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Amber Case: We are all cyborgs now | TED Talk

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Amber Case: We are all cyborgs now | TED Talk

Cyborg | DC

Nowadays, everyones juggling an offline and online persona. But only one hero is a literal marriage of technology and man. Half human, half machine, Victor Stone is Cyborg, a digital and physical tankand a true superhero for the modern age.

Although a star athlete, Vic Stone only yearned for his fathers approval. But Dad was too focused on his scientific career to notice until the day Vic became his greatest experiment. After Vic suffered a grave injury, his father saved him by replacing over half his body with cybernetic parts.

Now Cyborg is plugged into every computer on Earth, and no firewallor brick wallcan keep him out. While his cybernetic enhancements provide superhuman strength, speed, and endurance, that same technology destroys his chances to live as a professional athlete. Now flourishing in the digital realm, Vic is desperately alone in the physical worldand still longs for his fathers affection. Hungry to find purpose again, he fights alongside the Worlds Greatest Super Heroes.

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Cyborg | DC

Cyborg – Wikipedia

A cyborg (short for “cybernetic organism”) is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

D. S. Halacy’s Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a “new frontier” that was “not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between ‘inner space’ to ‘outer space’ a bridge…between mind and matter.”[3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g., the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, etc.). Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will.[citation needed] Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).[citation needed]

According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are also cyborg enhancements. Some theorists[who?] cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested.[5]

The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares.[6] Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally (e.g. the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (e.g. Elysium, RoboCop). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where “Omar” is a Russian translation of the word “Lobster” (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story “The Man That Was Used Up”. In 1911, Jean de la Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero who was perhaps the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystre des XV (later translated as The Nyctalope on Mars).[8][9][10] Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, “After a Judgment Day,” to describe the “mechanical analogs” called “Charlies,” explaining that “[c]yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s…cybernetic organisms.” In the short story “No Woman Born” in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body. Cyborgs are becoming more of a reality each day.

The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:

Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.

The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer was published by Doubleday in 2001.[13] Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.

Cyborg tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr, 3rd, talk number SS4.04.[14] The cyborg obtained is inexpensive, light and has unique mechanical properties. It can also be shaped in desired forms. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Likewise, dried cells still acted as a stable matrix for the MWCNT network. When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. A rather specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells was observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall (the most outer part of fungal and plant cells) may play a major active role in establishing a CNTs network and its stabilization. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from heating to sensing and has the potential to open important new avenues to be exploited in electromagnetic shielding for radio frequency electronics and aerospace technology. In particular using Candida albicans cells cyborg tissue materials with temperature sensing properties have been reported.[15]

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[16] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[17]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[18]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[19]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[20][21]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[22] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[23] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[24] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[24] Neil Harbisson is the first person to be officially recognized as a cyborg by a government; he is a co-founder of the Cyborg Foundation (2004)[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

bodyNET is an application of human-electronic interaction currently in development by researchers from Stanford University.[31] The technology is based on stretchable semiconductor materials (Elastronic). According to their article in Nature (journal), the technology is composed of smart devices, screens, and a network of sensors that can be implanted into the body, woven into the skin or worn as clothes. It has been suggested, that this platform can potentially replace the smartphone in the future.[32]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[33] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[34] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[35] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[36] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University,[37][38] UC Berkeley,[39][40] and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore,[41][42] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[35] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [43] and PETA [44] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[45] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[46] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[47] Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[48] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[49] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[50]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[51]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[52]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low number of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[53]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[54]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[55]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[56] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[57]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[58] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[59][60] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[61][62] The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[63]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[64]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[65] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[66] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[67]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[68][69] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[68]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[70]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[71]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[72] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[73]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[74]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[75] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[76] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[76]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[77]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[78]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term. Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[79] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[80] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[81] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[82] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[79]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[83] augmented reality[84] and QR codes[85] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[86][87] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[88]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[89]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[90] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[91] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[92] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[91]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[93] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[94] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[95]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[96] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing number of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[97] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[98] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[99] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[100]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[101]

Given the technical scope of current and future implantable sensory/telemetric devices, these devices will be greatly proliferated, and will have connections to commercial, medical, and governmental networks. For example, in the medical sector, patients will be able to login to their home computer, and thus visit virtual doctors offices, medical databases, and receive medical prognoses from the comfort of their own home from the data collected through their implanted telemetric devices[102]. However, this online network presents huge security concerns because it has been proven by several U.S. universities that hackers could get onto these networks and shut down peoples electronic prosthetics[102]. These sorts of technologies are already present in the U.S. workforce as a firm in River Falls, Wisconsin called Three Square Market partnered with a Swedish firm called Biohacks Technology to implant RFID microchips in the hands of its employees (which are about the size of a grain of rice) that allow employees to access offices, computers, and even vending machines. More than 50 of the firms 85 employees were chipped. It was confirmed that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved of these implantations[103] . If these devices are to be proliferated within society, then the question that begs to be answered is what regulatory agency will oversee the operations, monitoring, and security of these devices? According to this case study of Three Square Market, it seems that the FDA is assuming the role in regulating and monitoring these devices.

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

Cyborg – TV Tropes

John Connor: Holy shit! You’re really real! I mean, you’re like a machine underneath, right? But sort of alive outside?

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Footage and descriptions by other characters imply that the Daleks are most likely somewhere between Mechas and cyborgs. The creature proper could exist outside the mechanical shell, but is very small and weak and must be augmented by the mechanical components. In their introduction, Ian Chesterton was able to “drive” a Dalek shell after discarding the creature. The expanded universe indicates that the Dalek creatures are so biologically degenerate that they have no functional digestive system, no vocal cords and even have difficulty breathing on their own; being implanted in their casings is vital for them to survive for any great length of time, and their nervous and circulatory systems are tied directly into the casing’s systems. The Dalek voice is harsh and grating because it is entirely artificial.

The “New Paradigm” Daleks introduced in Victory of the Daleks have an organic eye visible at the end of their eyestalks. Apparently this is the eye of the internal creature, with its optic nerve extruded down a metal pipe.

** The fish-people in The Underwater Menace, humans fitted with ‘plastic gills’ and artificial eyes that allow them to see better underwater.

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“… [And then] Kyne granted Perrif another symbol, a diamond soaked red with the blood of elves, [whose] facets could [un-sector and form] into a man whose every angle could cut her jailers and a name: PELIN-EL [which is] “The Star-Made Knight” [and he] was arrayed in armor [from the future time].”

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Kathryn: That’s terrifying.

Ennesby: It’s awesome! It makes you meat-sacks a lot more like me.

Kathryn: That’s what I just said.

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Cyborg – TV Tropes

Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

With an unusually conservative runtime of just under two hours,Justice Leaguehad to cut a number of scenes including a flashback to Cyborgs old life. While audiences are quite familiar with the DCEUs take on Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman,Justice League was able to focus a bit more on the genesis of its other heroes. When it comes to The Flash and Aquaman, most fansof pop culture understand the basics. Still, the film needed to fill in some of their backstory and introduce the updated take on the Leaguers. Cyborg, meanwhile, needed even more of a spotlight.

While fans of theTeen Titans animated series will get the gist of Cyborg, the film version is much more closer to the somber hero from the New 52 run in the comics. There, Victor Stone nearly dies in his fathers S.T.A.R. Labs accident and ends up bonding with the alien Mother Box the elder Stone was studying. The result sees the birth of Cyborg andJustice League hints that all of these events occurred. As a result, he has quite a contentious relationship with his father. What we dont see, however, is Victor before his evolution.

GameSpotspoke with the cast ofJustice League about the various scenes that were cut from the film, and it turns out a look at Cyborgs past had to be removed. Word is that Warner Bros. wantedJustice League under two hours, and that short runtime for a superhero team-up left plenty on the cutting room floor. As Cyborg actor Ray Fisher explains, one moment in particular carried some emotional weight for his character.

There were some things that youll probably end up seeing later on, that didnt make it into this version of the film.Theres a scene with Victor Stone, when he still was Victor Stone, and his mother, that was really special to shoot.

As Fisher alludes, the proposedCyborg film set to arrive in 2020 will be a chance to further explore the new and old versions of Victor Stone. Given his everyman status, Vic would provide the DCEU with a more grounded story albeit one with a superhero whos augmented by alien tech.

ThoughJustice League may have been light on Cyborg backstory, it did offer some teases of the characters complex dynamic with his father. And as Fisher explains, the evolution of their relationship is far from over.

What is great about this film going forward is youll be able to see him rebuild himself mentally the same way that his father rebuilt him physically.And its a process thats going to take time.

From all the trailers and TV spots forJustice League, its clear plenty of material didnt make it into the final cut of the film. Whether a result of Joss Whedons reshoots or the studio mandate to keep things short, we may never know. Theres a good chance, however, that a number of thescenes will end up on the home video release forJustice League. We may even get an extended directors cut from Zack Snyder, something the Justice Leaguefilmmaker is fond of.

Source: GameSpot

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Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

American Cyborg: Steel Warrior (1993) – IMDb

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After the nuclear war people are sterile and ruled by the artifical intelligences they created in this violent world. The only woman who was able to give life to a child has to take the child through the dangerous city to the ship to save it. She is followed by an immortal killer robot through all the dangers, and only one guy tries to help her survive and protect her from the killing machine. Written byPeter Gervai

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American Cyborg: Steel Warrior (1993) – IMDb

Cyborg 2 – Wikipedia

Cyborg 2, released in some countries as Glass Shadow, is a 1993 American science fiction action film directed by Michael Schroeder and starring Elias Koteas, Angelina Jolie, Billy Drago, Karen Sheperd and Jack Palance. It is an unrelated sequel to the 1989 film Cyborg, although footage from the original is used in a dream sequence. It was also Jolie’s film debut in a starring role (she had previously made an earlier film, Lookin’ to Get Out, as a child actress). It was followed by the 1995 direct-to-video release Cyborg 3: The Recycler.

In the year 2074, the cybernetics market is dominated by two rival companies: USA’s Pinwheel Robotics and Japan’s Kobayashi Electronics. Cyborgs are commonplace, used for anything from soldiers to prostitutes. Casella “Cash” Reese (Angelina Jolie) is a Pinwheel prototype cyborg developed for corporate espionage and assassination. She is filled with a liquid explosive called “Glass Shadow”. Pinwheel’s CEO, Martin Dunn (Allan Garfield), plans to eliminate the entire Kobayashi board of directors using Cash as a suicide bomber to precipitate a hostile takeover of the company and obtain a monopoly over the cyborg market.

Cash is programmed to mimic human senses and emotions such as fear, love, pain, and hate. Guided by Mercy (Jack Palance), a renegade prototype cyborg who can communicate through any electronic device, Cash and her combat trainer Colton “Colt” Ricks (Elias Koteas) escape the Pinwheel facility so Cash can avoid self-destruction, something that most corporate espionage cyborgs face. They’re relentlessly pursued by Pinwheel’s hired killer or “wiretapper”, Daniel Bench (Billy Drago).

Bench must also deal with a rival bounty hunter named Chen (Karen Shepard), who plans on killing Ricks and reprogramming Cash to have her blow up Pinwheel instead as a means to get even with her boss, Dunn. However, Chen and Ricks get into a fight, which results in Chen getting electrocuted by a fuse box.

Mercy is later revealed to be a human/android hybrid who was created by Pinwheel as an attempt to create the next stage in human evolution. Mercy escaped before they had a chance to erase his memories. Ricks and Bench get into a boxing match to find out who lives and who dies, namely going to the African coast[clarification needed], which results in Bench getting mutilated by a rotating fan, killing him. Cash and Ricks escape to a new life in Africa after winning the tournament[clarification needed], while Mercy confronts Dunn, blaming him for ruining his life.

Dunn tells Mercy he was just doing his job for the benefit of mankind. Unmoved, Mercy then activates his own Glass Shadow bomb, which kills Dunn and destroys Pinwheel headquarters. The final shot of the movie shows Cash remaining young and beautiful while Ricks continues to age. When Cash realizes that Ricks has finally died of old age, she decides to shut herself down, remaining in a dream state forever.

Alan Jones of the Radio Times rated the film 3 out of 5 stars and called it a “Blade Runner-inspired violent fantasy”.[1] Entertainment Weekly selected Cyborg 2 as Jolie’s worst film.[2]

Jolie has said that after she saw the film, she “went home and got sick”.[3]

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Cyborg 2 – Wikipedia

Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

This article is about the Teen Titans character. For the character “The Batman” or “Cyborg Superman”, see Hank Henshaw.CyborgCyborg on the cover of Cyborg #1 (September 2015)Art by Ivan ReisPublication informationPublisherDC ComicsFirst appearanceDC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980)Created byMarv WolfmanGeorge PrezIn-story informationFull nameVictor StoneSpeciesHuman Turned CyborgTeam affiliationsTeen TitansJustice LeagueS.T.A.R. LabsPartnershipsBeast BoyStarfireGreen Lantern (Hal Jordan)AquamanFlash (Barry Allen)Robin (Dick Grayson)Notable aliasesCyberion, Robotman, Technis, Bionic Man, Cyborg 2.0, Omegadrome, Cy, Sparky, The Man with the Iron Fists, Tin-Man, Silver Fists

Cyborg is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Prez and first appears in a special insert in DC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980). Originally known as a member of the Teen Titans,[1] Cyborg was established as a founding member of the Justice League in DC’s 2011 reboot of its comic book titles and subsequently in the 2016 relaunch of its continuity.

The character appears in the DC Extended Universe, where he is played by actor Ray Fisher. This adaptation of Cyborg had a cameo appearance in the 2016 film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and a main role in the 2017 film Justice League, and is set to appear in a standalone Cyborg film in 2020.

Victor Stone is the son of Silas Stone and Elinore Stone, scientists who use him as a test subject for various intelligence enhancement projects. While these treatments are ultimately successful and Victor’s IQ subsequently grows to genius levels, he grows to resent his treatment. He strikes up a friendship with Ron Evers, a young miscreant who leads him into trouble with the law. This is the beginning of a struggle in which Victor strives for independence, engaging in pursuits of which his parents disapprove, such as athletics and abandoning his studies. Victor’s association with underage criminals leads him down a dark path in which he is often injured, but he still lives a “normal” life in which he is able to make his own decisions. He occasionally refuses to participate in Evers’ grandiose plans of racially motivated terrorism.

Vic joins the Teen Titans, initially for the benefit of a support group of kindred spirits and freaks and has remained with that group ever since.[1] His teammates are like a group of juveniles who are adjusting to their own prosthetics for they idolize him because of his fancy parts and his exciting adventures. It also turns out that their beautiful teacher Sarah Simms, who has often assisted Cyborg and the Titans, admires him as well.

Another person who sees past the cybernetic shell is Dr. Sarah Charles, a S.T.A.R. Labs scientist who helps him to recuperate after having his cybernetic parts replaced. Cyborg and Dr. Charles date for some time and she, along with Changeling, keeps trying to reach him when he is seemingly mindless following the severe injuries he incurs during the “Titans Hunt” storyline.[citation needed]

Although Cyborg’s body was repaired by a team of Russian scientists after the missile crash he had been in, albeit with more mechanical parts than previously, his mind was not. Eventually, his mind was restored by an alien race of computer intelligences called the Technis, created from the sexual union of Swamp Thing and a machine-planet when Swamp Thing was travelling through space. Cyborg, however, had to remain with the Technis both to maintain his mind and because, in return for restoring him, he had to teach them about humanity. He took the name Cyberion, and gradually started becoming less human in outlook, connecting entirely to the Technis planet.

