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Loudoun Freedom AAU Basketball Program in Virginia

The Loudoun Freedom is an AAU basketball organization that has been catering specifically to the needs of female athletes since 2004. The Freedom offers quality coaching and provides players with a year-round opportunity to develop advanced basketball skills and knowledge while playing in very competitive environment. The organization emphasizes player development and welcomes all girls from 2nd grade through 11th grades who are interested in playing at a higher level. Our goal is to attract and develop the top talent from Loudoun and neighboring counties so that the best players are constantly challenging themselves and each other to improve their skills.

Spring 2019 Tryouts

The Loudoun Freedom will hold tryouts in Spring 2019 to form GIRLS’ teams in the following grades: 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th.

Registration is OPEN. Interested families can pre-register their daughter online!

Dates:February 10 at Harper Park MSFebruary 17 at Brambleton MSFebruary 24 at Harper Parks MS – this is ONLY for the second round of high school-age tryouts

TRYOUT SCHEDULE is detailed below:

Parents can find more information here:Frequently Asked QuestionsOther Tryout Information

Contact loudounfreedombball@gmail.com if you are interested in the Freedom and have further questions.

Spring 2019 Tentative Practice Schedules: Will be updated based on tryouts. The ability to have 1-2 teams per age group is dependent on turnout at tryouts.

Freedom Challenge Tournament

The Loudoun Freedom hosted its annual Freedom Challenge tournament on April 27-28, 2019. This tournament supports girls teams from 3rd grade through 11th grade. It typically attracts over 100 teams so claim your spot! We have changed the registration fee due to eliminating admissions fees.

Register online here. You can also mail in Registration Form and payment.

Contact loudounfreedombball@gmail.com if you have questions.

Days for Girls

The Loudoun Freedom supports the efforts of the Days for Girls Loudoun County organization and their efforts to increases access to person care and education by developing global partnerships, cultivating social enterprises, mobilizing volunteers, and innovating sustainable solutions that shatter stigmas and limitations for women and girls around the world. Days for Girls works to create a world with dignity, health, and opportunity for all.

See the attached document for more information

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Loudoun Freedom AAU Basketball Program in Virginia

Welcome to Freedom Health | Freedom Health

Website Disclaimer

Freedom Health, Inc. is an HMO with a Medicare contract and a contract with the state Medicaid program. Enrollment in Freedom Health, Inc. depends on contract renewal. This Information is not a complete description of benefits. Call 1-800-401-2740 (TTY: 711) for more information. Medicare beneficiaries may also enroll in Freedom Health through the CMS Medicare Online Enrollment Center located at http://www.medicare.gov. Every year, Medicare evaluates plans based on a 5-star rating system.

Freedom Health, Inc. has been approved by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) to operate as a Special Needs Plan (SNP) until 2020 based on a review Freedom Health, Inc.s Model of Care.

Freedom Health, Inc. complies with applicable Federal civil rights laws and does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, or sex. Freedom Health, Inc. cumple con las leyes federales de derechos civiles aplicables y no discrimina por motivos de raza, color, nacionalidad, edad, discapacidad o sexo. Freedom Health, Inc. konfm ak lwa sou dwa sivil Federal ki aplikab yo e li pa f diskriminasyon sou baz ras, koul, peyi orijin, laj, enfimite oswa sks. Espaol (Spanish): ATENCIN: Si habla espaol, tiene a su disposicin servicios gratuitos de asistencia lingstica. Llame al 1-800-401-2740 (TTY: 711). Kreyl Ayisyen (French Creole): ATANSYON: Si w pale Kreyl Ayisyen, gen svis d pou lang ki disponib gratis pou ou. Rele 1-800-401-2740 (TTY: 711).

These materials may be made available in alternate formats (e.g., large print, Braille) to individuals with disabilities, upon request.

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Welcome to Freedom Health | Freedom Health

freedom – Dictionary Definition : Vocabulary.com

Freedom is the state of being entirely free. Many governments claim to guarantee freedom, but often people do not, in fact, have the absolute freedom to act or speak without restraint.

People in jail long for freedom. People living under an oppressive government also long for freedom. In the United States, people theoretically have “freedom of speech”: the right to say whatever theyre moved to say. Youll notice the word free in freedom. Free comes from the German frei, meaning, to love. The word friend shares this origin. You can think of freedom as the condition in which you have the choice to love any friend you wish.

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freedom – Dictionary Definition : Vocabulary.com

freedom | Definition of freedom in English by Oxford Dictionaries

nounmass noun

1The power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants.

we do have some freedom of choice

count noun he talked of revoking some of the freedoms

More example sentences

he was a champion of Irish freedom

More example sentences

Synonyms

independence, self-government, self-determination, self-legislation, self rule, home rule, sovereignty, autonomy, autarky, democracy

Example sentences

Synonyms

scope, latitude, leeway, margin, flexibility, facility, space, breathing space, room, elbow room

2The state of not being imprisoned or enslaved.

the shark thrashed its way to freedom

More example sentences

Synonyms

liberty, liberation, release, emancipation, deliverance, delivery, discharge, non-confinement, extrication

the shorts have a side split for freedom of movement

More example sentences

the dog has the freedom of the house when we are out

More example sentences

3freedom fromThe state of not being subject to or affected by (something undesirable)

government policies to achieve freedom from want

More example sentences

Synonyms

exemption, immunity, dispensation, exception, exclusion, release, relief, reprieve, absolution, exoneration

4the freedom of British A special privilege or right of access, especially that of full citizenship of a city granted to a public figure as an honour.

he accepted the freedom of the City of Glasgow

More example sentences

5archaic Familiarity or openness in speech or behaviour.

Example sentences

Synonyms

naturalness, openness, lack of inhibition, lack of reserve, casualness, informality, lack of ceremony, spontaneity, ingenuousness

impudence

Old English frodm (see free, -dom).

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freedom | Definition of freedom in English by Oxford Dictionaries

Freedom Credit Union | Mortgages, home equity loans, student …

Freedom Credit Union | Mortgages, home equity loans, student loans, car loans, business loans | Western Massachusetts

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Home Equity (80% LTV)Revolving Line of Credit

Mortgage30-year fixed loan

Certificates / IRAs24-month term

1.95% APR **

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2.20% APY ***

Effective as of 01/07/2019, subject to change daily.

*Annual Percentage Rate. **Special Intro Rate. See rate page for more details. ***Annual Percentage Yield.

