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Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

With an unusually conservative runtime of just under two hours,Justice Leaguehad to cut a number of scenes including a flashback to Cyborgs old life. While audiences are quite familiar with the DCEUs take on Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman,Justice League was able to focus a bit more on the genesis of its other heroes. When it comes to The Flash and Aquaman, most fansof pop culture understand the basics. Still, the film needed to fill in some of their backstory and introduce the updated take on the Leaguers. Cyborg, meanwhile, needed even more of a spotlight.

While fans of theTeen Titans animated series will get the gist of Cyborg, the film version is much more closer to the somber hero from the New 52 run in the comics. There, Victor Stone nearly dies in his fathers S.T.A.R. Labs accident and ends up bonding with the alien Mother Box the elder Stone was studying. The result sees the birth of Cyborg andJustice League hints that all of these events occurred. As a result, he has quite a contentious relationship with his father. What we dont see, however, is Victor before his evolution.

GameSpotspoke with the cast ofJustice League about the various scenes that were cut from the film, and it turns out a look at Cyborgs past had to be removed. Word is that Warner Bros. wantedJustice League under two hours, and that short runtime for a superhero team-up left plenty on the cutting room floor. As Cyborg actor Ray Fisher explains, one moment in particular carried some emotional weight for his character.

There were some things that youll probably end up seeing later on, that didnt make it into this version of the film.Theres a scene with Victor Stone, when he still was Victor Stone, and his mother, that was really special to shoot.

As Fisher alludes, the proposedCyborg film set to arrive in 2020 will be a chance to further explore the new and old versions of Victor Stone. Given his everyman status, Vic would provide the DCEU with a more grounded story albeit one with a superhero whos augmented by alien tech.

ThoughJustice League may have been light on Cyborg backstory, it did offer some teases of the characters complex dynamic with his father. And as Fisher explains, the evolution of their relationship is far from over.

What is great about this film going forward is youll be able to see him rebuild himself mentally the same way that his father rebuilt him physically.And its a process thats going to take time.

From all the trailers and TV spots forJustice League, its clear plenty of material didnt make it into the final cut of the film. Whether a result of Joss Whedons reshoots or the studio mandate to keep things short, we may never know. Theres a good chance, however, that a number of thescenes will end up on the home video release forJustice League. We may even get an extended directors cut from Zack Snyder, something the Justice Leaguefilmmaker is fond of.

Source: GameSpot

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Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

I’m a Cyborg, But That’s OK (2006) – IMDb

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A young woman who believes she’s a cyborg hears voices and harms herself while at work making radios. She’s hospitalized in a mental institution where she eats nothing and talks to inanimate objects. She’s Young-goon, granddaughter of a woman who thought she was a mouse (and whose dentures Young-goon wears) and a mother who’s a butcher without much social grace. Young-goon comes to the attention of Il-sun, a ping-pong playing patient at the institution who makes it his goal to get her to eat. Will he succeed? Which way does sanity lie? Written by

Aspect Ratio: 1.85 : 1

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I’m a Cyborg, But That’s OK (2006) – IMDb

Amber Case: We are all cyborgs now | TED Talk

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Amber Case: We are all cyborgs now | TED Talk

Kevin Warwick | "I feel that we are all philosophers, and …

Kevin Warwick is Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) at Coventry University. Prior that he was Professor of Cybernetics at The University of Reading, England. His research areas are artificial intelligence, control, robotics and biomedical engineering. He is a Chartered Engineer (CEng.) and is a Fellow of The Institution of Engineering & Technology (FIET). He is the youngest person ever to become a Fellow of the City & Guilds of London Institute (FCGI). He is the author or co-author of more than 600 research papers and has written or edited 27 books (three for general readership), as well as numerous magazine and newspaper articles on scientific and general subjects. He has broadcast and lectured widely and holds various visiting professorships.

Kevin was born in Coventry and left school to join British Telecom, at the age of 16. At 22 he took his first degree at Aston University, followed by a PhD and a research post at Imperial College, London. He subsequently held positions at Oxford, Newcastle, Warwick and Reading universities before being offered the DVC post at Coventry.

He has been awarded higher doctorates (DScs) by Imperial College and the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague on different scientific areas. He was presented with The Future of Health Technology Award at MIT (USA), was made an Honorary Member of the Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, was awarded the IEE Senior Achievement Medal in 2004, the Mountbatten Medal in 2008, the Ellison-Cliffe Medal in 2011 from the Royal Society of Medicine and in 2014 was elected as a member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. In 2000 Kevin presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, entitled The Rise of The Robots. He has also been awarded Honorary DSc Degrees by the Universities of Aston, Coventry, Bradford, Bedfordshire, Portsmouth and Kingston and an Honorary DTech Degree by Robert Gordon University.

Kevin instigated a series of pioneering experiments involving the neuro-surgical implantation of a device (Utah Array/BrainGate) into the median nerves of his left arm in order to link his nervous system directly to a computer to assess the latest technology for use with the disabled. The development of the implant technology was carried out by a team of researchers headed by Dr Mark Gasson who, along with Kevin, used it to perform the ground-breaking research. Kevin was successful with the first extra-sensory (ultrasonic) input for a human and with the first purely electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans. His research has been discussed by the US White House Presidential Council on BioEthics, The European Commission and led to him being widely referenced and featured in academic circles as well as appearing as cover stories in several magazines e.g. Wired (USA), The Week (India).

The Institute of Physics selected Kevin as one of only 7 eminent scientists to illustrate the ethical impact their scientific work can have: the others being Galileo, Einstein, Curie, Nobel, Oppenheimer and Rotblat.

His work is used as material in several advanced Level Physics courses in the UK and in many University courses including Harvard, Stanford, MIT & Tokyo. His implants are on display in the Science Museums in London and Naples. As a result, Kevin regularly gives invited Keynote presentations.

Kevins research has involved robotics and he was responsible (with Dr Jim Wyatt) for Cybot, a robot exported around the world as part of a magazine Real Robots this resulted in royalties totalling over 1M for Reading University. Robots designed and constructed by Kevins group (Dr Ian Kelly, Dr Ben Hutt) were on permanent interactive display in the Science Museums in London, Birmingham and Linz.

Some of Kevins recent research involves a collaborative project with the Oxford neurosurgeon, Prof. Tipu Aziz, using intelligent computer methods to predict the onset of Parkinsonian tremors such that they can be stopped by means of a deep brain implant. This work was hailed in the Mail on Sunday as the most significant recent advance in biomedical engineering.

He also led an EPSRC sponsored project in which a cultured neural network (using biological neurons) was trained to control a mobile robot platform. This work, which was reported on in a New Scientist feature article, is now being used as an exercise for high school science studies in the UK. A Youtube video of this research has been downloaded/viewed 1.9 million times.

His presentations include The 1998 Robert Boyle Memorial Lecture at Oxford University, The 2000 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, The 2001 Higginson Lecture at Durham University, The 2003 Royal Academy of Engineering/Royal Society of Edinburgh Joint lecture in Edinburgh, The 2004 Woolmer Lecture at York University, the 2005 Einstein Lecture in Potsdam, Germany and the 2006 IMechE Mechatronics Prestige Lecture in London.The Annual Science Faculty lecture at University of Leicester in 2007. In 2008 the Leslie Oliver Oration at Queens Hospital and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, guest lecture Four weddings and a Funeral for the Microsoft Research Chair. In 2009, Cardiff University, 125th Anniversary Lecture. In 2010 he launched the new Research Institute for Innovation Design and Sustainability at Robert Gordon University and gave the Ellison-Cliffe Lecture at the Royal Society of Medicine in 2011. In 2012 he presented the IET Pinkerton Lecture in Bangalore.

Kevin was a member of the 2001 HEFCE (unit 29) panel on Electrical & Electronic Engineering, was Deputy Chairman for the same panel in the 2007/8 exercise and is a member of the EPSRC Peer College. He also received the EPSRC Millenium Award (2000) for his schools robot league project. Kevins research has featured in many TV and film documentaries, e.g. Inventions that changed the world (BBC2), Late Night with Conan OBrien (NBC), Future Scope (RAI 1) and The Making of I Robot (Twentieth Century Fox/Channel 5). He has appeared 5 times in Time magazine and was selected by Channel 4 as one of the Top 6 UK Scientists for their 2001 series Living Science. In 2002 he was chosen by the IEE as one of the top 10 UK Electrical Engineers.

Kevins research is frequently referred to by other authors recent examples being in books by Robert Winston, Peter Cochrane, Jeremy Clarkson and Susan Greenfield. Kevins implant research was selected by National Geographic International for a 1 hour documentary, entitled I,Human screened in 2007 this was broadcast in 143 countries and translated into 23 different languages. Some of his TV appearances are logged on the imdb website.

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Kevin Warwick | "I feel that we are all philosophers, and …

Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

With an unusually conservative runtime of just under two hours,Justice Leaguehad to cut a number of scenes including a flashback to Cyborgs old life. While audiences are quite familiar with the DCEUs take on Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman,Justice League was able to focus a bit more on the genesis of its other heroes. When it comes to The Flash and Aquaman, most fansof pop culture understand the basics. Still, the film needed to fill in some of their backstory and introduce the updated take on the Leaguers. Cyborg, meanwhile, needed even more of a spotlight.

While fans of theTeen Titans animated series will get the gist of Cyborg, the film version is much more closer to the somber hero from the New 52 run in the comics. There, Victor Stone nearly dies in his fathers S.T.A.R. Labs accident and ends up bonding with the alien Mother Box the elder Stone was studying. The result sees the birth of Cyborg andJustice League hints that all of these events occurred. As a result, he has quite a contentious relationship with his father. What we dont see, however, is Victor before his evolution.

GameSpotspoke with the cast ofJustice League about the various scenes that were cut from the film, and it turns out a look at Cyborgs past had to be removed. Word is that Warner Bros. wantedJustice League under two hours, and that short runtime for a superhero team-up left plenty on the cutting room floor. As Cyborg actor Ray Fisher explains, one moment in particular carried some emotional weight for his character.

There were some things that youll probably end up seeing later on, that didnt make it into this version of the film.Theres a scene with Victor Stone, when he still was Victor Stone, and his mother, that was really special to shoot.

As Fisher alludes, the proposedCyborg film set to arrive in 2020 will be a chance to further explore the new and old versions of Victor Stone. Given his everyman status, Vic would provide the DCEU with a more grounded story albeit one with a superhero whos augmented by alien tech.

ThoughJustice League may have been light on Cyborg backstory, it did offer some teases of the characters complex dynamic with his father. And as Fisher explains, the evolution of their relationship is far from over.

What is great about this film going forward is youll be able to see him rebuild himself mentally the same way that his father rebuilt him physically.And its a process thats going to take time.

From all the trailers and TV spots forJustice League, its clear plenty of material didnt make it into the final cut of the film. Whether a result of Joss Whedons reshoots or the studio mandate to keep things short, we may never know. Theres a good chance, however, that a number of thescenes will end up on the home video release forJustice League. We may even get an extended directors cut from Zack Snyder, something the Justice Leaguefilmmaker is fond of.

Source: GameSpot

Read more:

Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

Gray Fox | Metal Gear Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Gray FoxAlso known as

Blond-white, later gray

Special forces soldier, mercenary

Gray Fox, real name Frank Jaeger, was a mercenary and former agent of U.S. Special Forces Unit FOXHOUND. Originally a child soldier, Jaeger was the only operative in FOXHOUND to achieve the codename “Fox,” the unit’s highest commendation, and was decorated five times.[5]

Fox was Solid Snake’s comrade-in-arms and friend during the Outer Heaven Uprising, but his loyalty to renegade commander Big Boss forced him into combat with Snake during the Zanzibar Land Disturbance. He survived his injuries following an intense battle, after which he was forcibly outfitted with a powered exoskeleton and subjected to intensive gene therapy. Fox later confronted Snake as a neutral force during the Shadow Moses Incident, in the guise of the Cyborg Ninja, before dying at the hands of Liquid Snake and Metal Gear REX.

Frank Jaeger spent his early years fighting as a child soldier.[6]

Frank Jaeger as a child soldier.