Eventually, Cyberion returned to Earth, establishing a Technis construct on the moon and a smaller base on Earth. With Vic’s consciousness dormant, but his desire for companionship controlling the actions of the Technis’ planet, it began kidnapping former Titans members, his conscious mind so suppressed that he was not only searching for deceased Titans, but even sent one probe looking for himself as Cyborg. He ended up plugging them into virtual reality scenarios, representing what he believed to be their “perfect worlds”; for example, Beast Boy was back with the Doom Patrol, Damage was spending time being congratulated by the Justice Society as a true hero, and Nightwing was confronted by a Batman who actually smiled and offered to talk about their relationship. Although the Titans were freed, there was a strong disagreement between them and the Justice League over what action to take; the League believed that there was nothing left of Victor to save, whereas the Titans were willing to try, culminating in a brief battle, where the Atom and Catwoman (who had followed the Justice League to investigate) sided with the League while the Flash fought with the Titans. While Vic was distracted trying to aid his friends, a Titans team consisting of Changeling and the original five Titans were sent by Raven to try making contact with Vic’s human side, while Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, the Martian Manhunter, Power Girl, Captain Marvel, and Mary Marvel moved the moon back to its proper place. Eventually, thanks primarily to Changeling’s encouragement, and Omen and Raven holding Vic together long enough to come up with a plan, Vic’s consciousness was restored, and “downloaded” into the Omegadrome, a morphing war-suit belonging to former Titan Minion. In the wake of this event, the Titans reformed and Vic was part of the new group.[1] However, he felt less human than ever before.

Shortly after this, Nightwing revealed he had cloned Vic’s body, and by flowing the Omegadrome through the clone, Vic regained his human form, but still had the abilities of the Omegadrome. He often used the Omegadrome to recreate his original look in battle. With his newfound humanity, Vic took a leave of absence, moving first to L.A. with Beast Boy and then to Central City. While in Central City, Vic was involved in one of the Thinker’s schemes, helping Wally hack the Thinker’s attempt to plug himself into the minds of Central City’s population so that Wally could outthink his opponent, though Vic lost the abilities of the Omegadrome in the process.

Vic mentored the new incarnation of the Teen Titans, consisting mainly of sidekicks, most of whom have taken over the identities of former members (i.e. Tim Drake, the third Robin, instead of Dick Grayson, the original Robin and Titans leader), as well as stalwarts such as Starfire, Raven, and Beast Boy, where they have fought enemies such as Deathstroke, Brother Blood, Doctor Light, The Titans Tomorrow, and a brainwashed Superboy and Indigo during a team up with the Outsiders in the Insiders storyline. In the end, Cyborg was the only one capable of standing up to Dr. Light, thanks to his solar shields, although he makes it clear that he only won the fight because the rest of the Titans had softened Light up first.

During the 20052006 storyline “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg joined Donna’s New Cronus team that went to investigate a hole in the universe that was found during the Rann-Thanagar War. He left Beast Boy in charge of the Titans while he was gone. They arrived at the reset center of the universe and with the help of assorted heroes aided in the defeat of Alexander Luthor, who was attempting to recreate the multiverse and build a perfect Earth from it.

According to 52 Week 5, Cyborg was fused together with Firestorm after returning to Earth. This was caused by the energy ripples caused by Alexander Luthor Jr. which altered the Zeta Ray Beams the heroes were going to use to return home.

After being severely damaged during the events of “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg was rebuilt over time in thanks to Tower caretakers Wendy and Marvin. He awoke a year later to find a wholly different Teen Titans being led by Robin, the only member from the team he formed prior to going into space. He is still a member of the team, but feels that Kid Devil and Ravager are hardly worthy Titans, and thus is attempting to find a way to reform “the real Titans”.

After the team along with the Doom Patrol defeated the Brotherhood of Evil, Cyborg asked Beast Boy to rejoin the Titans, but Gar refused, saying that his skills were needed with the Doom Patrol. After returning to Titans Tower, Cyborg began reviewing the security tapes during the last year, in which it appears that he was looked to by all the Titans of the past year for a shoulder to lean on, despite being in a coma-like state.

It appears that although Cyborg has returned to the team, the role of leader is now in the hands of Robin. He does however retain the position of statesman amongst the team and occasionally plays second-in-command.

In Justice League of America (vol. 2) #3, Batman, Wonder Woman, and Superman agree that Cyborg should be offered membership in the new Justice League. However, following a battle against Amazo, Green Lantern and Black Canary take over the formation of the JLA, and Cyborg is not amongst the roster.

In the Teen Titans East one-shot, Cyborg gathered together a new team of Titans. During a training exercise, the group was attacked by Trigon, and Cyborg was blasted by a giant energy beam. He was last seen in a crater, with only his head and torso remaining.

In the aftermath of Trigon’s assault in the Titans East one shot, Cyborg has been placed into a special hoverchair while he recuperates. Cyborg’s body is completely repaired in Titans #5. Soon after, the resurrected and unbalanced Jericho enters Cyborg’s body, using him to manipulate the defenses at Titans Tower to kill the Teen Titans. Jericho’s plans are foiled when Static, the newest Teen Titan, uses his electrical powers to overload the Tower’s systems, causing feedback that knocks Jericho out of Cyborg.[2] After recovering, Cyborg pretends to still have Jericho inside of him, in order to draw out Vigilante, who was currently targeting Jericho. The plot works too well when Vigilante appears and shoots Cyborg in the head.[3]

In an unspecified time during the Teen Titans comics, a man with enhancements similar to Cyborg’s attacks Dr. Sarah Charles on the day of her wedding to Deshaun, a young scientist. Cyborg rushes in for the save, discovering how Deshaun, connected to Project M, has sold the technology used to turn Stone into Cyborg to the military. He also finds that the enhanced man was Ron Evers, once Vic’s best friend now turned terrorist, who was seeking vengeance for the soldiers used as test subjects. After Cyborg manages to calm down his friend and discovers the truth: Mr. Orr, revealed as the mastermind behind Project M’s cyborg research, brings his Stone-derived best subjects: the current Equus, an armored form of the Wildebeest, and a cyberized man sporting enhancements even more powerful than Stone’s current ones called Cyborg 2.0.

Cyborg 2.0 turns out to be the Titans Tomorrow Cyborg 2.0, snatched from his proper timeline and cajoled by Orr into fighting his younger self for the possession of their shared technology and Orr’s permission to use it in the battlefield. Cyborg is soon forced to fight simultaneously against the Phantom Limbs, an elite force of soldiers crippled in the Middle East and restored by his tech, and the Cyborg Revenge Squad, a broader formation composed of the Fearsome Five, Magenta, Girder, the Thinker, and Cyborgirl. Although the Cyborg Revenge Squad soon gains the upper hand, with the help of his fellow Titans Cyborg is able to hold his own in combat, reverse engineer on the fly some of the future technology used by Cyborg 2.0, and enhance his own body enough to win against Mr. Orr. He later decides to get a new lease in life, forgiving Deshaun and Sarah Charles on their wedding day for abusing his technology, resuming dating Sarah Simms and having the Phantom Limbs fitted with new, non-military, prosthetics. It is however implied the Phantom Limbs, unwilling to see Stone’s offer as a sign of good will, are trying to get back their weaponized prosthetics and wait for a rematch.

During the events of Blackest Night, Cyborg joins with Starfire, Beast Boy, and several other heroes to form an emergency team to fight off the army of dead Titans who have been reanimated as Black Lanterns. He later joins in the final battle at Coast City.

Following the dissolution of the current JLA after Justice League: Cry for Justice, Cyborg is invited by Donna to join Kimiyo Hoshi’s new Justice League.[4] He befriends Red Tornado, and claims that he has come up with a plan to make him indestructible.[5]

After a battle with Doctor Impossible’s gang, Cyborg is forced to take a leave of absence from the team in order to not only help rebuild Red Tornado, but also help Roy Harper, who had his arm severed by Prometheus.[6] During this time, Victor leads Superboy and Kid Flash to the city of Dakota to rescue the Teen Titans, who had been defeated and captured by Holocaust.[7] The Titans emerge victorious from the battle after Kid Flash uses his powers to send Holocaust plummeting into the Earth’s inner core.[8]

Despite apparently being written off the team, writer James Robinson explained that Cyborg will continue to have a presence on the JLA, and will even be given a co-feature in the back of the book for Justice League of America #4850.[9] In the co-feature, Cyborg battles Red Tornado after he has been driven insane by the power of the Starheart. In the midst of the battle, a flashback reveals that Victor had rebuilt Red Tornado using self-replicating nanites similar to the ones that Prometheus infected Roy with after cutting off his arm, thus making the android indestructible.[10] Cyborg manages to free Red Tornado his power matrix.[11]

Cyborg briefly appears in Justice League: Generation Lost, where he is shown helping Wonder Woman and Starfire search for Maxwell Lord after his resurrection.[12]

Following an adventure in another dimension, Static is left powerless, and Miss Martian is rendered comatose. Cyborg stops the powerless Static from returning to Dakota, and instead tells him that he and a scientist named Rochelle Barnes will be taking him to Cadmus Labs to find a way to get his powers back and awaken Miss Martian. As Static packs up his belongings, Cyborg and Rochelle have a conversation which reveals that they are lying to Static, and have an ulterior motive for taking the two Titans to Cadmus.[13]

He later appears in the final two issues of The Return of Bruce Wayne, where he helps his former teammate Red Robin in his attempt to stop Bruce Wayne from inadvertently unleashing an apocalyptic explosion of Omega Energy.

Cyborg and Red Tornado later travel to the moon alongside Doctor Light, Animal Man, Congorilla, Zauriel, Tasmanian Devil and Bulleteer as part of an emergency group of heroes gathered to assist the Justice League in their battle against Eclipso. Shortly into the battle, Cyborg and the others are taken over by Eclipso and are turned against their JLA comrades.[14] The reserve JLA members are all freed after Eclipso is defeated.[15]

As of August 2011, Cyborg is featured as one of the main characters in a new Justice League ongoing series written by Geoff Johns and drawn by Jim Lee as part of DC’s The New 52 relaunch. Johns has said of Cyborg, “He represents all of us in a lot of ways. If we have a cellphone and we’re texting on it, we are a cyborgthat’s what a cyborg is, using technology as an extension of ourselves.”[16]

The first storyline takes place five years in the past and details the revised origin of the original Justice League. Victor Stone appears as a high school football star who is heavily sought after by a number of college scouts, but apparently has a distant relationship with his father, Silas. After winning a big game, Victor is shown calling his father and angrily telling him that he broke his promise and missed yet another one of his son’s games.[17] Later Victor appears at S.T.A.R. Labs where his father works. The scientists appear to be working on the Mother Box that Superman came in contact with from the Parademon. Victor engages in another argument with his father and tells him that the scouts were there to give him full scholarships to college. When asking if his father will ever appear at any of his games, his father replies “No.” Just then the Mother Box explodes, killing the other scientists and destroying most of Victor’s body while Victor’s father looks on in horror.[18] Silas does everything he can for Victor’s survival. He along with Sarah Charles, and T. O. Morrow go in “The Red Room” in S.T.A.R. labs which contains every piece of technology from around the world. Silas attempts to treat Victor with something that has never been attempted before and he is seen injecting Victor with some type of nanites and having Dr. Morrow put the robotic pieces on Victor (devices such as: a Promethean skin graft, Doctor William Magnus’ responsometer, Anthony Ivo’s A-maze operating system, The classified and prototypical B-maze operating system and Ryan Choi’s White Dwarf Stabilizer). Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans.[19]

In the following issue we see Victor as Cyborg. As the issue opens Victor cannot feel his hands or legs. He sees himself for the first time with his robotic parts and is panicked by his new body. Suddenly, Parademons burst into the red room and leap toward Sarah Charles. However, Cyborg’s defense system’s reacts automatically weaponizing his arm into a sound cannon from which he fires his powerful white noise cannon, disintegrating the two Parademons and blasting a gigantic hole in the Star Labs building. After saving Sarah’s life Victor asks his father what has happened to him, his father tells him that he couldn’t let him die. Cyborg obviously distraught exclaims, “You did this to me.” and flees, despite Silas’ plea for him to wait. Later in the street Cyborg sees a woman being set upon by a group of Parademons. He leaps to the woman’s aid, punching the parademon. However, in ensuing scuffle Cyborg inadvertently absorbs some of the Parademon’s components giving him access to Boom Tube technology. This new ability automatically transports or teleports Victor to where Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern, and Aquaman are fighting the Parademons, moments before Darkseid arrives. Cyborg fights alongside the other heroes against Darkseid and his Parademons, but despite their best efforts Darkseid proves to be too strong. Fortunately, Cyborg is able to reverse engineer the alien boom tube technology and with a considerable amount of stress on his systems he is able to teleport all the invading aliens including Darkseid off the planet, saving the Earth. After sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League.

Victor has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity. Cyborg primarily focuses on his super-heroics, aiding Batman and others when he can and monitoring crime through his cybernetics. After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his teammates travel to the Valley of Souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. We learn through a conversation with Flash, that Cyborg questions his humanity now that he is part machine and that he lives on the Watch Tower, the Justice League’s headquarters.[20] Flash cracks a joke in an attempt to lighten the mood and assure Cyborg he is still human. During the Throne of Atlantis storyline, Cyborg at first rejects an upgrade his father has that would allow him to operate underwater at the price of his remaining lung which to him would mean sacrificing more of his humanity.[21] However following the capture of the rest of the Justice League by Ohm who sentenced then to the bottom of the ocean, Cyborg as he calls in reserves to hold off Ohm’s forces reluctantly accepted the upgrade.[22] This allows him and Mera to rescue the others.[23]

During the “Trinity War” storyline, Cyborg gets a visual of Shazam heading to Kahndaq, to which Batman assembles the Justice League with the help from Zatanna to meet in Kahndaq to stop Shazam.[24] Following the supposed death of Doctor Light in Kahndaq, Batman tells Superman that Cyborg and Martian Manhunter are doing an autopsy to prove his death was not Superman’s fault.[25] As Wonder Woman leads the Justice League Dark to go look for Pandora, Cyborg is among the superheroes that remain at A.R.G.U.S. while Batman, Flash, Aquaman, Shazam, Steve Trevor, the Justice League of America, Zatanna, and Phantom Stranger go to stop Wonder Woman.[26] Cyborg was present when Atom tells him, Superman, Element Woman and Firestorm the true purpose of the creation of the Justice League of America and that she was spying on the Justice League which is how the Justice League of America ended up in Kahndaq.[27] When the Crime Syndicate arrives on Prime Earth, Cyborg’s old prosthetic parts combine to form a robot called Grid (who is operated by a sentient computer virus).[28] During the Forever Evil event, after Batman and Catwoman drop Cyborg off to his father in Detroit,[29] he makes the choice to willingly receive a new cybernetic body and helps his father and Dr. Morrow create one that is slimmer in appearance so Cyborg could look more human.[30] Working together with the Metal Men created by Doc Magus, Cyborg succeeds in shutting down Grid.[31]

Afterwards Cyborg helped newcomer to the group Shazam fit in with the league as the rest set out to find Power ring’s missing accessory which flew off after the death of the former wearer.[32] While on monitor duty he and Shazam experiment with some of his magical powers to aid in finding the ring after joking of having an Xbox in his left shoulder; only for the young ward to conjure up a ping pong table, which they play while having spare time on their hands.[33] Eventually the call goes out and everyone in the league mobilizes to secure the new rampaging Power Ring before the Doom Patrol does.[34] After coaxing Billy into action against Jessica Cruis, Victor moves in to interface with the ring itself finding out a great about the ring of Volthoom and his current host only to be forcefully thrown out after the ring entity rejects him causing his systems to short circuit taking him out of the battle.[35]

He is last seen recovering at S.T.A.R. Labs after Shazam rushed him too the med bay after the power ring crisis was handled. While Superman and Lex Luthor battled Gorilla Grodd Cyborg gave Billy the okay to head out and see if they needed help as the former wondered what he saw within the ring after his dad warned him interfacing with it again could trap him in it forever.[36]