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Communication is our Foundation

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Freedom Credit Union | Mortgages, home equity loans, student …

Freedom (2015) – Rotten Tomatoes

Two men separated by 100 years are united in their search for freedom. In 1856 a slave, Samuel Woodward and his family, escape from the Monroe Plantation near Richmond, Virginia. A secret network of ordinary people known as the Underground Railroad guide the family on their journey north to Canada. They are relentlessly pursued by the notorious slave hunter Plimpton. Hunted like a dog and haunted by the unthinkable suffering he and his forbears have endured, Samuel is forced to decide between revenge or freedom. 100 years earlier in 1748, John Newton the Captain of a slave trader sails from Africa with a cargo of slaves, bound for America. On board is Samuel’s great grandfather whose survival is tied to the fate of Captain Newton. The voyage changes Newton’s life forever and he creates a legacy that will inspire Samuel and the lives of millions for generations to come.

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Freedom (2015) – Rotten Tomatoes

Freedom Boat Club | Private Membership Boating Club

Freedom Boat Club | Private Membership Boating Club

Find Your Closest Club Location

Select a Location AL-Orange BeachBC-Port MoodyBC-VancouverCA-CA Delta PittsburgCA-CA Delta StocktonCA-Huntington BeachCA-Los AngelesCA-San Diego Mission Bay DanCA-San Diego Bay Cabrillo IsCA-San Francisco CT-BranfordCT-Deep RiverCT-MysticCT-StamfordCT-StratfordCT-WestbrookDC-WashingtonDE-LewesDE-Long NeckFL-Bay PinesFL-Bonita Springs Bonita BeaFL-BradentonFL-Cape CanaveralFL-Cape CoralFL-ClearwaterFL-Crystal RiverFL-Daytona BeachFL-DestinFL-DunedinFL-Englewood Ainger Creek MaFL-Englewood Cape HazeFL-Fort Myers BeachFL-Fort Myers MarineMaxFL-Fort Walton BeachFL-Ft. PierceFL-Hernando BeachFL-Homosassa SpringsFL-IslamoradaFL-Jacksonville BeachFL-Jacksonville MandarinFL-Johns PassFL-Lake HarrisFL-Lake TarponFL-Lantana at Suntex MarinaFL-Marco IslandFL-Melbourne VieraFL-MiamiFL-Naples BayfrontFL-Naples Brookside MarinaFL-New Smyrna BeachFL-Palm CoastFL-Panama City BeachFL-PensacolaFL-Pensacola BeachFL-Perdido KeyFL-Pine IslandFL-Port HudsonFL-Punta Gorda Burnt StoreFL-Punta Gorda Laishley ParkFL-RuskinFL-SanfordFL-Sarasota Hidden Harbor MaFL-Sarasota Marina JackFL-Sebastian InletFL-St. AugustineFL-St. PetersburgFL-St. Petersburg SkywayFL-Stuart Pirates Cove MarinFL-Tampa I (Hula Bay)FL-Tampa II (Ricks on the RiFL-Tampa III (Harbour IslandFL-Tarpon SpringsFL-Test LocationFL-Tierra VerdeFL-Treasure IslandFL-VeniceFL-Venice MarineMaxFL-Vero BeachFL-West Palm Beach Lake ParFL-Winter HavenFR-La RochelleFR-PornicGA-Lake Lanier Bald RidgeGA-Lake Lanier HolidayGA-Lake OconeeGA-Richmond HillGA-SavannahGA-St. Simons IslandIL-Chicago Montrose HarborIL-Chicago Streeterville IN-Michigan City Washington KY-Greater CincinnatiLA-MadisonvilleMA-BeverlyMA-BostonMA-Cape Cod Cataumet MA-Cape Cod ChathamMA-Cape Cod East DennisMA-Cape Cod FalmouthMA-Cape Cod West DennisMA-CharlestownMA-HinghamMA-NewburyportMA-QuincyMA-ScituateMD-Annapolis Fairwinds MarinMD-Annapolis Horn Point HarbMD-Baltimore Harbor EastMD-Baltimore Middle RiverMD-Deale Shipwright HarborME-Naples MaineME-Portland MaineME-Yarmouth MaineMI-Grand HavenMI-HollandMI-Lake St. ClairMI-St. JosephMI-WhitehallMO-Lake of the Ozarks 19MMMO-Lake of the Ozarks 2MMMS-Biloxi NC-Jordan LakeNC-Lake NormanNC-Lake Wylie NC-SouthportNH-NewingtonNH-PortsmouthNJ-Lake HopatcongNJ-Point PleasantNM-Navajo LakeNS-HalifaxNY-BuffaloNY-FreeportNY-Lake GeorgeNY-LindenhurstNY-NorthportNY-Port JeffersonNY-Port WashingtonOH-Catawba Island OH-Cleveland Rocky RiverOH-Huron ON-OttawaON-TorontoOR-PortlandPA-Lake WallenpaupackRI-BarringtonRI-NewportRI-PortsmouthRI-WarwickSC-Hilton Head IslandSC-Lake HartwellSC-Mt. PleasantSC-Murrells Inlet SC-North Myrtle BeachSC-Pawleys IslandSC-Port RoyalSC-Seabrook IslandTN-KnoxvilleTN-Nashville Cedar Creek MarTN-Nashville Four Corners MaTX-Clear LakeTX-Dallas Lake LewisvilleTX-Lake AustinTX-Lake ConroeTX-Lake Travis Rough Hollow TX-Lake Travis Sandy Creek YVA-Lake AnnaVA-PortsmouthVA-WoodbridgeWA-BremertonWA-EdmondsWA-Lake Washington KirklandWA-OlympiaWA-SeattleWA-Tacoma

Freedom Boat Club: The Affordable Alternative to Boat Ownership

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Freedom Boat Club | Private Membership Boating Club

Freedom Synonyms, Freedom Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

The spirit and the gifts of freedom ill assort with the condition of a slave.

It seems to me that life is no life, but living death, without that freedom!

The cause of freedom owes her much; the country owes her much.

Under the eternal urge of freedom we became an independent Nation.

Because we are free we can never be indifferent to the fate of freedom elsewhere.

They add up to only a tiny fraction of the price that has been paid for our freedom.

It is not profane if I now say, ‘with a great price obtained I this freedom.’

There are those in the world who scorn our vision of human dignity and freedom.

Freedom is one of the deepest and noblest aspirations of the human spirit.

We believe that all men have the right to freedom of thought and expression.