As a child soldier, Jaeger fought with FRELIMO guerrillas in the Mozambican War of Independence. Known for his cruel war tactics, he would trick enemies into letting their guard down by acting with “the frankness of a young boy,” before killing them with “the ruthlessness of a hunter.”[7] This earned him the title “Frank Hunter” from his enemies, which evolved into “Frank Jaeger,” as a nod to thelittle German that he spoke.[7] Throughout the war, Jaeger killed dozens of government soldiers from the Portuguese regime.[7] In 1966, renowned mercenary Big Boss became acquainted with Jaeger in Mozambique after stopping him in battle, and placed the young boy into a rehabilitation facility, believing that he would be safe.

While at the rehab center, Jaeger was taken by the CIA and used as a test subject in the “Perfect Soldier Project.” The project turned the boy into a more efficient soldier, capable of killing his targets without remorse, however, it was at a cost. When he was not fighting, he was kept in a fluid-filled sensory deprivation tank which would reset his memories, and suppress his emotions. This intense treatment also enhanced his senses and reflexes allowing him to deflect bullets and become incredibly agile. Because Jaeger was the only surviving test subject of the project, he was deemed a lost number and was given the codename of “Null.”[8]

Frank Jaeger as Null, circa 1970.

As a teenager, Null, a.k.a. the Perfect Soldier, operated as a member of the FOX unit during the San Hieronymo Incident, under the leadership of Gene. His unique Sneaking Suit color during this time was red. He helped the unit to capture Big Boss, and confronted him in battle during the operation, but was unable to defeat him, their fight ending in a stalemate. However, his fight with Big Boss nonetheless lasted long enough for Cunningham and a squad of FOX agents to arrive and capture Big Boss. Null was forced to let Big Boss live due to Cunningham’s insistence that he stand down, though he did so with extreme reluctance.

Despite being laid back into his culture tank, Null’s memories of the battle with Big Boss couldn’t be erased. He first escaped from the tank shortly after Gene’s telephone conversation with Ocelot, killing several FOX agents before finally being subdued by Gene, via throwing knives to the hands and knees, and telekinesis. Driven by a need to kill Big Boss, Null broke free of his chamber a second time and after slaughtering many Soviet soldiers, he confronted Big Boss again at the subpower station. Revealing that his mind was “littered with corpses,” and having an almost fatalistic and nihilistic view on life, he asked Big Boss, “Why won’t you die? What do you hope to accomplish by living?,” before attacking. It was only after this second battle that Big Boss realized who Null really was. Big Boss defeated Null again and convinced him to seek help somewhere outside of the FOX unit.

Afterwards, Jaeger was sent to a hospital, and while he did ultimately survive the events of the San Hieronymo Incident, he was severely wounded both physically and mentally. The doctors and Roy Campbell were also unsure if, after his eventual release from the hospital, he would ever live a normal life after that. Jaeger’s battle data as Null was later recovered by Zero, who then revealed this to Ocelot and requested his assistance in a project.

Frank Jaeger

In 1979, during the Rhodesian Civil War,[9] Jaeger was responsible for killing the parents of a young girl, who would later take the name Naomi Hunter.[10] Feeling immense guilt upon discovering the near-starved child by the Zambezi River, he gave Naomi his rations and chose to adopt her, caring for her as a younger sister.[11] Military analyst Nastasha Romanenko would later speculate that these actions were the result of post-traumatic stress resulting from Fox’s childhood experiences in war.[6] His killing of her parents, and his guilt for the action, would continue to haunt Jaeger for the rest of his life, although he kept the true reason for the loss of her parents a secret from Naomi.[10]

At some point, Jaeger participated in the Mozambican Civil War as a soldier for the RENAMO, but would later endure severe torture in which his nose and ears were cut off. He was ultimately rescued by Big Boss.[12]

It was while in Mozambique during the 1980s that Jaeger’s sister Naomi met Big Boss, who would later take them both to the United States. Jaeger and Big Boss eventually returned to Africa to continue the war, leaving Naomi behind in America.[13]

While living under the alias of “Frank Hunter,” during the 1988 Winter Olympic Games in Calgary, Jaeger became romantically involved with Czech figure skating champion Gustava Heffner. The two tried to elope together, but Western authorities rejected her bid for asylum and she was sent back to her country, where she was stripped of her competition rights. Following this incident, Jaeger developed a great deal of resentment for Cold War politics.[5]

Circa the early 1990s, Jaeger served in the U.S. Special Forces Unit FOXHOUND, with Big Boss himself being reinstated as its commander. Jaeger was the only member to receive the unit’s highest commendation, being awarded with the codename “Fox.”[14] Having been decorated five times, Fox was considered an unofficial leader in FOXHOUND due to his extraordinary soldiering skills and his keen intellect,[15] and was held in high regard among the members of FOXHOUND.[5] During this time, Fox’s real name was classified under National Security.[3]

Gray Fox in 1995.

In 1995, Gray Fox was the FOXHOUND agent assigned to Operation Intrude N312. Fox’s objective was to gather data on a top-secret nuclear weapon that the fortified state of Outer Heaven was secretly developing. After successfully infiltrating Outer Heaven, Gray Fox scouted the first building of the fortress, noting the locations of the inner courtyard, cameras and elevators, along with various weapons and equipment, such as card keys and Beretta handguns. Sometime afterwards, he stumbled upon information relating to the new weapon being developed.[15] However, the mission ended in failure when Fox was captured, though not before relaying the details of his reconnaissance back to FOXHOUND. His final words before his transmission was cut were simply: “Metal Gear…”[15]

In the follow-up mission, known as Operation Intrude N313,[16] Fox was rescued by rookie FOXHOUND member Solid Snake. Fox provided Snake with all the known facts about Metal Gear; a nuclear-equipped walking battle tank.[17] With Fox’s information, Snake located and rescued Metal Gear’s creator, and ultimately destroyed the TX-55 prototype that was under development in Outer Heaven. Following Outer Heaven’s fall, and the revelation of its leader’s identity as Big Boss, all trace of Fox was lost, and it appeared he followed after his commander.[3]

After deserting FOXHOUND, Fox accompanied Big Boss to ZanzibarLand in Central Asia. He assisted in the formation of Zanzibar Land through his participation in the Mercenary War and became Big Boss’ most trusted lieutenant. After their success in the war, Fox was given his own command among Zanzibar Land’s military.[3]

In 1999,the newly-developed Metal Gear Dwas usedto cross Zanzibar Land’s borders and conduct raids against several nuclear disposal sites. This act, along with Zanzibar Land’s kidnapping of Czech biologist Dr. Kio Marv, led to retaliation from FOXHOUND, then under the command of Colonel Roy Campbell. Solid Snake was pulled from retirement and sent to rescue Dr. Marv, with assistance from the CIA. Fox, conflicted over Big Boss’s plans to bring about a new age of global conflict, became a secret informant to his old comrade Snake, justifying it as payback for his selfish desire for battle.[18] During the course of Snake’s mission, Fox began transmitting anonymous messages to him, claiming to be his “number one fan,” in order to help him overcome certain obstacles and traps.

Fox finally met Snake in person at the Bridge of Sorrow, which he destroyed with Metal Gear, before warning Snake to turn back and leave Zanzibar Land.[19][20] This action caused the death of his former lover, Gustava, who had been serving the STB and assisting Snake in the search for Dr. Marv.[21] Fox later contacted Snake when the latter’s elevator in the Tower Building was immobilized. Because Snake ignored his earlier threat, Fox informed him that the two’s friendship was now over. Fox taunted Snake about an impending assault by an assassination squad, the Four Horsemen, but remarking that he would “put up a good fight.”[22] Fox’s words proved true when the squad failed to eliminate Snake, and though his progress was delayed, Snake reached the detention facility where Dr. Marv was held. Assuming his “fan” alias again, Fox then alerted Snake to Night Fright’s presence on the 3rd floor basement, later contacting him again to provide the location of a card key, which Snake required to progress further.[23][24]

Gray Fox shortly after his battle with Solid Snake.

After Snake obtained critical data left behind by a deceased Dr. Marv, Fox activated a pit trap beneath him before he could escape the detention facility. Forcing Snake into an underground facility, Fox, again piloting Metal Gear D, challenged him to a fight, dismissing Dr. Madnar’s claims as to its weaknesses.[25][26] Following Madnar’s advice, Snake attacked the bipedal tank’s feet with frag grenades where its armor was thinnest, and successfully crippled the machine. Fox survived the resulting explosion and was able to steal the cartridge containing Dr. Marv’s OILIX data from Snake.[27] With his opponent having discarded his equipment after having caught on fire,[28] Fox beckoned Snake to fight him unarmed in a room laid with land mines.[29] A fist-to-fist duel then ensued, involving no hatred or murderous intent between the two professionals, with Fox ultimately falling to Snake’s repeated blows.[14] Exhausted, and bleeding from wounds to his head,[30] he told Snake that he had supported Big Boss, not because he felt indebted to the man for saving his life in the past, but because he could only find his purpose in battle, despite professing a hatred for war itself. Fox admitted to providing anonymous tips by radio, with Snake assuring the fallen soldier that Gustava would be waiting for him, for which Fox expressed thanks. Snake then left to confront Big Boss, leaving a presumed dead Fox behind.[18]

Gray Fox as the Cyborg Ninja.

After the defeat of Big Boss and the downfall of Zanzibar Land, Gray Fox’s body, blown apart by a land mine,[31] was secretly recovered by the Patriots.[32][33] Restored through cybernetic surgery, Fox became a guinea pig for FOXHOUND’s chief medic Dr. Clark and her gene therapy experiments.[32] A powered exoskeleton was grafted directly onto his body by inserting a cybernetic module at the skeletal level, granting Fox enhanced strength and agility.[34] Gene therapy was used to help overcome stress concentration and rejection responses.[34]

Subjected to drugs for four years as Dr. Clark and her team continued their research, Fox’s responses to gene therapy would ultimately provide research data for the creation of the Genome Soldiers,[32] while nanomachine technology used to suppress his emotions would later be incorporated into the Sons of the Patriots system.[35]Although the experiments Fox was subjected to were classified, rumors nonetheless circulated about cyborg development occurring.[36]

In 2000,[9] Fox’s adopted sister Naomi Hunter joined FOXHOUND as Dr. Clark’s assistant. She helped Fox to escape his containment in 2003,[9] and summarily covered up his actions when he later killed Dr. Clark, reporting it as a laboratory accident.[37] Fox had actually been used to kill Clark by Big Mama, who had previously recruited Naomi into her organization, as part of a power struggle between opposing factions of the Patriots.[33] Naomi then falsely reported Fox’s death during the supposed accident, and helped him hide out. However, the entire ordeal had left Fox’s mind unstable, causing a rapid deterioration of identity.

With the desire to face Solid Snake once more in combat persisting within his tattered consciousness, Fox set out to confront him during the Shadow Moses Incident in 2005. Equipped with full-body optic camouflage, the Ninja infiltrated Shadow Moses Island in search of Snake, who was on a mission to neutralize a then-renegade FOXHOUND Unit, led by Liquid Snake. The self-titled Sons of Big Boss became aware of the Ninja’s presence on the island after he killed three of their number, resulting in heightened security on the occupied base.[38]

The Ninja first encountered Snake in the base’s armory, after releasing ArmsTech President Kenneth Baker from captivity and attacking FOXHOUND member Revolver Ocelot, severing the latter’s right hand with his high frequency blade. However, he was forced to retreat after the onset of extremely painful spasms, accompanied by electrical discharges from his body.

