority of general practitioners can admit patients to a hospital and look after them personally. Most of this minority are in country districts, where, before the days of the National Health Service, there were cottage hospitals run by general practitioners; many of these hospitals continued to function in a similar manner. All general practitioners use such hospital facilities as X-ray departments and laboratories, and many general practitioners work in hospitals in emergency rooms (casualty departments) or as clinical assistants to consultants, or specialists.

General practitioners are spread more evenly over the country than formerly, when there were many in the richer areas and few in the industrial towns. The maximum allowed list of National Health Service patients per doctor is 3,500; the average is about 2,500. Patients have free choice of the physician with whom they register, with the proviso that they cannot be accepted by one who already has a full list and that a physician can refuse to accept them (though such refusals are rare). In remote rural places there may be only one physician within a reasonable distance.

Until the mid-20th century it was not unusual for the doctor in Britain to visit patients in their own homes. A general practitioner might make 15 or 20 such house calls in a day, as well as seeing patients in his office or surgery, often in the evenings. This enabled him to become a family doctor in fact as well as in name. In modern practice, however, a home visit is quite exceptional and is paid only to the severely disabled or seriously ill when other recourses are ruled out. All patients are normally required to go to the doctor.

It has also become unusual for a personal doctor to be available during weekends or holidays. His place may be taken by one of his partners in a group practice, a provision that is reasonably satisfactory. General practitioners, however, may now use one of several commercial deputizing services that employs young doctors to be on call. Although some of these young doctors may be well experienced, patients do not generally appreciate this kind of arrangement.

Whereas in Britain the doctor of first contact is regularly a general practitioner, in the United States the nature of first-contact care is less consistent. General practice in the United States has been in a state of decline in the second half of the 20th century, especially in metropolitan areas. The general practitioner, however, is being replaced to some degree by the growing field of family practice. In 1969 family practice was recognized as a medical specialty after the American Academy of General Practice (now the American Academy of Family Physicians) and the American Medical Association created the American Board of General (now Family) Practice. Since that time the field has become one of the larger medical specialties in the United States. The family physicians were the first group of medical specialists in the United States for whom recertification was required.

There is no national health service, as such, in the United States. Most physicians in the country have traditionally been in some form of private practice, whether seeing patients in their own offices, clinics, medical centres, or another type of facility and regardless of the patients income. Doctors are usually compensated by such state and federally supported agencies as Medicaid (for treating the poor) and Medicare (for treating the elderly); not all doctors, however, accept poor patients. There are also some state-supported clinics and hospitals where the poor and elderly may receive free or low-cost treatment, and some doctors devote a small percentage of their time to treatment of the indigent. Veterans may receive free treatment at Veterans Administration hospitals, and the federal government through its Indian Health Service provides medical services to American Indians and Alaskan natives, sometimes using trained auxiliaries for first-contact care.

In the rural United States first-contact care is likely to come from a generalist. The middle- and upper-income groups living in urban areas, however, have access to a larger number of primary medical care options. Children are often taken to pediatricians, who may oversee the childs health needs until adulthood. Adults frequently make their initial contact with an internist, whose field is mainly that of medical (as opposed to surgical) illnesses; the internist often becomes the family physician. Other adults choose to go directly to physicians with narrower specialties, including dermatologists, allergists, gynecologists, orthopedists, and ophthalmologists.

Patients in the United States may also choose to be treated by doctors of osteopathy. These doctors are fully qualified, but they make up only a small percentage of the countrys physicians. They may also branch off into specialties, but general practice is much more common in their group than among M.D.s.

It used to be more common in the United States for physicians providing primary care to work independently, providing their own equipment and paying their own ancillary staff. In smaller cities they mostly had full hospital privileges, but in larger cities these privileges were more likely to be restricted. Physicians, often sharing the same specialties, are increasingly entering into group associations, where the expenses of office space, staff, and equipment may be shared; such associations may work out of suites of offices, clinics, or medical centres. The increasing competition and risks of private practice have caused many physicians to join Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs), which provide comprehensive medical care and hospital care on a prepaid basis. The cost savings to patients are considerable, but they must use only the HMO doctors and facilities. HMOs stress preventive medicine and out-patient treatment as opposed to hospitalization as a means of reducing costs, a policy that has caused an increased number of empty hospital beds in the United States.

While the number of doctors per 100,000 population in the United States has been steadily increasing, there has been a trend among physicians toward the use of trained medical personnel to handle some of the basic services normally performed by the doctor. So-called physician extender services are commonly divided into nurse practitioners and physicians assistants, both of whom provide similar ancillary services for the general practitioner or specialist. Such personnel do not replace the doctor. Almost all American physicians have systems for taking each others calls when they become unavailable. House calls in the United States, as in Britain, have become exceedingly rare.

In Russia general practitioners are prevalent in the thinly populated rural areas. Pediatricians deal with children up to about age 15. Internists look after the medical ills of adults, and occupational physicians deal with the workers, sharing care with internists.