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Freedom Synonyms, Freedom Antonyms | Thesaurus.com

Beyonc FREEDOM Lyrics | Genius Lyrics

Freedom is an anthem dedicated to black women. The song brings Beyoncs visual album to an apex with the scene hope and features the mothers of Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown, and Eric Garner pictured with photos of their deceased sons.

Throughout the song, Beyonc alludes to herself as a force of nature who can empower other women like herself to break free of the bonds society places on them. She addresses her struggle with infidelity as a black woman, as well as alluding to the history of slavery inflicted upon African-Americans, including current issues and the Black Lives Matter movement. Beyonc and her writers, musicians, and producers sonically reference the musical memories of all those periods.

Beyonc is joined by Kendrick Lamar in their first ever collaboration. While Beyonc focuses on womens issues, Kendrick continues to touch on institutionalized racism, a major theme of his critically acclaimed 2015 album To Pimp A Butterfly. However, Kendrick also brings women to the forefront, alluding to 2Pacs Dear Mama and Ride 4 Me while sending a message of empowerment to his own mother.

In Kendricks verse, he employs a style of writing that counts down from ten to five, before switching to a syllable count to further the countdown. This gives the impression that Kendrick is counting down towards something significant. Within context of the song (and the final bars of the verse), Kendrick is likely counting down to freedom from oppression. Yasiin Bey employs a similar writing style on Mathematics.

Along with issues affecting black women, social equality justice are major motifs of this song.

Producer Just Blaze told the Rap Radar podcast that Beyonc came to him with the Let Me Try sample by Kaleidoscope and an already completed demo.

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Beyonc FREEDOM Lyrics | Genius Lyrics

Freedom

What are Freedom Groups?

During a 13-week Small Groups semester, Freedom Groups gather weekly to discuss the Freedom Small Group curriculum, which is designed to equip you to live the victorious and abundant life Christ came to give you. Freedom Groups build on the foundation of your faith in Christ to help you embrace the truth of Gods Word as it relates to your worldview, your past, your sin, your personal value to God, and your purpose in His Kingdom. This group will help you remove every obstacle to intimacy with God and walk in true freedom.

The Freedom Curriculum focuses on six areas of personal growth:

God never wanted us to pursue dead religion, rather His heart is for us to know Him personally and live in our true identity as His children. You will learn what it means to live in the Tree of Life and how a simple but powerful perspective shift can impact every area of your life.

The Bible talks about the Spirit-led life, but this kind of living can feel hard to reach. Through Freedom, you will learn the principles of spiritual order and how feeding your spirit over your emotions and flesh is key to walking in the Spirit.

God calls us to love and serve Him above all else, and when we do, we see how we can grow in our purpose, live forgiven and forgive others, and receive His blessings. Freedom will help you learn how to surrender to Jesus and live in freedom daily.

Our words have power, and by learning to speak words of life that line up with Gods Word, your words can change your environment and relationships and break the power of the enemys words in your life.

God has a unique plan and purpose for our lives, but we also have an enemy who is trying to keep us from fulfilling this purpose. In your Freedom Group, you will learn how to stand in the authority of Jesus to overcome sin and the enemys schemes as you allow God to use your life for His glory.

We all worship something. Freedom will help you learn how to daily direct your worship to God and discover how it can influence the heart of everything you do.

At the end of the Small Groups semester, there is a Freedom Conference that every Freedom Group member is encouraged to attend. The Freedom Conference focuses on solidifying what you learned in Freedom by helping you take next steps to overcome your past and lay a foundation for walking in daily freedom.

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Freedom

Freedom Guardian – medical alert watch | Medical Guardian

Enjoy the same monitoring benefits and connectivity capabilities the companion app offers including SMS messaging, location tracking, emergency alert history and managing daily tasks all through your computer desktop. Basic account information and Care Circle contacts, resources manuals, tech support, etc. You can also chat with a Customer Care representative should you need help.

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Freedom Guardian – medical alert watch | Medical Guardian

Freedom Munitions

‘);var ajaxUrl=”https://www.freedommunitions.com/homeproduct/product/filter/”;ajaxUrl=ajaxUrl.replace(/^http:///i,’//’);new Ajax.Request(ajaxUrl,{dataType:’json’,type:’post’,parameters:{filter:filt},onSuccess:function(data){eval(‘var response = ‘+data.responseText+’;’);$(‘not-responsive-content’).update(response[‘desktopContent’]);jQuery(“#not-responsive-content”).show();jQuery(“#display”).hide();jQuery(‘a.filter-link’).css({‘pointer-events’:’auto’});if(jQuery(window).width() li.product’).each(function(){if(jQuery(this).find(‘div.price-box.map-info’).length>0){jQuery(this).find(‘div.price-box.map-info > .old-price’).remove();}});}});}jQuery(function(){jQuery(window).resize(function(){autoHeightDelay(“.products-grid li.product”);});jQuery(window).load(function(){jQuery(‘a.filter-link’).css({‘pointer-events’:’none’});jQuery(“#not-responsive-content”).hide();jQuery(“#display”).html(”);jQuery(“#display”).show();jQuery(“#display”).html(”);var ajaxUrl=”https://www.freedommunitions.com/homeproduct/product/filter/”;ajaxUrl=ajaxUrl.replace(/^http:///i,’//’);new Ajax.Request(ajaxUrl,{dataType:’json’,type:’post’,parameters:{filter:’new-products’},onComplete:function(data){eval(‘var response = ‘+data.responseText+’;’);$(‘not-responsive-content’).update(response[‘desktopContent’]);jQuery(“#not-responsive-content”).show();jQuery(“#display”).hide();jQuery(‘a.filter-link’).css({‘pointer-events’:’auto’});if(jQuery(window).width() li.product’).each(function(){if(jQuery(this).find(‘div.price-box.map-info’).length>0){jQuery(this).find(‘div.price-box.map-info > .old-price’).remove();}});}});});});//]]>

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Freedom Munitions

GEN – Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News

In the latest issue of GEN, we take a look back at several of the big-name gene-editing technologies that were prominent in the news before CRISPRsome of which still make headlines. Read about how a trove of DNA sequence information is missing from the human reference genome. This months A-List features 10 prospective takeover targets for 2019.

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GEN – Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News

Genetic engineering could save chocolate from going …

The world’s chocolate supply is dwindling. As our global sweet tooth begins to outpace cocoa production, major chocolate companies like Mars Inc. and Barry Callebaut expect to see an industry deficit of 4.4 billion pounds of chocolate by 2030. And by 2050, the cacao seeds used to make chocolate could be extinct.