This was a side effect of imperfect nerve connections resulting from Dr. Clark’s experiments.[39]

The Ninja would later help Snake in his mission by transmitting anonymous messages regarding dangers to Snake, much like he did during Operation Intrude F014, under the alias Deepthroat. This included warning him of hidden Claymore mines north of the tank hangar, and electrified flooring in the nuclear warhead storage building. After taking out a squad of NBC warfare troops ahead of Snake, one of who believed Fox to be a ghost,[40] the Ninja accessed the laboratory of Dr. Hal Emmerich and proceeded to menace the terrified engineer, demanding to know where Snake was. He was confronted by his target shortly thereafter, and told Snake that he was “neither enemy nor friend.” The Ninja’s bizarre appearance and conduct caused Emmerich to comment that the entire scene was akin to an anime, before hiding in a locker. The Ninja challenged Snake to a battle, feeling that his soul could only find respite in a fight to the death, indifferent as to the outcome. His superhuman reflexes and swordsmanship rendered Snake’s gunfire ineffective, only sheathing his sword after Snake engaged him in hand-to-hand combat. At first, Snake did not recognize his opponent, but as the duel progressed Snake began to realize that the Ninja was Gray Fox, and was shocked that he could still be alive. After a time, Snake began to prevail in the battle but before its ultimate conclusion was reached, Fox suffered another painful outburst, and fled the lab. Fox’s overall presence, as well as his killing twelve soldiers by the time Snake was captured, caused Liquid and Ocelot to speculate that Fox’s presence was due to a spy in their midst.[41]

Gray Fox shows his face.

Gray Fox later joined forces with Snake against Metal Gear REX, and managed to damage the mech by attacking it’s radome with his laser gun arm,[42][43] interfering with the sealed cockpit’s sensory input. He also let slip that he was Deepthroat to Snake, and also noted the latter hadn’t aged well.[44] While its pilot, Liquid Snake, attempted to locate the two, Fox took the momentary break in fighting to reveal to Snake his role in the deaths of Naomi Hunter’s parents, and begged him to tell her the truth. Following this exchange, Fox leapt from their hiding spot and again attacked REX. During this second assault, Fox was injured when his left arm was sliced off by the tank’s own laser cannon. He was then pinned against a wall by REX’s cockpit beak, but was able to destroy the radome while immobilized, declaring that “a cornered fox is more dangerous than a jackal!” in response to Liquid’s taunts. Fox was released as REX moved back a short distance, the now-blinded Liquid being forced to open the cockpit, exposing its interior to Snake’s Stinger missiles. Fox ordered Snake to fire on the cockpit, but its close proximity to him made Snake reluctant to do so, unwilling to kill his friend in the process. As Snake hesitated, Fox told him that after being taken from Zanzibar Land, he had neither been truly alive nor truly dead, and that he could finally meet his end with Snake to witness it. As Fox fell to the floor, Liquid tried to kill the Ninja once and for all by crushing him under one of Metal Gear’s massive feet, but Fox’s exoskeleton meant that this first attempt failed. With REX’s second stomp, however, the only man considered worthy of the codename “Fox” was no more. His last words were directed towards Snake:

After escaping the Shadow Moses facility, Snake contacted Naomi, informing her that Fox’s last message was to forget about him and move on with her own life, and that he would always love her. Snake decided not to tell her that Fox had killed her parents because he was the only family Naomi had ever known.

A photo of Frank Jaeger in Naomi’s locket.

During the Big Shell Incident in 2009, Solid Snake referenced Gray Fox’s last words to Raiden when explaining why he was motivated to carry out anti-Metal Gear activities. In addition, the Patriots’ recreation of Shadow Moses for the S3 Plan had Olga Gurlukovich assume the role of the Cyborg Ninja, causing Raiden to think that Fox may have survived, although Snake and several others knew otherwise.

By 2014, the gene therapy and nanomachine research conducted on Frank Jaeger was utilized in the creation of the SOP system.[45] During this time, Naomi carried a picture of her brother within her locket.

During his time as the Perfect Soldier Null, his frequent readjustments following each mission deprived him of both his memories and emotions, his only dreams being of waking up to the corpses of his victims lying in front of him, and waiting in vain for his comrades to rescue him. He harbored fatalistic, borderline nihilistic views on life, feeling that it wouldn’t truly matter if he spared someone or not as they would die eventually anyway. This belief, as well as his conditioning as the Perfect Soldier, resulted in him developing an intense animosity towards Big Boss after being unable to kill him in battle, and questioning his reasons for living.[46] This aspect eventually resulted in Jaeger renouncing his Null identity altogether when he was defeated by Big Boss.

Gray Fox as the Cyborg Ninja.

Gustava Heffner described Jaeger as handsome, well-mannered and intelligent, but always possessed by a level of fear.[47] His cold-blooded nature and extreme tenacity earned him the respect of Solid Snake and others in FOXHOUND, with Snake once considering him better than any other soldier he’d fought with.[5]

Jaeger was fearful around his adopted sister, Naomi, due to the immense guilt that he felt after killing her birth parents. He was reminded of their deaths every time he looked into Naomi eyes.[10]

Fox would become devoted to Big Boss’s cause, serving him at the expense of becoming militarily opposed to his friends such as Solid Snake.

Because of his past as a child soldier, Fox’s need for the battlefield resonated with Big Boss’s vision, despite his own hatred for war itself.[18] Unable to live a peaceful life, it was this helplessness that ultimately led him to side with Big Boss, both feeling that soldiers such as themselves could only find purpose outside of normal society, due to their innate fighting instincts.

After his defeat in Zanzibar Land, Fox developed a yearning for death following his transformation into the Cyborg Ninja, wanting to have one last fight with Solid Snake so he die by the latter’s hand. He believed he had been fated to die in Zanzibar Land and so his spirit was broken after his resuscitation by Dr. Clark. After re-encountering Fox the second time, Snake also speculated that the former couldn’t remember anything about his past besides their fight in Zanzibar Land.[48] Ultimately, he died aiding Snake in his mission to stop Liquid, achieving the peace he had long sought.

Fox is the most recurring boss character in the series, being fought in a total of five boss fights throughout the games (Vamp, Liquid Snake, and Revolver Ocelot are each fought four times, respectively, throughout the series).

Gray Fox (, Gurei Fokkusu?) first appears in the original Metal Gear (spelled “Grey Fox” in the MSX2 version). The player’s initial objective is to rescue him and obtain intel on Metal Gear from him. Fox’s sprite in the MSX2 version was a recolor of the regular prisoner of war sprite (wearing a blue jumpsuit instead of a brown one), or in the case of the NES version, the same as the prisoner of war sprite (as the game’s characters were monochrome). In addition, Fox’s role is very minor, as he only gives Snake the details of the TX-55 Metal Gear and suggests that he find Dr. Madnar before disappearing altogether. Future installments added some more detail to the meeting, revealing that Fox also showed a green Snake “the ropes.”

Fox returns in Metal Gear 2: Solid Snake, where he confronts Snake as an enemy on several occasions, while secretly assisting him as an anonymous informant. Fox’s past is fleshed out in this game and his civilian identity is revealed to be Frank Jaeger (, Furanku Ig?) (“Frank Yeager” in the MSX2 version).

Fox’s portrait was modeled after actor Tom Berenger. In the re-released versions, he was redesigned to resemble his later depiction in Metal Gear Solid. Portions of Fox’s character, namely his first name of Frank, as well as his attempting to elope with a Czech figure skater, were influenced by the novel Crossfire.

It is stated in Metal Gear 2, and again in Metal Gear Solid, that the hand-to-hand battle between Snake and Fox takes place on a minefield. However, while mines are present during the battle, Fox is able to move around freely and can only be defeated by the player. Also, while Fox does “explode” after his defeatand “final conversation” with Snake, this is the case for nearly all the bosses in the game, except Dr. Madnar.

In Metal Gear 2, Fox claims that he was a half-white living in Vietnam, sent to a forced labor camp after the war (19551975), where he was rescued by Big Boss.[49] In addition, the Metal Gear Solid: Official Mission Handbook states that he was born in the 1970s to unknown parents, and was of Vietnamese and German-American descent.[50] However, Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops later contradicts the Handbook’s account with his appearance in 1970, though he retains a German-speaking background. The issue is further confused by Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain, which reveals that Big Boss was in a coma before the Vietnam War ended, and did not recover until 1984.

Fox’s activities in Mozambique, as stated in Metal Gear 2 and referenced in Metal Gear Solid,[51] share many similarities to those later mentioned in Portable Ops, but are actually two different conflicts, namely the Civil War (19641974) and the War of Independence (19771992), respectively. While only the Portable Ops account is mentioned in the Metal Gear Solid 4 Database,[31] Fox’s participation in both wars is entirely plausible.

With these various additions and subtractions to the character’s backstory across various games, Fox’s recollections in Metal Gear 2, regarding the exact number of prior interactions with Big Boss, is somewhat unreliable.[49] Nevertheless, the narrative themes concerned with his victimization as a child soldier and his relationship with Big Boss remains intact.

In the English versions, Gray Fox was voiced by Greg Eagles (credited as George Byrd) in Metal Gear Solid, Rob Paulsen in The Twin Snakes, Super Smash Bros. Brawl, and Metal Gear Solid 4 and Larc Spies in Portable Ops. In Japanese versions, he was voiced by Kaneto Shiozawa in Metal Gear Solid and Metal Gear Solid 4, Takumi Yamazaki (the same man who voiced Ocelot in Metal Gear Solid 3) in Metal Gear Solid: Bande Dessine and Jun Fukuyama in Metal Gear Solid: Portable Ops. In the Japanese versions of Super Smash Bros. Brawl and Metal Gear Solid 4, Fox utilized the vocal archives of Shiozawa due to his death in 2000.

Gray Fox, in the E3 1997 trailer for Metal Gear Solid.

Fox’s Cyborg Ninja design was created by series artist Yoji Shinkawa. The design did not exist in the original concept for Metal Gear Solid, but director Hideo Kojima liked it so much, he decided to incorporate it into the storyline,[52] based on a sketch by “Shin-chan” that he found.[53] When Fox’s face is unmasked in the latter stages of the game, the pupil of one of his eyes is shown to be white.

The codename “Deepthroat,” which Fox used when contacting Snake by Codec to offer him advice, was also the name of the FBI agent who exposed U.S. President Richard Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate scandal. FBI agent William Mark Felt was the real Deepthroat, and he revealed himself to the public in May 2005.

In IDW’s Metal Gear Solid: Official Comic Book, it is hinted that Fox was sent by the Patriots to find and kill Solid Snake, in order to facilitate the job of assassinating him themselves.

Shortly after being defeated by Snake, Fox, while screaming in agony, yells “The…the mediciiiiiine!” Although in-universe, this refers to how he was kept drugged for several months while Dr. Clark experimented on him, the dialogue itself is a reference to a scene to the anime movie Akira, where Tetsuo demands for a stabilizer due to his unstable psychokinetic abilities beginning to mutate his arm.[54]

The Ninja’s role in The Twin Snakes remake was similar to the original game, but was slightly extended due to directorial decisions. Specifically, a new action-packed cutscene shows his slaughter of the Genome Soldiers guarding Dr. Emmerich’s lab, with Snake briefly witnessing this (in the original game, the attack is heard off-screen, with Snake deducing the Ninja’s involvement upon discovering the body-strewn hallway).

Portable Ops, a prequel set two decades before the events of the first Metal Gear, features a teenage Fox as a masked machete-wielding soldier named Null (, Nuru?). The revelation of his identity in Portable Ops is similar to that in Metal Gear Solid; in both cases, his identity is unknown until he is engaged in battle and defeated by the player.

In the novelization of Metal Gear Solid, Fox’s death was portrayed in a slightly different manner than in both the original game and the remake. Namely, Fox managed to destroy Metal Gear REX’s radome at exactly the same time that the mech stepped on him, thus failing to crush him to death in that instant. However, he was still gravely wounded from the attack, and as a result, he died shortly afterwards. The remake, The Twin Snakes, was also slightly different in doing Fox’s death, as it only utilized one stomp attack to kill him, with it gradually delivering an increasing amount of pressure on Fox until his exoskeleton caved. REX then wiped its foot on the floor.

In the novelization, the gun that Fox used against REX was specified to be a portable Vulcan cannon,[55] while in Shinkawa’s character design sheets and product details for the Cyborg Ninja Play Arts Kai action figure, it is simply referred to as a “Laser Gun Arm.”[42][43]

Although Gray Fox himself does not appear in Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, due to it taking place after his death, he is mentioned a few times in the game. Likewise, in Substance, Raiden can wear a Cyborg Ninja outfit bearing multiple similarities to Gray Fox’s exoskeleton in the VR missions.