Teams of physicians with experience in varying specialties work from polyclinics or outpatient units, where many types of diseases are treated. Small towns usually have one polyclinic to serve all purposes. Large cities commonly have separate polyclinics for children and adults, as well as clinics with specializations such as womens health care, mental illnesses, and sexually transmitted diseases. Polyclinics usually have X-ray apparatus and facilities for examination of tissue specimens, facilities associated with the departments of the district hospital. Beginning in the late 1970s was a trend toward the development of more large, multipurpose treatment centres, first-aid hospitals, and specialized medicine and health care centres.

Home visits have traditionally been common, and much of the physicians time is spent in performing routine checkups for preventive purposes. Some patients in sparsely populated rural areas may be seen first by feldshers (auxiliary health workers), nurses, or midwives who work under the supervision of a polyclinic or hospital physician. The feldsher was once a lower-grade physician in the army or peasant communities, but feldshers are now regarded as paramedical workers.

In Japan, with less rigid legal restriction of the sale of pharmaceuticals than in the West, there was formerly a strong tradition of self-medication and self-treatment. This was modified in 1961 by the institution of health insurance programs that covered a large proportion of the population; there was then a great increase in visits to the outpatient clinics of hospitals and to private clinics and individual physicians.

When Japan shifted from traditional Chinese medicine with the adoption of Western medical practices in the 1870s, Germany became the chief model. As a result of German influence and of their own traditions, Japanese physicians tended to prefer professorial status and scholarly research opportunities at the universities or positions in the national or prefectural hospitals to private practice. There were some pioneering physicians, however, who brought medical care to the ordinary people.

Physicians in Japan have tended to cluster in the urban areas. The Medical Service Law of 1963 was amended to empower the Ministry of Health and Welfare to control the planning and distribution of future public and nonprofit medical facilities, partly to redress the urban-rural imbalance. Meanwhile, mobile services were expanded.

The influx of patients into hospitals and private clinics after the passage of the national health insurance acts of 1961 had, as one effect, a severe reduction in the amount of time available for any one patient. Perhaps in reaction to this situation, there has been a modest resurgence in the popularity of traditional Chinese medicine, with its leisurely interview, its dependence on herbal and other natural medicines, and its other traditional diagnostic and therapeutic practices. The rapid aging of the Japanese population as a result of the sharply decreasing death rate and birth rate has created an urgent need for expanded health care services for the elderly. There has also been an increasing need for centres to treat health problems resulting from environmental causes.

On the continent of Europe there are great differences both within single countries and between countries in the kinds of first-contact medical care. General practice, while declining in Europe as elsewhere, is still rather common even in some large cities, as well as in remote country areas.

In The Netherlands, departments of general practice are administered by general practitioners in all the medical schoolsan exceptional state of affairsand general practice flourishes. In the larger cities of Denmark, general practice on an individual basis is usual and popular, because the physician works only during office hours. In addition, there is a duty doctor service for nights and weekends. In the cities of Sweden, primary care is given by specialists. In the remote regions of northern Sweden, district doctors act as general practitioners to patients spread over huge areas; the district doctors delegate much of their home visiting to nurses.

In France there are still general practitioners, but their number is declining. Many medical practitioners advertise themselves directly to the public as specialists in internal medicine, ophthalmologists, gynecologists, and other kinds of specialists. Even when patients have a general practitioner, they may still go directly to a specialist. Attempts to stem the decline in general practice are being made by the development of group practice and of small rural hospitals equipped to deal with less serious illnesses, where general practitioners can look after their patients.

Although Israel has a high ratio of physicians to population, there is a shortage of general practitioners, and only in rural areas is general practice common. In the towns many people go directly to pediatricians, gynecologists, and other specialists, but there has been a reaction against this direct access to the specialist. More general practitioners have been trained, and the Israel Medical Association has recommended that no patient should be referred to a specialist except by the family physician or on instructions given by the family nurse. At Tel Aviv University there is a department of family medicine. In some newly developing areas, where the doctor shortage is greatest, there are medical centres at which all patients are initially interviewed by a nurse. The nurse may deal with many minor ailments, thus freeing the physician to treat the more seriously ill.

Nearly half the medical doctors in Australia are general practitionersa far higher proportion than in most other advanced countriesthough, as elsewhere, their numbers are declining. They tend to do far more for their patients than in Britain, many performing such operations as removal of the appendix, gallbladder, or uterus, operations that elsewhere would be carried out by a specialist surgeon. Group practices are common.

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Medicine | Definition of Medicine by Merriam-Webster

1 a : a substance or preparation used in treating disease b : something that affects well-being

b : the branch of medicine concerned with the nonsurgical treatment of disease

3 : a substance (such as a drug or potion) used to treat something other than disease

4 : an object held in traditional American Indian belief to give control over natural or magical forces; also : magical power or a magical rite

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The UA College of Medicine Tucson is transforming academic medicine through innovative undergraduate medical education and post graduate training programs; strategic interdisciplinary, trans-institutional research; collaboration on health care delivery with Banner Health; and building a strong, diverse and engaged faculty. 2016 was a record year by all accounts, and were continuing that trajectory of growth and success into 2017 and beyond!

Charles B. Cairns, MDDean, College of Medicine Tucson

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