As farmers struggle to keep up with demand, Bloomberg reports that the price of chocolate has continued to rise, making popular items like Hershey bars more expensive.

Companies that want to keep costs low have had to sacrifice the flavor of their products. In 2014, Bloomberg’s Mark Schatzker predicted that chocolate could follow the path of food items like chicken and strawberries, which have lost some of their flavor in the quest to satisfy demand. According to Schatzker, chocolate could soon become “as tasteless as today’s store-bought tomatoes.”

To prevent that from happening, the nonprofit coalition of farmers called A Fresh Look released a line of chocolate bars that promote the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

Ethos Chocolate uses sugar derived from GMO beets. A Fresh Look

While the bars, known as Ethos Chocolate, don’t contain genetically modified cacao an ingredient that’s still being developed and tested they do contain sugar that’s derived from GMO beets.

According to A Fresh Look’s lead scientist, Rebecca Larson, it’s the first time a farmer’s group has come together to espouse GMO technology, which has been criticized by environmentalists.

Around 70% of the world’s cocoa beans hail from West Africa, with Ghana and Ivory Coast serving as the two largest producers. As global temperatures continue to rise, these nations have seen increasingly dry weather, which can prevent cacao trees from growing.

Cacao trees are also particularly vulnerable to disease.

The International Cocoa Organization (ICCO) reported that diseases and pests have resulted in the loss of 30% to 40% of global cocoa production. The report also noted that cocoa species are susceptible to a disease called frosty pod, which has led to entire cocoa farms being abandoned in Latin America.

In West Africa, swollen shoot virus and black pod have also overtaken cacao trees, resulting in huge financial losses. These diseases are made worse by weather conditions such as floods, droughts, and windstorms.

In addition to placing a strain on chocolate manufacturing companies, the loss of cacao trees can impair the livelihoods of tens of millions of people who depend on them economically.

But genetic modification has the potential to lessen these effects by making crops drought tolerant or insect resistant. Studies have shown that GMO crops can improve crop yield, boost farmers’ profits, and even reduce the use of pesticides.

While GMOs could be instrumental in saving the world’s chocolate supply, they’ve often been painted as a risk to human health.

Environmental groups contend that GMO crops are more resistant to herbicides, which may or may not be carcinogenic.

Read more: It’s almost impossible to avoid GMOs in these 7 everyday items

The 1,600 farmers that make up A Fresh Look have resisted this argument, saying that GMOs are not only safe to consume, but also require less water and improve our nutrition.

A chocolatier in the Ivory Coast explains how cocoa is processed into chocolate. Sia Kambou/AFP/Getty Images

“There’s this idea [among consumers] that everything is as mother nature intended, or it was manufactured in a laboratory,” Larson told Business Insider. “[We’re] helping people understand that GMOs aren’t a scary ingredient in their food, but rather a farming technique.”

These findings are supported by numerous scientific organizations. In the last two decades, institutions like the National Academy of Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the European Commission have all publicly stated that GMOs don’t present harm to human health.

While plenty of chocolate contains ingredients derived from GMOs like corn syrup and soy lecithin, researchers have been slow to develop a genetically modified version of cacao.

Many chocolate companies still cater to consumer preferences for non-GMO items. Ghirardelli, for instance, has publicly stated its mission to make all recipes GMO-free.

One notable exception is Mars, the company behind M&M’s and Snickers, which has teamed up with the University of California Berkeley to develop cacao plants that don’t wilt or rot. To achieve this, the research team turned to CRISPR, a gene-editing technology that makes small changes to an organism’s DNA.

But it could be some time before GMO cacao makes its way onto shelves.

“It all depends on legislative acceptance in different countries where the cacao is being produced,” said Larson.

Some of the nations where people buy the most chocolate, such as Germany, Switzerland, and Austria, have restricted their cultivation of GMO crops.

When it comes to consumers, Larson said her team’s pro-GMO stance is already starting to catch on: “We’ve gotten overwhelming feedback from all kinds of industry groups and consumers saying, ‘Hey, it’s about time.'”

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Genetic engineering could save chocolate from going …

Genetic engineering – Wikipedia

Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification or genetic manipulation, is the direct manipulation of an organism’s genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating and copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesising the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. The first recombinant DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or “knock out”, genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome.

An organism that is generated through genetic engineering is considered to be genetically modified (GM) and the resulting entity is a genetically modified organism (GMO). The first GMO was a bacterium generated by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973. Rudolf Jaenisch created the first GM animal when he inserted foreign DNA into a mouse in 1974. The first company to focus on genetic engineering, Genentech, was founded in 1976 and started the production of human proteins. Genetically engineered human insulin was produced in 1978 and insulin-producing bacteria were commercialised in 1982. Genetically modified food has been sold since 1994, with the release of the Flavr Savr tomato. The Flavr Savr was engineered to have a longer shelf life, but most current GM crops are modified to increase resistance to insects and herbicides. GloFish, the first GMO designed as a pet, was sold in the United States in December 2003. In 2016 salmon modified with a growth hormone were sold.

Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases. As well as producing hormones, vaccines and other drugs genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. The same techniques that are used to produce drugs can also have industrial applications such as producing enzymes for laundry detergent, cheeses and other products.

The rise of commercialised genetically modified crops has provided economic benefit to farmers in many different countries, but has also been the source of most of the controversy surrounding the technology. This has been present since its early use; the first field trials were destroyed by anti-GM activists. Although there is a scientific consensus that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food, GM food safety is a leading concern with critics. Gene flow, impact on non-target organisms, control of the food supply and intellectual property rights have also been raised as potential issues. These concerns have led to the development of a regulatory framework, which started in 1975. It has led to an international treaty, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, that was adopted in 2000. Individual countries have developed their own regulatory systems regarding GMOs, with the most marked differences occurring between the US and Europe.

Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. Unlike traditional animal and plant breeding, which involves doing multiple crosses and then selecting for the organism with the desired phenotype, genetic engineering takes the gene directly from one organism and inserts it in the other. This is much faster, can be used to insert any genes from any organism (even ones from different domains) and prevents other undesirable genes from also being added.[3]

Genetic engineering could potentially fix severe genetic disorders in humans by replacing the defective gene with a functioning one.[4] It is an important tool in research that allows the function of specific genes to be studied.[5] Drugs, vaccines and other products have been harvested from organisms engineered to produce them.[6] Crops have been developed that aid food security by increasing yield, nutritional value and tolerance to environmental stresses.[7]

The DNA can be introduced directly into the host organism or into a cell that is then fused or hybridised with the host.[8] This relies on recombinant nucleic acid techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection or micro-encapsulation.[9]

Genetic engineering does not normally include traditional breeding, in vitro fertilisation, induction of polyploidy, mutagenesis and cell fusion techniques that do not use recombinant nucleic acids or a genetically modified organism in the process.[8] However, some broad definitions of genetic engineering include selective breeding.[9] Cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering,[10] are closely related and genetic engineering can be used within them.[11] Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that takes genetic engineering a step further by introducing artificially synthesised material into an organism.[12]

Plants, animals or micro organisms that have been changed through genetic engineering are termed genetically modified organisms or GMOs.[13] If genetic material from another species is added to the host, the resulting organism is called transgenic. If genetic material from the same species or a species that can naturally breed with the host is used the resulting organism is called cisgenic.[14] If genetic engineering is used to remove genetic material from the target organism the resulting organism is termed a knockout organism.[15] In Europe genetic modification is synonymous with genetic engineering while within the United States of America and Canada genetic modification can also be used to refer to more conventional breeding methods.[16][17][18]

Humans have altered the genomes of species for thousands of years through selective breeding, or artificial selection[19]:1[20]:1 as contrasted with natural selection. More recently, mutation breeding has used exposure to chemicals or radiation to produce a high frequency of random mutations, for selective breeding purposes. Genetic engineering as the direct manipulation of DNA by humans outside breeding and mutations has only existed since the 1970s. The term “genetic engineering” was first coined by Jack Williamson in his science fiction novel Dragon’s Island, published in 1951[21] one year before DNA’s role in heredity was confirmed by Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase,[22] and two years before James Watson and Francis Crick showed that the DNA molecule has a double-helix structure though the general concept of direct genetic manipulation was explored in rudimentary form in Stanley G. Weinbaum’s 1936 science fiction story Proteus Island.[23][24]

In 1972, Paul Berg created the first recombinant DNA molecules by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with that of the lambda virus.[25] In 1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first transgenic organism by inserting antibiotic resistance genes into the plasmid of an Escherichia coli bacterium.[26][27] A year later Rudolf Jaenisch created a transgenic mouse by introducing foreign DNA into its embryo, making it the worlds first transgenic animal[28] These achievements led to concerns in the scientific community about potential risks from genetic engineering, which were first discussed in depth at the Asilomar Conference in 1975. One of the main recommendations from this meeting was that government oversight of recombinant DNA research should be established until the technology was deemed safe.[29][30]

In 1976 Genentech, the first genetic engineering company, was founded by Herbert Boyer and Robert Swanson and a year later the company produced a human protein (somatostatin) in E.coli. Genentech announced the production of genetically engineered human insulin in 1978.[31] In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court in the Diamond v. Chakrabarty case ruled that genetically altered life could be patented.[32] The insulin produced by bacteria was approved for release by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1982.[33]

In 1983, a biotech company, Advanced Genetic Sciences (AGS) applied for U.S. government authorisation to perform field tests with the ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas syringae to protect crops from frost, but environmental groups and protestors delayed the field tests for four years with legal challenges.[34] In 1987, the ice-minus strain of P. syringae became the first genetically modified organism (GMO) to be released into the environment[35] when a strawberry field and a potato field in California were sprayed with it.[36] Both test fields were attacked by activist groups the night before the tests occurred: “The world’s first trial site attracted the world’s first field trasher”.[35]

The first field trials of genetically engineered plants occurred in France and the US in 1986, tobacco plants were engineered to be resistant to herbicides.[37] The Peoples Republic of China was the first country to commercialise transgenic plants, introducing a virus-resistant tobacco in 1992.[38] In 1994 Calgene attained approval to commercially release the first genetically modified food, the Flavr Savr, a tomato engineered to have a longer shelf life.[39] In 1994, the European Union approved tobacco engineered to be resistant to the herbicide bromoxynil, making it the first genetically engineered crop commercialised in Europe.[40] In 1995, Bt Potato was approved safe by the Environmental Protection Agency, after having been approved by the FDA, making it the first pesticide producing crop to be approved in the US.[41] In 2009 11 transgenic crops were grown commercially in 25 countries, the largest of which by area grown were the US, Brazil, Argentina, India, Canada, China, Paraguay and South Africa.[42]

In 2010, scientists at the J. Craig Venter Institute created the first synthetic genome and inserted it into an empty bacterial cell. The resulting bacterium, named Mycoplasma laboratorium, could replicate and produce proteins.[43][44] Four years later this was taken a step further when a bacterium was developed that replicated a plasmid containing a unique base pair, creating the first organism engineered to use an expanded genetic alphabet.[45][46] In 2012, Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier collaborated to develop the CRISPR/Cas9 system,[47][48] a technique which can be used to easily and specifically alter the genome of almost any organism.[49]

Creating a GMO is a multi-step process. Genetic engineers must first choose what gene they wish to insert into the organism. This is driven by what the aim is for the resultant organism and is built on earlier research. Genetic screens can be carried out to determine potential genes and further tests then used to identify the best candidates. The development of microarrays, transcriptomics and genome sequencing has made it much easier to find suitable genes.[50] Luck also plays its part; the round-up ready gene was discovered after scientists noticed a bacterium thriving in the presence of the herbicide.[51]

The next step is to isolate the candidate gene. The cell containing the gene is opened and the DNA is purified.[52] The gene is separated by using restriction enzymes to cut the DNA into fragments[53] or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify up the gene segment.[54] These segments can then be extracted through gel electrophoresis. If the chosen gene or the donor organism’s genome has been well studied it may already be accessible from a genetic library. If the DNA sequence is known, but no copies of the gene are available, it can also be artificially synthesised.[55] Once isolated the gene is ligated into a plasmid that is then inserted into a bacterium. The plasmid is replicated when the bacteria divide, ensuring unlimited copies of the gene are available.[56]

Before the gene is inserted into the target organism it must be combined with other genetic elements. These include a promoter and terminator region, which initiate and end transcription. A selectable marker gene is added, which in most cases confers antibiotic resistance, so researchers can easily determine which cells have been successfully transformed. The gene can also be modified at this stage for better expression or effectiveness. These manipulations are carried out using recombinant DNA techniques, such as restriction digests, ligations and molecular cloning.[57]

