Report Identifies China as the Source of Ozone-Destroying Emissions

Emissions Enigma

For years, a mystery puzzled environmental scientists. The world had banned the use of many ozone-depleting compounds in 2010. So why were global emission levels still so high?

The picture started to clear up in June. That’s when The New York Times published an investigation into the issue. China, the paper claimed, was to blame for these mystery emissions. Now it turns out the paper was probably right to point a finger.

Accident or Incident

In a paper published recently in the journal Geophysical Research Letters, an international team of researchers confirms that eastern China is the source of at least half of the 40,000 tonnes of carbon tetrachloride emissions currently entering the atmosphere each year.

They figured this out using a combination of ground-based and airborne atmospheric concentration data from near the Korean peninsula. They also relied on two models that simulated how the gases would move through the atmosphere.

Though they were able to narrow down the source to China, the researchers weren’t able to say exactly who’s breaking the ban and whether they even know about the damage they’re doing.

Pinpoint

“Our work shows the location of carbon tetrachloride emissions,” said co-author Matt Rigby in a press release. “However, we don’t yet know the processes or industries that are responsible. This is important because we don’t know if it is being produced intentionally or inadvertently.”

If we can pinpoint the source of these emissions, we can start working on stopping them and healing our ozone. And given that we’ve gone nearly a decade with minimal progress on that front, there’s really no time to waste.

READ MORE: Location of Large ‘Mystery’ Source of Banned Ozone Depleting Substance Uncovered [University of Bristol]

More on carbon emissions: China Has (Probably) Been Pumping a Banned Gas Into the Atmosphere

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Report Identifies China as the Source of Ozone-Destroying Emissions

An AI Conference Refusing a Name Change Highlights a Tech Industry Problem

Name Game

There’s a prominent artificial intelligence conference that goes by the suggestive acronym NIPS, which stands for “Neural Information Processing Systems.”

After receiving complaints that the acronym was alienating to women, the conference’s leadership collected suggestions for a new name via an online poll, according to WIRED. But the conference announced Monday that it would be sticking with NIPS all the same.

Knock It Off

It’s convenient to imagine that this acronym just sort of emerged by coincidence, but let’s not indulge in that particular fantasy.

It’s more likely that tech geeks cackled maniacally when they came up with the acronym, and the refusal to do better even when people looking up the conference in good faith are bombarded with porn is a particularly telling failure of the AI research community.

Small Things Matter

This problem goes far beyond a silly name — women are severely underrepresented in technology research and even more so when it comes to artificial intelligence. And if human decency — comforting those who are regularly alienated by the powers that be — isn’t enough of a reason to challenge the sexist culture embedded in tech research, just think about what we miss out on.

True progress in artificial intelligence cannot happen without a broad range of diverse voices — voices that are silenced by “locker room talk” among an old boy’s club. Otherwise, our technological development will become just as stuck in place as our cultural development often seems to be.

READ MORE: AI RESEARCHERS FIGHT OVER FOUR LETTERS: NIPS [WIRED]

More on Silicon Valley sexism: The Tech Industry’s Gender Problem Isn’t Just Hurting Women

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An AI Conference Refusing a Name Change Highlights a Tech Industry Problem

Scientists Are Hopeful AI Could Help Predict Earthquakes

Quake Rate

Earlier this year, I interviewed U.S. Geological Survey geologist Annemarie Baltay for a story about why it’s incredibly difficult to predict earthquakes.

“We don’t use that ‘p word’ — ‘predict’ — at all,” she told me. “Earthquakes are chaotic. We don’t know when or where they’ll occur.”

Neural Earthwork

That could finally be starting to change, according to a fascinating feature in The New York Times.

By feeding seismic data into a neural network — a type of artificial intelligence that learns to recognize patterns by scrutinizing examples — researchers say they can now predict moments after a quake strikes how far its aftershocks will travel.

And eventually, some believe, they’ll be able to listen to signals from fault lines and predict when an earthquake will strike in the first place.

Future Vision

But like Baltay, some researchers aren’t convinced we’ll ever be able to predict earthquakes.University of Tokyo seismologist Robert Geller told the Times that until an algorithm actually predicts an upcoming quake, he’ll remain skeptical.

“There are no shortcuts,” he said. “If you cannot predict the future, then your hypothesis is wrong.”

READ MORE: A.I. Is Helping Scientist Predict When and Where the Next Big Earthquake Will Be [The New York Times]

More on earthquake AI: A New AI Detected 17 Times More Earthquakes Than Traditional Methods

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Scientists Are Hopeful AI Could Help Predict Earthquakes

A Stem Cell Transplant Let a Wheelchair-Bound Man Dance Again

Stand Up Guy

For 10 years, Roy Palmer had no feeling in his lower extremities. Two days after receiving a stem cell transplant, he cried tears of joy because he could feel a cramp in his leg.

The technical term for the procedure the British man underwent is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). And while risky, it’s offering new hope to people like Palmer, who found himself wheelchair-bound after multiple sclerosis (MS) caused his immune system to attack his nerves’ protective coverings.

Biological Reboot

Ever hear the IT troubleshooting go-to of turning a system off and on again to fix it? The HSCT process is similar, but instead of a computer, doctors attempt to reboot a patient’s immune system.

To do this, they first remove stem cells from the patient’s body. Then the patient undergoes chemotherapy, which kills the rest of their immune system. After that, the doctors use the extracted stem cells to reboot the patient’s immune system.

It took just two days for the treatment to restore some of the feeling in Palmer’s legs. Eventually, he was able to walk on his own and even dance. He told the BBC in a recent interview that he now feels like he has a second chance at life.

“We went on holiday, not so long ago, to Turkey. I walked on the beach,” said Palmer. “Little things like that, people do not realize what it means to me.”

Risk / Reward

Still, HSCT isn’t some miracle cure for MS. Though it worked for Palmer, that’s not always the case, and HSCT can also cause infections and infertility. The National MS Society still considers HSCT to be an experimental treatment, and the Food and Drug Administration has yet to approve the therapy in the U.S.

However, MS affects more than 2.3 million people, and if a stem cell transplant can help even some of those folks the way it helped Palmer, it’s a therapy worth exploring.

READ MORE: Walking Again After Ten Years With MS [BBC]

More on HCST: New Breakthrough Treatment Could “Reverse Disability” for MS Patients

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A Stem Cell Transplant Let a Wheelchair-Bound Man Dance Again

WHO Director: Air Pollution Is the “New Tobacco”

Wrong Direction

Breathing polluted air is as likely to kill you as tobacco use — worldwide, each kills about 7 million people annually. But while the world is making progress in the war against tobacco, air pollution is getting worse.

The Director General of the World Health Organization (WHO) hopes to change that.

“The world has turned the corner on tobacco,” wrote Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus in an opinion piece published by The Guardian on Saturday. “Now it must do the same for the ‘new tobacco’ — the toxic air that billions breathe every day.”

Taking Action

According to the WHO, nine out of 10 people in the world breathe polluted air.

This week, the organization is hosting the first Global Conference on Air Pollution and Health, and Ghebreyesus is hopeful world leaders will use the conference as the opportunity to commit to cutting air pollution in their nations.

“Despite the overwhelming evidence, political action is still urgently needed to boost investments and speed up action to reduce air pollution,” he wrote, noting that this action could take the form of more stringent air quality standards, improved access to clean energy, or increased investment in green technologies.

Reduced Risk

The impact sustained action against air pollution could have on public health is hard to overstate.

“No one, rich or poor, can escape air pollution. A clean and healthy environment is the single most important precondition for ensuring good health,” wrote Ghebreyesus in his Guardian piece. “By cleaning up the air we breathe, we can prevent or at least reduce some of the greatest health risks.”

The conference ends on Thursday, so we won’t have to wait long to see which nations do — or don’t — heed the WHO’s call to action.

READ MORE: Air Pollution Is the New Tobacco. Time to Tackle This Epidemic [The Guardian]

More on air pollution: Dumber Humans — That’s Just One Effect of a More Polluted Future

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WHO Director: Air Pollution Is the “New Tobacco”

Scientists May Have Put Microbes in a State of Quantum Entanglement

Hall of Mirrors

A few years ago, the journal Small published a study showing how photosynthetic bacteria could absorb and release photons as the light bounced across a minuscule gap between two mirrors.

Now, a retroactive look at the study’s data published in The Journal of Physics Communications suggests something more may have been going on. The bacteria may have been the first living organisms to operate in the realm of quantum physics, becoming entangled with the bouncing light at the quantum scale.

Cat’s Cradle

The experiment in question, as described by Scientific American, involved individual photons — the smallest quantifiable unit of light that can behave like a tiny particle but also a wave of energy within quantum physics — bouncing between two mirrors separated by a microscopic distance.

But a look at the energy levels in the experimental setup suggests that the bacteria may have become entangled, as some individual photons seem to have simultaneously interacted with and missed the bacterium at the same time.

Super Position

There’s reason to be skeptical of these results until someone actually recreates the experiment while looking for signs of quantum interactions. As with any look back at an existing study, scientists are restricted to the amount and quality of data that was already published. And, as Scientific American noted, the energy levels of the bacteria and the mirror setup should have been recorded individually — which they were not — in order to verify quantum entanglement.

But if this research holds up, it would be the first time a life form operated on the realm of quantum physics, something usually limited to subatomic particles. And even though the microbes are small, that’s a big deal.

READ MORE“Schrödinger’s Bacterium” Could Be a Quantum Biology Milestone [Scientific American]

More on quantum physics: The World’s First Practical Quantum Computer May Be Just Five Years Away

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Scientists May Have Put Microbes in a State of Quantum Entanglement

There’s No Way China’s Artificial Moon Will Work, Says Expert

Good Luck

On October 10, a Chinese organization called the Tian Fu New Area Science Society revealed plans to replace the streetlights in the city of Chengdu with a satellite designed to reflect sunlight toward the Earth’s surface at night.

But in a new interview with Astronomy, an associate professor of aerospace engineering at the University of Texas at Austin named Ryan Russel argued that based on what he’s read, the artificial moon plan would be impossible to implement.

Promised the Moon

Wu Chunfeng, the head of the Tian Fu New Area Science Society, told China Daily the artificial moon would orbit about 310 miles above Earth, delivering an expected brightness humans would perceive to be about one-fifth that of a typical streetlight.

The plan is to launch one artificial moon in 2020 and then three more in 2022 if the first works as hoped. Together, these satellites could illuminate an area of up to 4,000 square miles, Chunfeng claims.

But Russell is far from convinced.

“Their claim for 1 [low-earth orbit satellite] at [300 miles] must be a typo or misinformed spokesperson,” he told Astronomy. “The article I read implied you could hover a satellite over a particular city, which of course is not possible.”

Overkill Overhead

To keep the satellite in place over Chengdu, it would need to be about 22,000 miles above the Earth’s surface, said Russel, and its reflective surface would need to be massive to reflect sunlight from that distance. At an altitude of just 300 miles, the satellite would quickly zip around the Earth, constantly illuminating new locations.

Even if the city could put the artificial moon plan into action, though, Russell isn’t convinced it should.

“It’s a very complicated solution that affects everyone to a simple problem that affects a few,” he told Astronomy. “It’s light pollution on steroids.”

