Tesla Filed a Trademark Application for “Teslaquila,” Because of Course It Did

Drink and Drive

Tesla is getting into the alcohol business.

On Monday, Elon Musk’s electric car company filed a trademark application for an agave liquor it’s calling “Teslaquila.”

Musk seemed to confirm that a liquor was in the works on Friday with a tweet claiming itwas “coming soon.” He followed up with a photo of a Teslaquila bottle, which he called a “visual approximation.”

Passed Out

Friday’s tweets weren’t Musk’s first references to Teslaquila. The first time he mentioned the product, though, it seemed like a well-timed joke:

On April Fool’s Day, Musk tweeted that he had been “found passed out” near bottles of the liquor, “the tracks of dried tears still visible on his cheeks.”

Image Credit: Elon Musk / Twitter

Feature Creep

Of course, a trademark application is no guarantee that a product will actually hit store shelves.

The liquor could be a clever marketing stunt or a source of short-term revenue for the troubled energy company — or, more likely, some combination of the two.

READ MORE: Elon Musk’s Tesla seeks to trademark ‘Teslaquila’ [CNBC]

More on Tesla: The Five Funniest Things about the SEC’s Lawsuit against Elon Musk

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Tesla Filed a Trademark Application for “Teslaquila,” Because of Course It Did

The Quest for Immortality Could Create Two “Classes of Humans”

Immortal Overlords

Last year, former Facebook president Sean Parker raised some eyebrows at a cancer innovation event when he suggested that the super-rich could defeat death within his lifetime.

“Because I’m a billionaire, I’m going to have access to better health care,” he said. “I’m going to be like 160 and I’m going to be part of this, like, class of immortal overlords.”

Life Eternal

The reality, according to a compelling new feature by Futurism social editor Jake Banas, is that cutting-edge medical science has yet to dream up a treatment that’s more effective than exercise and a healthy diet. Life expectancy will likely continue to creep up, but there’s no guarantee we’ll ever discover a trick to unlock true immortality.

That hasn’t stopped dreamers, including Parker and other Silicon Valley luminaries, from pouring money into research intended to radically extend the human lifespan. Still, even many experts who study aging and mortality aren’t convinced that it’s possible to cheat death forever.

Treat the Rich

As Parker hinted last year, though, such treatments would be unlikely to reach the general population — if everyone had access, after all, it’d quickly create an overpopulation crisis as new babies were born while the old refused to die.

Ultimately, we’ve seen this 21st century quest to cheat death pop up before, and from Gilgamesh to Dorian Grey, it’s seldom turned out well.

READ MORE: Disrupting the Reaper: Tech Titans’ Quest for Immortality Rages Forward [Futurism]

More on eternal life: New Tech Is Giving Humanity Many Potential Paths to Immortality

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The Quest for Immortality Could Create Two “Classes of Humans”

Futurism (Christianity) – Wikipedia

Futurism is a Christian eschatological view that interprets portions of the Book of Revelation and the Book of Daniel as future events in a literal, physical, apocalyptic, and global context.[1]

By comparison, other Christian eschatological views interpret these passages as past events in a symbolic, historic context (Preterism and Historicism), or as present-day events in a non-literal and spiritual context (Idealism). Futurist beliefs usually have a close association with Premillennialism and Dispensationalism.

Some elements of the futurist interpretation of Revelation and Daniel appeared in the early centuries of the Christian Church. However, the view was not popular. Irenaeus of Lyon (died c. 202), for instance, subscribed to the view that Daniel’s 70th week awaited a future fulfillment.[2] During the Middle Ages and before the Protestant Reformation futurist interpretations were virtually non-existent.[citation needed]

Two Catholic Jesuit writers, Manuel Lacunza (1731-1801) and Francisco Ribera (1537-1591), proposed the futurist view. Lacunza wrote under the pen name “Ben-Ezra”, and his work was banned by the Catholic Church. It[clarification needed] has grown in popularity in the 19th and 20th centuries, so that today it is probably the most readily recognized.[3][not in citation given][4]

The futurist view assigns all or most of the prophecy to the future, shortly before the Second Coming; especially when interpreted in conjunction with Daniel, Isaiah 2:11-22, 1 Thessalonians 4:155:11, and other eschatological sections of the Bible.[citation needed]

Futurist interpretations generally predict a resurrection of the dead and a rapture of the living, wherein all true Christians are gathered to Christ prior to the time God’s kingdom comes on earth. They also believe a tribulation will occur – a seven-year period of time when believers will experience worldwide persecution and martyrdom. Futurists differ on when believers will be raptured, but there are three primary views: 1) before the tribulation; 2) near or at the midpoint of the tribulation; or 3) at the end of the tribulation. There is also a fourth view of multiple raptures throughout the tribulation, but this view does not have a mainstream following.[citation needed]

Pretribulationists believe that all Christians then alive will be taken up to meet Christ before the Tribulation begins. In this manner, Christians are “kept from” the Tribulation, such as Enoch was removed before God judged the antediluvian world, in contrast with Noah who was “kept through” wrath and judgement of God in the flood of Genesis.[citation needed]

Midtribulationists believe that the rapture of the faithful will occur approximately halfway through the Tribulation, after it begins but before the worst part of it occurs. Some midtribulationists, particularly those[who?] holding to a “pre-wrath rapture” of the church, believe that God’s wrath is poured out during a “Great Tribulation” that is limited to the last 3 years of the Tribulation, after believers have been caught up to Christ.[citation needed]

Post-tribulationists believe that Christians will be gathered in the clouds with Christ and join him in his return to earth. (Pretribulationist Tim LaHaye admits a post-tribulation rapture is the closest of the three views to that held by the early church.)[citation needed]

All three views hold that Christians will return with Christ at the end of the Tribulation. Proponents of all three views also generally portray Israel as unwittingly signing a seven-year peace treaty with the Antichrist, which initiates the seven-year Tribulation. Many also tend to view the Antichrist as head of a revived Roman Empire, but the geographic location of this empire is unknown. Hal Lindsey suggests that this revived Roman Empire will be centered in western Europe, with Rome as its capital. Tim LaHaye promotes the belief that Babylon will be the capital of a worldwide empire. Joel Richardson and Walid Shoebat have both recently written books proposing a revived eastern Roman Empire, which will fall with the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire. (Istanbul also has seven hills, was a capital of the Roman Empire as Constantinople, known as the Byzantine Empire, and a body of water in the city is known as the Golden Horn – notable given the eschatological references to the “Little Horn”Daniel 7:8,8:9.)[citation needed]

The various views on tribulation are actually a subset of theological interpretations on the Millennium, mentioned in Revelation 20. There are three main interpretations: Premillennialism, Amillennialism, and Postmillennialism.[citation needed]

Premillennialism believes that Christ will return to the earth, bind Satan, and reign for a literal thousand years on earth with Jerusalem as his capital. Thus Christ returns before (“pre-“) the thousand years mentioned in chapter 20. There are generally two subclasses of Premillennialism: Dispensational and Historic. Some form of premillennialism is thought to be the oldest millennial view in church history.[5] Papias, believed to be a disciple of the Apostle John, was a premillennialist, according to Eusebius. Also Justin Martyr and Irenaeus expressed belief in premillennialism in their writings.

Amillennialism, the traditional view for Catholicism, believes that the thousand years mentioned are not (“a-“) a literal thousand years, but is figurative for what is now the church age, usually, the time between Christ’s ascension and second coming. This view is often associated with Augustine of Hippo. Amillennialists differ on the time frame of the millennium. Some say it started with Pentecost, others say it started with the fulfillment of Jesus’ prophecy regarding the destruction of the temple in Jerusalem (70), and other starting points have also been proposed. Whether this eschatology is the result of caesaropapism, which may have also been the reason that premillennialism was condemned, is sharply disputed.[citation needed]

Postmillennialism believes that Christ will return after (“post-“) a literal/figurative thousand years, in which the world will have essentially become a Christendom. This view was held by Jonathan Edwards.[citation needed]

In the futurist view of Christian eschatology, the Tribulation is a relatively short period of time where anyone who chose not to follow God before the Rapture and was left behind (according to Pre-Tribulation doctrine, not Mid- or Post-Tribulation teaching) will experience worldwide hardships, disasters, famine, war, pain, and suffering, which will wipe out more than 75% of all life on the earth before the Second Coming takes place.[citation needed]

According to some Dispensationalists who hold the futurist view, the Tribulation is thought to occur before the Second Coming of Jesus and during the End Times. Another version holds that it will last seven years in all, being the last of Daniel’s prophecy of seventy weeks. This viewpoint was first made popular by John Nelson Darby in the 19th century and was recently popularized by Hal Lindsey in The Late Great Planet Earth. It is theorized that each week represents seven years, with the timetable beginning from Artaxerxes’ order to rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem (the Second Temple). After seven plus 62 weeks, the prophecy says that the messiah will be “cut off”, which is taken to correspond to the death of Christ. This is seen as creating a break of indeterminate length in the timeline, with one week remaining to be fulfilled.[citation needed]