Afterwards, Lex Luthor and Captain Cold were accepted onto the team. An incident involving Batman’s son, Damian Wayne, during the “Robin Rises Alpha & Omega” story arc in Batman led up to most of the justice League battling against Glorious Godfrey and a Parademon horde from Apokolips when they captured the chaos shard and the sarcophagus of Damian and later fled back home.[37] All the league members present, Cyborg included, state to an adamant Bruce Wayne that running headlong into unmarked X-factor territory for a suicide mission was less than ideal considering the consequences that could befall earth. This all boils over, eventually culminating with Batman hijacking Cyborg’s teleportation systems to zip up to the Watchtower in an attempt to retrieve an experimental and highly dangerous combat suit in order to mete out his agenda; But Cyborg manages to block his administrative access so that he, Shazam, Aquaman, Wonder Woman, Lex and Cold could physically restrain him, causing Batman to begrudgingly give up and retire to the batcave.[38]

After the Bat left, the rest of the Bat Family turned up asking Victor for help with some digitized doppelgangers of baddies that Bruce initially set up in order to distract the League, destabilize watchtower security to secure the Hellbat, and eventually use a personal Mother Box (secured from a Parademon kept in cold storage) to vacate to Apokolips.[39] After making his way to the Batcave to meet with them, he’s directed over to a console which enabled him to directly access the Batcomputer’s more sophisticated systems. However, it was all a ruse utilizing a preemptive countermeasure devised by Batman tailored to Cyborg’s specific weaknesses. Cyborg was temporarily incapacitated and was set into a VR simulation where he relived his more peaceful days in college, while Batgirl went to work on his Motherbox in order to secure a path towards Apokolips and chase after their father. But Victor eventually snapped out of his dream haze and followed them through, angered that they used him in such a way.[39] Cyborg traveled along with Titus, who hitched a ride on his leg, to catch up with the rest of the Batman Family. They all then have a run in with the scavengers of Armegeddo who quickly vacate after some Apokoliptian Hunger Dogs make their way onto the scene. They eventually catch up with the armor-clad Dark Knight ripping his way through a sizable chunk of Apokolips’s forces singlehandedly. Jason Tim and Barbara show Batman the Robin Medals Alfred gave them in order to remind him of his purpose, causing him to snap out of his berserker rage and note that Cyborg had reluctantly accompanied them to Hell itself. Having made their way into Darkseid’s citadel where Kalibak was readying his Chaos Cannon to fire again, the caped crusaders kept Darkseid’s forces occupied while Cyborg made short work of the massive war engine, literally tearing it in half. But when he went to set a timed self-destruct sequence within the Apokoliptian computers, Vic suffered a catastrophic feedback that fried most of his internal systems leaving him inoperable just as Darkseid himself made his appearance.[40]

While Batman fought and held Darkseid off, Cyborg ran Batgirl through a crash course on how to hot wire his own Motherbox. Since Darkseid smashed Batman’s Boom Tube generator, Cyborg was their only chance off Apokolips. After successfully jury-rigging his internal systems, Cyborg and the rest of the Bat rogues made a hasty exit stage left as Bruce powered his recovered fragment of the Chaos Shard with Darkseid’s Omega Effect, blasting Darkseid against a wall to cover their escape.[41] In the aftermath, Cyborg, who is still unable to facilitate himself, wonders what is going on as Damian Wayne is successfully revived, however a second anomaly cranks out of the Boom Tube that was opened and Kalibak comes charging through it. With Kalibak occupied by the rest of the gang, Vic tries his best to reestablish his downed systems. He is successful and gains control over the still-open tube as Batman readies the Batplane. As Batman rams his jet into the evil New God sending him careening back to Apokolips, Cyborg closes the portal banishing Darksied’s first born for good. With the threat over, Cyborg heads back topside to inform the rest of the league of what all transpired and stating he has JL business to attend to.[42]

An eponymous ongoing series, by writer David F. Walker and artist Ivan Reis, debuted in July 2015.[43]

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2017)

As of Rebirth, he is a part of the relaunched Justice League bi-monthly series as well as his own solo monthly series. It is unclear whether he has the ability of flight in Rebirth.

During Dark Nights: Metal, he is captured by the alternate Batmen of the Dark Multiverse, who attempt to hack him in order to learn the secrets of his teammates. As the crisis escalates, Cyborg is confronted by the controlling consciousness of other Mother Boxes, who claim that he will only gain the power to overcome the Dark Batmen if he fully surrenders to the Mother Box that powers his body at the cost of the transformation deleting his old personality. He is nearly tempted to give in to this transformation, but the appearance of Raven’s soul-self convinces him to hold on to himself while partially succumbing to the transformation. This allows him to free his teammates and ‘hack’ the multiverse as they travel to find new allies in the battle against the Dark Batmen.

Large portions of Victor Stone’s body have been replaced by advanced mechanical parts (hence the name Cyborg), granting him superhuman strength, speed, stamina, and flight. His mechanically-enhanced body, much of which is metallic, is far more durable than a normal human body. Cyborg’s internal computer system can interface with external computers. Other features include an electronic ‘eye’ which replicates vision, but at a superhuman level. His mechanical parts contain a wide variety of tools and weapons, such as a grappling hook/line and a finger-mounted laser. Perhaps his most frequently-used weapon is his sound amplifier (often referred to as his “white sound blaster” in the comic books; the Teen Titans animated series calls it a “sonic cannon”), which can be employed at various settings either to stun the ears of his foes or to deliver concentrated blasts of sound potent enough to shatter rock or deform steel.[44]

In addition to his mechanical enhancements, Stone possesses an “exceptionally gifted” level of intelligence; his IQ has been measured at 170.[45]

Cyborg has tinkered over time with his cybernetic parts, enhancing his functions and abilities to levels beyond those set by his father. One feature that sets him apart from the “mass production” version built by Project M is a self-repair system, able to flawlessly repair the mechanical parts of his body, no matter how worn out they are, and even improve the health of the still biological parts to an unknown degree.

Cyborg’s New 52 (DCnU) functions

Cyborg possesses cybernetic enhancements that provide superhuman strength, endurance and durability. Cyborg can also interface with computers. Built into his body-armor are an infrared eye with HUD, a bionic ear that allows him to hear sounds from long distance, computer generator, sound amplifier (similar to a sonic cannon), and special programming adapters that allow him to interface with other body extensions. This enhances his durability, strength, speed, and endurance. He also has multiple sensors, and can fly via rocket boosters. While he can use Boom Tubes, he usually use Jump Jets to help him leap great distances. His body can also absorb technology at will, as well as control technology and shift his body. He can also emit an EMP blast to disable any electrical devices within a fifty-meter radius, codenamed the “Heart Attack”. His body uses the Grid, a program Vic and Batman created to help him better manage the constant flow of uploading and downloading data he receives on a constant basis; it acts as his solipisistic engram into the Cyberverse/Digitalverse where he can better prioritize and interface with the worldwide networking system, focusing on high-priority items and filter out other received data. As part of the events of the Throne of Atlantis Aquaman crossover, Cyborg’s lungs were replaced by cybernetic lungs that allow him to breathe underwater. His body can also regenerate from damage, and he can enhance his strength.

After he lost his original cybernetic enhancements which became Grid at the end of the Trinity War arc,[30] during the Forever Evil event, he has his father Silas Stone and Dr. Morrow help create a new cybernetic body. As explained in that issue, by cutting down on strength, speed, and stamina, Cyborg’s new cybernetic body looks slimmer in appearance as Victor describes looking more human compared to looking like a tank. It is unknown whether or not Cyborg had re-integrated the technology stripped from him after Grid’s defeat. After a run in with alternate universe invaders calling themselves the “Techbreakers,” Cyborg’s systems had undergone a complete systems overhaul causing a new operating system to come online restoring him to life and healing his damaged circuitry as well as reintegrating his ruined flesh into it, turning him into a full on Techno-Organic being.[46]

In the Flashpoint event, the timeline is greatly altered. In this alternate version of events, Cyborg is America’s greatest superhero (occupying the role held by Superman in DC’s standard timeline). He attempts to put together a group to stop the war between Aquaman and Wonder Woman’s forces. However, the heroes he approaches all refuse, after Batman declines.[47] Cyborg connects the resistance member Lois Lane to spy on the Amazons for any information.[48] Cyborg rescues people in the subway station from arsonist Heat Wave.[49] Abin Sur crashes on Earth; he is subsequently taken into custody by Cyborg and the US government to be questioned about his reasons for being on Earth. When Abin Sur is recovering, he is on a mission to retrieve the Entity, however Cyborg convinces him to join with Earth’s heroes.[50] Afterwards, Cyborg is seen talking with the President in his headquarters in Detroit. The President states that Steve Trevor sent a signal to the resistance but was intercepted by a traitor among the heroes that Cyborg tried to recruit and suspicion leads to the Outsider. For Cyborg’s failure, he is relieved of duty as the Element Woman sneaks into the headquarters. Later, Cyborg is called by Batman and the Flash for help in tracking down “Project: Superman”, the government branch responsible for ‘raising’ Kal-El after his rocket destroyed Metropolis upon its arrival. Cyborg and them agree to join the cause to stop Wonder Woman and Aquaman, but only if Batman gets to choose who to recruit, and Cyborg agrees as long as he comes with them. The three sneak into the government underground bunkers, and the group comes across a giant vault door bearing the Superman logo. Cyborg opens the door and sees a weakened Kal-El, with the arrival of guards. Forced to escape, Kal-El’s powers begin to manifest and flies off leaving them at the hands of the guards.[51] While they are fending off the guards, they are rescued by Element Woman. Later, Cyborg and other heroes arrive at the Marvel Family’s place helping the Flash from drastically forgetting his memories. After the Flash is recovering, he asked to stop the Atlantean/Amazon war from casualty, although Cyborg and the heroes are not willing unless Batman wants to join them, because Cyborg explains to him that they believe Batman was invincible. However, the Flash convinces him that no one is invincible and the group of heroes are agreeing to join the Flash. The heroes arrive at New Themyscira to stop the Atlantean/Amazon war, and the Flash tells Cyborg to find Aquaman’s ultimate bomb to dispose of it.[52]

In the Titans Tomorrow storyline, a future version of Victor Stone called Cyborg 2.0 is a member of Titans East. He is shown having similar plating as the animated Cyborg from the Teen Titans animated series.[53]

An alternate version of Cyborg appears as part of the Justice League of Earth-23 in the DC Multiverse.[54]

Cyborg appears as the third Robotman as part of Superman’s Justice League. Robotman is now completely liquid metal. He is petrified by the nuclear blast.

Cyborg appears as a character in the prequel comic to the game, where he joins Superman’s Regime to force peace on the world. He serves as Superman’s eyes and ears over the world, offering insight on any activity deemed disruptive. At the end of Year Two he discovers someone is trying to hack into the Regime’s system during a war with the Green Lantern Corps (Oracle) and goes to the Watchtower to locate her. Jim Gordon follows and corners him, managing to rip Cyborg’s metallic face plate off and knock him unconscious, stopping the locating sequence. Cyborg spends most of the next year a prisoner of the Insurgency until he is released when the two groups collide in a battle that nearly destroys them when Trigon and Mr. Mxyzptlk get involved. In Year Four he and the Regime are confronted by the Greek Gods, who want Superman to step down as ruler. While the Regime is forced to go underground, they come together to defeat the gods once and for all. During Year Five tension grows among the Regime because of Superman’s growing hostility and controversial decisions, such as enlisting the aid of villains to help the Regime. Cyborg is especially disgusted when he discovers that during a rally with supporters of the Joker who reject Superman, the Man of Steel killed over two hundred defenseless protesters in anger. Batman and Batwoman later go to the Hall of Justice to kidnap Cyborg because he is the only one aware of this and has the information stored in his data. He is incapacitated and taken underground to the ruins of Metropolis where Batgirl works to find the data and reveal to the world. While they succeed in finding it, Raven casts a massive black out over the world to prevent the video from being seen, and the Insurgency is forced to retreat before Flash comes to get Cyborg. Superman has Cyborg erase any data containing information on his killings so the incident will not repeat itself.

Cyborg appears in a prequel comic to the sequel game. He remained in prison with Superman, even after the League of Assassins and impostor Batman’s Suicide Squad raid the Ryker’s Island to free only Damian Wayne/the current Nightwing.

Cyborg appears in the DC Extended Universe played by Ray Fisher. He first appears in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice in a brief sequence of footage that is viewed by Wonder Woman. The footage depicts Cyborg’s origin story. Fisher reprises the character in the Justice League films: the first was released on November 17, 2017, its sequel, and the standalone Flash film Flashpoint. A standalone Cyborg film is scheduled for April 3, 2020.[56][57] In the films, his cybernetic parts are 100% CGI.[58]

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Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

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Cyborg

Victor Stone is a former college athlete and football star. Following a horrible accident, his father Silas Stone, was able to save him via the use of a Mother Box that crafted cybernetics onto him. Victor then became known as the superhero Cyborg.

He would eventually be recruited by Batman and Wonder Woman to become a member of the Justice League, in order to help defend Earth against the imminent alien invasion of Steppenwolf and his Parademon army.

Shortly after joining the team, Cyborg assisted Batman and Flash in resurrecting Superman from the dead. With the team now fully assembled, Cyborg contributes to the successful offensive against Steppenwolf, forcing the alien invasion into retreat. Following this, Cyborg finally reveals himself to the world, becoming an official superhero, as further plans for the Justice League are made by Batman.

Victor Stone prior to his accident.

Victor Stone was born on June 29, 1994, in Gotham City, New Jersey, to Silas Stone and Elinore Stone. At some point Victor’s mother died, leaving Silas to raise him all by himself.[1] While growing up, he often heard rumors about the vigilante known as Batman, but never actually believed them.[2] Victor Stone was an athlete and attended Gotham City University, however, his career was cut short when he was involved in a nearly fatal accident, that mutilated most of his body.[3]

Victor Stone after his accident.

Reduced to nothing more than a torso, head and half of his arms, Victor was kept alive by his father, who attempted every kind of medical procedure to help heal him. Eventually, Silas was desperate enough to try using a government sanctioned cube-shaped piece of alien technology in a final attempt to save his son’s life.

The foreign technology self-activated and levitated over Victor, where it to began crafting cybernetic body parts to replace his lost body parts (while simultaneously granting him knowledge it held). Although this saved Victor’s life, it was undoubtedly very painful, as Victor was seen screaming out in pain.

Footage of this transformation would be obtained from the S.T.A.R. Labs database by Lex Luthor shortly thereafter.[1]

Victor learn his new abilities at home

After his transformation, Victor began hiding from the world at his father’s home. He also hid the Mother Box from his own father and S.T.A.R. Labs. Silas was saddened at his son’s plight, telling that he could have a life if he wanted.

Victor was afraid of his new abilities, noting that every time he woke up in the morning he was different, somehow modified. He worried that what was happening to him was the vanguard of a new alien invasion.

Diana tries to convince Victor to join the team

Using his new abilities to interact with data streams and surveillance cameras, Victor became aware of Bruce’s interest in him. Tracking him down to his home, Victor was in the woods and witnessed Bruce and Diana Prince talk about Steppenwolf and his first invasion of Earth, along with the fact that he was invading once more. Aware that Diana was now looking for him, he hacked into the computers she was using. When Diana asked to meet him face to face, Victor asked why he should trust her. Diana replied that she knew he was at the lake, and if she wanted to attack him, she would have done it then.

Meeting in person, Victor told Diana that he had been doing some tracking, and the invaders they were after were sticking to the dead spots where they could not be detected. Diana tried to reach out to Victor and convince him to join the fight against Steppenwolf, he flew away instead.