Maybe Chengdu shouldn’t give up on its streetlights just yet.

READ MORE: Why China’s Artificial Moon Probably Won’t Work [Astronomy]

More on the artificial moon: A Chinese City Plans to Replace Its Streetlights With an Artificial Moon

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There’s No Way China’s Artificial Moon Will Work, Says Expert

Clean Coal Startup Turns Human Waste Into Earth-Friendly Fuel

Gold Nuggets

A company called Ingelia says it’s figured out a way to turn human waste — the solid kind — into a combustible material it’s calling biochar. And if Ingelia’s claims are accurate, biochar can be burned for fuel just like coalexcept with nearzero greenhouse gas emissions, according to Business Insider.

That’s because almost all of the pollutants and more harmful chemicals that would normally be given off while burning solid fuels is siphoned away into treatable liquid waste, leaving a dry, combustible rod of poop fuel.

“Clean Coal

Ingelia, which is currently working to strike a deal with Spanish waste management facilities, hopes to make enough biochar to replace 220 thousand tons of coal per year, corresponding to 500 thousand tons of carbon dioxide emissions.

But that’s by 2022, at which point we’ll have even less time to reach the urgent clean energy goals of that doomsday United Nations report. In an ideal world, we would have moved away from coal years ago. At least this gives us a viable alternative as we transition to other, renewable forms of electricity.

So while we can, in part, poop our way to a better world, biochar — and other new sewage-based energy sources — will only be one of many new world-saving sources of clean energy.

READ MORE: This Spanish company found a way to produce a fuel that emits no CO2 — and it’s made of sewage [Business Insider]

More on poop: Edible Tech is Finally Useful, is Here to Help you Poop

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Clean Coal Startup Turns Human Waste Into Earth-Friendly Fuel

Ford’s Self-Driving Cars Are About to Chauffeur Your Senator

Green-Light District

It doesn’t matter how advanced our self-driving cars get — if they aren’t allowed on roads, they aren’t going to save any lives.

The future of autonomous vehicles (AVs) in the U.S. depends on how lawmakers in Washington D.C. choose to regulate the vehicles. But until now, AV testing has largely taken place far from the nation’s capital, mostly in California and Arizona.

Ford is about to change that. The company just announced plans to be the first automaker to test its self-driving cars in the Distinct of Columbia — and how lawmakers feel about those vehicles could influence future AV legislation.

Career Day

Sherif Marakby, CEO of Ford Autonomous Vehicles, announced the decision to begin testing in D.C. via a blog post last week. According to Marakby, Ford’s politician-friendly focus will be on figuring out how its AVs could promote job creation in the District.

To that end, Ford plans to assess how AVs could increase mobility in D.C., thereby helping residents get to jobs that might otherwise be outside their reach, as well as train residents for future positions as AV technicians or operators.

Up Close and Personal

Marakby notes that D.C. is a particularly suitable location for this testing because the District is usually bustling with activity. The population increases significantly during the day as commuters arrive from the suburbs for work, while millions of people flock to D.C. each year for conferences or tourism.

D.C. is also home to the people responsible for crafting and passing AV legislation. “[I]t’s important that lawmakers see self-driving vehicles with their own eyes as we keep pushing for legislation that governs their safe use across the country,” Marakby wrote.

Ford’s ultimate goal is to launch a commercial AV service in D.C. in 2021. With this testing, the company has the opportunity to directly influence the people who could help it reach that goal — or oppose it.

READ MORE: A Monumental Moment: Our Self-Driving Business Development Expands to Washington, D.C. [Medium]

More on AV legislation: U.S. Senators Reveal the Six Principles They’ll Use to Regulate Self-Driving Vehicles

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Ford’s Self-Driving Cars Are About to Chauffeur Your Senator

This AI Lie Detector Flags Falsified Police Reports

Minority Report

Imagine this: You file a police report, but back at the station, they feed it into an algorithm — and it accuses you of lying, as though it had somehow looked inside your brain.

That might sound like science fiction, but Spain is currently rolling out a very similar program, called VeriPol, in many of its police stations. VeriPol’s creators say that when it flags a report as false, it turns out to be correct more than four-fifths of the time.

Lie Detector

VeriPol is the work of researchers at Cardiff University and Charles III University of Madrid.

In a paper published earlier this year in the journal Knowledge-Based Systems, they describe how they trained the lie detector with a data set of more than 1,000 robbery reports — including a number that police identified as false — to identify subtle signs that a report wasn’t true.

Thought Crime

In pilot studies in Murcia and Malaga, Quartz reported, further investigation showed that the algorithm was correct about 83 percent of the time that it suspected a report was false.

Still, the project raises uncomfortable questions about allowing algorithms to act as lie detectors. Fast Company reported earlier this year that authorities in the United States, Canada, and the European Union are testing a separate system called AVATAR that they want to use to collect biometric data about subjects at border crossings — and analyze it for signs that they’re not being truthful.

Maybe the real question isn’t whether the tech works, but whether we want to permit authorities to act upon what’s essentially a good — but not perfect — assumption that someone is lying.

READ MORE: Police Are Using Artificial Intelligence to Spot Written Lies [Quartz]

More on lie detectors: Stormy Daniels Took a Polygraph. What Do We Do With the Results?

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This AI Lie Detector Flags Falsified Police Reports

These Bacteria Digest Food Waste Into Biodegradable Plastic

Factory Farm

Plastics have revolutionized manufacturing, but they’re still terrible for the environment.

Manufacturing plastics is an energy-intensive slog that ends in mountains of toxic industrial waste and greenhouse gas emissions. And then the plastic itself that we use ends up sitting in a garbage heap for thousands of years before it biodegrades.

Scientists have spent years investigating ways to manufacture plastics without ruining the planet, and a Toronto biotech startup called Genecis says it’s found a good answer: factories where vats of bacteria digest food waste and use it to form biodegradable plastic in their tiny microbial guts.

One-Two Punch

The plastic-pooping bacteria stand to clean up several kinds of pollution while churning out usable materials, according to Genecis.

That’s because the microbes feed on waste food or other organic materials — waste that CBC reported gives off 20 percent of Canada’s methane emissions as it sits in landfills.

Then What?

The plastic that the little buggers produce isn’t anything new. It’s called PHA and it’s used in anything that needs to biodegrade quickly, like those self-dissolving stitches. What’s new here is that food waste is much cheaper than the raw materials that usually go into plastics, leading Genecis to suspect it can make the same plastics for 40 percent less cost.

There are a lot of buzzworthy new alternative materials out there, but with a clear environmental and financial benefit, it’s possible these little bacteria factories might be here to stay.

READ MORE: Greener coffee pods? Bacteria help turn food waste into compostable plastic [CBC]

More on cleaning up plastics: The EU Just Voted to Completely ban Single-Use Plastics

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These Bacteria Digest Food Waste Into Biodegradable Plastic

Cyborg – Wikipedia

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[16] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle.Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[17]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[18]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[19]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[20][21]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[22] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[23] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[24] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[24] Neil Harbisson is a co-founder of the Cyborg Foundation (2004)[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

bodyNET is an application of human-electronic interaction currently in development by researchers from Stanford University.[31] The technology is based on stretchable semiconductor materials (Elastronic). According to their article in Nature (journal), the technology is composed of smart devices, screens, and a network of sensors that can be implanted into the body, woven into the skin or worn as clothes. It has been suggested, that this platform can potentially replace the smartphone in the future.[32]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[33] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[34] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[35] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[36] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University,[37][38] UC Berkeley,[39][40] and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore,[41][42] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[35] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [43] and PETA [44] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[45] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[46] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[47] Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[48] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[49] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[50]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[51]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[52]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low number of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[53]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[54]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[55]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[56] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[57]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[58] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[59][60] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[61][62] The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[63]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[64]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[65] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[66] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[67]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[68][69] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[68]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[70]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[71]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[72] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[73]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[74]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[75] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[76] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[76]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[77]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[78]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings.Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term.Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[79] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[80] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[81] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[82] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[79]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[83] augmented reality[84] and QR codes[85] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[86][87] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[88]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[89]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[90] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[91] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[92] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[91]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[93] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[94] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[95]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[96] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing number of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[97] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[98] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[99] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[100]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[101]

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

Victor Stone is the son of Silas Stone and Elinore Stone, scientists who use him as a test subject for various intelligence enhancement projects. While these treatments are ultimately successful and Victor’s IQ subsequently grows to genius levels, he grows to resent his treatment.

Victor strikes up a friendship with Ron Evers, a young miscreant who leads him into trouble with the law. This is the beginning of a struggle in which Victor strives for independence, engaging in pursuits of which his parents disapprove, such as athletics and abandoning his studies. Victor’s association with underage criminals leads him down a dark path in which he is often injured, but he still lives a “normal” life in which he is able to make his own decisions. However, this rebellious path does not bury Victor’s conscience considering that he refuses to participate in Evers’ grandiose plans of racially motivated terrorism.

Victor’ situation changes radically when he visits his parent’s lab where experiments in inter-dimensional access are done. At that moment of his entry, an aggressive gelatinous creature was accidentally pulled through and Victor’s mother is killed by it. It then turned on Victor and he was severely injured by its attack before his father was able to send it back to its native dimension.

With his wife dead and his son mutilated, unconscious and near death from the incident, Silas is driven to taken advantage of prototype medical prosthetic research he has access to treat Victor. Unfortunately, Victor only regains consciousness after the extensive artificial limbs and implants were installed in his body without his consent. Victor was horrified at the discovery of the sheer metallic components, which includes most of the left side of his head and face, and raged that he would preferred to die than be such a victim of his father’s manipulations.

Although his bitterness remained for some time, Victor eventually calmed down enough to successfully adjust to his implants physically. However, Victor found himself rejected by the public because of his implants, including his girlfriend who would later thoughtlessly blurt out that she would preferred him dead than be in that state. However, Victor’s conscience was unbowed considering when Evers tried manipulate him into participating in a terrorist attack on the United Nations, Victor decided to equip himself with his weaponized attachments and stop him on the top of United Nations Headquarters.

When Raven assembles the Teen Titans, Victor joins initially for the benefit of a support group of kindred spirits and freaks, and has remained with that group ever since.[1] Fortunately, Victor eventually finds additional new civilian friends of better character such as a group of juveniles who are adjusting to their own prosthetics and idolize him because of his fancy parts and his exciting adventures. It also turns out that their beautiful teacher Sarah Simms, who has often assisted Cyborg and the Titans, admires him as well.

Another person who sees past the cybernetic shell is Dr. Sarah Charles, a S.T.A.R. Labs scientist who helps him to recuperate after having his cybernetic parts replaced. Cyborg and Dr. Charles date for some time and she, along with Changeling, keeps trying to reach him when he is seemingly mindless following the severe injuries he incurs during the “Titans Hunt” storyline.

Although Cyborg’s body was repaired by a team of Russian scientists after the missile crash he had been in, albeit with more mechanical parts than previously, his mind was not. Eventually, his mind was restored by an alien race of computer intelligences called the Technis, created from the sexual union of Swamp Thing and a machine-planet when Swamp Thing was travelling through space. Cyborg, however, had to remain with the Technis both to maintain his mind and because, in return for restoring him, he had to teach them about humanity. He took the name Cyberion, and gradually started becoming less human in outlook, connecting entirely to the Technis planet.