There are a number of techniques available for inserting the gene into the host genome. Some bacteria can naturally take up foreign DNA. This ability can be induced in other bacteria via stress (e.g. thermal or electric shock), which increases the cell membrane’s permeability to DNA; up-taken DNA can either integrate with the genome or exist as extrachromosomal DNA. DNA is generally inserted into animal cells using microinjection, where it can be injected through the cell’s nuclear envelope directly into the nucleus, or through the use of viral vectors.[58]

In plants the DNA is often inserted using Agrobacterium-mediated recombination,[59] taking advantage of the Agrobacteriums T-DNA sequence that allows natural insertion of genetic material into plant cells.[60] Other methods include biolistics, where particles of gold or tungsten are coated with DNA and then shot into young plant cells,[61] and electroporation, which involves using an electric shock to make the cell membrane permeable to plasmid DNA. Due to the damage caused to the cells and DNA the transformation efficiency of biolistics and electroporation is lower than agrobacterial transformation and microinjection.[62]

As only a single cell is transformed with genetic material, the organism must be regenerated from that single cell. In plants this is accomplished through the use of tissue c ulture.[63][64] In animals it is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA is present in the embryonic stem cells.[65] Bacteria consist of a single cell and reproduce clonally so regeneration is not necessary. Selectable markers are used to easily differentiate transformed from untransformed cells. These markers are usually present in the transgenic organism, although a number of strategies have been developed that can remove the selectable marker from the mature transgenic plant.[66]

Further testing using PCR, Southern hybridization, and DNA sequencing is conducted to confirm that an organism contains the new gene.[67] These tests can also confirm the chromosomal location and copy number of the inserted gene. The presence of the gene does not guarantee it will be expressed at appropriate levels in the target tissue so methods that look for and measure the gene products (RNA and protein) are also used. These include northern hybridisation, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence, ELISA and phenotypic analysis.[68]

The new genetic material can be inserted randomly within the host genome or targeted to a specific location. The technique of gene targeting uses homologous recombination to make desired changes to a specific endogenous gene. This tends to occur at a relatively low frequency in plants and animals and generally requires the use of selectable markers. The frequency of gene targeting can be greatly enhanced through genome editing. Genome editing uses artificially engineered nucleases that create specific double-stranded breaks at desired locations in the genome, and use the cells endogenous mechanisms to repair the induced break by the natural processes of homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining. There are four families of engineered nucleases: meganucleases,[69][70] zinc finger nucleases,[71][72] transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs),[73][74] and the Cas9-guideRNA system (adapted from CRISPR).[75][76] TALEN and CRISPR are the two most commonly used and each has its own advantages.[77] TALENs have greater target specificity, while CRISPR is easier to design and more efficient.[77] In addition to enhancing gene targeting, engineered nucleases can be used to introduce mutations at endogenous genes that generate a gene knockout.[78][79]

Genetic engineering has applications in medicine, research, industry and agriculture and can be used on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organisms. Bacteria, the first organisms to be genetically modified, can have plasmid DNA inserted containing new genes that code for medicines or enzymes that process food and other substrates.[80][81] Plants have been modified for insect protection, herbicide resistance, virus resistance, enhanced nutrition, tolerance to environmental pressures and the production of edible vaccines.[82] Most commercialised GMOs are insect resistant or herbicide tolerant crop plants.[83] Genetically modified animals have been used for research, model animals and the production of agricultural or pharmaceutical products. The genetically modified animals include animals with genes knocked out, increased susceptibility to disease, hormones for extra growth and the ability to express proteins in their milk.[84]

Genetic engineering has many applications to medicine that include the manufacturing of drugs, creation of model animals that mimic human conditions and gene therapy. One of the earliest uses of genetic engineering was to mass-produce human insulin in bacteria.[31] This application has now been applied to, human growth hormones, follicle stimulating hormones (for treating infertility), human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophilic factors, vaccines and many other drugs.[85][86] Mouse hybridomas, cells fused together to create monoclonal antibodies, have been adapted through genetic engineering to create human monoclonal antibodies.[87] In 2017, genetic engineering of chimeric antigen receptors on a patient’s own T-cells was approved by the U.S. FDA as a treatment for the cancer acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Genetically engineered viruses are being developed that can still confer immunity, but lack the infectious sequences.[88]

Genetic engineering is also used to create animal models of human diseases. Genetically modified mice are the most common genetically engineered animal model.[89] They have been used to study and model cancer (the oncomouse), obesity, heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, substance abuse, anxiety, aging and Parkinson disease.[90] Potential cures can be tested against these mouse models. Also genetically modified pigs have been bred with the aim of increasing the success of pig to human organ transplantation.[91]

Gene therapy is the genetic engineering of humans, generally by replacing defective genes with effective ones. Clinical research using somatic gene therapy has been conducted with several diseases, including X-linked SCID,[92] chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL),[93][94] and Parkinson’s disease.[95] In 2012, Alipogene tiparvovec became the first gene therapy treatment to be approved for clinical use.[96][97] In 2015 a virus was used to insert a healthy gene into the skin cells of a boy suffering from a rare skin disease, epidermolysis bullosa, in order to grow, and then graft healthy skin onto 80 percent of the boy’s body which was affected by the illness.[98]

Germline gene therapy would result in any change being inheritable, which has raised concerns within the scientific community.[99][100] In 2015, CRISPR was used to edit the DNA of non-viable human embryos,[101][102] leading scientists of major world academies to call for a moratorium on inheritable human genome edits.[103] There are also concerns that the technology could be used not just for treatment, but for enhancement, modification or alteration of a human beings’ appearance, adaptability, intelligence, character or behavior.[104] The distinction between cure and enhancement can also be difficult to establish.[105] In November 2018, He Jiankui announced that he had edited the genomes of two human embryos, to attempt to disable the CCR5 gene, which codes for a receptor that HIV uses to enter cells. He said that twin girls, Lulu and Nana, had been born a few weeks earlier. He said that the girls still carried functional copies of CCR5 along with disabled CCR5 (mosaicism) and were still vulnerable to HIV. The work was widely condemned as unethical, dangerous, and premature.[106]

Researchers are altering the genome of pigs to induce the growth of human organs to be used in transplants. Scientists are creating “gene drives”, changing the genomes of mosquitoes to make them immune to malaria, and then looking to spread the genetically altered mosquitoes throughout the mosquito population in the hopes of eliminating the disease.[107]

Genetic engineering is an important tool for natural scientists, with the creation of transgenic organisms one of the most important tools for analysis of gene function.[108] Genes and other genetic information from a wide range of organisms can be inserted into bacteria for storage and modification, creating genetically modified bacteria in the process. Bacteria are cheap, easy to grow, clonal, multiply quickly, relatively easy to transform and can be stored at -80C almost indefinitely. Once a gene is isolated it can be stored inside the bacteria providing an unlimited supply for research.[109]Organisms are genetically engineered to discover the functions of certain genes. This could be the effect on the phenotype of the organism, where the gene is expressed or what other genes it interacts with. These experiments generally involve loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression.