Victor realizes that his father was kidnapped

Returning home, Vic Stone had found his home completely ransacked by an unknown assailant. He also quickly noticed his father was missing due to there being signs of a struggle within his apartment complex. Looking out the broken window where they supposedly left, Cyborg notices the Bat Signal overhead at GCPD.

As the Justice League reconvened with Commissioner James Gordon, who filled them in on the missing persons who’ve been reported throughout the precinct and the city. Cyborg showed up to the gathering with additional information on the subject at hand, he was able to deduce the Parademon tracking routes with which to allocate the location they were taking the missing persons to. Figuring out where they were being whisked away for questioning about the location of Steppenwolf’s Mother Box.

Cyborg decides to help the team

Having deduced the likeliest point to search; He, Batman and Diana took off without a trace leaving a solemn Gordon with a much befuddled Flash behind in their wake.

Steppenwolf then grabsSilas Stone, which Cyborg shots Steppenwolf and saves his father, which Wonder Woman helps out buy attacking the Parademons and taking Steppenwolf to a different part of the factory, while Batman fights the Parademons, Barry goes and save one of the employees. Steppenwolf tells the Parademons that he will deal with Diana alone, meanwhile Batman is being attacked by one of the Parademons which he tells Alfred that he needs theNightcrawlerwhich he sents the machine to Bruce.

Flash and Cyborg save all the hostage whichSilas Stonetells Victor that Steppenwolf can not get the final Mother Box. Batman then jumps down into the Nightcrawler and saves Wonder Woman before the Parademons could kill her, The Nightcrawler get’s attacked by Steppenwolf, which Barry helps Wonder Woman get her Sword so she can help Batman.

Cyborg in theNightcrawler.

Flash and Wonder Woman get attacked by Steppenwolf and the Parademons before Batman helps her by killing one of the Parademons. Cyborg then fall into the Nightcrawler and and hacks it so it in his control, which he uses it against Steppenwolf but falls when Steppenwolf catches a missile and throw it against the wall, which causes the factory to flood which allows Steppenwolf to escape.

Before Diana could get hit with the flooding water, Arthur comes and saves the team by using theTrident of Poseidonto hold back the water while the League escaped.

Cyborg revealing to theJustice Leaguethat he got the lastMother Box.

After the fight with Steppenwolf, After Batman meets with Gordon before Arthur shows up and say that Steppenwolf took the Mother Box from Atlantis, then Victorreveals that he is possession of the finalMother Box, which he hid from his father. The team returns to theBatcavewhich Barry runs around the cave and sits in theBatmobile, before Bruce call for a meeting with the team. Bruce conclusion that they should use the Mother Box to bringSuperman back to live. Hebelieves that they need Superman to restore hope in humanity. Diana and Author are hesitant about the idea, but Bruce forms a secret contingency plan.

TheLeaguewatching the return ofSuperman.

The team put Clark’s body in the waters of theKryptonian ship, using Allen’sSpeed Forceto activate the Box, causing the resurrection of Superman. Which he flies out of the Kryptonian ship and lands inHeroes ParkwhereAquaman, Cyborg,FlashandWonder Woman meet him, which they notice that something is wrong with him, which Clark uses his x-ray vision to scan the League which Stone accidentally launches a projectile at him as his cybernetic body registers a threat to him. Superman attacks Cyborg with his heat vision as the reason of the Justice League tries to calm him down by he over powers them.

Clark vs the Justice League

As the League all jump on top of Superman, Barry runs around him but Superman see him and attacks him. Batman arrives and get’s Superman to stop fighting the League, which he hits and Batman and tell’s him the same thing that same question that Bruce asked him “Tell me do you Bleed”. Before Kal-El could kill Bruce,Loisand Alfred to stop him.

Superman calms down and leaves with Lois to theKent Farmwhere he reflects and tries to recover his memories. during the battle Steppenwolf retrievesthe final Mother Box.

Justice Leaguegetting ready to battleSteppenwolf.

The team returns to theBatcavewhere Cyborg figures out Steppenwolf’s plan, Bruce ask Arthur if he can use his powers of talking with aquatic lifeto locate Steppenwolf. Which Arthur responds with the water does the talking but says hell see what he can do.TheJustice LeagueusesFlying FoxtoRussiato stop Steppenwolf from being theMother Boxestogether, the team plan how there going to stop Steppenwolf, Batman tells the team that he going to take out the tower while the reason of the League will separate the Mother Boxes, Batman destroys the tower but also the controls on the Flying Fox didn’t reporting which cause it to crash, but Bruce get in the Batmobile and using a siren to get the attention of the Parademons, this allows the rest to get to the Mother Boxes without any problems.

Cyborg saving Aquaman.

The Parademons attack the Batmobile, ripping of one on the guns that it has and opening up the car before Wonder Woman and the reason the League saves Batman, Arthur jumps on the Batmobile before getting attacked by Parademons which leads Cyborg to save him and throwing him to the other Parademons. The Batmobile get’s knocked which Bruce ejects from the vehicle and using his grapple, swings across to take out the Parademons.

Cyborg fighting Steppenwolf.

Diana confronts Steppenwolf, before Cyborg attacks him which leads to Wonder Woman fighting Steppenwolf, while Flash helps Victor get to the Mother Boxes, which Barry takes care of the Parademons while Cyborg tries to separate the Mother Boxes, Batman saves Barry by grappling his legs from stopping him falling, Bruce takes one of the Parademons guns and fires at them. Steppenwolf finds out the Victor is trying to separate the Mother Boxes, which he grabs him before Wonder Woman saves him.

Alfred informs Bruce that people are in danger which Batman tells Barry that he needs to save the civilians, Diana and Arthur tries to keep Steppenwolf away from Cyborg by using theLasso of Truthto pull him down, Steppenwolf attacks them both before he knocks Arthur into a wall breaking the ceiling before Diana saves him, Cyborg tries to keep Steppenwolf away from him but failures which leads with Steppenwolf pulling of one of his legs.

Cyborg with the Justice League.

Before Steppenwolf could kill Cyborg, Superman comes and saves him, Bruce tells Superman he needs to buy Cyborg some time to separate the Mother Boxes and to help civilians, Superman catches up with Barry saving he got the ones on the right. Victor calls for Superman help with the Mother Boxes, which Steppenwolf attack the Justice League which Superman freezes Steppenwolf’s Axe and Diana breaks it with her Sword, which cause Steppenwolf to be attacked by the Parademons before he returns back toApokolips.

After the accident, however, Victor abandons football and becomes gloomy, secluded, depressed, and even somewhat robotic. Cyborg can also be quite blunt and robotically stiff, sternly pointing out to a person that the latter should have moved out of the path of the Humvee flying right at him.[2] This all stems from the fact that after becoming a cyborg, Victor no longer feels fully human, thinks of himself as a monster, and even Wonder Woman herself was initially unable to persuade him otherwise. However, when his father Silas Stone gets kidnapped by Steppenwolf, Cyborg joins the League without hesitation, and even personally attacks the fearsome New God in order to save him.

Cyborg accepts his condition and upgrade his cybernetics.

After fighting alongside the Justice League for some time, however, Cyborg seems to have warmed a bit to all of his teammates, as he bonds a bit with Flash over their unexpected metahuman power gain (though he still found the latter’s humor a bit annoying[4]), he somewhat bonds with Batman over their engineering expertise, he notably reassures the previously skeptical Aquaman that “the ride ain’t over yet” (before helping the Atlantean fight a group of Parademons), he comes to appreciate Wonder Woman’s emotional support, and even shares a laugh of relief with resurrected Superman (after they successfully pry apart the 3 Mother Boxes). Indeed, Cyborg is the first member of the League to have befriended every single one of his teammates during their first major battle. Superman’s return and the defeat of Steppenwolf finally grants Cyborg the confidence to reveal his cybernetic self to the world, and begin mending his strained relationship with his father, as he is seen beginning to work with Silas at S.T.A.R. Labs.

Cyborg’s automatic cybernetic modification

Cyborg’s flight mode

Victor, playing football.

Cyborg’s shooting at Superman unintentionally

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Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

With an unusually conservative runtime of just under two hours,Justice Leaguehad to cut a number of scenes including a flashback to Cyborgs old life. While audiences are quite familiar with the DCEUs take on Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman,Justice League was able to focus a bit more on the genesis of its other heroes. When it comes to The Flash and Aquaman, most fansof pop culture understand the basics. Still, the film needed to fill in some of their backstory and introduce the updated take on the Leaguers. Cyborg, meanwhile, needed even more of a spotlight.

While fans of theTeen Titans animated series will get the gist of Cyborg, the film version is much more closer to the somber hero from the New 52 run in the comics. There, Victor Stone nearly dies in his fathers S.T.A.R. Labs accident and ends up bonding with the alien Mother Box the elder Stone was studying. The result sees the birth of Cyborg andJustice League hints that all of these events occurred. As a result, he has quite a contentious relationship with his father. What we dont see, however, is Victor before his evolution.

GameSpotspoke with the cast ofJustice League about the various scenes that were cut from the film, and it turns out a look at Cyborgs past had to be removed. Word is that Warner Bros. wantedJustice League under two hours, and that short runtime for a superhero team-up left plenty on the cutting room floor. As Cyborg actor Ray Fisher explains, one moment in particular carried some emotional weight for his character.

There were some things that youll probably end up seeing later on, that didnt make it into this version of the film.Theres a scene with Victor Stone, when he still was Victor Stone, and his mother, that was really special to shoot.

As Fisher alludes, the proposedCyborg film set to arrive in 2020 will be a chance to further explore the new and old versions of Victor Stone. Given his everyman status, Vic would provide the DCEU with a more grounded story albeit one with a superhero whos augmented by alien tech.

ThoughJustice League may have been light on Cyborg backstory, it did offer some teases of the characters complex dynamic with his father. And as Fisher explains, the evolution of their relationship is far from over.

What is great about this film going forward is youll be able to see him rebuild himself mentally the same way that his father rebuilt him physically.And its a process thats going to take time.

From all the trailers and TV spots forJustice League, its clear plenty of material didnt make it into the final cut of the film. Whether a result of Joss Whedons reshoots or the studio mandate to keep things short, we may never know. Theres a good chance, however, that a number of thescenes will end up on the home video release forJustice League. We may even get an extended directors cut from Zack Snyder, something the Justice Leaguefilmmaker is fond of.

Source: GameSpot

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Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

Cyborg – Injustice:Gods Among Us Wiki

Cyborg

Victor “Vic” Stone

DC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980)

Let’s get this party started.

Cyborg is a playable hero character in Injustice: Gods Among Us and Injustice 2. He is classified as a Power User.

Part man, part machine, Victor Stone is able to shift his cybernetic body parts into whatever tech he requires. A member of the Justice League, Cyborg is one of crimes most formidable enemies.

Cyborgs fellow Teen Titans did not survive Supermans rise to power. This trauma, coupled with the influence of other, more experienced heroes, led Cyborg to become one of the oppressive regimes enforcers.

Victor Stone lost more than his friends at the tragedy of Metropolis, he lost his hope. His anger tempered his loyalty for Superman and he has remained eager to serve the Regime. With the world left unprepared for the looming threat, Cyborg may be the only one who can combat the technological might of Brainiac.

Cyborg first appears defending the Watchtower alongside Nightwing and Raven against Lex Luthor, Catwoman, Bane and Solomon Grundy. After Batman arrives to assist them, he and Cyborg receive a warning signal about the Joker setting up a nuclear bomb in the center of Metropolis. After Batman, the Joker, and several of the Justice League members are teleported a parallel dimension, Cyborg, Superman and the Flash begin working tirelessly to locate them and bring them back.

In the parallel dimension, Cyborg is shown having joined Superman’s One Earth regime and subsequently undergone enhancements to his body. Green Lantern encounters him and the Regime’s Raven on the Ferris Aircraft facility torturing their dimension’s Deathstroke, who refused the amnesty offered to him by the High Councilor Superman. Green Lantern confronts the two, causing them confusion at first due to his change of uniform color from the Yellow Lantern they know. After Raven is defeated by Green Lantern, Cyborg confronts him but is beaten.

Back in the Justice League’s Watchtower, Cyborg and the Flash manage to locate the alternate dimension where their allies were sent and plan to use the Flash’s Cosmic Treadmill to pull them back into their dimension. Upon making the necessary modifications, they put their plan into motion. However, the inter-dimensional gateway belonging to the Insurgents activates at the same time, pulling Cyborg into their dimension, where he’s needed to repair the kryptonite weapon Batman built to use against Superman. After encountering Deathstroke and Lex Luthor in the Insurgency’s hideout, Cyborg misinterprets their intentions and attacks them. He fights them both to a standstill until Batman’s counterpart and the members of the Justice League arrive and explain the situation to him.

When Superman’s counterpart announces that the displaced Batman will be executed publicly on Stryker’s Island, the Insurgency forms a plan to rescue him using the Watchtower’s teleporter. Disguising himself as his counterpart, Cyborg infiltrates the Hall of Justice in order to gain access to the Watchtower, grudgingly accompanied by Deathstroke, who Cyborg doesn’t trust, regardless of their lack of history. Cyborg goes to activate the teleporter, when it suddenly activates, bringing Catwoman into the Hall. She greets Cyborg, believing him to be his counterpart, but grows suspicious when he uncharacteristically greets her back. She confirms this suspicion by implying that the two of them are involved with each other, causing Cyborg to play along, unaware that she’s lying. His cover blown, Catwoman deactivates Cyborg’s disguise and attacks him. He manages to defeat her, only to have his legs remotely locked up by his counterpart, who sends for backup from Wonder Woman, unaware that he’s speaking to her displaced counterpart. The two Cyborgs start remotely hacking each other’s systems simultaneously, ending in a stalemate. Deciding to settle this like men, the two fight one on one, ending in defeat for the Regime’s Cyborg.

Their way clear, Cyborg and Deathstroke teleport to the Watchtower, where Cyborg easily takes control of the teleporter using his counterpart’s stolen security protocols. However, Deathstroke overloads the Watchtower’s reactor as an act of revenge against Superman, jeopardizing the mission and giving the Insurgents only 90 minutes to complete their mission. Once they’ve secured the displaced Batman, Cyborg teleports them to safety despite a brief malfunction in the teleporter’s system. Their mission complete, Cyborg teleports himself and everyone else in the Watchtower to safety, just before the reactor explodes, destroying the Watchtower.

In the wake of the attack on Stryker’s and the death of Luthor, the Regime’s Superman announces to the council his intentions to destroy Metropolis and Gotham to set an example. He orders his Cyborg and Raven to take control of media broadcasts so the entire world can see it. When the Regime begins their attack on Gotham, the displaced Cyborg fights alongside the Insurgents in the defense of Gotham.

In the epilogue, Cyborg is shown visiting Lex Luthor’s grave, where he places the chestpiece of Luthor’s battle suit as homage to their fallen comrade. Meanwhile, his counterpart is taken into custody with the rest of Superman’s accomplices.

In a flashback, Cyborg, as an accomplice of Superman’s plan to remove the Arkham Asylum inmates, was stationed at Gotham to prevent anyone from interfering. Off-screen, he sets the approaching Batplane’s systems to autopilot, and appears before them via Boom Tube to attack them. He fires off a warning shot, which doesn’t affect Batman but causes Damian Wayne to veer off course. Cyborg confronts Batman on the ground by admitting his reluctance to attack the latter unless he has to. When Batman refuses to back down, Cyborg tells him that he lost all of his friends in Metropolis, and that a similar incident won’t happen again if Superman executes his plan. Batman tells him of his right to be angry, but disproves of Superman’s plan by stating it’s “not a blank check. And the Justice League isn’t a death squad,” and the two fight, ending in Cyborg’s defeat.