Eventually, Cyberion returned to Earth, establishing a Technis construct on the moon and a smaller base on Earth. With Vic’s consciousness dormant, but his desire for companionship controlling the actions of the Technis’ planet, it began kidnapping former Titans members, his conscious mind so suppressed that he was not only searching for deceased Titans, but even sent one probe looking for himself as Cyborg. He ended up plugging them into virtual reality scenarios, representing what he believed to be their “perfect worlds”; for example, Beast Boy was back with the Doom Patrol, Damage was spending time being congratulated by the Justice Society as a true hero, and Nightwing was confronted by a Batman who actually smiled and offered to talk about their relationship. Although the Titans were freed, there was a strong disagreement between them and the Justice League over what action to take; the League believed that there was nothing left of Victor to save, whereas the Titans were willing to try, culminating in a brief battle, where the Atom and Catwoman (who had followed the Justice League to investigate) sided with the League while the Flash fought with the Titans. While Vic was distracted trying to aid his friends, a Titans team consisting of Changeling and the original five Titans were sent by Raven to try making contact with Vic’s human side, while Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, the Martian Manhunter, Power Girl, Captain Marvel, and Mary Marvel moved the moon back to its proper place. Eventually, thanks primarily to Changeling’s encouragement, and Omen and Raven holding Vic together long enough to come up with a plan, Vic’s consciousness was restored, and “downloaded” into the Omegadrome, a morphing war-suit belonging to former Titan Minion. In the wake of this event, the Titans reformed and Vic was part of the new group.[1] However, he felt less human than ever before.

Shortly after this, Nightwing revealed he had cloned Vic’s body, and by flowing the Omegadrome through the clone, Vic regained his human form, but still had the abilities of the Omegadrome. He often used the Omegadrome to recreate his original look in battle. With his newfound humanity, Vic took a leave of absence, moving first to L.A. with Beast Boy and then to Central City. While in Central City, Vic was involved in one of the Thinker’s schemes, helping Wally hack the Thinker’s attempt to plug himself into the minds of Central City’s population so that Wally could outthink his opponent, though Vic lost the abilities of the Omegadrome in the process.

Vic mentored the new incarnation of the Teen Titans, consisting mainly of sidekicks, most of whom have taken over the identities of former members (i.e. Tim Drake, the third Robin, instead of Dick Grayson, the original Robin and Titans leader), as well as stalwarts such as Starfire, Raven, and Beast Boy, where they have fought enemies such as Deathstroke, Brother Blood, Doctor Light, The Titans Tomorrow, and a brainwashed Superboy and Indigo during a team up with the Outsiders in the Insiders storyline. In the end, Cyborg was the only one capable of standing up to Dr. Light, thanks to his solar shields, although he makes it clear that he only won the fight because the rest of the Titans had softened Light up first.

During the 20052006 storyline “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg joined Donna’s New Cronus team that went to investigate a hole in the universe that was found during the Rann-Thanagar War. He left Beast Boy in charge of the Titans while he was gone. They arrived at the reset center of the universe and with the help of assorted heroes aided in the defeat of Alexander Luthor, who was attempting to recreate the multiverse and build a perfect Earth from it.

According to 52 Week 5, Cyborg was fused together with Firestorm after returning to Earth. This was caused by the energy ripples caused by Alexander Luthor Jr. which altered the Zeta Ray Beams the heroes were going to use to return home.

After being severely damaged during the events of “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg was rebuilt over time in thanks to Tower caretakers Wendy and Marvin. He awoke a year later to find a wholly different Teen Titans being led by Robin, the only member from the team he formed prior to going into space. He is still a member of the team, but feels that Kid Devil and Ravager are hardly worthy Titans, and thus is attempting to find a way to reform “the real Titans”.

After the team along with the Doom Patrol defeated the Brotherhood of Evil, Cyborg asked Beast Boy to rejoin the Titans, but Gar refused, saying that his skills were needed with the Doom Patrol. After returning to Titans Tower, Cyborg began reviewing the security tapes during the last year, in which it appears that he was looked to by all the Titans of the past year for a shoulder to lean on, despite being in a coma-like state.

It appears that although Cyborg has returned to the team, the role of leader is now in the hands of Robin. He does however retain the position of statesman amongst the team and occasionally plays second-in-command.

In Justice League of America (vol. 2) #3, Batman, Wonder Woman, and Superman agree that Cyborg should be offered membership in the new Justice League. However, following a battle against Amazo, Green Lantern and Black Canary take over the formation of the JLA, and Cyborg is not amongst the roster.

In the Teen Titans East one-shot, Cyborg gathered together a new team of Titans. During a training exercise, the group was attacked by Trigon, and Cyborg was blasted by a giant energy beam. He was last seen in a crater, with only his head and torso remaining.

In the aftermath of Trigon’s assault in the Titans East one shot, Cyborg has been placed into a special hoverchair while he recuperates. Cyborg’s body is completely repaired in Titans #5. Soon after, the resurrected and unbalanced Jericho enters Cyborg’s body, using him to manipulate the defenses at Titans Tower to kill the Teen Titans. Jericho’s plans are foiled when Static, the newest Teen Titan, uses his electrical powers to overload the Tower’s systems, causing feedback that knocks Jericho out of Cyborg.[3] After recovering, Cyborg pretends to still have Jericho inside of him, in order to draw out Vigilante, who was currently targeting Jericho. The plot works too well when Vigilante appears and shoots Cyborg in the head.[4]

In an unspecified time during the Teen Titans comics, a man with enhancements similar to Cyborg’s attacks Dr. Sarah Charles on the day of her wedding to Deshaun, a young scientist. Cyborg rushes in for the save, discovering how Deshaun, connected to Project M, has sold the technology used to turn Stone into Cyborg to the military. He also finds that the enhanced man was Ron Evers, once Vic’s best friend now turned terrorist, who was seeking vengeance for the soldiers used as test subjects. After Cyborg manages to calm down his friend and discovers the truth: Mr. Orr, revealed as the mastermind behind Project M’s cyborg research, brings his Stone-derived best subjects: the current Equus, an armored form of the Wildebeest, and a cyberized man sporting enhancements even more powerful than Stone’s current ones called Cyborg 2.0.

Cyborg 2.0 turns out to be the Titans Tomorrow Cyborg 2.0, snatched from his proper timeline and cajoled by Orr into fighting his younger self for the possession of their shared technology and Orr’s permission to use it in the battlefield. Cyborg is soon forced to fight simultaneously against the Phantom Limbs, an elite force of soldiers crippled in the Middle East and restored by his tech, and the Cyborg Revenge Squad, a broader formation composed of the Fearsome Five, Magenta, Girder, the Thinker, and Cyborgirl. Although the Cyborg Revenge Squad soon gains the upper hand, with the help of his fellow Titans Cyborg is able to hold his own in combat, reverse engineer on the fly some of the future technology used by Cyborg 2.0, and enhance his own body enough to win against Mr. Orr. He later decides to get a new lease in life, forgiving Deshaun and Sarah Charles on their wedding day for abusing his technology, resuming dating Sarah Simms and having the Phantom Limbs fitted with new, non-military, prosthetics. It is however implied the Phantom Limbs, unwilling to see Stone’s offer as a sign of good will, are trying to get back their weaponized prosthetics and wait for a rematch.

During the events of Blackest Night, Cyborg joins with Starfire, Beast Boy, and several other heroes to form an emergency team to fight off the army of dead Titans who have been reanimated as Black Lanterns. He later joins in the final battle at Coast City.

Following the dissolution of the current JLA after Justice League: Cry for Justice, Cyborg is invited by Donna to join Kimiyo Hoshi’s new Justice League.[5] He befriends Red Tornado, and claims that he has come up with a plan to make him indestructible.[6]

After a battle with Doctor Impossible’s gang, Cyborg is forced to take a leave of absence from the team in order to not only help rebuild Red Tornado, but also help Roy Harper, who had his arm severed by Prometheus.[7] During this time, Victor leads Superboy and Kid Flash to the city of Dakota to rescue the Teen Titans, who had been defeated and captured by Holocaust.[8] The Titans emerge victorious from the battle after Kid Flash uses his powers to send Holocaust plummeting into the Earth’s inner core.[9]

Despite apparently being written off the team, writer James Robinson explained that Cyborg will continue to have a presence on the JLA, and will even be given a co-feature in the back of the book for Justice League of America #4850.[10] In the co-feature, Cyborg battles Red Tornado after he has been driven insane by the power of the Starheart. In the midst of the battle, a flashback reveals that Victor had rebuilt Red Tornado using self-replicating nanites similar to the ones that Prometheus infected Roy with after cutting off his arm, thus making the android indestructible.[11] Cyborg manages to free Red Tornado his power matrix.[12]

Cyborg briefly appears in Justice League: Generation Lost, where he is shown helping Wonder Woman and Starfire search for Maxwell Lord after his resurrection.[13]

Following an adventure in another dimension, Static is left powerless, and Miss Martian is rendered comatose. Cyborg stops the powerless Static from returning to Dakota, and instead tells him that he and a scientist named Rochelle Barnes will be taking him to Cadmus Labs to find a way to get his powers back and awaken Miss Martian. As Static packs up his belongings, Cyborg and Rochelle have a conversation which reveals that they are lying to Static, and have an ulterior motive for taking the two Titans to Cadmus.[14]

He later appears in the final two issues of The Return of Bruce Wayne, where he helps his former teammate Red Robin in his attempt to stop Bruce Wayne from inadvertently unleashing an apocalyptic explosion of Omega Energy.