Organisms can have their cells transformed with a gene coding for a useful protein, such as an enzyme, so that they will overexpress the desired protein. Mass quantities of the protein can then be manufactured by growing the transformed organism in bioreactor equipment using industrial fermentation, and then purifying the protein.[113] Some genes do not work well in bacteria, so yeast, insect cells or mammalians cells can also be used.[114] These techniques are used to produce medicines such as insulin, human growth hormone, and vaccines, supplements such as tryptophan, aid in the production of food (chymosin in cheese making) and fuels.[115] Other applications with genetically engineered bacteria could involve making them perform tasks outside their natural cycle, such as making biofuels,[116] cleaning up oil spills, carbon and other toxic waste[117] and detecting arsenic in drinking water.[118] Certain genetically modified microbes can also be used in biomining and bioremediation, due to their ability to extract heavy metals from their environment and incorporate them into compounds that are more easily recoverable.[119]

In materials science, a genetically modified virus has been used in a research laboratory as a scaffold for assembling a more environmentally friendly lithium-ion battery.[120][121] Bacteria have also been engineered to function as sensors by expressing a fluorescent protein under certain environmental conditions.[122]

One of the best-known and controversial applications of genetic engineering is the creation and use of genetically modified crops or genetically modified livestock to produce genetically modified food. Crops have been developed to increase production, increase tolerance to abiotic stresses, alter the composition of the food, or to produce novel products.[124]

The first crops to be released commercially on a large scale provided protection from insect pests or tolerance to herbicides. Fungal and virus resistant crops have also been developed or are in development.[125][126] This make the insect and weed management of crops easier and can indirectly increase crop yield.[127][128] GM crops that directly improve yield by accelerating growth or making the plant more hardy (by improving salt, cold or drought tolerance) are also under development.[129] In 2016 Salmon have been genetically modified with growth hormones to reach normal adult size much faster.[130]

GMOs have been developed that modify the quality of produce by increasing the nutritional value or providing more industrially useful qualities or quantities.[129] The Amflora potato produces a more industrially useful blend of starches. Soybeans and canola have been genetically modified to produce more healthy oils.[131][132] The first commercialised GM food was a tomato that had delayed ripening, increasing its shelf life.[133]

Plants and animals have been engineered to produce materials they do not normally make. Pharming uses crops and animals as bioreactors to produce vaccines, drug intermediates, or the drugs themselves; the useful product is purified from the harvest and then used in the standard pharmaceutical production process.[134] Cows and goats have been engineered to express drugs and other proteins in their milk, and in 2009 the FDA approved a drug produced in goat milk.[135][136]

Genetic engineering has potential applications in conservation and natural area management. Gene transfer through viral vectors has been proposed as a means of controlling invasive species as well as vaccinating threatened fauna from disease.[137] Transgenic trees have been suggested as a way to confer resistance to pathogens in wild populations.[138] With the increasing risks of maladaptation in organisms as a result of climate change and other perturbations, facilitated adaptation through gene tweaking could be one solution to reducing extinction risks.[139] Applications of genetic engineering in conservation are thus far mostly theoretical and have yet to be put into practice.

Genetic engineering is also being used to create microbial art.[140] Some bacteria have been genetically engineered to create black and white photographs.[141] Novelty items such as lavender-colored carnations,[142] blue roses,[143] and glowing fish[144][145] have also been produced through genetic engineering.

The regulation of genetic engineering concerns the approaches taken by governments to assess and manage the risks associated with the development and release of GMOs. The development of a regulatory framework began in 1975, at Asilomar, California.[146] The Asilomar meeting recommended a set of voluntary guidelines regarding the use of recombinant technology.[29] As the technology improved the US established a committee at the Office of Science and Technology,[147] which assigned regulatory approval of GM food to the USDA, FDA and EPA.[148] The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, an international treaty that governs the transfer, handling, and use of GMOs,[149] was adopted on 29 January 2000.[150] One hundred and fifty-seven countries are members of the Protocol and many use it as a reference point for their own regulations.[151]

The legal and regulatory status of GM foods varies by country, with some nations banning or restricting them, and others permitting them with widely differing degrees of regulation.[152][153][154][155] Some countries allow the import of GM food with authorisation, but either do not allow its cultivation (Russia, Norway, Israel) or have provisions for cultivation even though no GM products are yet produced (Japan, South Korea). Most countries that do not allow GMO cultivation do permit research.[156] Some of the most marked differences occurring between the US and Europe. The US policy focuses on the product (not the process), only looks at verifiable scientific risks and uses the concept of substantial equivalence.[157] The European Union by contrast has possibly the most stringent GMO regulations in the world.[158] All GMOs, along with irradiated food, are considered “new food” and subject to extensive, case-by-case, science-based food evaluation by the European Food Safety Authority. The criteria for authorisation fall in four broad categories: “safety,” “freedom of choice,” “labelling,” and “traceability.”[159] The level of regulation in other countries that cultivate GMOs lie in between Europe and the United States.