In the present day, Cyborg is incarcerated alongside Damian and Superman at Stryker’s Island for his role in the Regime, and is guarded by Firestorm and Blue Beetle. During Brainiac’s invasion, he is set free by Kara in their attempt to free Superman, and is sent to disable the red sun generators at Superman’s prison. While doing so however, Firestorm or Blue Beetle faces off against him, defeating him. He is among his fellow Regime members to come together and outnumber the two heroes, causing Firestorm to prepare to go nuclear. Just as Wonder Woman is about to attack Firestorm however, Batman intervenes, disarming Firestorm. Cyborg then looks on as Batman agrees that he can’t defeat Brainiac alone and frees Superman.

He is among the heroes at the Justice League table, as Catwoman goes over the plan. Cyborg is tasked to head to the Batcave to bring Brother Eye back online, much to his reluctance. He is also informed he can’t Boom Tube in as Batman had reverse-engineered his Mother Box’s technology and should Cyborg try to boom tube into the Batcave, he’ll explode. He is also informed that Catwoman and Harley Quinn will be going with him.

On the mission, the trio boom tube at Arkham Asylum, before being ambushed by Poison Ivy who uses pheromones to mind control Harley to attack them. Either Cyborg or Catwoman defeats her and soon Poison Ivy. While on their walk through the sewers to the Batcave, Harley expresses hope that Black Canary and Green Arrow are still alive, before Cyborg doubts that, explaining that Brainiac only takes the best and the two don’t qualify as the best. Catwoman replies that she’d still take them over him. Once the trio reach the entrance of the Batcave, he and Catwoman progress further, while Harley Quinn is left to guard the entrance. The duo are then ambushed by Deadshot and Bane, though they both emerge victorious. The duo reach a corrupted Brother Eye, where Cyborg tries to reboot Brother Eye, before being intercepted by Brainiac speaking through the monitors. Brainiac claims that Cyborg is “the pinnacle of human evolution”, though claims that his humanity inhibits him from reaching his full potential, before freeing Grid from his memory subsystems. He is defeated by either Cyborg or Catwoman. Cyborg then returns to trying to regain access to the Brother Eye’s neural network. Brainiac states that not even he could regain access, before Cyborg responds that he isn’t trying to regain access, but rather teach it to ignore Brainiac. It is successful and Brother Eye comes back online.

He is later seen with the other heroes after Superman’s apparent death witnessing Brainiac offer a trade surrender Supergirl and he’ll spare the Earth. They refuse to take the deal and Cyborg suggests that they short out Brainiac’s shields, leaving his ship vulnerable. Black Adam agrees and offers to channel energy from the Rock of Eternity to do so with the Trident of Atlantis as a medium to control it. Cyborg also considers the idea that he create a signal disruptor that could disconnect Brainiac from his ship, similar to how he was disconnected from Brother Eye earlier.

He is later seen handing the disruptor to Batman, also informing him that he’ll have to be arms reach within Brainiac in order for it to work. Cyborg is never seen again for the rest of the story, though he is mentioned by Superman that with Cyborg’s aid, Superman can gain control over Brainiac’s ship, in which Cyborg presumably did so in Superman’s ending.

Super Move-1375398843

What little remains of Victor Stone’s body is protected by Promethium metal shaped into a mechanical exo-skeleton, armed with advanced weaponry and constantly synced to the internet 24/7, allowing Cyborg complete and total access to all information stored in the World Wide Web. Cyborg’s mechanical body affords him superhuman strength and durability high enough to trade and survive blows from Solomon Grundy, though not overpower the zombie. Cyborg’s on-board weaponry includes his trademarked arm cannon, which can fire either high decibel blasts of sound or small spheres of energy, either in a single burst or rapid fire. Cyborg also possesses a large amount of missiles for long range attacks, which he can fire from a launcher on his back or from his shoulders. Cybrog also contains a built in Boom Tube to allow himself instantaneous teleportation from one location to another.

Though his arsenal his impressive, Cyborg’s real talent is his computer skills. Victor can navigate and coordinate massive strikes through his natural connection to the web, and hack through almost any security system and take complete control of it himself, so long as he remains conscious during the takeover. If he is knocked unconscious during, or hacked himself, the feedback can knock him unconscious.

Repair Circuit:Cyborg’s character trait is the ability to regenerate health. The longer the button is held, the more health Cyborg regenerates.

Injustice Gods Among Us – Cyborg Ending HD

After Superman’s defeat, Cyborg led the assault on the Fortress of Solitudeto flush out remnants of the High Councilor’s regime. The Fortress was well defended, the battle intense. Cyborg was forced to use unfamiliar Kryptonian tools to make repairs to his damaged cybernetics. Enhanced with the alien technology, Cyborg found he could communicate with Superman’s androids and order them to apprehend the opposition. With his army of super androids, Cyborg will bring justice to the world.

Injustice 2 Cyborg’s Ending

Brainiac thought he had me all figured out. Said my humanity made me weak. But fighting for humanity gave me the strength to body that punk-ass Coluan. And before he dropped, I took a few things… His twelfth-level intellect and his ship’s data core. I thought the Internet was gigantic. But now? I’ve got the whole wide universe at my fingertips. First up, I put back every Earth city Brainiac stole, starting with my hometown, Dakota City! Then I keep going… Superman wants to secure one world, but I can reboot tens of thousands! Every last one in Brainiac’s Collection. Gonna be a long trip. But another benefit of my new twelfth-level intellect is I can reunite with some old friends. Titans Together. Boo-yah.

Cyborg’s costume is comprised of a metal exoskeleton, which is primarily gray and silver. Half of his face and the underside of his arms are left bare. He has a red glowing circle in the middle of his chest and he can transform his exoskeleton into different weapons at will.

Cyborg has a more advanced robotic exoskeleton which features more plated armor, with two red wires connecting his arms to his back. The only human part of his body is the right side of his face, which is bald.

Cyborg’s metal exoskeleton combines elements from both costumes in Injustice, being sleeker in appearance but featuring more armored parts. The exoskeleton is colored white and dark gray, with his symbol being featured on his chest.

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Cyborg – Injustice:Gods Among Us Wiki

Cris "Cyborg" Cyborg Fight Results, Record, History, Videos …

UFC 222 provided a good showcase for a few potential future stars of the UFC, but what’s the plan for each of them from this point forward?

UFC president Dana White says a potential champion vs. champion bout between Cris “Cyborg” Justino and Amanda Nunes could be targeted for UFC 224 in Rio in May.

UFC featherweight champ Cris Cyborg overpowered Yana Kunitskaya in a first-round TKO on Saturday at UFC 222, then quickly stated her intention to set up a potential superfight against bantamweight titleholder Amanda Nunes.

Cris “Cyborg” Justino unloads a barrage of ground-and-pound on Yana Kunitskaya in the first round to retain her UFC women’s featherweight title via TKO.

Cris Cyborg will look to defend her UFC featherweight title on Saturday night against Yana Kunitskaya at UFC 222. ESPN spoke with Tonya Evinger, the only fighter to face both competitors, for her take on the bout.

After Cris “Cyborg” Justino and Anna Kunitskaya hit the scales at the ceremonial weigh-ins for UFC 222, the pair square off before their women’s featherweight title fight on Saturday in Las Vegas.

Everything you need to know about UFC 222, which takes place Saturday, headlined by a featherweight title fight between Cris Cyborg and Yana Kunitskaya.

UFC 222 on Saturday features two of the more intriguing fights of the year — Cris Cyborg vs. Yana Kunitskaya and Frankie Edgar vs. Brian Ortega — and others that have long-term implications. What storylines should you watch?

The UFC has finalized a female featherweight title bout between Cris “Cyborg” Justino and Yana Kunitskaya for the UFC 222 event on March 3 in Las Vegas.

Cris ‘Cyborg’ Justino, who has resisted the idea of facing Amanda Nunes, said on social media that she had “agreed with my management” to face Nunes in July. But there is not yet an agreement with the UFC.

Excerpt from:

Cris "Cyborg" Cyborg Fight Results, Record, History, Videos …

Cyborg Movie Review & Film Summary (1989) | Roger Ebert

I am not sure I remember the opening words of “Cyborg” exactly, but I believe they were, “After the plague, things really got bad.” I do remember laughing heartily at that point, about 30 seconds into the movie. Few genres amuse me more than post-apocalyptic fantasies about supermen fighting for survival. “Cyborg” is one of the funniest examples of this category, which crosses “Escape from New York” with “The Road Warrior” but cheats on the budget.

The movie takes place in a future world in which all civilization has been reduced to a few phony movie sets. Leather-clad neo-Nazis stalk through the ruins, beating each other senseless and talking in Pulpspeak, which is like English, but without the grace and modulation. It’s cold in the future, and it’s wet, but never so cold or wet that the costumes do not bare the arm muscles of the men and the heaving bosoms of the women.

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The plot of “Cyborg” is simplicity itself. The movie’s heroine (Dayle Haddon) is half-woman, half-robot, and wears a computer under her wig. Her knowledge may include the solution to the plague that threatens to destroy mankind, but first she must somehow return to headquarters in Atlanta. Her enemy, Fender Tremolo (Vincent Klyn), wants to destroy her because he believes that if anarchy is unleashed upon the world, he can rule it. The hero, Gibson Rickenbacker (Jean-Claude Van Damme) is on a mission to escort her safely to Atlanta.

(If you look at the names “Fender Tremolo” and “Gibson Rickenbacker” and wonder why they set off strange stirrings in your subconscious, it is because both characters, according to the movie’s press book, “are named after equipment and techniques associated with electric guitars.” This rule presumably also applies to the characters Furman Vox, Nady Simmons and Roland Pick.) Once we know the central players, the movie turns into a sadomasochistic passion play, in which the village tries out varieties of unspeakable tortures on the hero, including crucifixion, before the formula is (of course) delivered safely after all. The movie reduces itself to a series of smoking, smoldering cityscapes (which look a lot like urban neighborhoods slated for renewal), and the Pulpspeak is the usual combination of vaguely Biblical formalisms, spiced with four-letter words and high-tech gibberish.

Movies like this work if they’re able to maintain a high level of energy and invention, as the Mad Max movies do. They do not work when they lower their guard and let us see the reality, which is that several strangely garbed actors feel vaguely embarrassed while wearing bizarre costumes and reciting unspeakable lines.

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Cyborg Movie Review & Film Summary (1989) | Roger Ebert

Cyborg – Wikipedia

A cyborg (short for “cybernetic organism”) is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

D. S. Halacy’s Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a “new frontier” that was “not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between ‘inner space’ to ‘outer space’ a bridge…between mind and matter.”[3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g., the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, etc.). Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will.[citation needed] Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).[citation needed]

According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are also cyborg enhancements. Some theorists[who?] cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested.[5]

The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares.[6] Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally (e.g. the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (e.g. Elysium, RoboCop). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where “Omar” is a Russian translation of the word “Lobster” (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story “The Man That Was Used Up”. In 1911, Jean de la Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero who was perhaps the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystre des XV (later translated as The Nyctalope on Mars).[8][9][10] Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, “After a Judgment Day,” to describe the “mechanical analogs” called “Charlies,” explaining that “[c]yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s…cybernetic organisms.” In the short story “No Woman Born” in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body. Cyborgs are becoming more of a reality each day.

The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:

Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.

The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer was published by Doubleday in 2001.[13] Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.

Cyborg tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr, 3rd, talk number SS4.04.[14] The cyborg obtained is inexpensive, light and has unique mechanical properties. It can also be shaped in desired forms. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Likewise, dried cells still acted as a stable matrix for the MWCNT network. When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. A rather specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells was observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall (the most outer part of fungal and plant cells) may play a major active role in establishing a CNTs network and its stabilization. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from heating to sensing and has the potential to open important new avenues to be exploited in electromagnetic shielding for radio frequency electronics and aerospace technology. In particular using Candida albicans cells cyborg tissue materials with temperature sensing properties have been reported.[15]

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[16] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[17]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[18]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[19]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[20][21]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[22] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[23] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[24] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[24] Neil Harbisson is the first person to be officially recognized as a cyborg by a government; he is a co-founder of the Cyborg Foundation (2004)[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

bodyNET is an application of human-electronic interaction currently in development by researchers from Stanford University.[31] The technology is based on stretchable semiconductor materials (Elastronic). According to their article in Nature (journal), the technology is composed of smart devices, screens, and a network of sensors that can be implanted into the body, woven into the skin or worn as clothes. It has been suggested, that this platform can potentially replace the smartphone in the future.[32]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[33] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[34] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[35] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[36] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University,[37][38] UC Berkeley,[39][40] and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore,[41][42] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[35] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [43] and PETA [44] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[45] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[46] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[47] Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[48] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[49] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[50]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[51]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[52]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low number of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[53]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[54]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[55]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[56] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[57]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[58] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[59][60] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[61][62] The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[63]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[64]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[65] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[66] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[67]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[68][69] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[68]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[70]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[71]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[72] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[73]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[74]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[75] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[76] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[76]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[77]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[78]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term. Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[79] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[80] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[81] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[82] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[79]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[83] augmented reality[84] and QR codes[85] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[86][87] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[88]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[89]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[90] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[91] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[92] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[91]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[93] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[94] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[95]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[96] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing number of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[97] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[98] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[99] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[100]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[101]

Given the technical scope of current and future implantable sensory/telemetric devices, these devices will be greatly proliferated, and will have connections to commercial, medical, and governmental networks. For example, in the medical sector, patients will be able to login to their home computer, and thus visit virtual doctors offices, medical databases, and receive medical prognoses from the comfort of their own home from the data collected through their implanted telemetric devices[102]. However, this online network presents huge security concerns because it has been proven by several U.S. universities that hackers could get onto these networks and shut down peoples electronic prosthetics[102]. These sorts of technologies are already present in the U.S. workforce as a firm in River Falls, Wisconsin called Three Square Market partnered with a Swedish firm called Biohacks Technology to implant RFID microchips in the hands of its employees (which are about the size of a grain of rice) that allow employees to access offices, computers, and even vending machines. More than 50 of the firms 85 employees were chipped. It was confirmed that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved of these implantations[103] . If these devices are to be proliferated within society, then the question that begs to be answered is what regulatory agency will oversee the operations, monitoring, and security of these devices? According to this case study of Three Square Market, it seems that the FDA is assuming the role in regulating and monitoring these devices.

Link:

Cyborg – Wikipedia

Cyborg – Wikipedia

A cyborg (short for “cybernetic organism”) is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

D. S. Halacy’s Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a “new frontier” that was “not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between ‘inner space’ to ‘outer space’ a bridge…between mind and matter.”[3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g., the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, etc.). Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will.[citation needed] Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).[citation needed]

According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are also cyborg enhancements. Some theorists[who?] cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested.[5]

The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares.[6] Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally (e.g. the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (e.g. Elysium, RoboCop). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where “Omar” is a Russian translation of the word “Lobster” (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story “The Man That Was Used Up”. In 1911, Jean de la Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero who was perhaps the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystre des XV (later translated as The Nyctalope on Mars).[8][9][10] Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, “After a Judgment Day,” to describe the “mechanical analogs” called “Charlies,” explaining that “[c]yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s…cybernetic organisms.” In the short story “No Woman Born” in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body. Cyborgs are becoming more of a reality each day.

The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:

Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.

The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer was published by Doubleday in 2001.[13] Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.