This seven-year week may be further divided into two periods of 3.5 years each, from the two 3.5-year periods in Daniel’s prophecy where the last seven years are divided into two 3.5-year periods, (Daniel 9:27) The time period for these beliefs is also based on other passages: in the book of Daniel, “time, times, and half a time”, interpreted as “a year, two years, and half a year,” and the Book of Revelation, “a thousand two hundred and threescore days” and “forty and two months” (the prophetic month averaging 30 days, hence 1260/30 = 42 months or 3.5 years). The 1290 days of Daniel 12:11, (rather than the 1260 days of Revelation 11:3), is thought to be the result of either a simple intercalary leap month adjustment, or due to further calculations related to the prophecy, or due to an intermediate stage of time that is to prepare the world for the beginning of the millennial reign.[6]

Among futurists there are differing views about what will happen to Christians during the Tribulation:[citation needed]

In pretribulationism and midtribulationism, the Rapture and the Second Coming (or Greek, par[a]ousia) of Christ are separate events, while in post-tribulationism the two events are identical or simultaneous. Another feature of the pre- and mid-tribulation beliefs is the idea that after the Rapture, Christ will return for a third time (when also counting the first coming) to set up his kingdom on the earth.[citation needed]

Some, including many Roman Catholic theologians,[citation needed] do not believe in a “time of trouble” period as usually described by tribulationists, but rather that there will be a near utopian period led by the Antichrist.

According to Futurism, the 70th week of Daniel will occur at some point in the future, culminating in seven years (or 3.5 years depending on denomination) of Tribulation and the appearance of the Antichrist.

Such a thesis is paradigmatic for Dispensational Premillennialism. In contradistinction, Historic Premillennialism may or may not posit Daniel’s 70th week as future yet retain the thesis of the future fulfillment of many of the prophecies of Major and Minor Prophets, the teachings of Christ (e.g., Matthew 24) and the book of Revelation.

Dispensationalists typically hold that a ‘hiatus’, which some refer to as a ‘biblical parenthesis’, occurred between the 69th and 70th week of the prophecy, into which the “church age” is inserted (also known as the “gap theory” of Daniel 9). The seventieth week of the prophecy is expected to commence after the rapture of the church, which will incorporate the establishment of an economic system using the number ‘666’, the reign of the beast (the Antichrist), the false religious system (the harlot), the Great Tribulation and Armageddon.[8]

Controversy exists regarding the antecedent of he in Daniel 9:27. Many within the ranks of premillennialism do not affirm the “confirmation of the covenant” is made by Jesus Christ (as do many Amillennarians) but that the antecedent of “he” in vs. 27 refers back to vs. 26 (“the prince who is to come”i.e., the Antichrist). Antichrist will make a “treaty” as the Prince of the Covenant (i.e., “the prince who is to come”) with Israel’s future leadership at the commencement of the seventieth week of Daniel’s prophecy; in the midst of the week, the Antichrist will break the treaty and commence persecution against a regathered Israel.[9]All Protestant Reformers used the day year principle of prophetic interpretation. The commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince [Daniel 925] was given by King Artaxerxes in 457 B.C. making it 490 literal years [70X7] to the autumn of 31A.D.see Ezra 7:11-26]. Working back one prophetic week or seven literal years brings us to the baptism of Jesus in 27A.D. In the midst or middle of this last week of the prophecy, Jesus was cut off meaning crucified in 31 A.D.. So this cannot be a future fulfilment of prophecy, but history.The full 490 years brings us to 34 A.D. when Stephen was stoned and persecution began. Because the 70 weeks are a sealed prophecy [see Daniel 9:24], no futurist is authorised to unseal it.

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Futurism (Christianity) – Wikipedia

Futurism – Wikipedia

Futurism (Italian: Futurismo) was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized speed, technology, youth, violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane, and the industrial city. Its key figures were the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carr, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, and Luigi Russolo. It glorified modernity and aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past.[1] Cubism contributed to the formation of Italian Futurism’s artistic style.[2] Important Futurist works included Marinetti’s Manifesto of Futurism, Boccioni’s sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Balla’s painting Abstract Speed + Sound, and Russolo’s The Art of Noises. Although it was largely an Italian phenomenon, there were parallel movements in Russia, England, Belgium and elsewhere. The Futurists practiced in every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design, theatre, film, fashion, textiles, literature, music, architecture, and even Futurist meals. To some extent Futurism influenced the art movements Art Deco, Constructivism, Surrealism, Dada, and to a greater degree Precisionism, Rayonism, and Vorticism.

Futurism is an avant-garde movement founded in Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti.[1] Marinetti launched the movement in his Futurist Manifesto,[3] which he published for the first time on 5 February 1909 in La gazzetta dell’Emilia, an article then reproduced in the French daily newspaper Le Figaro on Saturday 20 February 1909.[4][5][6] He was soon joined by the painters Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carr, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini and the composer Luigi Russolo.Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of everything old, especially political and artistic tradition. “We want no part of it, the past”, he wrote, “we the young and strong Futurists!” The Futurists admired speed, technology, youth and violence, the car, the airplane and the industrial city, all that represented the technological triumph of humanity over nature, and they were passionate nationalists. They repudiated the cult of the past and all imitation, praised originality, “however daring, however violent”, bore proudly “the smear of madness”, dismissed art critics as useless, rebelled against harmony and good taste, swept away all the themes and subjects of all previous art, and gloried in science.

Publishing manifestos was a feature of Futurism, and the Futurists (usually led or prompted by Marinetti) wrote them on many topics, including painting, architecture, religion, clothing and cooking.[7]

The founding manifesto did not contain a positive artistic programme, which the Futurists attempted to create in their subsequent Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting (1914).[8] This committed them to a “universal dynamism”, which was to be directly represented in painting. Objects in reality were not separate from one another or from their surroundings: “The sixteen people around you in a rolling motor bus are in turn and at the same time one, ten four three; they are motionless and they change places. … The motor bus rushes into the houses which it passes, and in their turn the houses throw themselves upon the motor bus and are blended with it.”[9]

The Futurist painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of Divisionism, breaking light and color down into a field of stippled dots and stripes, which had been originally created by Giovanni Segantini and others. Later, Severini, who lived in Paris, attributed their backwardness in style and method at this time to their distance from Paris, the centre of avant-garde art.[10] Severini was the first to come into contact with Cubism and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the Futurist painters adopted the methods of the Cubists. Cubism offered them a means of analysing energy in paintings and expressing dynamism.

They often painted modern urban scenes. Carr’s Funeral of the Anarchist Galli (191011) is a large canvas representing events that the artist had himself been involved in, in 1904. The action of a police attack and riot is rendered energetically with diagonals and broken planes. His Leaving the Theatre (191011) uses a Divisionist technique to render isolated and faceless figures trudging home at night under street lights.

Boccioni’s The City Rises (1910) represents scenes of construction and manual labour with a huge, rearing red horse in the centre foreground, which workmen struggle to control. His States of Mind, in three large panels, The Farewell, Those who Go, and Those Who Stay, “made his first great statement of Futurist painting, bringing his interests in Bergson, Cubism and the individual’s complex experience of the modern world together in what has been described as one of the ‘minor masterpieces’ of early twentieth century painting.”[11] The work attempts to convey feelings and sensations experienced in time, using new means of expression, including “lines of force”, which were intended to convey the directional tendencies of objects through space, “simultaneity”, which combined memories, present impressions and anticipation of future events, and “emotional ambience” in which the artist seeks by intuition to link sympathies between the exterior scene and interior emotion.[11]

Boccioni’s intentions in art were strongly influenced by the ideas of Bergson, including the idea of intuition, which Bergson defined as a simple, indivisible experience of sympathy through which one is moved into the inner being of an object to grasp what is unique and ineffable within it. The Futurists aimed through their art thus to enable the viewer to apprehend the inner being of what they depicted. Boccioni developed these ideas at length in his book, Pittura scultura Futuriste: Dinamismo plastico (Futurist Painting Sculpture: Plastic Dynamism) (1914).[12]

Balla’s Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (1912) exemplifies the Futurists’ insistence that the perceived world is in constant movement. The painting depicts a dog whose legs, tail and leashand the feet of the woman walking ithave been multiplied to a blur of movement. It illustrates the precepts of the Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting that, “On account of the persistency of an image upon the retina, moving objects constantly multiply themselves; their form changes like rapid vibrations, in their mad career. Thus a running horse has not four legs, but twenty, and their movements are triangular.”[9] His Rhythm of the Bow (1912) similarly depicts the movements of a violinist’s hand and instrument, rendered in rapid strokes within a triangular frame.