Gray Fox is referenced several times in Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots. In addition, during the battle with the Suicide Gekkos in Metal Gear REX’s hangar, if the player aims the rail gun at Raiden and Vamp, Snake will verbally say “I can’t do it!”, referencing a similar situation in Metal Gear Solid where the player could aim the Stinger at REX, but Snake is unable to fire due to it carrying the risk of killing Gray Fox (who by that point was pinned to the wall by REX) from the resulting blast.

Fox, as an Assist Trophy in Super Smash Bros. Brawl.

In Super Smash Bros. Brawl, Gray Fox appears as an Assist Trophy who leaps around the arena and attacks opponents with rapid sword-slashes. He also deflects any projectiles fired at him. He also has the ability to reappear from the top of the screen if he falls off the stage. If one of the players is in control of Solid Snake and the Gray Fox assist trophy is activated, the two characters will exchange in dialogue from Metal Gear Solid. An unlockable trophy of Gray Fox exists within the game, with the following text:

Besides his appearance as both a regular and an assist trophy, Gray Fox also appeared as a sticker in the same game. Characters who wore the sticker will increase flinch resistance by 98.

He was also indirectly mentioned twice, both by Solid Snake during Codec calls: When calling Roy Campbell about Fox McCloud, Snake will comment that he’s “getting sick of Foxes”, alluding to both FOXHOUND’s going renegade as well as Gray Fox becoming his enemy in Metal Gear 2. Snake also mentions he empathizes with Marth about getting betrayed by close ones in a Codec conversation with Mei Ling on Marth, alluding to Gray Fox betraying Snake in the same game alongside other characters in other games and betrayal being a repeated theme of the franchise.

ScrewAttack ranked Gray Fox #2 in their Top Ten Ninjas list.

A character in the game Vanquish was named Gray Fox. Coincidentally, the game’s developer, Platinum Games, would later create Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance.

Play Arts Kai has released action figures of Gray Fox in his Cyborg Ninja form, which had three models: One was the regular variant used in the game, one was based on the bonus-colored variant, and the last one was primarily gray. The bonus-colored variant was recently released at the San Diego Comic Con as an exclusive item, alongside four Metal Gear Solid-themed iPhone cases and a 25th Anniversary T-shirt.[56]

He also appeared in Vs. Battle, where he challenged Raiden. Earlier, his skin from Metal Gear Rising had challenged Solidus Snake. In addition, his “Fight to the Death” dialogue with Snake also competed with Sniper Wolf’s Love Letter dialogue in the same contest.

The Gray Fox DLC skin featured in Metal Gear Rising.

Gray Fox is a downloadable costume for Raiden in Metal Gear Rising: Revengeance. The first HD screenshot of the costume was published on January 10, 2013 at 2:50 pm by the Metal Gear Rising Facebook page as a reward for getting 200,000 likes to Metal Gear Rising.[57] The overall design for the Gray Fox skin is based on the Play Arts Kai figure for Gray Fox’s normal appearance. A pre-order also came with the Gray Fox skin, as well as a special weapon called the Fox Blade, based on the weapon Gray Fox used in Shadow Moses. The English Gray Fox trailer also revealed that the Fox Blade was upgradable, and that its limits were “epic.” With it, the player is only required to cut once while in blade mode to get cyborg organs to recharge. In the Japanese DLC skin trailer, when showcasing the Gray Fox skin trailer, it showed Raiden’s Gray Fox skin slaughtering several cyborg ninja soldiers, a reference to a scene in Metal Gear Solid where he first appeared as a Cyborg Ninja. The descriptions for both equipment indicate that the Gray Fox skin was actually a copy of the exoskeleton Gray Fox wore in Shadow Moses, and that the FOX Blade was not only the same weapon, it was also infused with Gray Fox’s soul. Despite the latter description, it does not share any of Gray Fox’s voice actors, unlike the Snake’s Soul Wooden Blade.

Besides the DLC, Gray Fox was indirectly alluded to in an optional Codec conversation with Maverick member Courtney Collins, regarding the advancements in cyborg technology, establishing the cause of his painful spasms in Metal Gear Solid as being from faulty nerve connections to his exoskeleton.[39]

On January 17, 2013, Kojima told IGN that it was the development staff’s decision to use Raiden as the main character of Metal Gear Rising. He admitted that if it were up to him, he would have used Gray Fox instead. He also admitted that had Fox been used, he would have ended up writing and directing the game.[58] Kojima later made a proposal to PlatinumGames about making a sequel where Fox starred as the main character and fought nanomachine-powered zombies. They politely declined.[59]

A Gray Fox skin is unlockable in Ground Zeroes, using graphics from the PlayStation version of Metal Gear Solid, although it is noticeable that he has Solid Snake’s polygonal face and bandana. The specific methods of unlocking the skin involves not only beating the Dj Vu mission on Hard, but also answering the questionaire with 100% accuracy on the same difficulty.[60] Miller when conducting the quiz during either first time playthroughs of the hard difficulty or otherwise redoing the quiz due to failing earlier will also allude to this skin by stating that he has a special bonus thrown in if the player answers all questions correctly,[61] as well as stating upon doing so that he’ll give the bonus later.[62] If the player does a dash, he will move at a superhuman speed and have lightning emit from his legs, similar to Raiden in Jamais Vu, and was also potent enough to kill Ravens and mice via contact.

Aside from the game itself, Gray Fox (identified as Cyborg Ninja) is also an unlockable officer character in the Mother Base Developer on the Metal Gear Solid V: Ground Zeroes Companion App. He is unlockable by achieving 85k points in Deja Vu’s hard mode.

Gray Fox acts as a skin for Venom Snake, alongside Raiden. Running into enemies will knock them down, stunning them long enough for the player to CQC them by the time they get up. The skin can be unlocked for development by getting the Master Certificate (Standard), which is accomplished by completing all regular missions.

Gray Fox helmet.

Pre-ordering the Digital Deluxe Pack in the Japanese version of Metal Gear Survive will have the player acquire a helmet modeled after Gray Fox’s helmet, and will itself feature retractability. In addition, Gray Fox, or rather, his real name of Frank Jaegar, was given an indirect allusion with the Jaegar subclass during the post-game.

In Metal Gear Solid and The Twin Snakes, if the player neither manages, nor attempts, to escape the torture room’s holding cell after Ocelot’sfive torture sessions, Gray Fox will appear and open the door for Snake before disappearing. If player doesn’t get rid of the timer bomb, he calls Snake when timer has 60 seconds left. Also, upon completing the game twice, Gray Fox’s Cyborg Ninja outfit will be changed from blue and brown to red and blue, resembling Spider-Man and Deadpool from Marvel Comics.

If the player uses chaff grenades to attack Gray Fox during the fist fight, he will be stunned, but then tells off Solid Snake for his cheap method of attacking, citing that this was not how Snake usually fights, and resorts to attacking Snake with his sword as a result.

When fighting Null at the power substation, several of his quotes sound a lot more agitated compared to when he said them during the fight at the silo entrance. To unlock Null, simply defeat him both times and begin a second playthrough after beating the game.

In battle, Null uses a Machete for fighting at close quarters and deflecting bullets and uses M10 otherwise. Upon recruitment Null comes with a Machete as a unique weapon with an attack pattern similar to that of the unequipped punch punch kick attack pattern, and the third swipe is always lethal towards non-boss or regular opponents.

Null uses his machete in the left hand while battling him or while playing as him, but in cutscences Null use his machete in the right hand.

During both his boss fights, he says his taunts in a slightly differing tone for each battle. In the Silo Entrance, he says them in a robotic monotone. In the Power Substation, however, he has a noticeable increase of agitation in his tone.

During Act 4, when the player arrives at the Supply Port where REX’s remains are, taking a picture of REX’s left leg will unveil a ghost of Gray Fox while he was a Cyborg Ninja. His calling Snake to warn him about the claymore mines and tank in the canyon area was also an unlockable audio flashback.

In addition, one of his lines during the fight in Metal Gear Solid, “Hurt me more!”, was also the name of a trophy in the game’s trophy patch, unlocked when the player uses the Metal Gear Mk. II/Mk. III to electrocute an enemy soldier.

An imprisoned Gray Fox being rescued by Snake in Metal Gear.

Gray Fox vs. Solid Snake in Metal Gear 2.

Concept art for Gray Fox, including his arm cannon.

Yoji Shinkawa’s sketches of Gray Fox

Gray Fox’s artwork in The Art of Metal Gear Solid.

Concept artwork for Metal Gear Solid.

Alternate red Ninja costume featured in a third playthrough of Metal Gear Solid.

Continued here:

Gray Fox | Metal Gear Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia

Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

This article is about the Teen Titans character. For the character “The Batman” or “Cyborg Superman”, see Hank Henshaw.CyborgCyborg on the cover of Cyborg #1 (September 2015)Art by Ivan ReisPublication informationPublisherDC ComicsFirst appearanceDC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980)Created byMarv WolfmanGeorge PrezIn-story informationFull nameVictor StoneSpeciesHuman turned cyborgTeam affiliationsTeen TitansJustice LeagueS.T.A.R. LabsPartnershipsBeast BoyStarfireGreen Lantern (Hal Jordan)AquamanFlash (Barry Allen)Robin (Dick Grayson)Notable aliasesCyberion, Robotman, Technis, Bionic Man, Cyborg 2.0, Omegadrome, Cy, Sparky, The Man with the Iron Fists, Tin-Man, Silver Fists

Cyborg is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Prez and first appears in a special insert in DC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980). Originally known as a member of the Teen Titans,[1] Cyborg was established as a founding member of the Justice League in DC’s 2011 reboot of its comic book titles and subsequently in the 2016 relaunch of its continuity.

The character appears in the DC Extended Universe, where he is played by actor Ray Fisher. This adaptation of Cyborg had a cameo appearance in the 2016 film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and a main role in the 2017 film Justice League, and is set to appear in a standalone Cyborg film in 2020.

Victor Stone is the son of Silas Stone and Elinore Stone, scientists who use him as a test subject for various intelligence enhancement projects. While these treatments are ultimately successful and Victor’s IQ subsequently grows to genius levels, he grows to resent his treatment. He strikes up a friendship with Ron Evers, a young miscreant who leads him into trouble with the law. This is the beginning of a struggle in which Victor strives for independence, engaging in pursuits of which his parents disapprove, such as athletics and abandoning his studies. Victor’s association with underage criminals leads him down a dark path in which he is often injured, but he still lives a “normal” life in which he is able to make his own decisions. He occasionally refuses to participate in Evers’ grandiose plans of racially motivated terrorism.

Vic joins the Teen Titans, initially for the benefit of a support group of kindred spirits and freaks and has remained with that group ever since.[1] His teammates are like a group of juveniles who are adjusting to their own prosthetics for they idolize him because of his fancy parts and his exciting adventures. It also turns out that their beautiful teacher Sarah Simms, who has often assisted Cyborg and the Titans, admires him as well.

Another person who sees past the cybernetic shell is Dr. Sarah Charles, a S.T.A.R. Labs scientist who helps him to recuperate after having his cybernetic parts replaced. Cyborg and Dr. Charles date for some time and she, along with Changeling, keeps trying to reach him when he is seemingly mindless following the severe injuries he incurs during the “Titans Hunt” storyline.[citation needed]

Although Cyborg’s body was repaired by a team of Russian scientists after the missile crash he had been in, albeit with more mechanical parts than previously, his mind was not. Eventually, his mind was restored by an alien race of computer intelligences called the Technis, created from the sexual union of Swamp Thing and a machine-planet when Swamp Thing was travelling through space. Cyborg, however, had to remain with the Technis both to maintain his mind and because, in return for restoring him, he had to teach them about humanity. He took the name Cyberion, and gradually started becoming less human in outlook, connecting entirely to the Technis planet.