Cyborg and Red Tornado later travel to the moon alongside Doctor Light, Animal Man, Congorilla, Zauriel, Tasmanian Devil and Bulleteer as part of an emergency group of heroes gathered to assist the Justice League in their battle against Eclipso. Shortly into the battle, Cyborg and the others are taken over by Eclipso and are turned against their JLA comrades.[15] The reserve JLA members are all freed after Eclipso is defeated.[16]

As of August 2011, Cyborg is featured as one of the main characters in a new Justice League ongoing series written by Geoff Johns and drawn by Jim Lee as part of DC’s The New 52 relaunch. Johns has said of Cyborg, “He represents all of us in a lot of ways. If we have a cellphone and we’re texting on it, we are a cyborgthat’s what a cyborg is, using technology as an extension of ourselves.”[17]

The first storyline takes place five years in the past and details the revised origin of the original Justice League. Victor Stone appears as a high school football star who is heavily sought after by a number of college scouts, but apparently has a distant relationship with his father, Silas. After winning a big game, Victor is shown calling his father and angrily telling him that he broke his promise and missed yet another one of his son’s games.[18] Later Victor appears at S.T.A.R. Labs where his father works. The scientists appear to be working on the Mother Box that Superman came in contact with from the Parademon. Victor engages in another argument with his father and tells him that the scouts were there to give him full scholarships to college. When asking if his father will ever appear at any of his games, his father replies “No.” Just then the Mother Box explodes, killing the other scientists and destroying most of Victor’s body while Victor’s father looks on in horror.[19] Silas does everything he can for Victor’s survival. He along with Sarah Charles, and T. O. Morrow go in “The Red Room” in S.T.A.R. labs which contains every piece of technology from around the world. Silas attempts to treat Victor with something that has never been attempted before and he is seen injecting Victor with some type of nanites and having Dr. Morrow put the robotic pieces on Victor (devices such as: a Promethean skin graft, Doctor William Magnus’ responsometer, Anthony Ivo’s A-maze operating system, The classified and prototypical B-maze operating system and Ryan Choi’s White Dwarf Stabilizer). Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans.[20]

In the following issue we see Victor as Cyborg. As the issue opens Victor cannot feel his hands or legs. He sees himself for the first time with his robotic parts and is panicked by his new body. Suddenly, Parademons burst into the red room and leap toward Sarah Charles. However, Cyborg’s defense systems react, automatically weaponizing his arm into a sound cannon from which he fires his powerful white noise cannon, disintegrating the two Parademons and blasting a gigantic hole in the Star Labs building. After saving Sarah’s life Victor asks his father what has happened to him, his father tells him that he couldn’t let him die. Cyborg obviously distraught exclaims, “You did this to me.” and flees, despite Silas’ plea for him to wait. Later in the street Cyborg sees a woman being set upon by a group of Parademons. He leaps to the woman’s aid, punching the parademon. However, in ensuing scuffle Cyborg inadvertently absorbs some of the Parademon’s components giving him access to Boom Tube technology. This new ability automatically transports or teleports Victor to where Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern, and Aquaman are fighting the Parademons, moments before Darkseid arrives. Cyborg fights alongside the other heroes against Darkseid and his Parademons, but despite their best efforts Darkseid proves to be too strong. Cyborg is able to reverse engineer the alien boom tube technology and with a considerable amount of stress on his systems he is able to teleport all the invading aliens including Darkseid off the planet, saving the Earth. After sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League.

Victor has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity. Cyborg primarily focuses on his super-heroics, aiding Batman and others when he can and monitoring crime through his cybernetics. After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his teammates travel to the Valley of Souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. We learn through a conversation with Flash, that Cyborg questions his humanity now that he is part machine and that he lives on the Watch Tower, the Justice League’s headquarters.[21] Flash cracks a joke in an attempt to lighten the mood and assure Cyborg he is still human. During the Throne of Atlantis storyline, Cyborg at first rejects an upgrade his father has that would allow him to operate underwater at the price of his remaining lung which to him would mean sacrificing more of his humanity.[22] However following the capture of the rest of the Justice League by Orm who sentenced them to the bottom of the ocean, Cyborgas he calls in reserves to hold off Orm’s forcesreluctantly accepts the upgrade.[23] This allows him and Mera to rescue the others.[24]

During the “Trinity War” storyline, Cyborg gets a visual of Shazam heading to Kahndaq, to which Batman assembles the Justice League with the help from Zatanna to meet in Kahndaq to stop Shazam.[25] Following the supposed death of Doctor Light in Kahndaq, Batman tells Superman that Cyborg and Martian Manhunter are doing an autopsy to prove his death was not Superman’s fault.[26] As Wonder Woman leads the Justice League Dark to go look for Pandora, Cyborg is among the superheroes that remain at A.R.G.U.S. while Batman, Flash, Aquaman, Shazam, Steve Trevor, the Justice League of America, Zatanna, and Phantom Stranger go to stop Wonder Woman.[27] Cyborg was present when Atom tells him, Superman, Element Woman and Firestorm the true purpose of the creation of the Justice League of America and that she was spying on the Justice League which is how the Justice League of America ended up in Kahndaq.[28] When the Crime Syndicate arrives on Prime Earth, Cyborg’s old prosthetic parts combine to form a robot called Grid (who is operated by a sentient computer virus).[29] During the Forever Evil event, after Batman and Catwoman drop Cyborg off to his father in Detroit,[30] he makes the choice to willingly receive a new cybernetic body and helps his father and Dr. Morrow create one that is slimmer in appearance so Cyborg could look more human.[31] Working together with the Metal Men created by Doc Magus, Cyborg succeeds in shutting down Grid.[32]

Afterwards Cyborg helped newcomer to the group Shazam fit in with the league as the rest set out to find Power ring’s missing accessory which flew off after the death of the former wearer.[33] While on monitor duty he and Shazam experiment with some of his magical powers to aid in finding the ring after joking of having an Xbox in his left shoulder; only for the young ward to conjure up a ping pong table, which they play while having spare time on their hands.[34] Eventually the call goes out and everyone in the league mobilizes to secure the new rampaging Power Ring before the Doom Patrol does.[35] After coaxing Billy into action against Jessica Cruis, Victor moves in to interface with the ring itself, finding out a great deal about the ring of Volthoom and his current host, only to be forcefully thrown out after the ring entity rejects him by causing his systems to short circuit, removing him from the battle.[36] He is last seen recovering at S.T.A.R. Labs, after Shazam rushed him to the med bay, following the power ring crisis. Cyborg wondered what he saw within the ring, after his dad warned him interfacing with it again could trap him in it forever.[37]

An incident involving Batman’s son, Damian Wayne, during the “Robin Rises Alpha & Omega” story arc in Batman, led up to most of the justice League battling against Glorious Godfrey and a Parademon horde from Apokolips when they captured the chaos shard and the sarcophagus of Damian, before retreating back home.[38] All the league members present, Cyborg included, state to an adamant Bruce Wayne that running headlong into unmarked X-factor territory for a suicide mission was less than ideal, considering the consequences that could befall earth. This eventually culminates with Batman hijacking Cyborg’s teleportation systems, to zip up to the Watchtower in an attempt to retrieve an experimental and highly dangerous combat suit, in order to mete out his agenda; But Cyborg manages to block his administrative access so that he, Shazam, Aquaman, Wonder Woman, Lex and Cold could physically restrain him, causing Batman to begrudgingly give up and retire to the batcave.[39]

After the Bat left, the rest of the Bat Family turned up asking Victor for help with some digitized doppelgangers of baddies that Bruce initially set up in order to distract the League, destabilize watchtower security to secure the Hellbat, and eventually use a personal Mother Box (secured from a Parademon kept in cold storage) to vacate to Apokolips.[40] After making his way to the Batcave to meet with them, he’s directed over to a console which enabled him to directly access the Batcomputer’s more sophisticated systems. However, it was all a ruse utilizing a preemptive countermeasure devised by Batman tailored to Cyborg’s specific weaknesses. Cyborg was temporarily incapacitated and was set into a VR simulation where he relived his more peaceful days in college, while Batgirl went to work on his Motherbox in order to secure a path towards Apokolips and chase after their father. But Victor eventually snapped out of his dream haze and followed them through, angered that they used him in such a way.[40] Cyborg traveled along with Titus, who hitched a ride on his leg, to catch up with the rest of the Batman Family. They all then have a run in with the scavengers of Armegeddo who quickly vacate after some Apokoliptian Hunger Dogs make their way onto the scene. They eventually catch up with the armor-clad Dark Knight ripping his way through a sizable chunk of Apokolips’s forces singlehandedly. Jason Tim and Barbara show Batman the Robin Medals Alfred gave them in order to remind him of his purpose, causing him to snap out of his berserker rage and note that Cyborg had reluctantly accompanied them to Hell itself. Having made their way into Darkseid’s citadel where Kalibak was readying his Chaos Cannon to fire again, the caped crusaders kept Darkseid’s forces occupied while Cyborg made short work of the massive war engine, literally tearing it in half. But when he went to set a timed self-destruct sequence within the Apokoliptian computers, Vic suffered a catastrophic feedback that fried most of his internal systems leaving him inoperable just as Darkseid himself made his appearance.[41]

While Batman fought and held Darkseid off, Cyborg ran Batgirl through a crash course on how to hot wire his own Motherbox. Since Darkseid smashed Batman’s Boom Tube generator, Cyborg was their only chance off Apokolips. After successfully jury-rigging his internal systems, Cyborg and the rest of the Bat rogues made a hasty exit stage left as Bruce powered his recovered fragment of the Chaos Shard with Darkseid’s Omega Effect, blasting Darkseid against a wall to cover their escape.[42] In the aftermath, Cyborg, who is still unable to facilitate himself, wonders what is going on as Damian Wayne is successfully revived, however a second anomaly cranks out of the Boom Tube that was opened and Kalibak comes charging through it. With Kalibak occupied by the rest of the gang, Vic tries his best to reestablish his downed systems. He is successful and gains control over the still-open tube as Batman readies the Batplane. As Batman rams his jet into the evil New God sending him careening back to Apokolips, Cyborg closes the portal banishing Darksied’s first born for good. With the threat over, Cyborg heads back topside to inform the rest of the league of what all transpired and stating he has JL business to attend to.[43]

An eponymous ongoing series, by writer David F. Walker and artist Ivan Reis, debuted in July 2015.[44]

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2017)

As of Rebirth, he is a part of the relaunched Justice League bi-monthly series as well as his own solo monthly series. It is unclear whether he has the ability of flight in Rebirth.

During Dark Nights: Metal, he is captured by the alternate Batmen of the Dark Multiverse, who attempt to hack him in order to learn the secrets of his teammates. As the crisis escalates, Cyborg is confronted by the controlling consciousness of other Mother Boxes, who claim that he will only gain the power to overcome the Dark Batmen if he fully surrenders to the Mother Box that powers his body at the cost of the transformation deleting his old personality. He is nearly tempted to give in to this transformation, but the appearance of Raven’s soul-self convinces him to hold on to himself while partially succumbing to the transformation. This allows him to free his teammates and ‘hack’ the multiverse as they travel to find new allies in the battle against the Dark Batmen.

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Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

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It’s not in the circuitry, is it? It’s not the machine that resists you; it’s me, my spirit! That’s the part you can’t break! I don’t need you to make me a man! I already am one! Cyborg to an overwhelmed Brother BloodCyborgVoiceKhary Payton (English), Ken Uo (Japanese), Daniel Lob (French), Tobias Kluckert (German), Roberto Draghetti (Italian), Kim So-hyung (Korean), Zoltn Dzsa (Hungarian), Onur Glcolu (Turkish)Real name

Victor “Vic” Stone

Elinore Stone (mother, deceased)Silas Stone (father)Tucker Stone (grandfather)Maude Stone (grandmother)

Eating Food,Electronic Gadgets,Fourth of July,Listening to Music,Playing Practical Jokes,Science Fiction Movies,Sports Video Games,Watching TV, Hanging Out With Beast Boy, Playing basketball with Robin, Playing chess with Raven, Lifting weights with Starfire

Brother BloodAnyone who abuses his technology,Being half machine,Gizmo,Losing battles,Not being strong enough,Not Having the remote for the TV,Tofu,Beast Boy losing things,Being ignored by Beast Boy, Starfire’s singing and cookingBeing kicked out of his house

A body made up of entirely robotic systems granting him superhuman strength, resilience to damage, capability to fix many appliances, unsurpassed knowledge of technology and robotics, a cannon built into his arm that can shoot sonic blasts, and numeral other gadgets built into his body

Sonic Cannons built into his arms and numerous other gadgets installed throughout his body

Cyborg (sometimes “Cy”) is the half-cybernetic half-man, chief technological expert and one of the five founding members of the Teen Titans.