The adoption of Cubism determined the style of much subsequent Futurist painting, which Boccioni and Severini in particular continued to render in the broken colors and short brush-strokes of divisionism. But Futurist painting differed in both subject matter and treatment from the quiet and static Cubism of Picasso, Braque and Gris. Although there were Futurist portraits (e.g. Carr’s Woman with Absinthe (1911), Severini’s Self-Portrait (1912), and Boccioni’s Matter (1912)), it was the urban scene and vehicles in motion that typified Futurist paintinge.g. Boccioni’s The Street Enters the House (1911), Severini’s Dynamic Hieroglyph of the Bal Tabarin (1912), and Russolo’s Automobile at Speed (1913)

In 1912 and 1913, Boccioni turned to sculpture to translate into three dimensions his Futurist ideas. In Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913) he attempted to realise the relationship between the object and its environment, which was central to his theory of “dynamism”. The sculpture represents a striding figure, cast in bronze posthumously and exhibited in the Tate Modern. (It now appears on the national side of Italian 20 eurocent coins). He explored the theme further in Synthesis of Human Dynamism (1912), Speeding Muscles (1913) and Spiral Expansion of Speeding Muscles (1913). His ideas on sculpture were published in the Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture[13] In 1915 Balla also turned to sculpture making abstract “reconstructions”, which were created out of various materials, were apparently moveable and even made noises. He said that, after making twenty pictures in which he had studied the velocity of automobiles, he understood that “the single plane of the canvas did not permit the suggestion of the dynamic volume of speed in depth … I felt the need to construct the first dynamic plastic complex with iron wires, cardboard planes, cloth and tissue paper, etc.”[14]

In 1914, personal quarrels and artistic differences between the Milan group, around Marinetti, Boccioni, and Balla, and the Florence group, around Carr, Ardengo Soffici (18791964) and Giovanni Papini (18811956), created a rift in Italian Futurism. The Florence group resented the dominance of Marinetti and Boccioni, whom they accused of trying to establish “an immobile church with an infallible creed”, and each group dismissed the other as passiste.

Futurism had from the outset admired violence and was intensely patriotic. The Futurist Manifesto had declared, “We will glorify warthe world’s only hygienemilitarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for woman.”[6][15] Although it owed much of its character and some of its ideas to radical political movements, it was not much involved in politics until the autumn of 1913.[14] Then, fearing the re-election of Giolitti, Marinetti published a political manifesto. In 1914 the Futurists began to campaign actively against the Austro-Hungarian empire, which still controlled some Italian territories, and Italian neutrality between the major powers. In September, Boccioni, seated in the balcony of the Teatro dal Verme in Milan, tore up an Austrian flag and threw it into the audience, while Marinetti waved an Italian flag. When Italy entered the First World War in 1915, many Futurists enlisted.[16] The experience of the war marked several Futurists, particularly Marinetti, who fought in the mountains of Trentino at the border of Italy and Austria-Hungary, actively engaging in propaganda.[17] The combat experience also influenced Futurist music.[18]

The outbreak of war disguised the fact that Italian Futurism had come to an end. The Florence group had formally acknowledged their withdrawal from the movement by the end of 1914. Boccioni produced only one war picture and was killed in 1916. Severini painted some significant war pictures in 1915 (e.g. War, Armored Train, and Red Cross Train), but in Paris turned towards Cubism and post-war was associated with the Return to Order.

After the war, Marinetti revived the movement. This revival was called il secondo Futurismo (Second Futurism) by writers in the 1960s. The art historian Giovanni Lista has classified Futurism by decades: “Plastic Dynamism” for the first decade, “Mechanical Art” for the 1920s, “Aeroaesthetics” for the 1930s.

Russian Futurism was a movement of literature and the visual arts. The poet Vladimir Mayakovsky was a prominent member of the movement. Visual artists such as David Burlyuk, Mikhail Larionov, Natalia Goncharova and Kazimir Malevich found inspiration in the imagery of Futurist writings and were poets themselves. It has also a larger impact on the all suprematism movement. Other poets adopting Futurism included Velimir Khlebnikov and Aleksey Kruchenykh. Poets and painters collaborated on theatre production such as the Futurist opera Victory Over the Sun, with texts by Kruchenykh and sets by Malevich.

The main style of painting was Cubo-Futurism, adopted in 1913 when Aristarkh Lentulov returned from Paris and exhibited his paintings in Moscow. Cubo-Futurism combines the forms of Cubism with the representation of movement. Like their Italian predecessors the Russian Futurists were fascinated with dynamism, speed and the restlessness of modern urban life.

The Russian Futurists sought controversy by repudiating the art of the past, saying that Pushkin and Dostoevsky should be “heaved overboard from the steamship of modernity”. They acknowledged no authority and professed not to owe anything even to Marinetti, whose principles they had earlier adopted, obstructing him when he came to Russia to proselytize in 1914.

The movement began to decline after the revolution of 1917. Some Futurists died, others emigrated. Mayakovsky and Malevich became part of the Soviet establishment and the Agitprop movement of the 1920s. Khlebnikov and others were persecuted. Mayakovsky committed suicide on April 14, 1930.

The Futurist architect Antonio Sant’Elia expressed his ideas of modernity in his drawings for La Citt Nuova (The New City) (19121914). This project was never built and Sant’Elia was killed in the First World War, but his ideas influenced later generations of architects and artists. The city was a backdrop onto which the dynamism of Futurist life is projected. The city had replaced the landscape as the setting for the exciting modern life. Sant’Elia aimed to create a city as an efficient, fast-paced machine. He manipulates light and shape to emphasize the sculptural quality of his projects. Baroque curves and encrustations had been stripped away to reveal the essential lines of forms unprecedented from their simplicity. In the new city, every aspect of life was to be rationalized and centralized into one great powerhouse of energy. The city was not meant to last, and each subsequent generation was expected to build their own city rather than inheriting the architecture of the past.

Futurist architects were sometimes at odds with the Fascist state’s tendency towards Roman imperial-classical aesthetic patterns. Nevertheless, several Futurist buildings were built in the years 19201940, including public buildings such as railway stations, maritime resorts and post offices. Examples of Futurist buildings still in use today are Trento’s railway station, built by Angiolo Mazzoni, and the Santa Maria Novella station in Florence. The Florence station was designed in 1932 by the Gruppo Toscano (Tuscan Group) of architects, which included Giovanni Michelucci and Italo Gamberini, with contributions by Mazzoni.

Futurist music rejected tradition and introduced experimental sounds inspired by machinery, and would influence several 20th-century composers.

Francesco Balilla Pratella joined the Futurist movement in 1910 and wrote a Manifesto of Futurist Musicians in which he appealed to the young (as had Marinetti), because only they could understand what he had to say. According to Pratella, Italian music was inferior to music abroad. He praised the “sublime genius” of Wagner and saw some value in the work of other contemporary composers, for example Richard Strauss, Elgar, Mussorgsky, and Sibelius. By contrast, the Italian symphony was dominated by opera in an “absurd and anti-musical form”. The conservatories was said to encourage backwardness and mediocrity. The publishers perpetuated mediocrity and the domination of music by the “rickety and vulgar” operas of Puccini and Umberto Giordano. The only Italian Pratella could praise was his teacher Pietro Mascagni, because he had rebelled against the publishers and attempted innovation in opera, but even Mascagni was too traditional for Pratella’s tastes. In the face of this mediocrity and conservatism, Pratella unfurled “the red flag of Futurism, calling to its flaming symbol such young composers as have hearts to love and fight, minds to conceive, and brows free of cowardice.”

Luigi Russolo (18851947) wrote The Art of Noises (1913),[19][20] an influential text in 20th-century musical aesthetics. Russolo used instruments he called intonarumori, which were acoustic noise generators that permitted the performer to create and control the dynamics and pitch of several different types of noises. Russolo and Marinetti gave the first concert of Futurist music, complete with intonarumori, in 1914. However they were prevented from performing in many major European cities by the outbreak of war.

Futurism was one of several 20th-century movements in art music that paid homage to, included or imitated machines. Ferruccio Busoni has been seen as anticipating some Futurist ideas, though he remained wedded to tradition.[21] Russolo’s intonarumori influenced Stravinsky, Arthur Honegger, George Antheil, Edgar Varse,[11] Stockhausen and John Cage. In Pacific 231, Honegger imitated the sound of a steam locomotive. There are also Futurist elements in Prokofiev’s The Steel Step and in his Second Symphony.

Most notable in this respect, however, is the American George Antheil. His fascination with machinery is evident in his Airplane Sonata, Death of the Machines, and the 30-minute Ballet Mcanique. The Ballet Mcanique was originally intended to accompany an experimental film by Fernand Lger, but the musical score is twice the length of the film and now stands alone. The score calls for a percussion ensemble consisting of three xylophones, four bass drums, a tam-tam, three airplane propellers, seven electric bells, a siren, two “live pianists”, and sixteen synchronized player pianos. Antheil’s piece was the first to synchronize machines with human players and to exploit the difference between what machines and humans can play.