Eventually, Cyberion returned to Earth, establishing a Technis construct on the moon and a smaller base on Earth. With Vic’s consciousness dormant, but his desire for companionship controlling the actions of the Technis’ planet, it began kidnapping former Titans members, his conscious mind so suppressed that he was not only searching for deceased Titans, but even sent one probe looking for himself as Cyborg. He ended up plugging them into virtual reality scenarios, representing what he believed to be their “perfect worlds”; for example, Beast Boy was back with the Doom Patrol, Damage was spending time being congratulated by the Justice Society as a true hero, and Nightwing was confronted by a Batman who actually smiled and offered to talk about their relationship. Although the Titans were freed, there was a strong disagreement between them and the Justice League over what action to take; the League believed that there was nothing left of Victor to save, whereas the Titans were willing to try, culminating in a brief battle, where the Atom and Catwoman (who had followed the Justice League to investigate) sided with the League while the Flash fought with the Titans. While Vic was distracted trying to aid his friends, a Titans team consisting of Changeling and the original five Titans were sent by Raven to try making contact with Vic’s human side, while Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, the Martian Manhunter, Power Girl, Captain Marvel, and Mary Marvel moved the moon back to its proper place. Eventually, thanks primarily to Changeling’s encouragement, and Omen and Raven holding Vic together long enough to come up with a plan, Vic’s consciousness was restored, and “downloaded” into the Omegadrome, a morphing war-suit belonging to former Titan Minion. In the wake of this event, the Titans reformed and Vic was part of the new group.[1] However, he felt less human than ever before.

Shortly after this, Nightwing revealed he had cloned Vic’s body, and by flowing the Omegadrome through the clone, Vic regained his human form, but still had the abilities of the Omegadrome. He often used the Omegadrome to recreate his original look in battle. With his newfound humanity, Vic took a leave of absence, moving first to L.A. with Beast Boy and then to Central City. While in Central City, Vic was involved in one of the Thinker’s schemes, helping Wally hack the Thinker’s attempt to plug himself into the minds of Central City’s population so that Wally could outthink his opponent, though Vic lost the abilities of the Omegadrome in the process.

Vic mentored the new incarnation of the Teen Titans, consisting mainly of sidekicks, most of whom have taken over the identities of former members (i.e. Tim Drake, the third Robin, instead of Dick Grayson, the original Robin and Titans leader), as well as stalwarts such as Starfire, Raven, and Beast Boy, where they have fought enemies such as Deathstroke, Brother Blood, Doctor Light, The Titans Tomorrow, and a brainwashed Superboy and Indigo during a team up with the Outsiders in the Insiders storyline. In the end, Cyborg was the only one capable of standing up to Dr. Light, thanks to his solar shields, although he makes it clear that he only won the fight because the rest of the Titans had softened Light up first.

During the 20052006 storyline “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg joined Donna’s New Cronus team that went to investigate a hole in the universe that was found during the Rann-Thanagar War. He left Beast Boy in charge of the Titans while he was gone. They arrived at the reset center of the universe and with the help of assorted heroes aided in the defeat of Alexander Luthor, who was attempting to recreate the multiverse and build a perfect Earth from it.

According to 52 Week 5, Cyborg was fused together with Firestorm after returning to Earth. This was caused by the energy ripples caused by Alexander Luthor Jr. which altered the Zeta Ray Beams the heroes were going to use to return home.

After being severely damaged during the events of “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg was rebuilt over time in thanks to Tower caretakers Wendy and Marvin. He awoke a year later to find a wholly different Teen Titans being led by Robin, the only member from the team he formed prior to going into space. He is still a member of the team, but feels that Kid Devil and Ravager are hardly worthy Titans, and thus is attempting to find a way to reform “the real Titans”.

After the team along with the Doom Patrol defeated the Brotherhood of Evil, Cyborg asked Beast Boy to rejoin the Titans, but Gar refused, saying that his skills were needed with the Doom Patrol. After returning to Titans Tower, Cyborg began reviewing the security tapes during the last year, in which it appears that he was looked to by all the Titans of the past year for a shoulder to lean on, despite being in a coma-like state.

It appears that although Cyborg has returned to the team, the role of leader is now in the hands of Robin. He does however retain the position of statesman amongst the team and occasionally plays second-in-command.

In Justice League of America (vol. 2) #3, Batman, Wonder Woman, and Superman agree that Cyborg should be offered membership in the new Justice League. However, following a battle against Amazo, Green Lantern and Black Canary take over the formation of the JLA, and Cyborg is not amongst the roster.

In the Teen Titans East one-shot, Cyborg gathered together a new team of Titans. During a training exercise, the group was attacked by Trigon, and Cyborg was blasted by a giant energy beam. He was last seen in a crater, with only his head and torso remaining.

In the aftermath of Trigon’s assault in the Titans East one shot, Cyborg has been placed into a special hoverchair while he recuperates. Cyborg’s body is completely repaired in Titans #5. Soon after, the resurrected and unbalanced Jericho enters Cyborg’s body, using him to manipulate the defenses at Titans Tower to kill the Teen Titans. Jericho’s plans are foiled when Static, the newest Teen Titan, uses his electrical powers to overload the Tower’s systems, causing feedback that knocks Jericho out of Cyborg.[2] After recovering, Cyborg pretends to still have Jericho inside of him, in order to draw out Vigilante, who was currently targeting Jericho. The plot works too well when Vigilante appears and shoots Cyborg in the head.[3]

In an unspecified time during the Teen Titans comics, a man with enhancements similar to Cyborg’s attacks Dr. Sarah Charles on the day of her wedding to Deshaun, a young scientist. Cyborg rushes in for the save, discovering how Deshaun, connected to Project M, has sold the technology used to turn Stone into Cyborg to the military. He also finds that the enhanced man was Ron Evers, once Vic’s best friend now turned terrorist, who was seeking vengeance for the soldiers used as test subjects. After Cyborg manages to calm down his friend and discovers the truth: Mr. Orr, revealed as the mastermind behind Project M’s cyborg research, brings his Stone-derived best subjects: the current Equus, an armored form of the Wildebeest, and a cyberized man sporting enhancements even more powerful than Stone’s current ones called Cyborg 2.0.

Cyborg 2.0 turns out to be the Titans Tomorrow Cyborg 2.0, snatched from his proper timeline and cajoled by Orr into fighting his younger self for the possession of their shared technology and Orr’s permission to use it in the battlefield. Cyborg is soon forced to fight simultaneously against the Phantom Limbs, an elite force of soldiers crippled in the Middle East and restored by his tech, and the Cyborg Revenge Squad, a broader formation composed of the Fearsome Five, Magenta, Girder, the Thinker, and Cyborgirl. Although the Cyborg Revenge Squad soon gains the upper hand, with the help of his fellow Titans Cyborg is able to hold his own in combat, reverse engineer on the fly some of the future technology used by Cyborg 2.0, and enhance his own body enough to win against Mr. Orr. He later decides to get a new lease in life, forgiving Deshaun and Sarah Charles on their wedding day for abusing his technology, resuming dating Sarah Simms and having the Phantom Limbs fitted with new, non-military, prosthetics. It is however implied the Phantom Limbs, unwilling to see Stone’s offer as a sign of good will, are trying to get back their weaponized prosthetics and wait for a rematch.

During the events of Blackest Night, Cyborg joins with Starfire, Beast Boy, and several other heroes to form an emergency team to fight off the army of dead Titans who have been reanimated as Black Lanterns. He later joins in the final battle at Coast City.

Following the dissolution of the current JLA after Justice League: Cry for Justice, Cyborg is invited by Donna to join Kimiyo Hoshi’s new Justice League.[4] He befriends Red Tornado, and claims that he has come up with a plan to make him indestructible.[5]

After a battle with Doctor Impossible’s gang, Cyborg is forced to take a leave of absence from the team in order to not only help rebuild Red Tornado, but also help Roy Harper, who had his arm severed by Prometheus.[6] During this time, Victor leads Superboy and Kid Flash to the city of Dakota to rescue the Teen Titans, who had been defeated and captured by Holocaust.[7] The Titans emerge victorious from the battle after Kid Flash uses his powers to send Holocaust plummeting into the Earth’s inner core.[8]

Despite apparently being written off the team, writer James Robinson explained that Cyborg will continue to have a presence on the JLA, and will even be given a co-feature in the back of the book for Justice League of America #4850.[9] In the co-feature, Cyborg battles Red Tornado after he has been driven insane by the power of the Starheart. In the midst of the battle, a flashback reveals that Victor had rebuilt Red Tornado using self-replicating nanites similar to the ones that Prometheus infected Roy with after cutting off his arm, thus making the android indestructible.[10] Cyborg manages to free Red Tornado his power matrix.[11]

Cyborg briefly appears in Justice League: Generation Lost, where he is shown helping Wonder Woman and Starfire search for Maxwell Lord after his resurrection.[12]

Following an adventure in another dimension, Static is left powerless, and Miss Martian is rendered comatose. Cyborg stops the powerless Static from returning to Dakota, and instead tells him that he and a scientist named Rochelle Barnes will be taking him to Cadmus Labs to find a way to get his powers back and awaken Miss Martian. As Static packs up his belongings, Cyborg and Rochelle have a conversation which reveals that they are lying to Static, and have an ulterior motive for taking the two Titans to Cadmus.[13]

He later appears in the final two issues of The Return of Bruce Wayne, where he helps his former teammate Red Robin in his attempt to stop Bruce Wayne from inadvertently unleashing an apocalyptic explosion of Omega Energy.

Cyborg and Red Tornado later travel to the moon alongside Doctor Light, Animal Man, Congorilla, Zauriel, Tasmanian Devil and Bulleteer as part of an emergency group of heroes gathered to assist the Justice League in their battle against Eclipso. Shortly into the battle, Cyborg and the others are taken over by Eclipso and are turned against their JLA comrades.[14] The reserve JLA members are all freed after Eclipso is defeated.[15]

As of August 2011, Cyborg is featured as one of the main characters in a new Justice League ongoing series written by Geoff Johns and drawn by Jim Lee as part of DC’s The New 52 relaunch. Johns has said of Cyborg, “He represents all of us in a lot of ways. If we have a cellphone and we’re texting on it, we are a cyborgthat’s what a cyborg is, using technology as an extension of ourselves.”[16]

The first storyline takes place five years in the past and details the revised origin of the original Justice League. Victor Stone appears as a high school football star who is heavily sought after by a number of college scouts, but apparently has a distant relationship with his father, Silas. After winning a big game, Victor is shown calling his father and angrily telling him that he broke his promise and missed yet another one of his son’s games.[17] Later Victor appears at S.T.A.R. Labs where his father works. The scientists appear to be working on the Mother Box that Superman came in contact with from the Parademon. Victor engages in another argument with his father and tells him that the scouts were there to give him full scholarships to college. When asking if his father will ever appear at any of his games, his father replies “No.” Just then the Mother Box explodes, killing the other scientists and destroying most of Victor’s body while Victor’s father looks on in horror.[18] Silas does everything he can for Victor’s survival. He along with Sarah Charles, and T. O. Morrow go in “The Red Room” in S.T.A.R. labs which contains every piece of technology from around the world. Silas attempts to treat Victor with something that has never been attempted before and he is seen injecting Victor with some type of nanites and having Dr. Morrow put the robotic pieces on Victor (devices such as: a Promethean skin graft, Doctor William Magnus’ responsometer, Anthony Ivo’s A-maze operating system, The classified and prototypical B-maze operating system and Ryan Choi’s White Dwarf Stabilizer). Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans.[19]

In the following issue we see Victor as Cyborg. As the issue opens Victor cannot feel his hands or legs. He sees himself for the first time with his robotic parts and is panicked by his new body. Suddenly, Parademons burst into the red room and leap toward Sarah Charles. However, Cyborg’s defense system’s reacts automatically weaponizing his arm into a sound cannon from which he fires his powerful white noise cannon, disintegrating the two Parademons and blasting a gigantic hole in the Star Labs building. After saving Sarah’s life Victor asks his father what has happened to him, his father tells him that he couldn’t let him die. Cyborg obviously distraught exclaims, “You did this to me.” and flees, despite Silas’ plea for him to wait. Later in the street Cyborg sees a woman being set upon by a group of Parademons. He leaps to the woman’s aid, punching the parademon. However, in ensuing scuffle Cyborg inadvertently absorbs some of the Parademon’s components giving him access to Boom Tube technology. This new ability automatically transports or teleports Victor to where Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern, and Aquaman are fighting the Parademons, moments before Darkseid arrives. Cyborg fights alongside the other heroes against Darkseid and his Parademons, but despite their best efforts Darkseid proves to be too strong. Fortunately, Cyborg is able to reverse engineer the alien boom tube technology and with a considerable amount of stress on his systems he is able to teleport all the invading aliens including Darkseid off the planet, saving the Earth. After sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League.