One of the key issues concerning regulators is whether GM products should be labeled. The European Commission says that mandatory labeling and traceability are needed to allow for informed choice, avoid potential false advertising[170] and facilitate the withdrawal of products if adverse effects on health or the environment are discovered.[171] The American Medical Association[172] and the American Association for the Advancement of Science[173] say that absent scientific evidence of harm even voluntary labeling is misleading and will falsely alarm consumers. Labeling of GMO products in the marketplace is required in 64 countries.[174] Labeling can be mandatory up to a threshold GM content level (which varies between countries) or voluntary. In Canada and the US labeling of GM food is voluntary,[175] while in Europe all food (including processed food) or feed which contains greater than 0.9% of approved GMOs must be labelled.[158]

Critics have objected to the use of genetic engineering on several grounds, that include ethical, ecological and economic concerns. Many of these concerns involve GM crops and whether food produced from them is safe and what impact growing them will have on the environment. These controversies have led to litigation, international trade disputes, and protests, and to restrictive regulation of commercial products in some countries.[176]

Accusations that scientists are “playing God” and other religious issues have been ascribed to the technology from the beginning.[177] Other ethical issues raised include the patenting of life,[178] the use of intellectual property rights,[179] the level of labeling on products,[180][181] control of the food supply[182] and the objectivity of the regulatory process.[183] Although doubts have been raised,[184] economically most studies have found growing GM crops to be beneficial to farmers.[185][186][187]

Gene flow between GM crops and compatible plants, along with increased use of selective herbicides, can increase the risk of “superweeds” developing.[188] Other environmental concerns involve potential impacts on non-target organisms, including soil microbes,[189] and an increase in secondary and resistant insect pests.[190][191] Many of the environmental impacts regarding GM crops may take many years to be understood and are also evident in conventional agriculture practices.[189][192] With the commercialisation of genetically modified fish there are concerns over what the environmental consequences will be if they escape.[193]

There are three main concerns over the safety of genetically modified food: whether they may provoke an allergic reaction; whether the genes could transfer from the food into human cells; and whether the genes not approved for human consumption could outcross to other crops.[194] There is a scientific consensus[195][196][197][198] that currently available food derived from GM crops poses no greater risk to human health than conventional food,[199][200][201][202][203] but that each GM food needs to be tested on a case-by-case basis before introduction.[204][205][206] Nonetheless, members of the public are much less likely than scientists to perceive GM foods as safe.[207][208][209][210]

Genetic engineering features in many science fiction stories.[211] Frank Herbert’s novel The White Plague described the deliberate use of genetic engineering to create a pathogen which specifically killed women.[211] Another of Herbert’s creations, the Dune series of novels, uses genetic engineering to create the powerful but despised Tleilaxu.[212] Films such as The Island and Blade Runner bring the engineered creature to confront the person who created it or the being it was cloned from. Few films have informed audiences about genetic engineering, with the exception of the 1978 The Boys from Brazil and the 1993 Jurassic Park, both of which made use of a lesson, a demonstration, and a clip of scientific film.[213][214] Genetic engineering methods are weakly represented in film; Michael Clark, writing for The Wellcome Trust, calls the portrayal of genetic engineering and biotechnology “seriously distorted”[214] in films such as The 6th Day. In Clark’s view, the biotechnology is typically “given fantastic but visually arresting forms” while the science is either relegated to the background or fictionalised to suit a young audience.[214]

The literature about Biodiversity and the GE food/feed consumption has sometimes resulted in animated debate regarding the suitability of the experimental designs, the choice of the statistical methods or the public accessibility of data. Such debate, even if positive and part of the natural process of review by the scientific community, has frequently been distorted by the media and often used politically and inappropriately in anti-GE crops campaigns.

Panchin AY, Tuzhikov AI (March 2017). “Published GMO studies find no evidence of harm when corrected for multiple comparisons”. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology. 37 (2): 213217. doi:10.3109/07388551.2015.1130684. PMID26767435. Here, we show that a number of articles some of which have strongly and negatively influenced the public opinion on GM crops and even provoked political actions, such as GMO embargo, share common flaws in the statistical evaluation of the data. Having accounted for these flaws, we conclude that the data presented in these articles does not provide any substantial evidence of GMO harm.

The presented articles suggesting possible harm of GMOs received high public attention. However, despite their claims, they actually weaken the evidence for the harm and lack of substantial equivalency of studied GMOs. We emphasize that with over 1783 published articles on GMOs over the last 10 years it is expected that some of them should have reported undesired differences between GMOs and conventional crops even if no such differences exist in reality.and

Yang YT, Chen B (April 2016). “Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health”. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 96 (6): 18515. doi:10.1002/jsfa.7523. PMID26536836. It is therefore not surprising that efforts to require labeling and to ban GMOs have been a growing political issue in the USA (citing Domingo and Bordonaba, 2011).

Overall, a broad scientific consensus holds that currently marketed GM food poses no greater risk than conventional food… Major national and international science and medical associations have stated that no adverse human health effects related to GMO food have been reported or substantiated in peer-reviewed literature to date.

Despite various concerns, today, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the World Health Organization, and many independent international science organizations agree that GMOs are just as safe as other foods. Compared with conventional breeding techniques, genetic engineering is far more precise and, in most cases, less likely to create an unexpected outcome.

GM foods currently available on the international market have passed safety assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they have been approved. Continuous application of safety assessments based on the Codex Alimentarius principles and, where appropriate, adequate post market monitoring, should form the basis for ensuring the safety of GM foods.

“Genetically modified foods and health: a second interim statement” (PDF). British Medical Association. March 2004. Retrieved 21 March 2016. In our view, the potential for GM foods to cause harmful health effects is very small and many of the concerns expressed apply with equal vigour to conventionally derived foods. However, safety concerns cannot, as yet, be dismissed completely on the basis of information currently available.

When seeking to optimise the balance between benefits and risks, it is prudent to err on the side of caution and, above all, learn from accumulating knowledge and experience. Any new technology such as genetic modification must be examined for possible benefits and risks to human health and the environment. As with all novel foods, safety assessments in relation to GM foods must be made on a case-by-case basis.

Members of the GM jury project were briefed on various aspects of genetic modification by a diverse group of acknowledged experts in the relevant subjects. The GM jury reached the conclusion that the sale of GM foods currently available should be halted and the moratorium on commercial growth of GM crops should be continued. These conclusions were based on the precautionary principle and lack of evidence of any benefit. The Jury expressed concern over the impact of GM crops on farming, the environment, food safety and other potential health effects.

The Royal Society review (2002) concluded that the risks to human health associated with the use of specific viral DNA sequences in GM plants are negligible, and while calling for caution in the introduction of potential allergens into food crops, stressed the absence of evidence that commercially available GM foods cause clinical allergic manifestations. The BMA shares the view that that there is no robust evidence to prove that GM foods are unsafe but we endorse the call for further research and surveillance to provide convincing evidence of safety and benefit.

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Genetic engineering – Wikipedia

GEN – Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News

In this issue of GEN, the cost of sequencing a genome has been coasting down from $1000 and is heading toward $100. The announcement of germline-edited CRISPR twins in China once again highlights the need for regulation into this emerging arena. This months A-List covers the Top 25 biotech companies of the past year. And PATHa new organization promoting the use of AI, robotics, and genomics in healthcareis profiled.

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GEN – Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology News


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