Other composers offered more melodic variants of Futurist music, notably Franco Casavola, who was active with the movement at the invitation of Marinetti between 1924 and 1927, and Arthur-Vincent Louri, the first Russian Futurist musician, and a signatory of the St Petersburg Futurist Manifesto in 1914. His five Synthses offer a form of dodecaphony, while Formes en l’air was dedicated to Picasso and is a Cubo-Futurist concept. Born in Ukraine and raised in New York, Leo Ornstein gave his first recital of ‘Futurist Music’ at the Steinway Hall in London on 27 March 1914. According to the Daily Sketch newspaper “one listened with considerable distress. Nothing so horrible as Mr Ornstein’s music has been heard so far. Sufferers from complete deafness should attend the next recital.”

The Futuristic movement also influenced the concept of dance. Indeed, dancing was interpreted as an alternative way of expressing man’s ultimate fusion with the machine. The altitude of a flying plane, the power of a car’s motor and the roaring loud sounds of complex machinery were all signs of man’s intelligence and excellence which the art of dance had to emphasize and praise. This type of dance is considered futuristic since it disrupts the referential system of traditional, classical dance and introduces a different style, new to the sophisticated bourgeois audience. The dancer no longer performs a story, a clear content, that can be read according to the rules of ballet. One of the most famous futuristic dancers was the Italian Giannina Censi(it). Trained as a classical ballerina, she is known for her “Aerodanze” and continued to earn her living by performing in classical and popular productions. She describes this innovative form of dance as the result of a deep collaboration with Marinetti and his poetry. Through these words, she explains: ” I launched this idea of the aerial-futurist poetry with Marinetti, he himself declaiming the poetry. A small stage of a few square meters;… I made myself a satin costume with a helmet; everything that the plane did had to be expressed by my body. It flew and, moreover, it gave the impression of these wings that trembled, of the apparatus that trembled,… And the face had to express what the pilot felt.”[22][23]

Futurism as a literary movement made its official debut with F.T. Marinetti’s Manifesto of Futurism (1909), as it delineated the various ideals Futurist poetry should strive for. Poetry, the predominate medium of Futurist literature, can be characterized by its unexpected combinations of images and hyper-conciseness (not to be confused with the actual length of the poem). The Futurists called their style of poetry parole in libert (word autonomy) in which all ideas of meter were rejected and the word became the main unit of concern. In this way, the Futurists managed to create a new language free of syntax punctuation, and metrics that allowed for free expression.

Theater also has an important place within the Futurist universe. Works in this genre have scenes that are few sentences long, have an emphasis on nonsensical humor, and attempt to discredit the deep rooted traditions via parody and other devaluation techniques.There are a number of examples of Futurist novels from both the initial period of Futurism and the neo-Futurist period, from Marinetti himself to a number of lesser known Futurists, such as Primo Conti, Ardengo Soffici and Giordano Bruno Sanzin (Zig Zag, Il Romanzo Futurista edited by Alessandro Masi, 1995). They are very diverse in style, with very little recourse to the characteristics of Futurist Poetry, such as ‘parole in libert’. Arnaldo Ginna’s ‘Le locomotive con le calze'(Trains with socks on)plunges into a world of absurd nonsense, childishly crude. His brother Bruno Corra wrote in Sam Dunn morto (Sam Dunn is Dead) a masterpiece of Futurist fiction, in a genre he himself called ‘Synthetic’ characterized by compression, and precision; it is a sophisticated piece that rises above the other novels through the strength and pervasiveness of its irony.

When interviewed about her favorite film of all times,[24] famed movie critic Pauline Kael stated that the director Dimitri Kirsanoff, in his silent experimental film Mnilmontant “developed a technique that suggests the movement known in painting as Futurism”.[25]

Many Italian Futurists supported Fascism in the hope of modernizing a country divided between the industrialising north and the rural, archaic South. Like the Fascists, the Futurists were Italian nationalists, radicals, admirers of violence, and were opposed to parliamentary democracy. Marinetti founded the Futurist Political Party (Partito Politico Futurista) in early 1918, which was absorbed into Benito Mussolini’s Fasci di combattimento in 1919, making Marinetti one of the first members of the National Fascist Party. He opposed Fascism’s later exaltation of existing institutions, calling them “reactionary”, and walked out of the 1920 Fascist party congress in disgust, withdrawing from politics for three years; but he supported Italian Fascism until his death in 1944. The Futurists’ association with Fascism after its triumph in 1922 brought them official acceptance in Italy and the ability to carry out important work, especially in architecture. After the Second World War, many Futurist artists had difficulty in their careers because of their association with a defeated and discredited regime.

Marinetti sought to make Futurism the official state art of Fascist Italy but failed to do so. Mussolini chose to give patronage to numerous styles and movements in order to keep artists loyal to the regime. Opening the exhibition of art by the Novecento Italiano group in 1923, he said, “I declare that it is far from my idea to encourage anything like a state art. Art belongs to the domain of the individual. The state has only one duty: not to undermine art, to provide humane conditions for artists, to encourage them from the artistic and national point of view.”[26] Mussolini’s mistress, Margherita Sarfatti, who was as able a cultural entrepreneur as Marinetti, successfully promoted the rival Novecento group, and even persuaded Marinetti to sit on its board. Although in the early years of Italian Fascism modern art was tolerated and even embraced, towards the end of the 1930s, right-wing Fascists introduced the concept of “degenerate art” from Germany to Italy and condemned Futurism.

Marinetti made numerous moves to ingratiate himself with the regime, becoming less radical and avant-garde with each. He moved from Milan to Rome to be nearer the centre of things. He became an academician despite his condemnation of academies, married despite his condemnation of marriage, promoted religious art after the Lateran Treaty of 1929 and even reconciled himself to the Catholic Church, declaring that Jesus was a Futurist.

Although Futurism mostly became identified with Fascism, it had leftist and anti-Fascist supporters. They tended to oppose Marinetti’s artistic and political direction of the movement, and in 1924 the socialists, communists and anarchists walked out of the Milan Futurist Congress. The anti-Fascist voices in Futurism were not completely silenced until the annexation of Abyssinia and the Italo-German Pact of Steel in 1939.[27] This association of Fascists, socialists and anarchists in the Futurist movement, which may seem odd today, can be understood in terms of the influence of Georges Sorel, whose ideas about the regenerative effect of political violence had adherents right across the political spectrum.

Futurism expanded to encompass many artistic domains and ultimately included painting, sculpture, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, theatre design, textiles, drama, literature, music and architecture.

Aeropainting (aeropittura) was a major expression of the second generation of Futurism beginning in 1926. The technology and excitement of flight, directly experienced by most aeropainters,[28] offered aeroplanes and aerial landscape as new subject matter. Aeropainting was varied in subject matter and treatment, including realism (especially in works of propaganda), abstraction, dynamism, quiet Umbrian landscapes,[29] portraits of Mussolini (e.g. Dottori’s Portrait of il Duce), devotional religious paintings, decorative art, and pictures of planes.

Aeropainting was launched in a manifesto of 1929, Perspectives of Flight, signed by Benedetta, Depero, Dottori, Filla, Marinetti, Prampolini, Somenzi and Tato (Guglielmo Sansoni). The artists stated that “The changing perspectives of flight constitute an absolutely new reality that has nothing in common with the reality traditionally constituted by a terrestrial perspective” and that “Painting from this new reality requires a profound contempt for detail and a need to synthesise and transfigure everything.” Crispolti identifies three main “positions” in aeropainting: “a vision of cosmic projection, at its most typical in Prampolini’s ‘cosmic idealism’ …; a ‘reverie’ of aerial fantasies sometimes verging on fairy-tale (for example in Dottori …); and a kind of aeronautical documentarism that comes dizzyingly close to direct celebration of machinery (particularly in Crali, but also in Tato and Ambrosi).”[30]

Eventually there were over a hundred aeropainters. Major figures include Fortunato Depero,Enrico Prampolini, Gerardo Dottori and Crali. Crali continued to produce aeropittura up until the 1980s.

Futurism influenced many other twentieth-century art movements, including Art Deco, Vorticism, Constructivism, Surrealism, Dada, and much later Neo-Futurism.[31][32] Futurism as a coherent and organized artistic movement is now regarded as extinct, having died out in 1944 with the death of its leader Marinetti.