Cyborg tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr, 3rd, talk number SS4.04.[14] The cyborg obtained is inexpensive, light and has unique mechanical properties. It can also be shaped in desired forms. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Likewise, dried cells still acted as a stable matrix for the MWCNT network. When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. A rather specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells was observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall (the most outer part of fungal and plant cells) may play a major active role in establishing a CNTs network and its stabilization. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from heating to sensing and has the potential to open important new avenues to be exploited in electromagnetic shielding for radio frequency electronics and aerospace technology. In particular using Candida albicans cells cyborg tissue materials with temperature sensing properties have been reported.[15]

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[16] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[17]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[18]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[19]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[20][21]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[22] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[23] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[24] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[24] Neil Harbisson is the first person to be officially recognized as a cyborg by a government; he is a co-founder of the Cyborg Foundation (2004)[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

bodyNET is an application of human-electronic interaction currently in development by researchers from Stanford University.[31] The technology is based on stretchable semiconductor materials (Elastronic). According to their article in Nature (journal), the technology is composed of smart devices, screens, and a network of sensors that can be implanted into the body, woven into the skin or worn as clothes. It has been suggested, that this platform can potentially replace the smartphone in the future.[32]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[33] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[34] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[35] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[36] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University,[37][38] UC Berkeley,[39][40] and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore,[41][42] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[35] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [43] and PETA [44] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[45] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[46] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[47] Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[48] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[49] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[50]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[51]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[52]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low number of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[53]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[54]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[55]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[56] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[57]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[58] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[59][60] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[61][62] The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[63]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[64]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[65] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[66] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[67]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[68][69] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[68]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[70]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[71]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[72] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[73]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[74]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[75] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[76] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[76]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[77]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[78]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term. Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[79] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[80] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[81] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[82] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[79]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[83] augmented reality[84] and QR codes[85] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[86][87] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[88]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[89]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[90] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[91] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[92] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[91]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[93] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[94] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[95]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[96] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing number of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[97] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[98] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[99] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[100]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[101]

Given the technical scope of current and future implantable sensory/telemetric devices, these devices will be greatly proliferated, and will have connections to commercial, medical, and governmental networks. For example, in the medical sector, patients will be able to login to their home computer, and thus visit virtual doctors offices, medical databases, and receive medical prognoses from the comfort of their own home from the data collected through their implanted telemetric devices[102]. However, this online network presents huge security concerns because it has been proven by several U.S. universities that hackers could get onto these networks and shut down peoples electronic prosthetics[102]. These sorts of technologies are already present in the U.S. workforce as a firm in River Falls, Wisconsin called Three Square Market partnered with a Swedish firm called Biohacks Technology to implant RFID microchips in the hands of its employees (which are about the size of a grain of rice) that allow employees to access offices, computers, and even vending machines. More than 50 of the firms 85 employees were chipped. It was confirmed that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved of these implantations[103] . If these devices are to be proliferated within society, then the question that begs to be answered is what regulatory agency will oversee the operations, monitoring, and security of these devices? According to this case study of Three Square Market, it seems that the FDA is assuming the role in regulating and monitoring these devices.

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

Cyborg Superman – Wikipedia

Cyborg Superman is a persona that has been used by two fictional characters in the DC Universe, both of which are supervillains that appear in comic books published by DC Comics.

Hank Henshaw was an astronaut at NASA until a solar flare hit his space shuttle during an experiment in space, damaging the ship and the crew. Henshaw and the crew found that their bodies had begun to mutate and, after returning to Earth, Henshaw’s entire crew (including his wife) eventually committed suicide. After learning that Superman had thrown the Eradicator into the sun in a battle during the space shuttle experiment, Henshaw blamed Superman for the solar flare and the accident. Before his body completely disintegrated due to the radiation exposure, Henshaw was able to save his consciousness. Using NASA communications equipment, Henshaw beamed his mind into the birthing matrix which had carried Superman from Krypton to Earth as an infant. He created a small exploration craft from the birthing matrix and departed into outer space alone. Becoming increasingly mentally unstable, Henshaw used Superman’s birthing matrix to create a body identical to Superman’s, albeit with cybernetic parts. He returned to Earth to kill Superman, only to discover that Superman had already died during Henshaw’s absence. Following Superman’s eventual resurrection, Henshaw would not only become a recurring adversary of Superman but of Green Lantern as well. Hank Henshaw became a member of the Sinestro Corps during the Sinestro Corps War.

Zor-El is the younger brother of Jor-El, husband of Alura, father of Supergirl, and paternal uncle of Superman. Originally, he escaped from Krypton’s destruction along with the other inhabitants of Argo City. In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC’s continuity. In this new timeline, Supergirl discovers an amnesiac Cyborg Superman living on the planet I’noxia. This turns out to be Zor-El, who was rescued from Krypton’s destruction by Brainiac and reconfigured as a half-man half-machine to be his scout looking for stronger species in the universe.[1]

As Cyborg Superman, Hank Henshaw possesses the ability to control and reanimate various machines. Due to his experience with Superman’s birth matrix, Henshaw now has all of Superman’s powers and genetic tissue identical to the Man of Steel’s. As a member of the Sinestro Corps, Henshaw has access to a power ring fueled by fear energy that allows him to create any construct he can imagine.

As Cyborg Superman, Zor-El is cybernetically enhanced with the ability to fly, fire powerful heat rays from his cybernetic eye, and project electricity from his body. Zor-El’s cybernetic arm can shape shift into whatever he desires, limited only by the technology available to him at the given moment that he chooses to use this ability. Zor-El is virtually indestructible, and also has super-speed and super-strength.

DC’s direct-to-DVD movie Superman: Doomsday, based on “The Death of Superman” storyline, features a variation on the Cyborg Superman character. One of the many changes is a streamlined cast which cuts the four Superman imposters, including Cyborg Superman. Elements from three of the four impostors (Hank Henshaw, Superboy, and the Eradicator), were combined into the Superman clone created by Lex Luthor in the film.[5]

British wunderkind radio producer Dirk Maggs produced a Superman radio series for BBC Radio 5 in the 1990s. When the “Death of Superman” story arc happened in the comics, Maggs presented a very faithful, though much pared down, version of the tale which featured Stuart Milligan as Clark Kent/Superman, Lorelei King as Lois Lane, and William Hootkins as Lex Luthor. Versatile American actor Kerry Shale was cast both as the villainous Hank Henshaw and as Superboy. The story arc was packaged for sale on cassette and CD as Superman: Doomsday and Beyond in the UK and as Superman Lives! in the USA.

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Cyborg Superman – Wikipedia

Kevin Warwick | "I feel that we are all philosophers, and …

Kevin Warwick is Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) at Coventry University. Prior that he was Professor of Cybernetics at The University of Reading, England. His research areas are artificial intelligence, control, robotics and biomedical engineering. He is a Chartered Engineer (CEng.) and is a Fellow of The Institution of Engineering & Technology (FIET). He is the youngest person ever to become a Fellow of the City & Guilds of London Institute (FCGI). He is the author or co-author of more than 600 research papers and has written or edited 27 books (three for general readership), as well as numerous magazine and newspaper articles on scientific and general subjects. He has broadcast and lectured widely and holds various visiting professorships.

Kevin was born in Coventry and left school to join British Telecom, at the age of 16. At 22 he took his first degree at Aston University, followed by a PhD and a research post at Imperial College, London. He subsequently held positions at Oxford, Newcastle, Warwick and Reading universities before being offered the DVC post at Coventry.

He has been awarded higher doctorates (DScs) by Imperial College and the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague on different scientific areas. He was presented with The Future of Health Technology Award at MIT (USA), was made an Honorary Member of the Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, was awarded the IEE Senior Achievement Medal in 2004, the Mountbatten Medal in 2008, the Ellison-Cliffe Medal in 2011 from the Royal Society of Medicine and in 2014 was elected as a member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. In 2000 Kevin presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, entitled The Rise of The Robots. He has also been awarded Honorary DSc Degrees by the Universities of Aston, Coventry, Bradford, Bedfordshire, Portsmouth and Kingston and an Honorary DTech Degree by Robert Gordon University.

Kevin instigated a series of pioneering experiments involving the neuro-surgical implantation of a device (Utah Array/BrainGate) into the median nerves of his left arm in order to link his nervous system directly to a computer to assess the latest technology for use with the disabled. The development of the implant technology was carried out by a team of researchers headed by Dr Mark Gasson who, along with Kevin, used it to perform the ground-breaking research. Kevin was successful with the first extra-sensory (ultrasonic) input for a human and with the first purely electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans. His research has been discussed by the US White House Presidential Council on BioEthics, The European Commission and led to him being widely referenced and featured in academic circles as well as appearing as cover stories in several magazines e.g. Wired (USA), The Week (India).

The Institute of Physics selected Kevin as one of only 7 eminent scientists to illustrate the ethical impact their scientific work can have: the others being Galileo, Einstein, Curie, Nobel, Oppenheimer and Rotblat.

His work is used as material in several advanced Level Physics courses in the UK and in many University courses including Harvard, Stanford, MIT & Tokyo. His implants are on display in the Science Museums in London and Naples. As a result, Kevin regularly gives invited Keynote presentations.

Kevins research has involved robotics and he was responsible (with Dr Jim Wyatt) for Cybot, a robot exported around the world as part of a magazine Real Robots this resulted in royalties totalling over 1M for Reading University. Robots designed and constructed by Kevins group (Dr Ian Kelly, Dr Ben Hutt) were on permanent interactive display in the Science Museums in London, Birmingham and Linz.

Some of Kevins recent research involves a collaborative project with the Oxford neurosurgeon, Prof. Tipu Aziz, using intelligent computer methods to predict the onset of Parkinsonian tremors such that they can be stopped by means of a deep brain implant. This work was hailed in the Mail on Sunday as the most significant recent advance in biomedical engineering.

He also led an EPSRC sponsored project in which a cultured neural network (using biological neurons) was trained to control a mobile robot platform. This work, which was reported on in a New Scientist feature article, is now being used as an exercise for high school science studies in the UK. A Youtube video of this research has been downloaded/viewed 1.9 million times.

His presentations include The 1998 Robert Boyle Memorial Lecture at Oxford University, The 2000 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, The 2001 Higginson Lecture at Durham University, The 2003 Royal Academy of Engineering/Royal Society of Edinburgh Joint lecture in Edinburgh, The 2004 Woolmer Lecture at York University, the 2005 Einstein Lecture in Potsdam, Germany and the 2006 IMechE Mechatronics Prestige Lecture in London.The Annual Science Faculty lecture at University of Leicester in 2007. In 2008 the Leslie Oliver Oration at Queens Hospital and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, guest lecture Four weddings and a Funeral for the Microsoft Research Chair. In 2009, Cardiff University, 125th Anniversary Lecture. In 2010 he launched the new Research Institute for Innovation Design and Sustainability at Robert Gordon University and gave the Ellison-Cliffe Lecture at the Royal Society of Medicine in 2011. In 2012 he presented the IET Pinkerton Lecture in Bangalore.

Kevin was a member of the 2001 HEFCE (unit 29) panel on Electrical & Electronic Engineering, was Deputy Chairman for the same panel in the 2007/8 exercise and is a member of the EPSRC Peer College. He also received the EPSRC Millenium Award (2000) for his schools robot league project. Kevins research has featured in many TV and film documentaries, e.g. Inventions that changed the world (BBC2), Late Night with Conan OBrien (NBC), Future Scope (RAI 1) and The Making of I Robot (Twentieth Century Fox/Channel 5). He has appeared 5 times in Time magazine and was selected by Channel 4 as one of the Top 6 UK Scientists for their 2001 series Living Science. In 2002 he was chosen by the IEE as one of the top 10 UK Electrical Engineers.

Kevins research is frequently referred to by other authors recent examples being in books by Robert Winston, Peter Cochrane, Jeremy Clarkson and Susan Greenfield. Kevins implant research was selected by National Geographic International for a 1 hour documentary, entitled I,Human screened in 2007 this was broadcast in 143 countries and translated into 23 different languages. Some of his TV appearances are logged on the imdb website.

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Kevin Warwick | "I feel that we are all philosophers, and …

Cyborg | Teen Titans Go! Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

CyborgSpecies

Half human, half robot

Cyborg (Victor Stone) is a member of the Teen Titans and one the main protagonists of Teen Titans Go!. He is voiced by Khary Payton.

“Cyborg is a laid-back, teen robot who’s more interested in pizza and video games than in fighting crime.”

As a teenager, Victor Stone was a one-of-a-kind athlete who showed much more promise than most others. His life was going great until he suffered a terrible accident that killed his mother, and destroyed most of his body. His father, a genius scientist, was able to save him by building him into a cyborg, half-robot, half-man. He spent the rest of his childhood shunned, bullied and rejected. He finally left his home and moved to Jump City, where he decided he would fight evil. One faithful night, he met up with three other superheroes who were fighting to save an alien princess from The Gordanians. They worked together, defeated The Gordanians, and the five of them together formed the Teen Titans.

In Slumber Party, Cyborg always had a fear of Scary Terry since he was a kid and at the end of the episode he defeated Scary Teri and got over his fear. Cyborg is seen to be the silly big brother of the team. Cyborg got a strong bond with his best friend Beast Boy and he is currently dating Jinx.

Cyborg is depicted as a cybernetic organism with no human attributes. He has a red left eye, and a laser as his left hand. Part of his face, his right eye and his internal organs are the only organic things he has left in and on his body, although there has been some episodes which reveal other parts of his body. When he gets his head out of his body, tiny circuits can be seen forming a temporary body. He is an African American who has brown skin and no hair. Cyborg is the tallest titan and he appears to be about 6’6″.

Cyborg in the intro.

As a human, he is shown wearing a white shirt, blue jeans, and blue sneakers.

When he is ready for a Halloween party, he is dressed as a vampire. His costume was a homage of Dracula from a classic horror film of the same name. As a ghost, he is shown not to have robotic cybernetic parts in his body, is noseless, have four fingers and he has a ghost tail.

His suit is based off of his New 52 design and he was dressed as Green Lantern.

He was dressed like a British Gentleman.

The titans (expect Robin) created their own holiday Thanksgetting. He was dressed like a Cowboy for that.

Cyborg was dressed like rock star.

Cyborg had a fancy suit when he went to the prom like the rest of the titans.

Cyborg told his story that was actually Superman’s backstory. Cyborg was dressed as a farmer first but then referenced Superman.

Cyborg used to have hair and his old suit is a reference to the old Teen Titans Comics.

Cyborg was dressed like a computer pirate.

Cyborg is seen in his 8-bit version of himself.

Cyborg’s Justice League Suit

Cyborg as British Gentleman

Cyborg in his backstory told in “BBCYFSHIPBDAY”

Cyborg’s outfit in the song “Boys Boys” and “Girls Girls”

Cyborg’s outfit in “Throne of Bones”

Cyborg dressed as Mammoth

Cyborg in “Rad Dudes with Bad Tudes”

Cyborg’s Art style in “40% 40% 20%”

Cyborg’s Art style in “The Fourth Wall”

Cyborg in LEGO Dimensions

Cyborg’s 8-bit Art Style in “Video Game References”

Cyborg’s Art style in “Let’s get serious”

Cyborg’s Puppet used in “The Puppets”

Cyborg’s Art Style in “Salty Codgers”

Cyborg in Silly Toon Style

Cyborg in Teen Titronz Style

Cyborg is like the big brother of the titans. He has mixed characteristics. Cyborg is mostly characterized as feisty, silly, and enthusiastic. But he can be also slothful and easily scared.

Cyborg is shown to be very lazy but he still engineered the main vehicles for the Titans programmed the security alarms for the Tower created the Titan Robot and a whole mess of weapons for the team. He loves to have fun and yell, and is very enthusiastic. When it comes to combat, he does not hesitate to get the job done. He considers his robotic self to be superior to humans.In “Double Trouble”, he and Beast Boy clone themselves to avoid doing work. He played video games and ate pizza for a solid month during this

Raven, Beast Boy and Starfire congratulating Cyborg after he made it to the final round.

episode.He also enjoys meatball parties in the episode “Meatball Party”. He tends to force everyone, especially Raven, to do activities that they don’t like to do. He also has more energy (can stay up longer) than the other Titans because of his robotic half, as shown in the episode “Tower Power. Cyborg is also a good

Cyborg working on an invention

leader seen in several other episodes and comes with certain ideas Robin agrees with. In some scenarios, Cyborg acts superior to Robin. Cyborg is also seen to be childish with Starfire.