Victor has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity. Cyborg primarily focuses on his super-heroics, aiding Batman and others when he can and monitoring crime through his cybernetics. After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his teammates travel to the Valley of Souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. We learn through a conversation with Flash, that Cyborg questions his humanity now that he is part machine and that he lives on the Watch Tower, the Justice League’s headquarters.[20] Flash cracks a joke in an attempt to lighten the mood and assure Cyborg he is still human. During the Throne of Atlantis storyline, Cyborg at first rejects an upgrade his father has that would allow him to operate underwater at the price of his remaining lung which to him would mean sacrificing more of his humanity.[21] However following the capture of the rest of the Justice League by Ohm who sentenced then to the bottom of the ocean, Cyborg as he calls in reserves to hold off Ohm’s forces reluctantly accepted the upgrade.[22] This allows him and Mera to rescue the others.[23]

During the “Trinity War” storyline, Cyborg gets a visual of Shazam heading to Kahndaq, to which Batman assembles the Justice League with the help from Zatanna to meet in Kahndaq to stop Shazam.[24] Following the supposed death of Doctor Light in Kahndaq, Batman tells Superman that Cyborg and Martian Manhunter are doing an autopsy to prove his death was not Superman’s fault.[25] As Wonder Woman leads the Justice League Dark to go look for Pandora, Cyborg is among the superheroes that remain at A.R.G.U.S. while Batman, Flash, Aquaman, Shazam, Steve Trevor, the Justice League of America, Zatanna, and Phantom Stranger go to stop Wonder Woman.[26] Cyborg was present when Atom tells him, Superman, Element Woman and Firestorm the true purpose of the creation of the Justice League of America and that she was spying on the Justice League which is how the Justice League of America ended up in Kahndaq.[27] When the Crime Syndicate arrives on Prime Earth, Cyborg’s old prosthetic parts combine to form a robot called Grid (who is operated by a sentient computer virus).[28] During the Forever Evil event, after Batman and Catwoman drop Cyborg off to his father in Detroit,[29] he makes the choice to willingly receive a new cybernetic body and helps his father and Dr. Morrow create one that is slimmer in appearance so Cyborg could look more human.[30] Working together with the Metal Men created by Doc Magus, Cyborg succeeds in shutting down Grid.[31]

Afterwards Cyborg helped newcomer to the group Shazam fit in with the league as the rest set out to find Power ring’s missing accessory which flew off after the death of the former wearer.[32] While on monitor duty he and Shazam experiment with some of his magical powers to aid in finding the ring after joking of having an Xbox in his left shoulder; only for the young ward to conjure up a ping pong table, which they play while having spare time on their hands.[33] Eventually the call goes out and everyone in the league mobilizes to secure the new rampaging Power Ring before the Doom Patrol does.[34] After coaxing Billy into action against Jessica Cruis, Victor moves in to interface with the ring itself finding out a great about the ring of Volthoom and his current host only to be forcefully thrown out after the ring entity rejects him causing his systems to short circuit taking him out of the battle.[35]

He is last seen recovering at S.T.A.R. Labs after Shazam rushed him too the med bay after the power ring crisis was handled. While Superman and Lex Luthor battled Gorilla Grodd Cyborg gave Billy the okay to head out and see if they needed help as the former wondered what he saw within the ring after his dad warned him interfacing with it again could trap him in it forever.[36]

Afterwards, Lex Luthor and Captain Cold were accepted onto the team. An incident involving Batman’s son, Damian Wayne, during the “Robin Rises Alpha & Omega” story arc in Batman led up to most of the justice League battling against Glorious Godfrey and a Parademon horde from Apokolips when they captured the chaos shard and the sarcophagus of Damian and later fled back home.[37] All the league members present, Cyborg included, state to an adamant Bruce Wayne that running headlong into unmarked X-factor territory for a suicide mission was less than ideal considering the consequences that could befall earth. This all boils over, eventually culminating with Batman hijacking Cyborg’s teleportation systems to zip up to the Watchtower in an attempt to retrieve an experimental and highly dangerous combat suit in order to mete out his agenda; But Cyborg manages to block his administrative access so that he, Shazam, Aquaman, Wonder Woman, Lex and Cold could physically restrain him, causing Batman to begrudgingly give up and retire to the batcave.[38]

After the Bat left, the rest of the Bat Family turned up asking Victor for help with some digitized doppelgangers of baddies that Bruce initially set up in order to distract the League, destabilize watchtower security to secure the Hellbat, and eventually use a personal Mother Box (secured from a Parademon kept in cold storage) to vacate to Apokolips.[39] After making his way to the Batcave to meet with them, he’s directed over to a console which enabled him to directly access the Batcomputer’s more sophisticated systems. However, it was all a ruse utilizing a preemptive countermeasure devised by Batman tailored to Cyborg’s specific weaknesses. Cyborg was temporarily incapacitated and was set into a VR simulation where he relived his more peaceful days in college, while Batgirl went to work on his Motherbox in order to secure a path towards Apokolips and chase after their father. But Victor eventually snapped out of his dream haze and followed them through, angered that they used him in such a way.[39] Cyborg traveled along with Titus, who hitched a ride on his leg, to catch up with the rest of the Batman Family. They all then have a run in with the scavengers of Armegeddo who quickly vacate after some Apokoliptian Hunger Dogs make their way onto the scene. They eventually catch up with the armor-clad Dark Knight ripping his way through a sizable chunk of Apokolips’s forces singlehandedly. Jason Tim and Barbara show Batman the Robin Medals Alfred gave them in order to remind him of his purpose, causing him to snap out of his berserker rage and note that Cyborg had reluctantly accompanied them to Hell itself. Having made their way into Darkseid’s citadel where Kalibak was readying his Chaos Cannon to fire again, the caped crusaders kept Darkseid’s forces occupied while Cyborg made short work of the massive war engine, literally tearing it in half. But when he went to set a timed self-destruct sequence within the Apokoliptian computers, Vic suffered a catastrophic feedback that fried most of his internal systems leaving him inoperable just as Darkseid himself made his appearance.[40]

While Batman fought and held Darkseid off, Cyborg ran Batgirl through a crash course on how to hot wire his own Motherbox. Since Darkseid smashed Batman’s Boom Tube generator, Cyborg was their only chance off Apokolips. After successfully jury-rigging his internal systems, Cyborg and the rest of the Bat rogues made a hasty exit stage left as Bruce powered his recovered fragment of the Chaos Shard with Darkseid’s Omega Effect, blasting Darkseid against a wall to cover their escape.[41] In the aftermath, Cyborg, who is still unable to facilitate himself, wonders what is going on as Damian Wayne is successfully revived, however a second anomaly cranks out of the Boom Tube that was opened and Kalibak comes charging through it. With Kalibak occupied by the rest of the gang, Vic tries his best to reestablish his downed systems. He is successful and gains control over the still-open tube as Batman readies the Batplane. As Batman rams his jet into the evil New God sending him careening back to Apokolips, Cyborg closes the portal banishing Darksied’s first born for good. With the threat over, Cyborg heads back topside to inform the rest of the league of what all transpired and stating he has JL business to attend to.[42]

An eponymous ongoing series, by writer David F. Walker and artist Ivan Reis, debuted in July 2015.[43]

This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2017)

As of Rebirth, he is a part of the relaunched Justice League bi-monthly series as well as his own solo monthly series. It is unclear whether he has the ability of flight in Rebirth.

During Dark Nights: Metal, he is captured by the alternate Batmen of the Dark Multiverse, who attempt to hack him in order to learn the secrets of his teammates. As the crisis escalates, Cyborg is confronted by the controlling consciousness of other Mother Boxes, who claim that he will only gain the power to overcome the Dark Batmen if he fully surrenders to the Mother Box that powers his body at the cost of the transformation deleting his old personality. He is nearly tempted to give in to this transformation, but the appearance of Raven’s soul-self convinces him to hold on to himself while partially succumbing to the transformation. This allows him to free his teammates and ‘hack’ the multiverse as they travel to find new allies in the battle against the Dark Batmen.

Large portions of Victor Stone’s body have been replaced by advanced mechanical parts (hence the name Cyborg), granting him superhuman strength, speed, stamina, and flight. His mechanically-enhanced body, much of which is metallic, is far more durable than a normal human body. Cyborg’s internal computer system can interface with external computers. Other features include an electronic ‘eye’ which replicates vision, but at a superhuman level. His mechanical parts contain a wide variety of tools and weapons, such as a grappling hook/line and a finger-mounted laser. Perhaps his most frequently-used weapon is his sound amplifier (often referred to as his “white sound blaster” in the comic books; the Teen Titans animated series calls it a “sonic cannon”), which can be employed at various settings either to stun the ears of his foes or to deliver concentrated blasts of sound potent enough to shatter rock or deform steel.[44]

In addition to his mechanical enhancements, Stone possesses an “exceptionally gifted” level of intelligence; his IQ has been measured at 170.[45]

Cyborg has tinkered over time with his cybernetic parts, enhancing his functions and abilities to levels beyond those set by his father. One feature that sets him apart from the “mass production” version built by Project M is a self-repair system, able to flawlessly repair the mechanical parts of his body, no matter how worn out they are, and even improve the health of the still biological parts to an unknown degree.

Cyborg’s New 52 (DCnU) functions

Cyborg possesses cybernetic enhancements that provide superhuman strength, endurance and durability. Cyborg can also interface with computers. Built into his body-armor are an infrared eye with HUD, a bionic ear that allows him to hear sounds from long distance, computer generator, sound amplifier (similar to a sonic cannon), and special programming adapters that allow him to interface with other body extensions. This enhances his durability, strength, speed, and endurance. He also has multiple sensors, and can fly via rocket boosters. While he can use Boom Tubes, he usually use Jump Jets to help him leap great distances. His body can also absorb technology at will, as well as control technology and shift his body. He can also emit an EMP blast to disable any electrical devices within a fifty-meter radius, codenamed the “Heart Attack”. His body uses the Grid, a program Vic and Batman created to help him better manage the constant flow of uploading and downloading data he receives on a constant basis; it acts as his solipisistic engram into the Cyberverse/Digitalverse where he can better prioritize and interface with the worldwide networking system, focusing on high-priority items and filter out other received data. As part of the events of the Throne of Atlantis Aquaman crossover, Cyborg’s lungs were replaced by cybernetic lungs that allow him to breathe underwater. His body can also regenerate from damage, and he can enhance his strength.