Nonetheless the ideals of Futurism remain as significant components of modern Western culture; the emphasis on youth, speed, power and technology finding expression in much of modern commercial cinema and culture. Ridley Scott consciously evoked the designs of Sant’Elia in Blade Runner. Echoes of Marinetti’s thought, especially his “dreamt-of metallization of the human body”, are still strongly prevalent in Japanese culture, and surface in manga/anime and the works of artists such as Shinya Tsukamoto, director of the “Tetsuo” (lit. “Ironman”) films. Futurism has produced several reactions, including the literary genre of cyberpunkin which technology was often treated with a critical eyewhilst artists who came to prominence during the first flush of the Internet, such as Stelarc and Mariko Mori, produce work which comments on Futurist ideals. and the art and architecture movement Neo-Futurism in which technology is considered a driver to a better quality of life and sustainability values.[33][34]

A revival of sorts of the Futurist movement in theatre began in 1988 with the creation of the Neo-Futurist style in Chicago, which utilizes Futurism’s focus on speed and brevity to create a new form of immediate theatre. Currently, there are active Neo-Futurist troupes in Chicago, New York, San Francisco, and Montreal.[35]

Futurist ideas have been discerned in Western dance music since the 1980s.[36]

Japanese Composer Ryuichi Sakamoto’s 1986 album ‘Futurista’ was inspired by the movement. It features a speech from Tommaso Marinetti in the track ‘Variety Show’.[37]

In 2009, Italian director Marco Bellocchio included Futurist art in his feature film “Vincere”.[38]

In 2014, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum featured the exhibition “Italian Futurism, 19091944: Reconstructing the Universe”.[39] This was the first comprehensive overview of Italian Futurism to be presented in the United States.[40]

Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art is a museum in London with a collection centered around Italian futurist artists and their paintings.

Umberto Boccioni, 1911, La rue entre dans la maison; Luigi Russolo, 1911, Souvenir dune nuit. Published in Les Annales politiques et littraires, 1 December 1912

Paintings by Gino Severini, 1911, La Danse du Pan-Pan, and Severini, 1913, Lautobus. Published in Les Annales politiques et littraires, Le Paradoxe Cubiste, 14 March 1920

Paintings by Gino Severini, 1911, Souvenirs de Voyage; Albert Gleizes, 1912, Man on a Balcony, LHomme au balcon; Severini, 191213, Portrait de Mlle Jeanne Paul-Fort; Luigi Russolo, 191112, La Rvolte. Published in Les Annales politiques et littraires, Le Paradoxe Cubiste (continued), n. 1916, 14 March 1920

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Futurism – Wikipedia

Futurism | the arts | Britannica.com

Futurism, Italian Futurismo, Russian Futurizm, early 20th-century artistic movement centred in Italy that emphasized the dynamism, speed, energy, and power of the machine and the vitality, change, and restlessness of modern life. During the second decade of the 20th century, the movements influence radiated outward across most of Europe, most significantly to the Russian avant-garde. The most-significant results of the movement were in the visual arts and poetry.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Marinetti coined the word Futurism to reflect his goal of discarding the art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Marinettis manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. Exalting violence and conflict, he called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional values and the destruction of cultural institutions such as museums and libraries. The manifestos rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its aggressive tone was purposely intended to inspire public anger and arouse controversy.

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theatre: Futurism in Italy

Although it produced one major dramatist, Luigi Pirandello, in the period between the two world wars, the Italian theatre contributed very little to staging or theatre production. What was important was the work of the Futurists led by Marinetti. This movement predated

Marinettis manifesto inspired a group of young painters in Milan to apply Futurist ideas to the visual arts. Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carr, Luigi Russolo, Giacomo Balla, and Gino Severini published several manifestos on painting in 1910. Like Marinetti, they glorified originality and expressed their disdain for inherited artistic traditions.

Although they were not yet working in what was to become the Futurist style, the group called for artists to have an emotional involvement in the dynamics of modern life. They wanted to depict visually the perception of movement, speed, and change. To achieve this, the Futurist painters adopted the Cubist technique of using fragmented and intersecting plane surfaces and outlines to show several simultaneous views of an object. But the Futurists additionally sought to portray the objects movement, so their works typically include rhythmic spatial repetitions of an objects outlines during transit. The effect resembles multiple photographic exposures of a moving object. An example is Ballas painting Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (1912), in which a trotting dachshunds legs are depicted as a blur of multiple images. The Futurist paintings differed from Cubist work in other important ways. While the Cubists favoured still life and portraiture, the Futurists preferred subjects such as speeding automobiles and trains, racing cyclists, dancers, animals, and urban crowds. Futurist paintings have brighter and more vibrant colours than Cubist works, and they reveal dynamic, agitated compositions in which rhythmically swirling forms reach crescendos of violent movement.

Boccioni also became interested in sculpture, publishing a manifesto on the subject in the spring of 1912. He is considered to have most fully realized his theories in two sculptures, Development of a Bottle in Space (1912), in which he represented both the inner and outer contours of a bottle, and Unique Forms of Continuity in Space (1913), in which a human figure is not portrayed as one solid form but is instead composed of the multiple planes in space through which the figure moves.

Futurist principles extended to architecture as well. Antonio SantElia formulated a Futurist manifesto on architecture in 1914. His visionary drawings of highly mechanized cities and boldly modern skyscrapers prefigure some of the most imaginative 20th-century architectural planning.

Boccioni, who had been the most-talented artist in the group, and SantElia both died during military service in 1916. Boccionis death, combined with expansion of the groups personnel and the sobering realities of the devastation caused by World War I, effectively brought an end to the Futurist movement as an important historical force in the visual arts.

Not content with merely taking over the urban and modernist themes of Futurist painting, the writers who embraced Italian literary Futurism sought to develop a language appropriate for what they perceived to be the speed and ruthlessness of the early 20th century. They established new genres, the most significant being parole in libert (words-in-freedom), also referred to as free-word poetry. It was poetry liberated from the constraints of linear typography and conventional syntax and spelling. A brief extract from Marinettis war poem Battaglia peso + odore (1912; Battle Weight + Smell) was appended to one of the Futurists manifestos as an example of words-in-freedom:

Arterial-roads bulging heat fermenting hair armpits drum blinding blondness breathing + rucksack 18 kilograms common sense = seesaw metal moneybox weakness: 3 shudders commands stones anger enemy magnet lightness glory heroism Vanguards: 100 meters machine guns rifle-fire explosion violins brass pim pum pac pac tim tum machine guns tataratatarata

Designed analogies (pictograms where shape analogically mimics meaning), dipinti paroliberi (literary collages combining graphic elements with free-word poetry), and sintesi (minimalist plays) were among other new genres. New forms of dissemination were favoured, including Futurist evenings, mixed-media events, and the use of manifesto leaflets, poster poems, and broadsheet-format journals containing a mixture of literature, painting, and theoretical pronouncements. Until 1914, however, output fell far short of the movements declared program, and Futurist poetsin contrast to Marinettiremained largely traditionalist in their subject matter and idiom, as was demonstrated by the movements debut anthology I poeti futuristi (1912; The Futurist Poets).

Marinetti was for some time primarily associated with his African Mafarka le futuriste (1910; Mafarka the Futurist), a tale of rape, pillage, and battle set in North Africa. Apart from its misogyny, racism, and glorification of a cult of violence, the novel is remembered for its heros creation of a machine brought to life as a superman destined to inherit the future. Only when Marinetti started grounding his avant-garde poetry in the realities of his combat experiences as a war reporter during World War I, however, did a distinctly innovative Futurist idiom emerge, one that represented a significant break from past poetic practices.

The title of literary Futurisms most important manifesto, Distruzione della sintassiimmaginazione senza filiparole in libert (1913; Destruction of SyntaxWireless ImaginationWords-in-Freedom), represented Marinettis demands for a pared-down elliptical language, stripped of adjectives and adverbs, with verbs in the infinitive and mathematical signs and word pairings used to convey information more economically and more boldly. The resultant telegraphic lyricism is most effective in Marinettis war poetry, especially Zang tumb tumb and Dunes (both 1914). A desire to make language more intensive led to a pronounced use of onomatopoeia in poems dealing with machines and waras in the title of Zang tumb tumb, intended to mimic the sound of artillery fireand to a departure from uniform, horizontal typography. A number of Futurist painter-poets blurred the distinction between literature and visual art, as Severini did in Danza serpentina (1914; Serpentine Dance). While Marinettis poetic experiments revealed an indebtedness to Cubism, he elevated Italian literary collage, often created for the purpose of pro-war propaganda, to a distinctively Futurist art form. The culmination of this tendency came with Carrs Festa patriottica (1914; Patriotic Celebration) and Marinettis Les Mots en libert futuristes (1919; Futurist Words-in-Freedom).

A typographical revolution was also proclaimed in the Futurists 1913 manifesto; it grew out of both a desire to make form visually dynamic and a perceived need for visual effects in type that were capable of reflectingthrough size and boldnessthe noise of modern warfare and urban life. A diverse series of shaped poetic layouts depicted speeding cars, trains, and airplanes, exploding bombs, and the confusions of battle. Apart from Marinettis work, the most accomplished typographical experiments are to be found in the poetry of Francesco Cangiullo and Fortunato Depero.