Cyborg was a promising strong teenage athlete named Victor Stone before an accident that killed his mother and injured him so severely that his father replaced the damaged body parts with cybernetics to keep his son alive. But since these mechanical parts were not inconspicuous, he was shunned by his home environment and his friends, which frustrated him greatly.

One night, took to the streets wearing a hoodie to cover his cybernetic parts, where he ran into the new arrivals Robin and Beast Boy fighting a rather violent alien girl, who was actually a fugitive from a prisoner transport. Soon joined by the mystery girl Raven, the youngsters teamed up to defeat the girl’s alien captors and formed a permanent team to combat villainy. constructed the Titans Tower and its systems from a Gordanian landing ship, and the team moved into its new headquarters. From that point on served as the team’s chief technician, constructing their primary vehicles such as the T-Car and T-Ship.

Cyborg wearing a hoodie to hide his cybernetics.

In the series’ third season, used the alias of Stone and a pair of holographic rings to infiltrate the H.I.V.E. Academy, which was at that time administered and mind-controlled by Brother Blood.

The Titans exposed and foiled his scheme to utilize a new superweapon called the Ion Amplifier, but in the process unknowingly had the construction plans for his cybernetics copied by Blood, who used them to build new superweapons. Outraged, declared a personal vendetta on Blood and confronted him personally when he attempted to employ a gigantic sonic cannon from an undersea base. However, Blood’s martial arts skills got the better of him, and he won only with Bumblebee’s assistance, who was at that time infiltrating the H.I.V.E. with the help of Aqualad. In order to hunt down Blood and other supervillains more efficiently, helped Bumblebee and Aqualad establish and outfit an Eastern branch of the Titans, with Speedy and Ms y Menos joining the ranks. Soon they were attacked by Blood and an army of -modeled robots, but apparently managed to repel them all. Met with a proposal to remain and become the leader of the Titans East, decided to stay with his new team.

Cyborg as his original “human” self

At one point, attempted to upgrade himself by installing a super-processor chip called Maximum-7 (or Max-7) into his cybernetic brain. Initially it did work for his benefit, boosting his physical and mental processing speed well beyond his former capacities. But when the Titans first engaged Billy Numerous and were unable to catch him, a frustrated and obsessive began shutting down his human personality in order to increase the Max-7’s efficiency, which had the detrimental effect of making him more and more a robot, and eventually this conflict between human and cybernetic nature led to a short-circuit which nearly killed him. The other Titans managed to remove the chip before this could happen, and now restored to his true self, devised a successful plan which brought down Numerous for good.

In the comic series based on the TV show, meets a young teaching volunteer by the name of Sarah Simms. Despite several rocky times they have since formed a very close romance.

Cyborg eating meat

Cyborg is a very outgoing, cool, and fun-loving character who likes to enjoy life, especially since he found friends who consider him a person, not a freak. He is upbeat, smart, funny, and cheerful, but serious and heroic when he needs to be. He likes to enjoy playing video games, tinkering with technological gizmos and eating. He also tends to be stubborn at times and has had some serious arguments with Robin in the past, but he does make a capable second-in-command in Robin’s absence. He also frequently bickers with Beast Boy, mostly about the latter’s culinary taste and habit of misplacing all manners of personal items, though the two entertain a close friendship.

often plays the protective big brother role of the team, getting quite serious when they are upset and does whatever he can to make them feel better. He is never hesitant to put Beast Boy in his place when he thinks the younger Titan is being inconsiderate of Raven’s or Starfire’s feelings. Likewise, Raven and Starfire also do the same for him, evident in Car Trouble and Deception.

Much like the other Titans, does not take betrayal lightly. He hates losing battles, especially to seemingly insignificant opponents. Their first defeat from Terra made him extremely angry with himself, because he had a chance to take a shot but didn’t. He has been known to display emotions of anger (which he often takes out on his friends), frustration, and becoming depressed.

Cyborg’s replacement robot dressed up

One facet of personal vulnerability is ‘s great personal pride in his inventions and constructions. For this reason, he tends to foster an immense dislike for anyone abusing his technology for selfish reasons, especially Gizmo and Brother Blood, and to be overprotective of his most personal projects, like the T-Car.[1][2][3][4]

He also possesses a tremendous appetite, and he will consume any edibles within his reach when hungry. His favorite food is barbecue and he also especially enjoys other meat, milkshakes, pizza, and waffles. The only food he would not voluntarily touch is Starfire’s cooking and tofu (especially since Beast Boy goes to great lengths to try and make him eat it) although he once mistakenly ate the alien meat substitute.

As revealed in Troq, he has a personal dislike for bigots as shown when he became disgusted with Val-Yor when he found out what he had really be calling Starfire.

However, he can be surprised when Beast Boy adopts a more serious persona as shown when he took note of the latter’s behavior when reuniting with the Doom Patrol. He was even more surprised Beast Boy went with them to defeat their old enemies. This likely showed him Beast Boy merely puts up an act, as he had no problem with Beast Boy’s leadership when fighting the Brotherhood of Evil.

Despite this can sometime show his immature side with Beast Boy as they also enjoy playing their favorite game they made up “Stankball”.

Cyborg and Raven fixing the T-Car

Raven and have a fairly stable and healthy relationship. They had very few episodes dedicated to mostly the two of them, but this is likely because the two of them have always been fairly close and comfortable around each other. , despite being the Titan most similar to Beast Boy, is more mature than he is and is more considerate of Raven’s preferences. Raven, for her part, reciprocates this, as she is more patient with than she is with Beast Boy.

often looks out for Raven, making sure that Beast Boy does not go over the top to annoy her or hurt her feelings. In Nevermore, was especially serious with Beast Boy, reminding him that he shouldn’t be messing with her following the prior night’s events, and made sure he went to apologize. Even though he tried to get Raven to play Stank Ball with him and Beast Boy, she clearly stated she doesn’t want to play, which made Beast Boy angry. He called her creepy, with Raven still listening, and told him to leave her be, knowing she wanted to be alone.

In the Teen Titans Go! comics, on Christmas, bought Raven an antique bookcase he knew she wanted, causing Raven to become uncharacteristically elated and showing an appreciation for her tastes and hobbies.

When they first met, Raven felt as if she did not fit in, but reassures her that she fits in just fine. Even though they fight occasionally, they maintain a healthy friendship.

Despite sometimes being a bit inconsiderate of ‘s feelings, Raven never intends to hurt him emotionally. This is evident in Car Trouble, where she initially dismissed ‘s dismay over his stolen T-Car by telling him “Calm down, it’s just a car.” which made rather angry. However she ultimately realizes her fault, and goes to comfort him and help him get his car back. Although he was forced to destroy it, Raven goes as far as to help him rebuild it, further proving their close friendship.

When is the only one left with Raven in Fear Itself, he likely knew she was afraid, and tried to reassure her that they’ll get through the ordeal. being the last Titan to disappear that night may further hint at his big brother role to Raven, being protective of her when she wanted to save Starfire when there was no possible way to.

is shown to often be more understanding of Raven than the other Titans, as he respects her desires to be alone but still tries to include her when he can. Raven, in turn, seems to accept as he is without question and accepts his enthusiasm for his hobbies, even if she does not share it.

makes Raven smile more than anyone else in the series. Her biggest smiles, at least, two episodes centering around ‘s troubles.

Cyborg and Robin fighting

It is revealed that is Robin’s second-in-command.

“I didn’t know you before,so to me – you are normal.”

Starfire and are incredibly close. Their relationship is much like an older brother and younger sister, and is really protective over her. They hardly ever get angry at each other, however, in Final Exam, does lose his temper and hurt Starfire. Despite this, the two have remained extremely close throughout the series.

had helped Starfire greatly in How Long is Forever? when she was pushed forward in time. Even after so many years, cared deeply for Starfire’s well-being. In the series, seems to act like the big brother to Starfire, and Starfire looks up to him.

The two often like to lift weights together, and despite countless times having witnessed Starfire’s impressive strength, is still shocked when she is able to lift heavier weights than he is with relative ease. They are the strongest in the team physically, as their physical prowess far outmatches Robin’s, Raven’s, and even Beast Boy’s.

and Starfire have a practically mirrored personality, both being cheerful yet considerate of others’ feelings, and they seemed to get along well from the very beginning.

In the episode, Troq, was the first one to learn the meaning of the word Val Yor had been calling Starfire, (Troq, which is a slur for literally “nothing”). Because he initially misinterpreted Starfire’s explanation that it meant nothing, he went to call her that, which hurt her deeply. But after learning that it literally meant nothing, went to comfort her. Being half-robot, knows exactly what it is like to be mistreated just for how you look, and completely empathized with her. He then told Robin, who was equally outraged.

also makes note of Starfire’s close relationship with Robin, and in Stranded, he even teased Robin, calling Starfire his girlfriend. And when Starfire and Robin had their first real kiss in the final movie-episode of the series, Trouble in Tokyo, voiced his approval, saying, “Well, it’s about time.”

Cyborg with cannons

This ability has its own cons though. His entire power cell and the whole power of Titans’ Tower is only just enough to make one blast. This is why he only uses it in desperation, and it is much like an ultimate form, much like Beast Boy’s Werebeast form and Raven’s white form.

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Cyborg | Definition of Cyborg by Merriam-Webster

Examples of cyborg in a Sentence

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1960, in the meaning defined above

cybernetic + organism

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Cyborg (Character) – Comic Vine

Current EventsOriginVictor Stone

Victor Stone is the son of Silas and Elinore Stone, two STAR Labs scientists intent on using their research to improve mankind. Silas and Elinore scientific adventures often estranged their son, as they would sometime dedicate more time and toward their work, oppose to him. The two even used their son as a test subject for intelligence-boosting experimentation. While the successful experiment granted Victor a genius-level intellect, he resented his parents for treating him more like a lab subject oppose to a son.

Vic’s resentment caused him to steer away from science and math in high school. Instead, he pursued an interest in athletics, much to his father’s disdain. His life changed profoundly during a visit to STAR Labs to meet up with his parents, who were busy conducting inter-dimensional experiments. The experiment accidentally allowed a protoplasmic creature into the lab. Silas managed to return the creature to its home dimension, but not before it had slain Elinore and severely injured Victor. Desperate to save his son’s life, Silas used untested cybernetic enhancements to rebuild and reconstruct Victor’s body. He succeeded, but didn’t anticipate Victor’s horror and anger at what he had done.

Cyborg was created by Marv Wolfman and George Perez

The reaction of others to his new form made Vic even more resentful, and he isolated himself from his former life as much as possible by moving to Hell’s Kitchen. It was in this bad neighborhood that Raven found Vic and invited him to join the Teen Titans. After the team formed, Vic found a place where he was accepted and appreciated, despite his inhuman appearance. His father, still feeling guilt over what he made his son go through, constructed the Titan’s Tower for his son and his companions. Victor would remain a steadfast member of the Titans for a long time, serving not only as a hero but as a primary supplemental tech source for the team.