After he lost his original cybernetic enhancements which became Grid at the end of the Trinity War arc,[30] during the Forever Evil event, he has his father Silas Stone and Dr. Morrow help create a new cybernetic body. As explained in that issue, by cutting down on strength, speed, and stamina, Cyborg’s new cybernetic body looks slimmer in appearance as Victor describes looking more human compared to looking like a tank. It is unknown whether or not Cyborg had re-integrated the technology stripped from him after Grid’s defeat. After a run in with alternate universe invaders calling themselves the “Techbreakers,” Cyborg’s systems had undergone a complete systems overhaul causing a new operating system to come online restoring him to life and healing his damaged circuitry as well as reintegrating his ruined flesh into it, turning him into a full on Techno-Organic being.[46]

In the Flashpoint event, the timeline is greatly altered. In this alternate version of events, Cyborg is America’s greatest superhero (occupying the role held by Superman in DC’s standard timeline). He attempts to put together a group to stop the war between Aquaman and Wonder Woman’s forces. However, the heroes he approaches all refuse, after Batman declines.[47] Cyborg connects the resistance member Lois Lane to spy on the Amazons for any information.[48] Cyborg rescues people in the subway station from arsonist Heat Wave.[49] Abin Sur crashes on Earth; he is subsequently taken into custody by Cyborg and the US government to be questioned about his reasons for being on Earth. When Abin Sur is recovering, he is on a mission to retrieve the Entity, however Cyborg convinces him to join with Earth’s heroes.[50] Afterwards, Cyborg is seen talking with the President in his headquarters in Detroit. The President states that Steve Trevor sent a signal to the resistance but was intercepted by a traitor among the heroes that Cyborg tried to recruit and suspicion leads to the Outsider. For Cyborg’s failure, he is relieved of duty as the Element Woman sneaks into the headquarters. Later, Cyborg is called by Batman and the Flash for help in tracking down “Project: Superman”, the government branch responsible for ‘raising’ Kal-El after his rocket destroyed Metropolis upon its arrival. Cyborg and them agree to join the cause to stop Wonder Woman and Aquaman, but only if Batman gets to choose who to recruit, and Cyborg agrees as long as he comes with them. The three sneak into the government underground bunkers, and the group comes across a giant vault door bearing the Superman logo. Cyborg opens the door and sees a weakened Kal-El, with the arrival of guards. Forced to escape, Kal-El’s powers begin to manifest and flies off leaving them at the hands of the guards.[51] While they are fending off the guards, they are rescued by Element Woman. Later, Cyborg and other heroes arrive at the Marvel Family’s place helping the Flash from drastically forgetting his memories. After the Flash is recovering, he asked to stop the Atlantean/Amazon war from casualty, although Cyborg and the heroes are not willing unless Batman wants to join them, because Cyborg explains to him that they believe Batman was invincible. However, the Flash convinces him that no one is invincible and the group of heroes are agreeing to join the Flash. The heroes arrive at New Themyscira to stop the Atlantean/Amazon war, and the Flash tells Cyborg to find Aquaman’s ultimate bomb to dispose of it.[52]

In the Titans Tomorrow storyline, a future version of Victor Stone called Cyborg 2.0 is a member of Titans East. He is shown having similar plating as the animated Cyborg from the Teen Titans animated series.[53]

An alternate version of Cyborg appears as part of the Justice League of Earth-23 in the DC Multiverse.[54]

Cyborg appears as the third Robotman as part of Superman’s Justice League. Robotman is now completely liquid metal. He is petrified by the nuclear blast.

Cyborg appears as a character in the prequel comic to the game, where he joins Superman’s Regime to force peace on the world. He serves as Superman’s eyes and ears over the world, offering insight on any activity deemed disruptive. At the end of Year Two he discovers someone is trying to hack into the Regime’s system during a war with the Green Lantern Corps (Oracle) and goes to the Watchtower to locate her. Jim Gordon follows and corners him, managing to rip Cyborg’s metallic face plate off and knock him unconscious, stopping the locating sequence. Cyborg spends most of the next year a prisoner of the Insurgency until he is released when the two groups collide in a battle that nearly destroys them when Trigon and Mr. Mxyzptlk get involved. In Year Four he and the Regime are confronted by the Greek Gods, who want Superman to step down as ruler. While the Regime is forced to go underground, they come together to defeat the gods once and for all. During Year Five tension grows among the Regime because of Superman’s growing hostility and controversial decisions, such as enlisting the aid of villains to help the Regime. Cyborg is especially disgusted when he discovers that during a rally with supporters of the Joker who reject Superman, the Man of Steel killed over two hundred defenseless protesters in anger. Batman and Batwoman later go to the Hall of Justice to kidnap Cyborg because he is the only one aware of this and has the information stored in his data. He is incapacitated and taken underground to the ruins of Metropolis where Batgirl works to find the data and reveal to the world. While they succeed in finding it, Raven casts a massive black out over the world to prevent the video from being seen, and the Insurgency is forced to retreat before Flash comes to get Cyborg. Superman has Cyborg erase any data containing information on his killings so the incident will not repeat itself.

Cyborg appears in a prequel comic to the sequel game. He remained in prison with Superman, even after the League of Assassins and impostor Batman’s Suicide Squad raid the Ryker’s Island to free only Damian Wayne/the current Nightwing.

Cyborg appears in the DC Extended Universe played by Ray Fisher. He first appears in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice in a brief sequence of footage that is viewed by Wonder Woman. The footage depicts Cyborg’s origin story. Fisher reprises the character in the Justice League films: the first was released on November 17, 2017, its sequel, and the standalone Flash film Flashpoint. A standalone Cyborg film is scheduled for April 3, 2020.[56][57] In the films, his cybernetic parts are 100% CGI.[58]

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Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

Cyborg | DC

Nowadays, everyones juggling an offline and online persona. But only one hero is a literal marriage of technology and man. Half human, half machine, Victor Stone is Cyborg, a digital and physical tankand a true superhero for the modern age.

Although a star athlete, Vic Stone only yearned for his fathers approval. But Dad was too focused on his scientific career to notice until the day Vic became his greatest experiment. After Vic suffered a grave injury, his father saved him by replacing over half his body with cybernetic parts.

Now Cyborg is plugged into every computer on Earth, and no firewallor brick wallcan keep him out. While his cybernetic enhancements provide superhuman strength, speed, and endurance, that same technology destroys his chances to live as a professional athlete. Now flourishing in the digital realm, Vic is desperately alone in the physical worldand still longs for his fathers affection. Hungry to find purpose again, he fights alongside the Worlds Greatest Super Heroes.

Here is the original post:

Cyborg | DC

Cyborg | DC

Nowadays, everyones juggling an offline and online persona. But only one hero is a literal marriage of technology and man. Half human, half machine, Victor Stone is Cyborg, a digital and physical tankand a true superhero for the modern age.

Although a star athlete, Vic Stone only yearned for his fathers approval. But Dad was too focused on his scientific career to notice until the day Vic became his greatest experiment. After Vic suffered a grave injury, his father saved him by replacing over half his body with cybernetic parts.

Now Cyborg is plugged into every computer on Earth, and no firewallor brick wallcan keep him out. While his cybernetic enhancements provide superhuman strength, speed, and endurance, that same technology destroys his chances to live as a professional athlete. Now flourishing in the digital realm, Vic is desperately alone in the physical worldand still longs for his fathers affection. Hungry to find purpose again, he fights alongside the Worlds Greatest Super Heroes.

Continued here:

Cyborg | DC

Cyborg (Character) – Comic Vine

Current EventsOriginVictor Stone

Victor Stone is the son of Silas and Elinore Stone, two STAR Labs scientists intent on using their research to improve mankind. Silas and Elinore scientific adventures often estranged their son, as they would sometime dedicate more time and toward their work, oppose to him. The two even used their son as a test subject for intelligence-boosting experimentation. While the successful experiment granted Victor a genius-level intellect, he resented his parents for treating him more like a lab subject oppose to a son.

Vic’s resentment caused him to steer away from science and math in high school. Instead, he pursued an interest in athletics, much to his father’s disdain. His life changed profoundly during a visit to STAR Labs to meet up with his parents, who were busy conducting inter-dimensional experiments. The experiment accidentally allowed a protoplasmic creature into the lab. Silas managed to return the creature to its home dimension, but not before it had slain Elinore and severely injured Victor. Desperate to save his son’s life, Silas used untested cybernetic enhancements to rebuild and reconstruct Victor’s body. He succeeded, but didn’t anticipate Victor’s horror and anger at what he had done.

Cyborg was created by Marv Wolfman and George Perez

The reaction of others to his new form made Vic even more resentful, and he isolated himself from his former life as much as possible by moving to Hell’s Kitchen. It was in this bad neighborhood that Raven found Vic and invited him to join the Teen Titans. After the team formed, Vic found a place where he was accepted and appreciated, despite his inhuman appearance. His father, still feeling guilt over what he made his son go through, constructed the Titan’s Tower for his son and his companions. Victor would remain a steadfast member of the Titans for a long time, serving not only as a hero but as a primary supplemental tech source for the team.

After the events of Flashpoint, DC Comics relaunched their entire comic catalog. In this continuity, Cyborg is now one of the seven founding members of the Justice League (replacing the Martian Manhunter), having never served with Teen Titan. He makes his first appearance in Justice League #1 but not as part of the team. In fact, he’s a high school football player who hasn’t even become “Cyborg” yet. After the Darkseid invasion, Victor was gravely injured and later cybernetically enhanced by his father.

Due to the events of Forever Evil, Cyborg gets an upgraded armor that appears to be much slimmer.

Tragedy struck when the Wildebeest Society captured the Titans and more shocking that the leader of the group was their teammate Jericho. Vic was launched in a rocket along with several members and crashed landed in Russia where he was seriously injured and damaged. The Russian scientists with the help of Red Star rebuilt Vic but due to such heavy brain trauma he had become no more than a walking robot with a human appearance. After several months, Vic’s mind started to regain his memories but when the race known as the Technis came to Earth looking for a way to integrate with society and save their race. Cyborg sacrificed himself for both the Earth and the Technis was was rebuilt into Cyberion.

Cyberion became their protector as they traveled throughout the galaxy. Some time later, Cyberion was reunited with his former teammates and engaged in an interstellar conflict which resulted in the destruction of Tamaran. But there was triumph to be found in tragedy: The Titans were able to restore Raven – who was reborn in a golden spirit form. Following that, Raven, Minion and Garfield Logan elected to remain in space as traveling companions to Cyberion. Frightened by Cyberion’s total embrace of technology, Gar left his friend and returned to earth. Jarras Minion also had doubts about Cyberion’s new attitude and decided to leave as well. Jarras, a sworn pacifist, made Victor a gift of his Omegadrome war suit before he left. The Omegadrome allowed Victor to try to carry out his Technis Imperative: To recreate the planet Technis at all costs.

Having collected a planet-size assortment of technological debris, Cyberion journeyed to Earth to turn its moon into a new Technis world and populate it with his Titans allies. The JLA and the Titans first clashed, then united, to prevent Cyberion from destroying the planet while saving Vic’s soul and downloading it into Minion’s morphing battlesuit, the Omegadrome. Vic was later offered a human body if he would help Vandal Savage harvest Addie Kane’s immortal blood. Before he could make a decision, Starfire destroyed Addie’s body, thus robbing Vic of the chance to make a choice. Also, Vic had to remain a member of the team, per a deal that Nightwing made with Batman.

Following the events of his Technis Imperative, the JLA only trusted Vic to remain free if the Titans kept a watchful eye on him. Feeling like he owed his old friend a debt, Nightwing worked constantly to find a cure for Vic’s condition. With Jesse Quick’s help, Victor was given a new lease on organic life with a body cloned from cell samples harvested by the Russian scientists who once spared him.

Though his mind and cybernetic abilities were still encapsulated in the Omegadrome, Victor inhabited a truly biological body. And for the first time in years, Cyborg knew what it is to live and feel and breathe unaided by mechanized parts. Embarking on a new life, Victor Stone left the Titans for the West Coast. Vic Stone later aided the Flash during the “Our Worlds At War” crisis. At that time, Vic started using the golden Omegadrome to morph into a cybernetic form. Cyborg decided to return to adventuring and settled in Keystone City, home of the Flash. But when Vic Stone linked with the evil computerized Thinker in an attempt to stop him from taking over the city, his body became mechanically paralyzed – reverting him to his silver cyborg form.

Shortly afterward, a mysterious android from the future known as Indigo attacked the Titans and Young Justice , resulting in the apparent deaths of Troia and Omen. At Troia’s funeral, Nightwing disbanded this version of the Titans. Meanwhile, members of Young Justice, especially Wonder Girl, felt responsible for the tragic deaths. This led Wonder Girl, Robin, Impulse and Superboy to form a new group of Teen Titans under the guidance of the more experienced Cyborg, Starfire and Beast Boy.

Cyborg, who was damaged in the battle caused by Indigo, has since received an upgrade in his cybernetic parts. He would experience the formation and reformation of the Titans multiple times, mentoring some versions of the team and even starting a short-lived team of his own. But he would always return to the companionship of his original Titans teammates, even to the extent of joining several of them in the Justice League of America.