During its first decade, Italian literary Futurism remained a largely homogeneous movement. By contrast, Russian Futurism was fragmented into a number of splinter groups (Ego-Futurists, Cubo-Futurists, Hylaea [Russian Gileya]) associated with a large number of anthologies representing continually regrouping artistic factions. While there was an urbanist strand to Russian Futurism, especially in the poetry of Vladimir Mayakovsky and Yelena Guro, Russian writers were less preoccupied with machines, speed, and violence than their Italian counterparts. The dominant strain of primitivism in Russian Futurism led some to conclude that the two movements have little in common apart from the word Futurism. While there was a shared interest in the renewal of language, the Italians innovations were invariably designed to express an ultramodern sensibility, whereas Russian Futurist poets and playwrights confined their attentions to The Word as Such (the title of one of their most famous manifestos, Slovo kak takovoye, published in 1913). A number of these writers, most impressively Velimir Khlebnikov, explored the archaic roots of language and drew on primitive folk culture for their inspiration.

As was the case in Italy, the main achievements of Russian Futurism lie in poetry and drama. As it did in Italy, neologism played a large role in Russian attempts to renew language, which in turn aimed at the destruction of syntax. The most-famous Futurist poem, Khlebnikovs Zaklyatiye smekhom (1910; Incantation by Laughter), generates a series of permutations built on the root -smekh (laughter) by adding impossible prefixes and suffixes. The result is a typical (for Russian Futurism) concern with etymology and word creation. Khlebnikovs and Alexey Kruchenykhs radical forays into linguistic poetry went hand in hand with an interest in the word as pure sound. Their invented zaumthe largely untranslatable name given to their transrational languagewas intended to take language beyond logical meanings in the direction of a new visionary mysticism. Kruchenykhs opera Pobeda nad solncem (1913; Victory over the Sun) and Khlebnikovs play Zangezi (1922) are two of the most-important examples of the Futurist blend of transrationalism with the cult of the primitive. Mayakovsky, the greatest Russian poet to have gone through a Futurist phase, was coauthor of the manifesto Poshchochina obshchestvennomu vkusu (1912; A Slap in the Face of Public Taste), and his poems figure in many of the movements key anthologies. While sharing an Italian-influenced Futurist sensibility with the Ego-Futurists and belonging more, on account of their concern with verbal innovation, to the body of works by the Cubo-Futurist painter-poets, his poetry and plays are, above all, Futurist in their provocative rejection of the past and their subjectivist approach to the renewal of poetic language.

During the 1920s, Marinetti and those around him gravitated toward fascism, whereas the Soviet communist regime became increasingly intolerant of what it dismissed as avant-garde Formalism. While relations between Italian and Russian Futurism were, on the whole, strained, the Italian Futurists exercised a strong influence on German Expressionism, English Vorticism, and international Dada.

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Futurism | Define Futurism at Dictionary.com


ExamplesWord Origin

Dictionary.com UnabridgedBased on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2018

Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

1909, from Italian futurismo, coined 1909 by Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti (1876-1944); see future + -ism. Futurist is attested from 1842, originally theological.

Online Etymology Dictionary, 2010 Douglas Harper

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Futurism – Home | Facebook

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Here Come the Tricorders

Despite advances in medicine, access to medical care remains an obstacle for many. Cost, transportation, and even the availability of healthcare are all barriers preventing many from getting the care they need. But what if there was a device that could provide medical care almost anywhere on the planet or even off it?Fifty years ago, Star Trek introduced small, hand-held devices called tricorders that could do almost everything from determining the content of a strange substance to help doctors…

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Report: It’s Easy to Hack an Entire Generation of Military Weapons

Planet Hack

On Tuesday, the Government Accountability Office announced that the Pentagon had been caught off guard. It turns out that an entire generation’s worth of weapons systems, including those that are still being developed, are really easy to hack.

There’s pretty much no excuse for the military to be so lax in its digital security, since its weaponry — plus the nature of warfare itself — is increasingly digital.

White Hat

If the military did have an excuse, though, it would be that several of the tests over the years were incomplete, which led officials to disregard the vulnerabilities that popped up.

The report, which left out many crucial details about which systems were most vulnerable, said that small teams of white-hat hackers were able to jack into various weapons systems within an hour.

Hackers, the report said, were able to take control of “major weapon systems” and “operate largely undetected, due in part to basic issues such as poor password management and unencrypted communications.”

In fact, the military’s weak-ass cybersecurity has been routinely failing these tests since 2012, according to the report.


Let’s not forget how outrageously stupid this is. The U.S. military has the highest budget of any military in the world — it’s set to receive $674 billion of tax dollars next year — but didn’t think it was worth figuring out a way to keep its assets safe.

Hackers seem to have an awful lot to work with these days. Social media and tech companies are leaking, selling, and being robbed of private information left and right. A mountain of evidence suggests that America’s presidential elections and infrastructure were compromised by digital subterfuge in 2016.

In the face of all that, it looks as though the military left its most advanced weaponry and digital systems right out in the open.


READ MORE: WEAPON SYSTEMS CYBERSECURITY: DOD Just Beginning to Grapple with Scale of Vulnerabilities [U.S. Government Accountability Office]

More on cybersecurity: Leaders Who Pledged Not To Build Autonomous Killing Machines Are Ignoring The Real Problem

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Report: It’s Easy to Hack an Entire Generation of Military Weapons

Google Won’t Bid on Pentagon Contract, but Not Just Because Employees Wanted It To

Good Guy Google?

Google is taking the high ground — or is it?

On Monday, the company told Bloomberg it wouldn’t submit a bid on a Pentagon contract it had been considering. The tech giant cited concerns that the Joint Enterprise Defense Infrastructure (JEDI) cloud-computing project would have conflicted with principles it put in place following employee protests over military contracts earlier this year.

But while Google framed those employee concerns as reason numero uno for dropping out of the competition, there’s another, less ethically-driven explanation: Google knew it couldn’t win the contract.

Don’t Be Evil

The JEDI project will involve transitioning boatloads of Defense Department data to a cloud system. The contract to operate that cloud system will reportedly last for 10 years and pay an estimated $10 billion.

A Google spokesperson told Bloomberg in a statement that the company would have had no problem meeting some parts of the contract. However, it simply didn’t have the right certifications to complete the contract in its entirety:

While we are working to support the US government with our cloud in many areas, we are not bidding on the JEDI contract because first, we couldn’t be assured that it would align with our AI Principles and second, we determined that there were portions of the contract that were out of scope with our current government certifications. Had the JEDI contract been open to multiple vendors, we would have submitted a compelling solution for portions of it.

It’s unclear how a data transitioning project might be conflict with Google’s principles — it’s not nearly as controversial as drone strikes or government censorship, which Google employees have raised concerns about in the past.

Real Talk

The second part of that paragraph, you’ll note, pretty much says Google couldn’t complete the JEDI contract. And that makes the first part — where it claims it wouldn’t submit a bid based on its “principles” — feels an awful lot like the kid who didn’t get invited to prom saying they didn’t want to go anyways.

We didn’t fall for that one in high school, Google, and we aren’t falling for it now.

READ MORE: Google Drops Out of Pentagon’s $10 Billion Cloud Competition [Bloomberg]

More on Google: Google Employees Have Become the Company’s Moral Compass

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Google Won’t Bid on Pentagon Contract, but Not Just Because Employees Wanted It To

Researchers Identify the “Missing Link” in the Chemistry of Saturn’s Largest Moon

Team Titan

Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is weird. Really weird. Its atmosphere is unlike that of any other moon in our entire solar system — in fact, it’s a lot like what scientists believe Earth’s was like during its first billion years.

Titan’s atmosphere also includes organic compounds called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), precursors to the molecules that gave rise to life on Earth. Previously, we thought they could only form under high-temperature conditions. But the average surface temperature on Titan is a frigid -179 degrees Celsius (-290 degrees Fahrenheit).

Now, researchers think they’ve found the “missing link” that explains how Titan’s atmosphere could include these compounds. The knowledge could better our understanding of our own planet’s infancy and provide new clues in the search for extraterrestrial life.

Early Earth

In a study published Monday in the journal Nature Astronomy, U.S. and Russian researchers show how gases already known to exist on Titan could have combined to produce PAHs. They did this using a combination of computer simulations and practical experiments.

The finding isn’t remarkable simply because it teaches us something new about Titan — it could also help us better understand Earth’s history.

“The gas make up of Titan is similar to prebiotic Earth — hydrocarbons and nitrogen and the absence of oxygen — hence, scientists are keen to see how chemistry is evolving or has evolved on Titan to provide clues to Earth’s atmospheric content,” Berkeley researcher and study author Musahid Ahmed told Futurism.