After the events of Flashpoint, DC Comics relaunched their entire comic catalog. In this continuity, Cyborg is now one of the seven founding members of the Justice League (replacing the Martian Manhunter), having never served with Teen Titan. He makes his first appearance in Justice League #1 but not as part of the team. In fact, he’s a high school football player who hasn’t even become “Cyborg” yet. After the Darkseid invasion, Victor was gravely injured and later cybernetically enhanced by his father.

Due to the events of Forever Evil, Cyborg gets an upgraded armor that appears to be much slimmer.

Tragedy struck when the Wildebeest Society captured the Titans and more shocking that the leader of the group was their teammate Jericho. Vic was launched in a rocket along with several members and crashed landed in Russia where he was seriously injured and damaged. The Russian scientists with the help of Red Star rebuilt Vic but due to such heavy brain trauma he had become no more than a walking robot with a human appearance. After several months, Vic’s mind started to regain his memories but when the race known as the Technis came to Earth looking for a way to integrate with society and save their race. Cyborg sacrificed himself for both the Earth and the Technis was was rebuilt into Cyberion.

Cyberion became their protector as they traveled throughout the galaxy. Some time later, Cyberion was reunited with his former teammates and engaged in an interstellar conflict which resulted in the destruction of Tamaran. But there was triumph to be found in tragedy: The Titans were able to restore Raven – who was reborn in a golden spirit form. Following that, Raven, Minion and Garfield Logan elected to remain in space as traveling companions to Cyberion. Frightened by Cyberion’s total embrace of technology, Gar left his friend and returned to earth. Jarras Minion also had doubts about Cyberion’s new attitude and decided to leave as well. Jarras, a sworn pacifist, made Victor a gift of his Omegadrome war suit before he left. The Omegadrome allowed Victor to try to carry out his Technis Imperative: To recreate the planet Technis at all costs.

Having collected a planet-size assortment of technological debris, Cyberion journeyed to Earth to turn its moon into a new Technis world and populate it with his Titans allies. The JLA and the Titans first clashed, then united, to prevent Cyberion from destroying the planet while saving Vic’s soul and downloading it into Minion’s morphing battlesuit, the Omegadrome. Vic was later offered a human body if he would help Vandal Savage harvest Addie Kane’s immortal blood. Before he could make a decision, Starfire destroyed Addie’s body, thus robbing Vic of the chance to make a choice. Also, Vic had to remain a member of the team, per a deal that Nightwing made with Batman.

Following the events of his Technis Imperative, the JLA only trusted Vic to remain free if the Titans kept a watchful eye on him. Feeling like he owed his old friend a debt, Nightwing worked constantly to find a cure for Vic’s condition. With Jesse Quick’s help, Victor was given a new lease on organic life with a body cloned from cell samples harvested by the Russian scientists who once spared him.

Though his mind and cybernetic abilities were still encapsulated in the Omegadrome, Victor inhabited a truly biological body. And for the first time in years, Cyborg knew what it is to live and feel and breathe unaided by mechanized parts. Embarking on a new life, Victor Stone left the Titans for the West Coast. Vic Stone later aided the Flash during the “Our Worlds At War” crisis. At that time, Vic started using the golden Omegadrome to morph into a cybernetic form. Cyborg decided to return to adventuring and settled in Keystone City, home of the Flash. But when Vic Stone linked with the evil computerized Thinker in an attempt to stop him from taking over the city, his body became mechanically paralyzed – reverting him to his silver cyborg form.

Shortly afterward, a mysterious android from the future known as Indigo attacked the Titans and Young Justice , resulting in the apparent deaths of Troia and Omen. At Troia’s funeral, Nightwing disbanded this version of the Titans. Meanwhile, members of Young Justice, especially Wonder Girl, felt responsible for the tragic deaths. This led Wonder Girl, Robin, Impulse and Superboy to form a new group of Teen Titans under the guidance of the more experienced Cyborg, Starfire and Beast Boy.

Cyborg, who was damaged in the battle caused by Indigo, has since received an upgrade in his cybernetic parts. He would experience the formation and reformation of the Titans multiple times, mentoring some versions of the team and even starting a short-lived team of his own. But he would always return to the companionship of his original Titans teammates, even to the extent of joining several of them in the Justice League of America.

After the Infinite Crisis Cyborg was fused to Firestorm and entered into a coma. When he finally woke up, he learned that the Teen Titans had dramatically changed. Wonder Girl, Speedy, Kid Flash, Raven, and Beast Boy had left the team; Starfire was lost in space; and Superboy was dead. Along with Robin, Kid Devil, Ravager, and Wonder Girl (who had just rejoined) he started a quest for Raven.

Vic Stone is a star wide receiver for the Ford Titans, a high school football team. He has an interest in super human activities but is more focused on going to college, earning a football scholarship, and hoping his father makes it to his games. Vic and his father have a distant relationship and after missing several games, Victor finally ventures to S.T.A.R Labs to confront him. Silas tells his son that given the current state of metahumans starting to show up around the planet, Vic’s love for football is going to become irrelevant at some point. Discouraged, Victor begins to leave when everything takes a tragic turn, as a Mother Box unit springs to life and opens a Boom Tube. Victor and several scientists are fatally injured or killed by the boom tube energy.

Not intending to lose his son the same way he lost his wife, Silas outfits Vic with experimental bionics that have been reverse engineered from alien technology found around the globe. With aid from T.O. Morrow and Sarah Charles, Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans. After aiding in sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League. He has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity.

After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his team mates travel to the valley of souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death–meaning that part of his soul has left his body. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. The situation lead to Vic embracing who he has become, not a young man who has lost his humanity, but a man who has learned to be a hero through shocking means. Allowing Vic to start to forgive his father, as he knows his father was just trying to save his life.

To help retrieve Superman and Wonder Woman from the depths of the ocean floor, Victor upgraded his suit to have an Environmental Mode that allows him to operate underwater. He then commenced a world wide League recruitment initiate to combat the Atlanteans hostiles

At the conclusion of the Trinity War, all of Victor’s cybernetics were brutally ripped from his body as Grid, a software virus deeply embedded into Victor’s cybernetics, revealed itself. The virus was planted by Atomica to help the Crime Syndicate of America. Atomica told Cyborg about what she did the Justice League and Justice League of America/ She also told him that she was the one that poisoned Superman and put the green Kryptonite in his nervous system where she trigger his heat vision, which killed Dr. Light. Cyborg was upset to hear this happening and all of a sudden she told Cyborg that he also betrayed the Justice League and it was Grid that was in his body. Cyborg body turned in to him as the Justice League and Justice League of America watched in horror and where all in shock to see this happening and that the Crime Syndicate of America was taking over the world they where from Earth 3. Atomica was a spy on both teams and she had all their plans. She was planning for the CSA to come and attack the various Justice Leagues.

Cyborg is kept alive with the help of Simon Baz and Batman. Batman and Catwoman manage to escape and bring along Cyborg to S.T.A.R. Labs to get the help of Victor’s father Silas. Silas is initially reluctant to turn his son back to Cyborg once again for fear of hurting him but Victor pushes him to do so saying that this time it is his choice and he must help stop the Crime Syndicate. Cyborg is given an upgraded more slimmer armor. Cyborg goes to enlist the help of Doctor Will Magnus so that he can revive the Metal Men and fight the Crime Syndicate.

Magnus is also initially unwilling to revive the Metal Men as they were deemed failures the first time, but Cyborg convinces him to do so. The team is once again brought together and they join Cyborg in an attempt to fight. Cyborg directly confronts Grid while the Metal Men help fight the Secret Society members that were with him. Cyborg and Grid both enter the digital world where they do battle with each other. Grid initially appears to have the upper hand in the battle attempting to exploit Cyborg’s human side. However, Cyborg states that he has embraced his tech side and that he is the bridge between human and tech. He manages to shut down Grid and goes into the fallen watchtower where he helps Batman use Wonder Woman’s lasso to free the Justice League teams from the Firestorm matrix.

Cyborg possesses cybernetic enhancements that provide superhuman strength, endurance and durability. Cyborg can also interface with computers. Built into his body-armor were an infrared eye, computer generator, sound amplifier, and special programming adapters that allowed him to interface with other body extensions.

Shape-Change: Cyborg has virtually unlimited shape-changing abilities that allow him to mimic road, air or space vehicles and even reshape his entire body or parts of it to form such complex shapes such as a tank.

Superhuman Strength: At optimal capacity, Vic can lift/press in excess of four metric tons. If he pushes himself, he can even exceed five tons, but not without causing severe stress to his cybernetic components. Recently Victor breaks apart Kalibak’s Chaos Cannon used to destroy planets.

Superhuman Speed/Agility: He possesses a degree of superspeed.

Flight

Sensor Systems/superhuman Senses:. Due cybernetic enhancements their five senses were increased to superhuman levels.

Superhuman Stamina: Victor doesn’t need to sleep,eat or drink. Adding the Environmental Mode (that replaced his last lung) no longer has the need to breathe, and can operate in any area that has no oxygen in space or as in underwater.

Superhuman Durability: The nature of Cyborg’s body provides offers protection against physical and energy attacks,being able to withstand the pressures of the deepest parts of the oceans.

Computer Interfacing: Cyborg is connected with all Earth’s computers and satellites including government agencies, secret service (CIA,MI-6…) and even the Batcomputer.

Technopathy: Since is linked with Earth’s computers and satellites Victor can control any type of technology that have connection with the Internet as well control any form of electronic communication,allowing it to manipulate data or rearrange security privileges. Recently demonstrated the ability to hear Brainiac’s drones communicating with each other.

Teleportation – Cyborg can use Boom Tubes to transport himself and the League to anywhere n Earth and in the Universe,since is stated Darkseid use it to cross dimensions,however one out of every thousand ‘jumps’ results in transporting himself and whoever is with him to Apokolips. Recently installed a silent mode to not be noticed by others,not even Superman couldn’t note him coming.

Integrated Weapons: He had various types of weapons integrated into his cybernetic parts.

When Reverse Flash goes back in time and messes with the timeline, the DC Universe turns into a very different place where the world’s greatest heroes are not how we know them to be. In this timeline Cyborg is America’s greatest hero, and he is based in Detroit where he has his headquarters. When the Amazons and the Atlanteans go to war, Cyborg tries to gather a group of Earth’s superhumans to help stop the war that has ravaged half of Europe. No one joins his group when they find that Batman (Thomas Wayne) has no interest. But before long Barry Allen arrives and convinces Wayne otherwise, and the three set off to gather an army.

Stage actor Ray Fisher portrays the character in the upcoming Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice film. In a brief cameo, Victor’s mangled body is shown being bonded with a Mother Box during one of his father’s experiments.

Ray Fisher reprises his role in the live-action Justice League movie. This movie is directed by Zack Snyder and Joss Whedon, who served as the post-production director of this movie after Snyder stepped down from directing duties. This movie was released on November 17th, 2017.

In this film, Cyborg initially refuses to join the team, though after his father, Silas Stone, is captured, he voluntarily pitches in. He successfully saves his father from the hands of Steppenwolf, and escapes from the water tower from which he resided in. When Superman returned, his offense system kicked in and attacked Superman, which triggered the Man of Steel to fight the League.

Cyborg also played a crucial role in the final act, where he began to separate the Mother Boxes that had formed “The Unity”. With the help of Superman, he succeeded.