Cyborg is affectionate to his girlfriend Jinx. He tried to fix the mess he made in “How ‘Bout Some Effort” and sang her a song. He also apologized to her after he hit her hair with his canon blast in the episode “Jinxed”. Cyborg and Jinx are often nice to each other since they’re dating.

Cyborg is also experienced with Technology. He created many inventions for the titans and can fix things.

Cyborg can also be kind and gentle and most likely wants to have as much fun possible with his friends.

Cyborg’s robotic body grants him many superhuman powers and abilities, all gained from his robotic suit, such as:

Hidden Gadgets, Objects, Tools, and Items: Cyborg houses a lot of hidden gadgets and appendages inside him. He can also change some of his body parts into different kind of objects.

Cyborg using different kind of tools

Cyborg is trying to code the H.I.V.E. computer to find out their evil plans

Cyborg and Beast Boy plan some “tough times”

Beast Boy is Cyborg’s best friend. The two have a common interest in video games, movies and many other activities. Beast boy and Cyborg interact together in almost every episode. They call each other nicknames like bro, dude , Cy, Beastie etc. Whenever Beast Boy and Cyborg have an argument, the argument is solved quickly and they become friends fast. This shows that the friendship between Beast Boy and Cyborg is the most developed and best friendship relationship shown in the show yet. Beast Boy can sometimes be seen leaping into Cyborg’s arms in fright or hiding near him. This shows that Cyborg is like a big brother to Beast Boy and they feel safe and comfortable together.

Cyborg and Beast Boy get along because they also have a lot of common. Despite this, Cyborg doesn’t seem to find Beast Boy’s pranks funny at all, as shown in Ghost Boy. He was greatly saddened by Beast Boy being kicked off the team in You’re Fired, but seemed fine later, having developed feelings for his replacement, Jayna. He was surprisingly indifferent to Beast Boy being eaten in Meatball Party as well, however, this may have been done for comedic effect. He is seen hanging out with Beast Boy on many occasions, whether it’s playing video games, going on stakeouts (I See You) together or just playing jokes as a comedy duo. Cyborg and Beast Boy seem to care for each other’s well being, as seen in Man Person, where Cyborg goes to incredible lengths to show Beast Boy what he was doing to himself was terrible. He was willing to make Beast Boy angry at him just to help him.

An example of Beast Boy and Cyborg’s relationship, with them fighting over which is better, Burgers or Burritos.

The two of them are seemingly always getting themselves into trouble. In Lazy Sunday, Robin gets rid of the couch after Cyborg and Beast Boy abuse their “sitting privileges” with it.

In Waffles, the duo refuses to say anything but the word “waffles”, which ultimately puts their friends’ lives in danger and nearly gets them killed. Finally, in I See You, the duo attempts to spy on Raven to learn her secret. The result is them getting trapped in an alternate dimension together.

In Smile Bones, Beast Boy and Cyborg eat with the Titans, but only inhale the food instead of savoring the taste of the food. They teach the Titans to inhale like them, but Beast Boy and Cyborg’s bellies grow big, and take over the city. But before they can, the Titans defeat the Belly Bros by making Beast Boy and Cyborg savor their taste, saving the day.

Despite being best of friends, Beast Boy and Cyborg have disagreed on several occasions. In Double Trouble, Cyborg asks Raven to clone him, so that his clone will play with Beast Boy, and he can relax. Beast Boy then replaces Cyborg with clone-Cyborg and then Cyborg tricks Raven into making a clone of Beast Boy so he can hang out with him. Soon the two of them make more clones of themselves and hide in a hotel room while the Titans’ deal with all the clones.

In BBRAE, Terra-ized and “I See You”, Cyborg cares about Beast Boy’s romantic relationships and helps him with his love interests.

Beast Boy seems to feel safe near Cyborg. That means that Cyborg is like a big brother to him.

In BBRAE, Cyborg helped Beast Boy and said that he needs to get real with Raven. Beast boy needed help with writing a song for Raven and Cyborg helped Beast Boy with ideas for his song for Raven. He used many types of food for proof if Beast Boy loves it more than Raven. The idea of Cyborg eventually worked and he was happy for Beast Boy that he loves Raven. Cyborg also cried in happiness. Cyborg also said “My Dude” when he kissed with Raven and he was cheering for him. He seems to feel happy for his best friend being in a romantic relationship.

In Terra-ized ,he is proud of him that he got a romantic relationship with Terra. He also comforts him about Terra being in love with him.

In “I See You” he helps Beast Boy with trying to figure out what Raven’s secret is and got excited when he thought that Raven has a crush on him.

Beast Boy and Cyborg have a brother-like relationship. They work together most of time during crime fighting seen in “Power Moves”, “Breakfast Cheese” and “The Titans Show”

In “Power Moves” Beast Boy was sad about Robin hanging out with Cyborg and this proofs that Beast Boy misses Cyborg fast like in the original show.

In “Dog Hand” when Trigon threatened Beast Boy, he transformed into a mouse to hide behind Cyborg when he was scared. It’s likely true that Beast Boy feels safe near his best friend.

In “Scary Figure Dance” they had fun together with pranking Gizmo and Billy Numerous as Ghosts.

In “Croissant” Beast Boy didn’t care if Cyborg was an bug. Beast Boy and Cyborg will likely always be for each other no matter what they look like, similar how Cyborg cheered Beast Boy up in “Man Person”

In “You’re Fired”, Cyborg was upset about Beast Boy being fired and tried to get him back in the team. Cyborg also had no interests in new heroes replacing him. It’s also revealed that Cyborg has a picture of Beast Boy in his body. Cyborg cried while he was touching the picture because he misses him.

Beast Boy sometimes lean on Cyborg seen in “Squash and Stretch”, “Boys vs Girls” , “Hey You Don’t Forget About Me In Your Memory” and other episodes.

In “Employee of the Month: Redux” Beast Boy saved Cyborg and they gave each other a high five.

They were both interested in each others stories in “Orangins”

Beast Boy was rooting for Cyborg in “Justice League’s Next Top Talent Idol Star”.

Cyborg’s and Beast Boy’s Friendship

In “BBSFBDAY” he helped with the decoration for Beast Boy’s birthday. He made a garland written on “Happy Birthday Beastie” with two hearts on the sides. Beast Boy also said that he likes when Cyborg ends his birthday songs with “and many more”. Cyborg also drew a picture of them hugging and touching each others fingers with the sentence I love you bro underneath and Beast Boy claimed that it was a super cool drawing that stands for their life long friendship. Beast Boy was sad and he had tears when the drawing was given to Starfire.

Cyborg and Beast boy celebrated their friendship in “BBCYFSHIPBDAY”. This shows that Cyborg’s and Beast Boy’s friendship is important for them. They also danced together with Raven and Starfire. They told their backstory that likely made up together because Robin already told their real first interaction in “Baby Hands”. They got an argument because their “Friendship Friends” was lost but they became friends again quickly. When their Friendship Friend was lost, Cyborg and Beast Boy began to threat each other differently. Even the other titans expected that something was going on. This proofs that Beast Boy and Cyborg are everyday nice to each other and that and that they tell jokes to each other. The other titans even helped to fix their friendship. At the end of the episode they get along so well that they created a new friendship friend.

Robin teaching Cyborg how to be a “real boy”.

Cyborg and Robin are very good friends, and generally get along very well, although sometimes Cyborg enjoys making fun of Robin. Robin often joins Cyborg and Beast Boy and hang out as “bros”. In the episodes Caged Tiger and Missing, the three of them are shown partaking in bro activities together. However in Staff Meeting, when Robin called his staff his “best friend” Cyborg says that he thought he was his best friend.

In Power Moves, after the two of them accidentally create a power move, they begin combining everything. However Robin becomes obsessed and refuses to let Cyborg stop. Eventually it gets to the point that Robin moves inside Cyborg’s body as “the ultimate power move”, and begins making him perform power moves against his will. It takes the combined effort of all the other Titans to finally get Robin out.

In Real Boy Adventures, Robin teaches Cyborg what it’s like to be a real boy, but only does it to take his robotic suit.

In Rocks and Water, Cyborg is a a “third wheel” on Robin and Starfire’s date, where he ends up ruining any romantic chance the two had together alone by being in the middle of everything.

Cyborg begs Raven to make a magical duplicate of him.

Cyborg is close friends with Raven. However, he often forces her to participate in activities she doesn’t like. This was shown primarily in Meatball Party, where he forced her to eat a “cyborg meatball”, resulting in her tooth being cracked open. He understands her at the end, but can’t help himself when it comes to meatballs as he shoots a giant meatball at her. In later episodes they can get along a lot more.

In Starliar, when Starfire lies to Cyborg about Raven saying he chewed to loudly, Cyborg becomes extremely resentful of her. He chews a bag of chips loudly and splatters it on her hood, before sarcastically asking if she was annoyed. Later on, they get into a huge fight, along with Robin.

Cyborg intentionally being annoying towards Raven.

In Colors of Raven, Cyborg is repeatedly beaten up by Red Raven, revealing all of Raven’s negative feelings towards him. At the same time, he took a liking to Pink Raven and spent the day having fun with her and Beast Boy until she accidentally sealed herself in the magical prism.

In “Nose Mouth”, Raven gets sick of Cyborg’s ‘booyahs’, and gets rid of his mouth.

In Thanksgiving, when Trigon turned Cyborg into a turkey and was preparing to eat him, Raven tries to stop her father from eating him, and told him that eating one of her friends wasn’t part of the deal.

In Real Boy Adventures, after hearing Cyborg’s desire to be fully human, Raven offers to make his wish come true using her magic. Cyborg is delighted to hear this and hugs Raven out of gratitude. She then performs a ritual, which causes severe pain on his part, and turns him fully in the human.

In Cool School, Cyborg tells Raven that she was like a sister to him, which flattered Raven.

In Yearbook Madness, after Cyborg continues to beg and even attempt to take her hood off during Picture Day, Raven hits the ceiling and goes insane, attacking and horrifying Cyborg.

In Matched and Rocks and Water, Raven is shown to become very irritated or upset after Cyborg ruins her moments with Beast Boy.

In most episodes of Season 4, Raven and Cyborg didn’t had much disagreements compared to the older seasons. In “BBCYFSHIPBDAY” is shown that they also created a friendship friend.

In Hose Water, Cyborg and Starfire are both interesting in things that the average children do. They are interested by birds and eggs and they do kid friendly activities together.

In “Booby Trap House” they both try to be like adults and they spent the whole day together.

In The Inner Beauty of A Cactus, The Titans played Spin The Bottle and Cyborg and Starfire kissed.

Starfire found Cyborg’s drawing in “BBBDAY” lovely.

Cyborg and Jinx

Though originally enemies, Cyborg fell in love with Jinx, even though it is forbidden for heroes and villains to date each other. In Opposites, after flattering Jinx with a gift, she fell in love with him, and they began a secret relationship. This was eventually discovered by Robin and Gizmo, and they were forced to be split up. They both switched to their opposite sides, resulting in them being enemies again. After an argument, they break up. When their friends leave, Cyborg and Jinx reconcile their relationship by kissing, continuing to date in secret.

Cyborg asking Jinx for a dance

In later episodes, everyone from the Teen Titans and H.I.V.E. seem to accept Cyborg and Jinx’s relationship.

In Be Mine, Cyborg invites Jinx to the Valentine’s Day party as his Valentine. When he tries to dance with her, however, security guards tasered him, yelling, “Step away from the prisoner!”. In the comic Party Party, Cyborg dances with Jinx, because both the Titans and the H.I.V.E. are too distracted by their own dance partners to notice.

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Cyborg | Teen Titans Go! Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Cyborg (Character) – Comic Vine

Current EventsOriginVictor Stone

Victor Stone is the son of Silas and Elinore Stone, two STAR Labs scientists intent on using their research to improve mankind. Silas and Elinore scientific adventures often estranged their son, as they would sometime dedicate more time and toward their work, oppose to him. The two even used their son as a test subject for intelligence-boosting experimentation. While the successful experiment granted Victor a genius-level intellect, he resented his parents for treating him more like a lab subject oppose to a son.

Vic’s resentment caused him to steer away from science and math in high school. Instead, he pursued an interest in athletics, much to his father’s disdain. His life changed profoundly during a visit to STAR Labs to meet up with his parents, who were busy conducting inter-dimensional experiments. The experiment accidentally allowed a protoplasmic creature into the lab. Silas managed to return the creature to its home dimension, but not before it had slain Elinore and severely injured Victor. Desperate to save his son’s life, Silas used untested cybernetic enhancements to rebuild and reconstruct Victor’s body. He succeeded, but didn’t anticipate Victor’s horror and anger at what he had done.

Cyborg was created by Marv Wolfman and George Perez

The reaction of others to his new form made Vic even more resentful, and he isolated himself from his former life as much as possible by moving to Hell’s Kitchen. It was in this bad neighborhood that Raven found Vic and invited him to join the Teen Titans. After the team formed, Vic found a place where he was accepted and appreciated, despite his inhuman appearance. His father, still feeling guilt over what he made his son go through, constructed the Titan’s Tower for his son and his companions. Victor would remain a steadfast member of the Titans for a long time, serving not only as a hero but as a primary supplemental tech source for the team.

After the events of Flashpoint, DC Comics relaunched their entire comic catalog. In this continuity, Cyborg is now one of the seven founding members of the Justice League (replacing the Martian Manhunter), having never served with Teen Titan. He makes his first appearance in Justice League #1 but not as part of the team. In fact, he’s a high school football player who hasn’t even become “Cyborg” yet. After the Darkseid invasion, Victor was gravely injured and later cybernetically enhanced by his father.

Due to the events of Forever Evil, Cyborg gets an upgraded armor that appears to be much slimmer.

Tragedy struck when the Wildebeest Society captured the Titans and more shocking that the leader of the group was their teammate Jericho. Vic was launched in a rocket along with several members and crashed landed in Russia where he was seriously injured and damaged. The Russian scientists with the help of Red Star rebuilt Vic but due to such heavy brain trauma he had become no more than a walking robot with a human appearance. After several months, Vic’s mind started to regain his memories but when the race known as the Technis came to Earth looking for a way to integrate with society and save their race. Cyborg sacrificed himself for both the Earth and the Technis was was rebuilt into Cyberion.

Cyberion became their protector as they traveled throughout the galaxy. Some time later, Cyberion was reunited with his former teammates and engaged in an interstellar conflict which resulted in the destruction of Tamaran. But there was triumph to be found in tragedy: The Titans were able to restore Raven – who was reborn in a golden spirit form. Following that, Raven, Minion and Garfield Logan elected to remain in space as traveling companions to Cyberion. Frightened by Cyberion’s total embrace of technology, Gar left his friend and returned to earth. Jarras Minion also had doubts about Cyberion’s new attitude and decided to leave as well. Jarras, a sworn pacifist, made Victor a gift of his Omegadrome war suit before he left. The Omegadrome allowed Victor to try to carry out his Technis Imperative: To recreate the planet Technis at all costs.

Having collected a planet-size assortment of technological debris, Cyberion journeyed to Earth to turn its moon into a new Technis world and populate it with his Titans allies. The JLA and the Titans first clashed, then united, to prevent Cyberion from destroying the planet while saving Vic’s soul and downloading it into Minion’s morphing battlesuit, the Omegadrome. Vic was later offered a human body if he would help Vandal Savage harvest Addie Kane’s immortal blood. Before he could make a decision, Starfire destroyed Addie’s body, thus robbing Vic of the chance to make a choice. Also, Vic had to remain a member of the team, per a deal that Nightwing made with Batman.