The better we can understand the conditions that led to the formation of the Earth as we know it, the better equipped we’ll be to figure out exactly what conditions are necessary for the formation of life — and where we might want to look for it elsewhere in the universe.

READ MORE: Scientists Present New Clues to Cut Through the Mystery of Titan’s Atmospheric Haze [Berkeley Lab]

More on Titan: Titan Has Even More in Common With Earth Than We Thought

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Researchers Identify the “Missing Link” in the Chemistry of Saturn’s Largest Moon

A Startup’s Bold Plan to Open Robot Farms Near U.S. Cities

Machine Thumb

Farming is one of humanity’s oldest professions, right after hunting and gathering. But now, a startup called Iron Ox is in the process of opening a farm in California that will replace human farmers with robots.

At the heart of Iron Ox’s operations is Angus, a robot that uses its dexterous arm to tend to mattress-sized hydroponic beds of edible plants. The bot’s machine learning software allows it to identify and remove plants exhibiting signs of pests or disease before they can infect the whole patch.


Iron Ox’s goal seems to be disrupting the current model of industrial agriculture. The company’s founder, Brandon Alexander, appears particularly well-suited to take on the task: He previously worked as both a farmer and a Google engineer.

“Right now fresh produce really isn’t all that fresh,” Alexander told CNBC. “It’s traveling on average 2,000 miles from farm to grocery store, which means a lot of people are eating week-old lettuce or strawberries.”

Old BotDonald

If all goes well, Iron Ox plans to uproot farming norms with a series of robotic farms that sell locally-grown greens, from lettuce to basil, to restaurants and grocery stores across the country. Though it hasn’t inked any deals yet, the startup says it’s already in talks with Bay Area restaurants, and Alexander told a local news station in San Francisco that the company hopes to be selling robot-grown produce in grocery stores by 2019.

Eventually, he told Fast Company, the goal is to grow produce at a lower price than conventional farms. If the company can pull that off — which, granted, is a huge “if” — it’ll radically reorient the relationship between farmers, food retailers, and, ultimately, your dinner plate.

READ MORE: Meet the farmers of the future: Robots [Associated Press]

More on robot farmers: This Terrifying Robot Wolf Is Protecting the Crops of Japanese Farmers

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A Startup’s Bold Plan to Open Robot Farms Near U.S. Cities

SpaceX’s First Tourist Isn’t Worried About Training for His Trip to the Moon

Moon Tourist

The Securities and Exchange Commission might not be convinced that Elon Musk always tells the truth, but that isn’t stopping Yusaku Maezawa from taking the controversial entrepreneur at his word.

Maezawa is the Japanese billionaire paying Musk’s SpaceX an undisclosed — but likely exorbitant — amount of money in exchange for a trip around the Moon. During a news conference at the Foreign Correspondents’ Club of Japan in Tokyo on Tuesday, he told reporters he wasn’t sweating the training he’d have to undergo for the first-of-its-kind mission.

Training Yay

Granted, he doesn’t know what exactly that training will be yet.

But he’s still calm about it. Why? The assurance of Elon Musk.

“It hasn’t been decided yet what training I will need to undergo, but Elon Musk has said it shouldn’t be too hard,” Maezawa said.

No Rush

Maezawa doesn’t think he’ll have trouble fitting training into his schedule, either. He only visits the offices of his fashion company Zozo three or four times a week for about six hours per day, he said.

Add to that the fact that the Big Falcon Rocket that will carry Maezawa to the Moon isn’t expected to lift off until 2023, and he should have plenty of time to get in tip-top space tourist shape — whatever that means.

READ MORE: Japan Space Tourist Says Moon Training ‘Shouldn’t Be Too Hard’ [Phys.org]

More on Maezawa: Live Update: Space Unveils Future Moon Passenger

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SpaceX’s First Tourist Isn’t Worried About Training for His Trip to the Moon

Google Didn’t Report Its Data Leak Till Months Later. Now It’ll Face the Consequences.

Remember Google+?

Me neither. But while we were blissfully ignorant of its continuing existence something predictable (and quite commonplace in 2018) happened: private user data leaked.

Here’s what happened. There was a bug that allowed hundreds of third party applications to access user’s personal data, according to a Google blog post. We’re talking user names, employers, job titles, gender, birth place and relationship status of at least half a million Google+ users, according to the Wall Street Journal.

As the Wall Street Journal points out, the bug has been around since 2015. Google says it only discovered and “immediately patched” it in March of this year — the same month Facebook’s Cambridge Analytica scandal started to blow up. In the same blog post, Google announced it will shut down Google+ entirely.

So why are we only hearing about this now, seven months later? Don’t Google users have a right to know if their personal data was vulnerable to hackers over the last three years? Internal memos obtained the Wall Street Journal suggest Google was trying to avoid triggering “immediate regulatory interest.” In other words: avoid fines and penalties.

And there was no real reason for Google to do so. Sure, it might have had a better shot at containing the breach. But no government rules compelled the company to tell consumers right when it happened. And to do so of its own volition right when Facebook was coming under such pressure? Didn’t seem like a great PR move.

In a statement to Futurism, Google points out it’s already doing more than required. “Every year, we send millions of notifications to users about privacy and security bugs and issues. Whenever user data may have been affected, we go beyond our legal requirements and apply several criteria focused on our users in determining whether to provide notice.”

The statement continues: “Our Privacy & Data Protection Office reviewed this issue, looking at the type of data involved, whether we could accurately identify the users to inform, whether there was any evidence of misuse, and whether there were any actions a developer or user could take in response. None of these thresholds were met in this instance.”

Google claims that it found “no evidence that any developer was aware of this bug, or abusing the API,” after a thorough, “root-and-branch review of third-party developer access” investigation. No one got hurt, so we’re all cool, right? Right?

Is it just me, or does it feel like our personal data is being leaked on almost a weekly basis? Just two weeks ago, hackers got into 50 million Facebook accounts. One notable difference: the security issue was discovered just three days earlier by Facebook’s engineering team, according to an official blog post. Guess Facebook learned something from Cambridge Analytica, after all.

Now what? Well, now the lawsuits. Ars Technica reports that California residents and Google+ users have filed the first class-action lawsuit in a federal court in San Francisco. The argument: Google knowingly made “a calculated decision not to inform users that their Personal Information was compromised,” according to the complaint, as Ars Technica reported.

And Google may have to contend with the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).  It requires companies to notify affected users of a personal data breach “without undue delay and, where, feasible, not later than 72 hours after having become aware of it,” according to Article 33 — a far shot from the seven months it took Google.

Not complying with that rule could actually hurt Google: fines of up to two percent of annual global revenue. It’s been hit with these kinds of fines before, specifically one of $5 billion in May in response to reportedly violating antitrust laws on Android phones (the company has challenged the decision).

But as TechCrunch points out, Google might not have violated GDPR after all: the bug was found in March, but GDPR went into effect two months later. Since the law is still new and EU member countries are still figuring out how to enforce it, Google may find itself in a regulatory gray area.

Like all companies faced with a breach like this, Google is doing a little introspection. Google claims it’s clamping down on third-party access to consumer Gmail data, and allowing users to give and revoke permissions to those third-parties — a positive step for sure.

But if you still feel wary, well, we don’t blame you. Google knew about the leak for so darn long before it decided to reveal its existence. The fact that it couldn’t find any evidence of misuse is little consolation.

As data breaches like these become more frequent and reveal more information, lawmakers are starting to pay attention, giving data privacy laws a much-needed second look. Consumers have a right to know if their data is ending up in hands they might not have authorized. If companies like Google are not being held accountable, they may never even learn about it.

More on data leaks: Breaking: Hackers Accessed 50 Million Facebook Accounts

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Google Didn’t Report Its Data Leak Till Months Later. Now It’ll Face the Consequences.

The Latest Prostheses Take Orders Directly From Your Nerves

What Nerve

Disability rights advocate Nicole Kelly was born without her lower right arm, but using a cutting-edge prosthesis she got last year, she can now grind pepper, play cards, and open beers — just by thinking about the action.

Kelly’s is just one tale from a riveting new Wired story about the steady improvements in prostheses that take orders directly from users’ nerves. The big step forward: software that can make sense of the complex signals from a specific patient’s nervous system. We’ve written about similar systems before, but this report is a striking example of how the tech is already changing users’ lives.

Bear Arms

Wired talked to people using and testing prostheses containing control systems developed by Coapt and Infinite Biomedical Technologies (IBT). These systems pick up nerve signals via electrodes positioned on a user’s upper arm. The user then trains an algorithm to translate their body’s signals into natural motions.

Kelly’s prosthesis, which uses hardware and software made by Coapt, even has a “reset” button that lets her reboot the algorithm if it’s acting up and retrain it, a process that she says takes her just two minutes after about a year of practice.