Cyborg appears in Justice League: Doom in a major role. The film marks the first time Cyborg has been portrayed as a member of the Justice League in any non-comic form of media. He is voiced by Bumper Robinson. In the film, Cyborg first appears after Batman asks for his help in discovering how the Royal Flush Gang are pulling off a series of impossible heists. Cyborg later rescues Wonder Woman after she is poisoned by Cheetah, and ends up being brought along during the subsequent attempt to rescue the other JLA members. After saving Superman from a Kryptonite bullet, Cyborg helps the Justice League during the final battle against Vandal Savage and his Legion of Doom. After the League saves the Earth from a massive solar flare, Cyborg is officially inducted into the Justice League as the team’s newest member.

He was voiced by Bumper Robinson

Cyborg appears in Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox, an adaptation of Flashpoint. In the film, Cyborg is a member of the League. In the alternate timeline the bulk of the film takes place in, he is depicted as the world’s top hero, since Kal-El never became Superman and most of the rest of the League never came to resemble their classic forms.

He was voiced by Michael B. Jordan.

Cyborg appears in JLA Adventures: Trapped In Time, voiced by Avery Kidd Waddell.

In Justice League: War, based off of the New 52 Justice League Origins comic book by Geoff Johns, Cyborg appears as one of the founding members of the Justice League in light of the invasion of Darkseid. Victor Stone was originally a talented high school football quarterback but has a troubled relationship with his father Silas due to his father’s lack of support for his football playing career. In frustration, Cyborg grabs one of the boom tubes asking whether his work is more important than his own son. The boom tubes suddenly activate at that moment and engulfs Victor. In a last ditch effort to save his son’s life, Silas grafts technology from the red room and successfully saves his son’s life but at the cost of making him a Cyborg at the same time. Cyborg helps the rest of the Justice League in battling Darkseid and his Parademons, with Cyborg having access to almost any technological interface he is able to open up the boom tubes to send them back to Apokolips. At the end of the film, the newly formed Justice League team is introduced to the world and Cyborg seems to have embraced his new role more as he sees his father nod in approval. Cyborg was voiced by Shemar Moore.

Cyborg appears alongside his Justice League teammates in the sequel to Justice League: War, titled: Justice League: Throne of Atlantis. The film is based off of the New 52 comic book story line of the same name and was released in 2015. Shemar Moore reprised his role.

Cyborg appears in Batman Unlimited: Monster Mayhem, voiced by Khary Payton.

Cyborg appears in Justice League vs. Teen Titans, with Shemar Moore once again reprising his role. In the film, it’s shown that he relates more closely to the Titans, as they are closer in age to him.

Cyborg appeared in The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians from 1985 to 1986. He was voiced by Ernie Hudson. Cyborg’s origin was told via a medical journal read by Dr. Martin Stein saying Cyborg was a promising decathlon athlete until an accident destroyed most of his body and his father replaced part of his body with machine parts. Also, he is not a Titan. He becomes fast friends with fellow teammate Firestorm. He is an affiliate of the Justice League of America under Superman. In the introductory episode to Cyborg, “The Seeds of Doom”, Cyborg’s abilities save Earth from Darkseid’s seeds, but as Superman warns, make Darkseid a dangerous enemy to Cyborg, so Cyborg joins the League.

Cyborg appears in the Teen Titans animated series, voiced by Khary Payton. This version of Cyborg is very similar to his comic book counterpart. His nickname is “Cy”, and like his teammates, in the animated series Cyborg is never referred to by his given name; however, he does take the alias “Stone” (based on his real last name) in the Season 3 episode “Deception”. The two main differences are his design and that he is more easygoing than his comics counterpart. His head is considerably more rounded and bald (based on his Titans Hunt counterpart), and his mechanical parts are bulkier. His primary weapon is a sonic cannon housed in his forearm; initially he uses only his right arm to fire, but later episodes reveal that his left arm has an identical cannon built into it as well. Other on-board weapons and tools, such as an acetylene torch, a remote-operated video camera, and several missile launchers, can be deployed as needed, and his arms and legs are detachable.

Cyborg is the Titans’ chief technician and gadgeteer. He is responsible for the construction of the Titan Tower’s electronic and security systems and the team’s main vehicles, the T-Car and the T-Ship. His most dominant personality faults featured in the series are his enormous appetite and a tendency to be overly vain about his work as a result, he fosters a special dislike for those who abuse his devices irresponsibly, especially Gizmo and Brother Blood. On occasion, Cyborg acts as the team’s second-in-command, but he tends to butt heads with Robin on rather trivial matters. In “Cyborg the Barbarian”, he was sent back to 3,000 B.C. There, he met a woman named Sarasim and fell in love with her. The relationship ended when Cyborg was brought back to his own time.

Cyborg’s age is never specified, but he mentions in “Deception” that he never had a chance to finish high school due to circumstances that made him what he is. The only time Cyborg’s personal history has been discussed is in “Deception”, in which he discusses his involuntary cyborg status with Starfire, and in the 4th season episode “The End: Part 2”. In this episode, Trigon creates duplicates of Cyborg, Starfire, and Beast Boy. These duplicates reflect the dark side of each character. During the fight between Cyborg and his duplicate, the dark duplicate says harmful things about Cyborgs mother and her death.

Cyborg appeared in the 15th episode of the fifth season of Smallville on the 16th February 2006 and is played by Lee Thompson Young. In this version, Victor is a former Metropolis High School football star. He is involved in a car accident that kills him, supposedly, and the rest of his family. However, he is secretly rebuilt by Cyntechnics scientists including Dr. Alistair Krieg, who experimented on a group of test subjects. Victor was the only test subject to survive the experiments. Cyntechnics was bought up by LuthorCorp shortly before Victor’s escape. Lex denies any knowledge of Cyntechnics’ secretive activities.

Although Victor’s cybernetic enhancements are entirely on the inside [under his skin] instead of exoskeletal as they are in the comics and other media, a shot of Clark Kent’s X-ray vision reveals that Victor’s cranial armor covers the same-shaped area as it does in the comics. He also bleeds a dark fluid as he does in the comics. Smallville never uses the name “Cyborg” in his first appearance. Instead, Victor refers to his enhancements as bionic.

Lee Thompson Young reprises his role of Cyborg in the season 6 episode “Justice”, episode about Green Arrow gathering together a group of individuals to combat Lex Luthor and his experiments. The episode premiered on 18 January 2007. In this episode, Victor has finally taken the name “Cyborg”, as Green Arrow’s team uses code names. Also on the team are Aquaman and Impulse. While Victor was last seen with a girlfriend named Katherine, he explains that his mechanical parts put a strain on the relationship. After their eventual break up, Victor states that it was Green Arrow who kept him from committing suicide. The episode also shows Cyborg wearing a stylized silver vest and black pants, and utilizing further enhancements Green Arrow gave him. One of his new functions allows him to hack into and disable security systems. While connecting to machines, Cyborg’s left eye glows red.

Teen Titans Go!

Cyborg appears as a member of the Teen Titans in this more humorous take on the DC Universe.

Cyborg appears as a playable character in Lego Batman 2. He has a laser eye and the ability to pull magnetic legos.

Cyborg appears as a playable character in the game. He appears to be a combination of a power/gadget character in game.

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Cyborg (Character) – Comic Vine

cyborg – Wiktionary

Manfred E. Clynes; Nathan S. Kline (September 1960), Cyborgs and space, in Astronautics[1]:

For the exogenously extended organizational complex functioning as an integrated homeostatic system unconsciously, we propose the term Cyborg. The Cyborg deliberately incorporates exogenous components extending the self-regulatory control function of the organism in order to adapt it to new environments. [] The purpose of the Cyborg, as well as his own homeostatic systems, is to provide an organizational system in which such robot-like problems are taken care of automatically and unconsciously, leaving man free to explore, to create, to think, and to feel.

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CyborgVariations:

New 52, Justice League, Rebirth

Cyborg (a.k.a. Victor Stone) is a Super Heroes minifigure who first appears in LEGO Batman 2: DC Super Heroes, LEGO Batman: The Movie DC Super Heroes Unite, and LEGO Batman 3: Beyond Gotham. He was physically released in the set 76028 Darkseid Invasion in 2015.

Cyborg’s head has dark skin, his right half has short black hair and left half is covered by silver plating with red eyes. He has a silver torso with part of his chest exposed and a red circle in the center of his chest, which is covered by silver plating and machinery. His arms are also printed,with part of his skin exposed, and his legs and hips are also silver and covered up with machinery.

Cyborg has dark skin, with the right half of his face being left unotuched by the machinery. He has short, black hair. The left side of his face is covered by a silver helmet with extends around his chin and on his cheeks on the right half of his face. The mask has a red, glowing eye and a small, red circle on the forehead. Cyborg’s face has two expressions, one confident and one angry. Cyborg’s torso is black with the details of his armor, and his arms are pearl silver. The suits’ armored details continue down Cyborg’s legs, which are also pealr silver.

In LEGO Batman 2: DC Super Heroes, Cyborg is magnetic, able to activate machinery, and shoot lasers from his artificial eye. He is unlocked for free-play after the level “Tower Defiance” is completed and is also playable in the story-mode of “Heroes Unite”.

On the portable versions of the game, Cyborg is a playable character in Story Mode of the level “Wayne Industries”. His minikit can be found on the same level, and he costs 100,000 studs. In the portable version, Cyborg has different torso and leg printing.

Half of Victor Stone’s body was destroyed in a tragic accident. He was saved through experimental technology created by his father Silas, and his body parts were replaced with high-tech gadgets and weaponry. To have Vic around people who may understand his condition, Silas asked the Titans to accept Vic among them as Cyborg, and in exchnage Silas built a T-shaped tower as the Titans’ new headquarters.

He is a member of the Justice League, which mainly consists of Superman, Batman, the Flash, Green Lantern, Wonder Woman, Martian Manhunter, Aquaman, and on some occasions Nightwing, Batgirl, and Huntress. He was also a member of the Teen Titans, with notable members consisting of Nightwing, Miss Martian, Blue Beetle, Superboy, Kid Flash, Roy Harper, Tempest, Troia, Raven, Starfire and Beast Boy, who is also Cyborg’s best friend.

In LEGO Batman 2: DC Super Heroes, Cyborg is a member of the Justice League. He is one of the members being monitored by The Martian Manhunter when he checks in on Bruce Wayne.

Later, when Lex Luthor and the Joker attacked Wayne Tower with their Kryptonite powered mech, Cyborg, Batman, Robin, and Green Lantern entered through the bottom of the destroyed tower while Superman and Wonder Woman held it in place. When Green Lantern used a train construct to knock the robot off of the building, Cyborg and the others dove off the edge after it and fought with The Joker. When the robot was defeated, Green Lantern created an elevator and lowered the heroes unable to fly to safety. The Flash and Green Lantern repaired the tower, relieving Superman and Wonder Woman. Cyborg then joined Batman, Robin, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, The Flash, and Martian Manhunter (from the Watchtower) in destroying what was left of the robot, fought with and defeated Joker again, and then tried to avoid Luthor’s weaponry from his back-up mech until Robin and Manhunter could target the Watchtower’s cannon long enough to destroy it.