Following the events of his Technis Imperative, the JLA only trusted Vic to remain free if the Titans kept a watchful eye on him. Feeling like he owed his old friend a debt, Nightwing worked constantly to find a cure for Vic’s condition. With Jesse Quick’s help, Victor was given a new lease on organic life with a body cloned from cell samples harvested by the Russian scientists who once spared him.

Though his mind and cybernetic abilities were still encapsulated in the Omegadrome, Victor inhabited a truly biological body. And for the first time in years, Cyborg knew what it is to live and feel and breathe unaided by mechanized parts. Embarking on a new life, Victor Stone left the Titans for the West Coast. Vic Stone later aided the Flash during the “Our Worlds At War” crisis. At that time, Vic started using the golden Omegadrome to morph into a cybernetic form. Cyborg decided to return to adventuring and settled in Keystone City, home of the Flash. But when Vic Stone linked with the evil computerized Thinker in an attempt to stop him from taking over the city, his body became mechanically paralyzed – reverting him to his silver cyborg form.

Shortly afterward, a mysterious android from the future known as Indigo attacked the Titans and Young Justice , resulting in the apparent deaths of Troia and Omen. At Troia’s funeral, Nightwing disbanded this version of the Titans. Meanwhile, members of Young Justice, especially Wonder Girl, felt responsible for the tragic deaths. This led Wonder Girl, Robin, Impulse and Superboy to form a new group of Teen Titans under the guidance of the more experienced Cyborg, Starfire and Beast Boy.

Cyborg, who was damaged in the battle caused by Indigo, has since received an upgrade in his cybernetic parts. He would experience the formation and reformation of the Titans multiple times, mentoring some versions of the team and even starting a short-lived team of his own. But he would always return to the companionship of his original Titans teammates, even to the extent of joining several of them in the Justice League of America.

After the Infinite Crisis Cyborg was fused to Firestorm and entered into a coma. When he finally woke up, he learned that the Teen Titans had dramatically changed. Wonder Girl, Speedy, Kid Flash, Raven, and Beast Boy had left the team; Starfire was lost in space; and Superboy was dead. Along with Robin, Kid Devil, Ravager, and Wonder Girl (who had just rejoined) he started a quest for Raven.

Vic Stone is a star wide receiver for the Ford Titans, a high school football team. He has an interest in super human activities but is more focused on going to college, earning a football scholarship, and hoping his father makes it to his games. Vic and his father have a distant relationship and after missing several games, Victor finally ventures to S.T.A.R Labs to confront him. Silas tells his son that given the current state of metahumans starting to show up around the planet, Vic’s love for football is going to become irrelevant at some point. Discouraged, Victor begins to leave when everything takes a tragic turn, as a Mother Box unit springs to life and opens a Boom Tube. Victor and several scientists are fatally injured or killed by the boom tube energy.

Not intending to lose his son the same way he lost his wife, Silas outfits Vic with experimental bionics that have been reverse engineered from alien technology found around the globe. With aid from T.O. Morrow and Sarah Charles, Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans. After aiding in sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League. He has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity.

After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his team mates travel to the valley of souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death–meaning that part of his soul has left his body. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. The situation lead to Vic embracing who he has become, not a young man who has lost his humanity, but a man who has learned to be a hero through shocking means. Allowing Vic to start to forgive his father, as he knows his father was just trying to save his life.

To help retrieve Superman and Wonder Woman from the depths of the ocean floor, Victor upgraded his suit to have an Environmental Mode that allows him to operate underwater. He then commenced a world wide League recruitment initiate to combat the Atlanteans hostiles

At the conclusion of the Trinity War, all of Victor’s cybernetics were brutally ripped from his body as Grid, a software virus deeply embedded into Victor’s cybernetics, revealed itself. The virus was planted by Atomica to help the Crime Syndicate of America. Atomica told Cyborg about what she did the Justice League and Justice League of America/ She also told him that she was the one that poisoned Superman and put the green Kryptonite in his nervous system where she trigger his heat vision, which killed Dr. Light. Cyborg was upset to hear this happening and all of a sudden she told Cyborg that he also betrayed the Justice League and it was Grid that was in his body. Cyborg body turned in to him as the Justice League and Justice League of America watched in horror and where all in shock to see this happening and that the Crime Syndicate of America was taking over the world they where from Earth 3. Atomica was a spy on both teams and she had all their plans. She was planning for the CSA to come and attack the various Justice Leagues.

Cyborg is kept alive with the help of Simon Baz and Batman. Batman and Catwoman manage to escape and bring along Cyborg to S.T.A.R. Labs to get the help of Victor’s father Silas. Silas is initially reluctant to turn his son back to Cyborg once again for fear of hurting him but Victor pushes him to do so saying that this time it is his choice and he must help stop the Crime Syndicate. Cyborg is given an upgraded more slimmer armor. Cyborg goes to enlist the help of Doctor Will Magnus so that he can revive the Metal Men and fight the Crime Syndicate.

Magnus is also initially unwilling to revive the Metal Men as they were deemed failures the first time, but Cyborg convinces him to do so. The team is once again brought together and they join Cyborg in an attempt to fight. Cyborg directly confronts Grid while the Metal Men help fight the Secret Society members that were with him. Cyborg and Grid both enter the digital world where they do battle with each other. Grid initially appears to have the upper hand in the battle attempting to exploit Cyborg’s human side. However, Cyborg states that he has embraced his tech side and that he is the bridge between human and tech. He manages to shut down Grid and goes into the fallen watchtower where he helps Batman use Wonder Woman’s lasso to free the Justice League teams from the Firestorm matrix.

Cyborg possesses cybernetic enhancements that provide superhuman strength, endurance and durability. Cyborg can also interface with computers. Built into his body-armor were an infrared eye, computer generator, sound amplifier, and special programming adapters that allowed him to interface with other body extensions.

Shape-Change: Cyborg has virtually unlimited shape-changing abilities that allow him to mimic road, air or space vehicles and even reshape his entire body or parts of it to form such complex shapes such as a tank.

Superhuman Strength: At optimal capacity, Vic can lift/press in excess of four metric tons. If he pushes himself, he can even exceed five tons, but not without causing severe stress to his cybernetic components. Recently Victor breaks apart Kalibak’s Chaos Cannon used to destroy planets.

Superhuman Speed/Agility: He possesses a degree of superspeed.

Flight

Sensor Systems/superhuman Senses:. Due cybernetic enhancements their five senses were increased to superhuman levels.

Superhuman Stamina: Victor doesn’t need to sleep,eat or drink. Adding the Environmental Mode (that replaced his last lung) no longer has the need to breathe, and can operate in any area that has no oxygen in space or as in underwater.

Superhuman Durability: The nature of Cyborg’s body provides offers protection against physical and energy attacks,being able to withstand the pressures of the deepest parts of the oceans.

Computer Interfacing: Cyborg is connected with all Earth’s computers and satellites including government agencies, secret service (CIA,MI-6…) and even the Batcomputer.

Technopathy: Since is linked with Earth’s computers and satellites Victor can control any type of technology that have connection with the Internet as well control any form of electronic communication,allowing it to manipulate data or rearrange security privileges. Recently demonstrated the ability to hear Brainiac’s drones communicating with each other.

Teleportation – Cyborg can use Boom Tubes to transport himself and the League to anywhere n Earth and in the Universe,since is stated Darkseid use it to cross dimensions,however one out of every thousand ‘jumps’ results in transporting himself and whoever is with him to Apokolips. Recently installed a silent mode to not be noticed by others,not even Superman couldn’t note him coming.

Integrated Weapons: He had various types of weapons integrated into his cybernetic parts.

When Reverse Flash goes back in time and messes with the timeline, the DC Universe turns into a very different place where the world’s greatest heroes are not how we know them to be. In this timeline Cyborg is America’s greatest hero, and he is based in Detroit where he has his headquarters. When the Amazons and the Atlanteans go to war, Cyborg tries to gather a group of Earth’s superhumans to help stop the war that has ravaged half of Europe. No one joins his group when they find that Batman (Thomas Wayne) has no interest. But before long Barry Allen arrives and convinces Wayne otherwise, and the three set off to gather an army.

Stage actor Ray Fisher portrays the character in the upcoming Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice film. In a brief cameo, Victor’s mangled body is shown being bonded with a Mother Box during one of his father’s experiments.

Ray Fisher will reprise his role in the live-action Justice League movie.

Cyborg appears in Justice League: Doom in a major role. The film marks the first time Cyborg has been portrayed as a member of the Justice League in any non-comic form of media. He is voiced by Bumper Robinson. In the film, Cyborg first appears after Batman asks for his help in discovering how the Royal Flush Gang are pulling off a series of impossible heists. Cyborg later rescues Wonder Woman after she is poisoned by Cheetah, and ends up being brought along during the subsequent attempt to rescue the other JLA members. After saving Superman from a Kryptonite bullet, Cyborg helps the Justice League during the final battle against Vandal Savage and his Legion of Doom. After the League saves the Earth from a massive solar flare, Cyborg is officially inducted into the Justice League as the team’s newest member.

He was voiced by Bumper Robinson

Cyborg appears in Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox, an adaptation of Flashpoint. In the film, Cyborg is a member of the League. In the alternate timeline the bulk of the film takes place in, he is depicted as the world’s top hero, since Kal-El never became Superman and most of the rest of the League never came to resemble their classic forms.

He was voiced by Michael B. Jordan.

Cyborg appears in JLA Adventures: Trapped In Time, voiced by Avery Kidd Waddell.

In Justice League: War, based off of the New 52 Justice League Origins comic book by Geoff Johns, Cyborg appears as one of the founding members of the Justice League in light of the invasion of Darkseid. Victor Stone was originally a talented high school football quarterback but has a troubled relationship with his father Silas due to his father’s lack of support for his football playing career. In frustration, Cyborg grabs one of the boom tubes asking whether his work is more important than his own son. The boom tubes suddenly activate at that moment and engulfs Victor. In a last ditch effort to save his son’s life, Silas grafts technology from the red room and successfully saves his son’s life but at the cost of making him a Cyborg at the same time. Cyborg helps the rest of the Justice League in battling Darkseid and his Parademons, with Cyborg having access to almost any technological interface he is able to open up the boom tubes to send them back to Apokolips. At the end of the film, the newly formed Justice League team is introduced to the world and Cyborg seems to have embraced his new role more as he sees his father nod in approval. Cyborg was voiced by Shemar Moore.

Cyborg appears alongside his Justice League teammates in the sequel to Justice League: War, titled: Justice League: Throne of Atlantis. The film is based off of the New 52 comic book story line of the same name and was released in 2015. Shemar Moore reprised his role.

Cyborg appears in Batman Unlimited: Monster Mayhem, voiced by Khary Payton.

Cyborg appears in Justice League vs. Teen Titans, with Shemar Moore once again reprising his role. In the film, it’s shown that he relates more closely to the Titans, as they are closer in age to him.

Cyborg appeared in The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians from 1985 to 1986. He was voiced by Ernie Hudson. Cyborg’s origin was told via a medical journal read by Dr. Martin Stein saying Cyborg was a promising decathlon athlete until an accident destroyed most of his body and his father replaced part of his body with machine parts. Also, he is not a Titan. He becomes fast friends with fellow teammate Firestorm. He is an affiliate of the Justice League of America under Superman. In the introductory episode to Cyborg, “The Seeds of Doom”, Cyborg’s abilities save Earth from Darkseid’s seeds, but as Superman warns, make Darkseid a dangerous enemy to Cyborg, so Cyborg joins the League.

Cyborg appears in the Teen Titans animated series, voiced by Khary Payton. This version of Cyborg is very similar to his comic book counterpart. His nickname is “Cy”, and like his teammates, in the animated series Cyborg is never referred to by his given name; however, he does take the alias “Stone” (based on his real last name) in the Season 3 episode “Deception”. The two main differences are his design and that he is more easygoing than his comics counterpart. His head is considerably more rounded and bald (based on his Titans Hunt counterpart), and his mechanical parts are bulkier. His primary weapon is a sonic cannon housed in his forearm; initially he uses only his right arm to fire, but later episodes reveal that his left arm has an identical cannon built into it as well. Other on-board weapons and tools, such as an acetylene torch, a remote-operated video camera, and several missile launchers, can be deployed as needed, and his arms and legs are detachable.

Cyborg is the Titans’ chief technician and gadgeteer. He is responsible for the construction of the Titan Tower’s electronic and security systems and the team’s main vehicles, the T-Car and the T-Ship. His most dominant personality faults featured in the series are his enormous appetite and a tendency to be overly vain about his work as a result, he fosters a special dislike for those who abuse his devices irresponsibly, especially Gizmo and Brother Blood. On occasion, Cyborg acts as the team’s second-in-command, but he tends to butt heads with Robin on rather trivial matters. In “Cyborg the Barbarian”, he was sent back to 3,000 B.C. There, he met a woman named Sarasim and fell in love with her. The relationship ended when Cyborg was brought back to his own time.

Cyborg’s age is never specified, but he mentions in “Deception” that he never had a chance to finish high school due to circumstances that made him what he is. The only time Cyborg’s personal history has been discussed is in “Deception”, in which he discusses his involuntary cyborg status with Starfire, and in the 4th season episode “The End: Part 2”. In this episode, Trigon creates duplicates of Cyborg, Starfire, and Beast Boy. These duplicates reflect the dark side of each character. During the fight between Cyborg and his duplicate, the dark duplicate says harmful things about Cyborgs mother and her death.

Cyborg appeared in the 15th episode of the fifth season of Smallville on the 16th February 2006 and is played by Lee Thompson Young. In this version, Victor is a former Metropolis High School football star. He is involved in a car accident that kills him, supposedly, and the rest of his family. However, he is secretly rebuilt by Cyntechnics scientists including Dr. Alistair Krieg, who experimented on a group of test subjects. Victor was the only test subject to survive the experiments. Cyntechnics was bought up by LuthorCorp shortly before Victor’s escape. Lex denies any knowledge of Cyntechnics’ secretive activities.

Although Victor’s cybernetic enhancements are entirely on the inside [under his skin] instead of exoskeletal as they are in the comics and other media, a shot of Clark Kent’s X-ray vision reveals that Victor’s cranial armor covers the same-shaped area as it does in the comics. He also bleeds a dark fluid as he does in the comics. Smallville never uses the name “Cyborg” in his first appearance. Instead, Victor refers to his enhancements as bionic.

Lee Thompson Young reprises his role of Cyborg in the season 6 episode “Justice”, episode about Green Arrow gathering together a group of individuals to combat Lex Luthor and his experiments. The episode premiered on 18 January 2007. In this episode, Victor has finally taken the name “Cyborg”, as Green Arrow’s team uses code names. Also on the team are Aquaman and Impulse. While Victor was last seen with a girlfriend named Katherine, he explains that his mechanical parts put a strain on the relationship. After their eventual break up, Victor states that it was Green Arrow who kept him from committing suicide. The episode also shows Cyborg wearing a stylized silver vest and black pants, and utilizing further enhancements Green Arrow gave him. One of his new functions allows him to hack into and disable security systems. While connecting to machines, Cyborg’s left eye glows red.

Teen Titans Go!

Cyborg appears as a member of the Teen Titans in this more humorous take on the DC Universe.

Cyborg appears as a playable character in Lego Batman 2. He has a laser eye and the ability to pull magnetic legos.

Cyborg appears as a playable character in the game. He appears to be a combination of a power/gadget character in game.

Originally posted here:

Cyborg (Character) – Comic Vine


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