One problem is that the tech is still very expensive. Coapt’s system costs between $10,000 and $15,000, its CEO told Wired. Infinite’s site doesn’t include a price for its setup, which it says will go on sale later this month.

But then again, it’s hard to put a price tag on the satisfaction of cracking open your own beer.


More on bionic limbs: A Neural Network, Connected to a Human Brain, Could Mean More Advanced Prosthetics

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The Latest Prostheses Take Orders Directly From Your Nerves

Farmers Are Using Facial Recognition to Keep Farmed Fish Healthy

Something Fishy

Do all fish look alike? Well, not to a computer.

You’d be excused if you weren’t even sure fish had faces. But according to a Bloomberg report, a European aquaculture giant is planning to use facial recognition to track every individual fish among millions of farmed Atlantic salmon. The trick: differentiating minuscule variations in the patterns of spots around their fishy eyes.

Face Off

The value-add for Cermaq Group AS, which is developing tech to keep its farm-grown salmon healthier along the Norwegian coast, is that it will be able to track infectious diseases like sea lice in order to separate sick fish from the rest of the healthy population.

“We can build a medical record for each individual fish,” Harald Takle, the company’s head researcher, told Bloomberg. “This will be like a revolution.”

Fish Forward

Fish aren’t the only animals subject to facial recognition. Farmers are also exploring ways to use the tech to track the health of cows; earlier this year, researchers developed a system that identifies individual primates for conservation purposes.

At least these animals (unlike humans) won’t have to try to answer the troubling questions about privacy and government surveillance that come up when we consider our own relationship with facial recognition technology.

READ MORESalmon Farmers Are Scanning Fish Faces to Fight Killer Lice [Bloomberg]

More on facial recognition: Facial Recognition Tech Catches Traveler With Fake Papers

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Farmers Are Using Facial Recognition to Keep Farmed Fish Healthy

Lab-Grown Collagen Is Vegan and Eco-Friendly — and Identical to the Real Stuff

Jell-Oh No

Gelatin is one versatile protein. It puts the “gel” in Jell-O and it’s an essential ingredient in many other foods, cosmetics, and medications. The downside: We can’t produce gelatin without harming animals and the environment, since it historically comes from animal skin, bones, and tissue.

But a new startup could change that. It’s found a way to create the protein collagen — the building block of gelatin — in the lab without the use of any animal products.


In 2012, the founders of California-based startup Geltor decided they wanted to figure out a way to produce collagen without relying on the animal products traditionally used in the manufacturing process.

They landed on fermentation, the process of using microorganisms to break down a substance. Using fermentation, they were able to convert the common elements carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen into collagen. Not something like collagen, but collagen itself, which anyone can then use to produce gelatin.

“It’s nature-identical,” Geltor co-founder Alex Lorestani told CNBC. “It’s just a pure protein, identical to the one you would find wherever. We just make it a different way.”

Progressive Protein

According to Rosie Wardle, the program director of a foundation that advises Geltor investor Jeremy Coller, lab-grown collagen is a major improvement over the traditional kind.

“The current system of protein production is a broken system,” she told CNBC. “It’s resource-intensive and having a massive detrimental impact on the environment. Business as usual isn’t really an option for the protein-production sector going forward.”

Geltor already provides its lab-grown collagen to cosmetics and skincare companies, but if the product passes Food and Drug Administration vetting, you could find yourself snacking on vegan, eco-friendly Jell-O, jams, or juices in the not-so-distant future.

READ MORE: Lab-Grown Gelatin Is the Fake Food of the Future, One Start-up Believes [CNBC]

More on clean food: We’re About to Get Many More Meat Alternatives

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Lab-Grown Collagen Is Vegan and Eco-Friendly — and Identical to the Real Stuff

This Wireless Implant Heals Damaged Nerves and Then Self-Destructs

Nervous Wreck

Nerve damage is no joke. Even something as simple as typing too much can lead to bolts of pain shooting up your arm. The damage from an accident or injury can be even more traumatic.

Doctors have known for a while that electrical stimulation can help nerves heal after injuries. Now that observation has led to a futuristic new treatment for nerve damage: implantable gadgets that wrap around damaged nerves, delivering pulses of healing electricity for a set period of time before harmlessly degrading into the body.

Material Existence

According to a study published Monday in the journal Nature Medicine, the dime-sized devices comprise biodegradable polymers and magnesium, and they’re controlled and powered by an external transmitter, similarly to an inductive charging mat for a cell phone.

The researchers, who hail from Northwestern University and Washington University School of Medicine, say they can adjust the devices’ lifespans from less than a minute to several months by changing the composition of the biodegradable materials.

“We engineer the devices to disappear,” said researcher John Rogers, who helped create the device, in a press release. “This notion of transient electronic devices has been a topic of deep interest in my group for nearly 10 years — a grand quest in materials science, in a sense.”

Rats, Foiled Again

To test whether the gadgets help nerves heal, the research team implanted them around the injured sciatic nerves of 25 adult rats. The more electrical stimulation they gave each rat during the following 10 weeks, the faster the animal recovered its nerve function. It’s not clear from this initial research whether there’s an ideal amount of electrical stimulation for nerve therapy, however.

The researchers didn’t share a timeline for human trials, but they said they’re hopeful that their technique could one day “complement or replace” existing treatments for nerve injuries in people, which frequently rely on prescription painkillers.

READ MORE: Implantable, biodegradable devices speed nerve regeneration in rats [EurekAlert]

More on nerve damage: Process Discovered That Saves Injured Nerve Cells And Helps Prevent Brain Damage

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This Wireless Implant Heals Damaged Nerves and Then Self-Destructs

Lockheed Engineers Are Using HoloLens to Build NASA’s New Space Capsule

Spaced Out

Augmented reality (AR) will revolutionize manufacturing by providing workers with overlays that detail complex instructions.

Or so we’ve heard.

Until now, this use for AR tech has been mostly theoretical. But a wild new MIT Tech Review story describes how that might finally be changing: Microsoft’s HoloLens is speeding up construction of NASA’s next space capsule by providing Lockheed Martin engineers with a virtual overlay of the project and the next steps in its assembly.

Layer Cake

For each new project, Lockheed typically assembles a list of building instructions, which can sometimes run thousands of pages long. But to build the Orion capsule, which will carry a crew on the NASA Space Launch System rocket, the aerospace contractor decided to shake things up.

Using HoloLens headsets, which overlay information onto the physical world, the company’s technicians can now see a virtual model of the spacecraft over the actual work-in-progress. This overlay includes everything from the model numbers of parts to information about how to drill holes and secure fasteners.

“At the start of the day, I put on the device to get accustomed to what we will be doing in the morning,” technician Decker Jory, who is helping build the Orion capsule, told MIT Technology Review.

Time Capsule

One reason AR hasn’t lived up to its manufacturing potential is that the headsets are uncomfortable to wear for extended periods of time. At Lockheed, Jory and his team use the HoloLens system for 15-minute stretches, to familiarize themselves with the next steps, and then take them off.

But the Orion project provides a compelling vision of the future of manufacturing, and not just here on Earth, either as Lockheed technologist Shelley Peterson teased in the MIT Tech article, AR could potentially help future astronauts perform maintenance in space as well.

READ MORE: NASA is using HoloLens AR headsets to build its new spacecraft faster [MIT Tech Review]

More on augmented reality: Augmented Reality Is Going to Transform Your Life. Here’s How.

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Lockheed Engineers Are Using HoloLens to Build NASA’s New Space Capsule

Government to Tesla: We Never Said the Model 3 Was the “Safest Car Ever”

Participation Trophy

In a blog post published last week, Tesla claimed that its Model 3 was the safest car ever tested by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA.)

Seemingly in response, the NHTSA just released a very, oh, let’s call it a measured statement. The statement, which doesn’t mention Tesla by name, clarifies that there are no bonus points above a five-star rating. If you reach the top bracket, you’re good.

The statement reads:

Results from these three crash tests and the rollover resistance assessments are weighted and combined into an overall safety rating. A 5-star rating is the highest safety rating a vehicle can achieve. NHTSA does not distinguish safety performance beyond that rating, thus there is no ‘safest’ vehicle among those vehicles achieving 5-star ratings.

Bragging Rights

That seems to contradict Tesla’s post, which used NHTSA testing data to claim that the Model 3 showed a lower probability of accident-related injuries than any other car model out there. The government apparently felt the need to step in and shoot down the hype.

Look, y’all already got five stars, okay? Let’s cool it.

READ MORE: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration issues statement about New Car Assessment Program’s highest rating [NHTSA.gov]

More on Tesla: Actually, Elon Staying at Tesla Is the Best Case Scenario

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Government to Tesla: We Never Said the Model 3 Was the “Safest Car Ever”