Cyborg teams up with other DC superheroes to save the world from Brainiac. Cyborg, just like Batman, Robin, Lex Luthor, and the Joker has a wide selection of new suits to help out with stopping Brainiac.

His LEGO Dimensions Figure

Cyborg with the Justice League

Portable Version Back Printing

Cyborg in the new justice league sets

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Cyborg

Victor Stone is a former college athlete and football star. Following a horrible accident, his father Silas Stone, was able to save him via the use of a Mother Box that crafted cybernetics onto him. Victor then became known as the superhero Cyborg.

He would eventually be recruited by Batman and Wonder Woman to become a member of the Justice League, in order to help defend Earth against the imminent alien invasion of Steppenwolf and his Parademon army.

Shortly after joining the team, Cyborg assisted Batman and Flash in resurrecting Superman from the dead. With the team now fully assembled, Cyborg contributes to the successful offensive against Steppenwolf, forcing the alien invasion into retreat. Following this, Cyborg finally reveals himself to the world, becoming an official superhero, as further plans for the Justice League are made by Batman.

Victor Stone prior to his accident.

Victor Stone was born on June 29, 1994, in Gotham City, New Jersey, to Silas Stone and Elinore Stone. At some point Victor’s mother died, leaving Silas to raise him all by himself.[1] While growing up, he often heard rumors about the vigilante known as Batman, but never actually believed them.[2] Victor Stone was an athlete and attended Gotham City University, however, his career was cut short when he was involved in a nearly fatal accident, that mutilated most of his body.[3]

Victor Stone after his accident.

Reduced to nothing more than a torso, head and half of his arms, Victor was kept alive by his father, who attempted every kind of medical procedure to help heal him. Eventually, Silas was desperate enough to try using a government sanctioned cube-shaped piece of alien technology in a final attempt to save his son’s life.

The foreign technology self-activated and levitated over Victor, where it to began crafting cybernetic body parts to replace his lost body parts (while simultaneously granting him knowledge it held). Although this saved Victor’s life, it was undoubtedly very painful, as Victor was seen screaming out in pain.

Footage of this transformation would be obtained from the S.T.A.R. Labs database by Lex Luthor shortly thereafter.[1]

Victor learn his new abilities at home

After his transformation, Victor began hiding from the world at his father’s home. He also hid the Mother Box from his own father and S.T.A.R. Labs. Silas was saddened at his son’s plight, telling that he could have a life if he wanted.

Victor was afraid of his new abilities, noting that every time he woke up in the morning he was different, somehow modified. He worried that what was happening to him was the vanguard of a new alien invasion.

Diana tries to convince Victor to join the team

Using his new abilities to interact with data streams and surveillance cameras, Victor became aware of Bruce’s interest in him. Tracking him down to his home, Victor was in the woods and witnessed Bruce and Diana Prince talk about Steppenwolf and his first invasion of Earth, along with the fact that he was invading once more. Aware that Diana was now looking for him, he hacked into the computers she was using. When Diana asked to meet him face to face, Victor asked why he should trust her. Diana replied that she knew he was at the lake, and if she wanted to attack him, she would have done it then.

Meeting in person, Victor told Diana that he had been doing some tracking, and the invaders they were after were sticking to the dead spots where they could not be detected. Diana tried to reach out to Victor and convince him to join the fight against Steppenwolf, he flew away instead.

Victor realizes that his father was kidnapped

Cyborg decides to help the team

As the Justice League reconvened with Commissioner James Gordon, who filled them in on the missing persons who’ve been reported throughout the precinct and the city. Cyborg showed up to the gathering with additional information on the subject at hand, he was able to deduce the Parademon tracking routes with which to allocate the location they were taking the missing persons to. Figuring out where they were being whisked away for questioning about the location of Steppenwolf’s Mother Box.Having deduced the likeliest point to search; He, Batman and Diana took off without a trace leaving a solemn Gordon with a much befuddled Flash behind in their wake.

Cyborg talking with Batman.

The team goes to find, the team climb up, to find Steppenwolf interrogating the S.T.A.R. Labsemployees about the final Mother Box, which Barry get’s nervous and tell’s the team that he hasn’t done battle before, which Batman says just save one person.

Steppenwolf then grabsSilas Stone, which Cyborg shots Steppenwolf and saves his father, which Wonder Woman helps out buy attacking the Parademons and taking Steppenwolf to a different part of the factory, while Batman fights the Parademons, Barry goes and save one of the employees. Steppenwolf tells the Parademons that he will deal with Diana alone, meanwhile Batman is being attacked by one of the Parademons which he tells Alfred that he needs theNightcrawlerwhich he sents the machine to Bruce.

Flash and Cyborg save all the hostage whichSilas Stonetells Victor that Steppenwolf can not get the final Mother Box. Batman then jumps down into the Nightcrawler and saves Wonder Woman before the Parademons could kill her, The Nightcrawler get’s attacked by Steppenwolf, which Barry helps Wonder Woman get her Sword so she can help Batman.

Cyborg in the Nightcrawler.

Flash and Wonder Woman get attacked by Steppenwolf and the Parademons before Batman helps her by killing one of the Parademons. Cyborg then fall into the Nightcrawler and and hacks it so it in his control, which he uses it against Steppenwolf but falls when Steppenwolf catches a missile and throw it against the wall, which causes the factory to flood which allows Steppenwolf to escape.

Before Diana could get hit with the flooding water, Arthur comes and saves the team by using his tridentto hold back the water while the League escaped.

Cyborg revealing to theJustice Leaguethat he got the lastMother Box.

After the fight with Steppenwolf, After Batman meets with Gordon before Arthur shows up and say that Steppenwolf took the Mother Box from Atlantis, then Victorreveals that he is possession of the finalMother Box, which he hid from his father. The team returns to theBatcavewhich Barry runs around the cave and sits in theBatmobile, before Bruce call for a meeting with the team. Bruce conclusion that they should use the Mother Box to bringSuperman back to live. Hebelieves that they need Superman to restore hope in humanity. Diana and Author are hesitant about the idea, but Bruce forms a secret contingency plan.

TheLeaguewatching the return ofSuperman.

The team put Clark’s body in the waters of theKryptonian ship, using Allen’sSpeed Forceto activate the Box, causing the resurrection of Superman. Which he flies out of the Kryptonian ship and lands inHeroes ParkwhereAquaman, Cyborg,FlashandWonder Woman meet him, which they notice that something is wrong with him, which Clark uses his x-ray vision to scan the League which Stone accidentally launches a projectile at him as his cybernetic body registers a threat to him. Superman attacks Cyborg with his heat vision as the reason of the Justice League tries to calm him down by he over powers them.

Clark vs the Justice League

As the League all jump on top of Superman, Barry runs around him but Superman see him and attacks him. Batman arrives and tries to get Superman to stop fighting the League, but he hits them and asks Batman the same question that Bruce asked him “Tell me, do you Bleed?”. Before Kal-El could kill Bruce,Loisand Alfred to stop him.

Superman calms down and leaves with Lois to theKent Farmwhere he reflects and tries to recover his memories. during the battle Steppenwolf retrievesthe final Mother Box.

Justice Leaguegetting ready to battleSteppenwolf.

The team returns to theBatcavewhere Cyborg figures out Steppenwolf’s plan, Bruce ask Arthur if he can use his powers of talking with aquatic lifeto locate Steppenwolf. Which Arthur responds with the water does the talking but says hell see what he can do. TheJustice LeagueusesFlying FoxtoRussiato stop Steppenwolf from being theMother Boxestogether, the team plan how there going to stop Steppenwolf, Batman tells the team that he going to take out the tower while the reason of the League will separate the Mother Boxes, Batman destroys the tower but also the controls on the Flying Fox didn’t reporting which cause it to crash, but Bruce get in the Batmobile and using a siren to get the attention of the Parademons, this allows the rest to get to the Mother Boxes without any problems.

Cyborg saving Aquaman.

The Parademons attack the Batmobile, ripping of one on the guns that it has and opening up the car before Wonder Woman and the reason the League saves Batman, Arthur jumps on the Batmobile before getting attacked by Parademons which leads Cyborg to save him and throwing him to the other Parademons. The Batmobile get’s knocked which Bruce ejects from the vehicle and using his grapple, swings across to take out the Parademons.

Cyborg fighting Steppenwolf.

Diana confronts Steppenwolf, before Cyborg attacks him which leads to Wonder Woman fighting Steppenwolf, while Flash helps Victor get to the Mother Boxes, which Barry takes care of the Parademons while Cyborg tries to separate the Mother Boxes, Batman saves Barry by grappling his legs from stopping him falling, Bruce takes one of the Parademons guns and fires at them. Steppenwolf finds out the Victor is trying to separate the Mother Boxes, which he grabs him before Wonder Woman saves him.

Alfred informs Bruce that people are in danger which Batman tells Barry that he needs to save the civilians, Diana and Arthur tries to keep Steppenwolf away from Cyborg by using theLasso of Truthto pull him down, Steppenwolf attacks them both before he knocks Arthur into a wall breaking the ceiling before Diana saves him, Cyborg tries to keep Steppenwolf away from him but failures which leads with Steppenwolf pulling of one of his legs.

Cyborg with the Justice League.

Before Steppenwolf could kill Cyborg, Superman comes and saves him, Bruce tells Superman he needs to buy Cyborg some time to separate the Mother Boxes and to help civilians, Superman catches up with Barry saving he got the ones on the right. Victor calls for Superman help with the Mother Boxes, which Steppenwolf attack the Justice League which Superman freezes Steppenwolf’s Axe and Diana breaks it with her Sword, which cause Steppenwolf to be attacked by the Parademons before he returns back toApokolips.

After the accident, however, Victor abandons football and becomes gloomy, secluded, depressed, and even somewhat robotic. Cyborg can also be quite blunt and robotically stiff, sternly pointing out to a person that the latter should have moved out of the path of the Humvee flying right at him.[2] This all stems from the fact that after becoming a cyborg, Victor no longer feels fully human, thinks of himself as a monster, and even Wonder Woman herself was initially unable to persuade him otherwise. However, when his father Silas Stone gets kidnapped by Steppenwolf, Cyborg joins the League without hesitation, and even personally attacks the fearsome New God in order to save him.

Cyborg accepts his condition and upgrade his cybernetics.

After fighting alongside the Justice League for some time, however, Cyborg seems to have warmed a bit to all of his teammates, as he bonds a bit with Flash over their unexpected metahuman power gain (though he still found the latter’s humor a bit annoying[4]), he somewhat bonds with Batman over their engineering expertise, he notably reassures the previously skeptical Aquaman that “the ride ain’t over yet” (before helping the Atlantean fight a group of Parademons), he comes to appreciate Wonder Woman’s emotional support, and even shares a laugh of relief with resurrected Superman (after they successfully pry apart the 3 Mother Boxes). Indeed, Cyborg is the first member of the League to have befriended every single one of his teammates during their first major battle. Superman’s return and the defeat of Steppenwolf finally grants Cyborg the confidence to reveal his cybernetic self to the world, and begin mending his strained relationship with his father, as he is seen beginning to work with Silas at S.T.A.R. Labs.

Cyborg’s automatic cybernetic modification

Cyborg’s flight mode

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