After the Infinite Crisis Cyborg was fused to Firestorm and entered into a coma. When he finally woke up, he learned that the Teen Titans had dramatically changed. Wonder Girl, Speedy, Kid Flash, Raven, and Beast Boy had left the team; Starfire was lost in space; and Superboy was dead. Along with Robin, Kid Devil, Ravager, and Wonder Girl (who had just rejoined) he started a quest for Raven.

Vic Stone is a star wide receiver for the Ford Titans, a high school football team. He has an interest in super human activities but is more focused on going to college, earning a football scholarship, and hoping his father makes it to his games. Vic and his father have a distant relationship and after missing several games, Victor finally ventures to S.T.A.R Labs to confront him. Silas tells his son that given the current state of metahumans starting to show up around the planet, Vic’s love for football is going to become irrelevant at some point. Discouraged, Victor begins to leave when everything takes a tragic turn, as a Mother Box unit springs to life and opens a Boom Tube. Victor and several scientists are fatally injured or killed by the boom tube energy.

Not intending to lose his son the same way he lost his wife, Silas outfits Vic with experimental bionics that have been reverse engineered from alien technology found around the globe. With aid from T.O. Morrow and Sarah Charles, Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans. After aiding in sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League. He has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity.

After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his team mates travel to the valley of souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death–meaning that part of his soul has left his body. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. The situation lead to Vic embracing who he has become, not a young man who has lost his humanity, but a man who has learned to be a hero through shocking means. Allowing Vic to start to forgive his father, as he knows his father was just trying to save his life.

To help retrieve Superman and Wonder Woman from the depths of the ocean floor, Victor upgraded his suit to have an Environmental Mode that allows him to operate underwater. He then commenced a world wide League recruitment initiate to combat the Atlanteans hostiles

At the conclusion of the Trinity War, all of Victor’s cybernetics were brutally ripped from his body as Grid, a software virus deeply embedded into Victor’s cybernetics, revealed itself. The virus was planted by Atomica to help the Crime Syndicate of America. Atomica told Cyborg about what she did the Justice League and Justice League of America/ She also told him that she was the one that poisoned Superman and put the green Kryptonite in his nervous system where she trigger his heat vision, which killed Dr. Light. Cyborg was upset to hear this happening and all of a sudden she told Cyborg that he also betrayed the Justice League and it was Grid that was in his body. Cyborg body turned in to him as the Justice League and Justice League of America watched in horror and where all in shock to see this happening and that the Crime Syndicate of America was taking over the world they where from Earth 3. Atomica was a spy on both teams and she had all their plans. She was planning for the CSA to come and attack the various Justice Leagues.

Cyborg is kept alive with the help of Simon Baz and Batman. Batman and Catwoman manage to escape and bring along Cyborg to S.T.A.R. Labs to get the help of Victor’s father Silas. Silas is initially reluctant to turn his son back to Cyborg once again for fear of hurting him but Victor pushes him to do so saying that this time it is his choice and he must help stop the Crime Syndicate. Cyborg is given an upgraded more slimmer armor. Cyborg goes to enlist the help of Doctor Will Magnus so that he can revive the Metal Men and fight the Crime Syndicate.

Magnus is also initially unwilling to revive the Metal Men as they were deemed failures the first time, but Cyborg convinces him to do so. The team is once again brought together and they join Cyborg in an attempt to fight. Cyborg directly confronts Grid while the Metal Men help fight the Secret Society members that were with him. Cyborg and Grid both enter the digital world where they do battle with each other. Grid initially appears to have the upper hand in the battle attempting to exploit Cyborg’s human side. However, Cyborg states that he has embraced his tech side and that he is the bridge between human and tech. He manages to shut down Grid and goes into the fallen watchtower where he helps Batman use Wonder Woman’s lasso to free the Justice League teams from the Firestorm matrix.

Cyborg possesses cybernetic enhancements that provide superhuman strength, endurance and durability. Cyborg can also interface with computers. Built into his body-armor were an infrared eye, computer generator, sound amplifier, and special programming adapters that allowed him to interface with other body extensions.

Shape-Change: Cyborg has virtually unlimited shape-changing abilities that allow him to mimic road, air or space vehicles and even reshape his entire body or parts of it to form such complex shapes such as a tank.

Superhuman Strength: At optimal capacity, Vic can lift/press in excess of four metric tons. If he pushes himself, he can even exceed five tons, but not without causing severe stress to his cybernetic components. Recently Victor breaks apart Kalibak’s Chaos Cannon used to destroy planets.

Superhuman Speed/Agility: He possesses a degree of superspeed.

Flight

Sensor Systems/superhuman Senses:. Due cybernetic enhancements their five senses were increased to superhuman levels.

Superhuman Stamina: Victor doesn’t need to sleep,eat or drink. Adding the Environmental Mode (that replaced his last lung) no longer has the need to breathe, and can operate in any area that has no oxygen in space or as in underwater.

Superhuman Durability: The nature of Cyborg’s body provides offers protection against physical and energy attacks,being able to withstand the pressures of the deepest parts of the oceans.

Computer Interfacing: Cyborg is connected with all Earth’s computers and satellites including government agencies, secret service (CIA,MI-6…) and even the Batcomputer.

Technopathy: Since is linked with Earth’s computers and satellites Victor can control any type of technology that have connection with the Internet as well control any form of electronic communication,allowing it to manipulate data or rearrange security privileges. Recently demonstrated the ability to hear Brainiac’s drones communicating with each other.

Teleportation – Cyborg can use Boom Tubes to transport himself and the League to anywhere n Earth and in the Universe,since is stated Darkseid use it to cross dimensions,however one out of every thousand ‘jumps’ results in transporting himself and whoever is with him to Apokolips. Recently installed a silent mode to not be noticed by others,not even Superman couldn’t note him coming.

Integrated Weapons: He had various types of weapons integrated into his cybernetic parts.

When Reverse Flash goes back in time and messes with the timeline, the DC Universe turns into a very different place where the world’s greatest heroes are not how we know them to be. In this timeline Cyborg is America’s greatest hero, and he is based in Detroit where he has his headquarters. When the Amazons and the Atlanteans go to war, Cyborg tries to gather a group of Earth’s superhumans to help stop the war that has ravaged half of Europe. No one joins his group when they find that Batman (Thomas Wayne) has no interest. But before long Barry Allen arrives and convinces Wayne otherwise, and the three set off to gather an army.

Stage actor Ray Fisher portrays the character in the upcoming Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice film. In a brief cameo, Victor’s mangled body is shown being bonded with a Mother Box during one of his father’s experiments.

Ray Fisher will reprise his role in the live-action Justice League movie.

Cyborg appears in Justice League: Doom in a major role. The film marks the first time Cyborg has been portrayed as a member of the Justice League in any non-comic form of media. He is voiced by Bumper Robinson. In the film, Cyborg first appears after Batman asks for his help in discovering how the Royal Flush Gang are pulling off a series of impossible heists. Cyborg later rescues Wonder Woman after she is poisoned by Cheetah, and ends up being brought along during the subsequent attempt to rescue the other JLA members. After saving Superman from a Kryptonite bullet, Cyborg helps the Justice League during the final battle against Vandal Savage and his Legion of Doom. After the League saves the Earth from a massive solar flare, Cyborg is officially inducted into the Justice League as the team’s newest member.

He was voiced by Bumper Robinson

Cyborg appears in Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox, an adaptation of Flashpoint. In the film, Cyborg is a member of the League. In the alternate timeline the bulk of the film takes place in, he is depicted as the world’s top hero, since Kal-El never became Superman and most of the rest of the League never came to resemble their classic forms.

He was voiced by Michael B. Jordan.

Cyborg appears in JLA Adventures: Trapped In Time, voiced by Avery Kidd Waddell.

In Justice League: War, based off of the New 52 Justice League Origins comic book by Geoff Johns, Cyborg appears as one of the founding members of the Justice League in light of the invasion of Darkseid. Victor Stone was originally a talented high school football quarterback but has a troubled relationship with his father Silas due to his father’s lack of support for his football playing career. In frustration, Cyborg grabs one of the boom tubes asking whether his work is more important than his own son. The boom tubes suddenly activate at that moment and engulfs Victor. In a last ditch effort to save his son’s life, Silas grafts technology from the red room and successfully saves his son’s life but at the cost of making him a Cyborg at the same time. Cyborg helps the rest of the Justice League in battling Darkseid and his Parademons, with Cyborg having access to almost any technological interface he is able to open up the boom tubes to send them back to Apokolips. At the end of the film, the newly formed Justice League team is introduced to the world and Cyborg seems to have embraced his new role more as he sees his father nod in approval. Cyborg was voiced by Shemar Moore.

Cyborg appears alongside his Justice League teammates in the sequel to Justice League: War, titled: Justice League: Throne of Atlantis. The film is based off of the New 52 comic book story line of the same name and was released in 2015. Shemar Moore reprised his role.

Cyborg appears in Batman Unlimited: Monster Mayhem, voiced by Khary Payton.

Cyborg appears in Justice League vs. Teen Titans, with Shemar Moore once again reprising his role. In the film, it’s shown that he relates more closely to the Titans, as they are closer in age to him.

Cyborg appeared in The Super Powers Team: Galactic Guardians from 1985 to 1986. He was voiced by Ernie Hudson. Cyborg’s origin was told via a medical journal read by Dr. Martin Stein saying Cyborg was a promising decathlon athlete until an accident destroyed most of his body and his father replaced part of his body with machine parts. Also, he is not a Titan. He becomes fast friends with fellow teammate Firestorm. He is an affiliate of the Justice League of America under Superman. In the introductory episode to Cyborg, “The Seeds of Doom”, Cyborg’s abilities save Earth from Darkseid’s seeds, but as Superman warns, make Darkseid a dangerous enemy to Cyborg, so Cyborg joins the League.

Cyborg appears in the Teen Titans animated series, voiced by Khary Payton. This version of Cyborg is very similar to his comic book counterpart. His nickname is “Cy”, and like his teammates, in the animated series Cyborg is never referred to by his given name; however, he does take the alias “Stone” (based on his real last name) in the Season 3 episode “Deception”. The two main differences are his design and that he is more easygoing than his comics counterpart. His head is considerably more rounded and bald (based on his Titans Hunt counterpart), and his mechanical parts are bulkier. His primary weapon is a sonic cannon housed in his forearm; initially he uses only his right arm to fire, but later episodes reveal that his left arm has an identical cannon built into it as well. Other on-board weapons and tools, such as an acetylene torch, a remote-operated video camera, and several missile launchers, can be deployed as needed, and his arms and legs are detachable.

Cyborg is the Titans’ chief technician and gadgeteer. He is responsible for the construction of the Titan Tower’s electronic and security systems and the team’s main vehicles, the T-Car and the T-Ship. His most dominant personality faults featured in the series are his enormous appetite and a tendency to be overly vain about his work as a result, he fosters a special dislike for those who abuse his devices irresponsibly, especially Gizmo and Brother Blood. On occasion, Cyborg acts as the team’s second-in-command, but he tends to butt heads with Robin on rather trivial matters. In “Cyborg the Barbarian”, he was sent back to 3,000 B.C. There, he met a woman named Sarasim and fell in love with her. The relationship ended when Cyborg was brought back to his own time.

Cyborg’s age is never specified, but he mentions in “Deception” that he never had a chance to finish high school due to circumstances that made him what he is. The only time Cyborg’s personal history has been discussed is in “Deception”, in which he discusses his involuntary cyborg status with Starfire, and in the 4th season episode “The End: Part 2”. In this episode, Trigon creates duplicates of Cyborg, Starfire, and Beast Boy. These duplicates reflect the dark side of each character. During the fight between Cyborg and his duplicate, the dark duplicate says harmful things about Cyborgs mother and her death.

Cyborg appeared in the 15th episode of the fifth season of Smallville on the 16th February 2006 and is played by Lee Thompson Young. In this version, Victor is a former Metropolis High School football star. He is involved in a car accident that kills him, supposedly, and the rest of his family. However, he is secretly rebuilt by Cyntechnics scientists including Dr. Alistair Krieg, who experimented on a group of test subjects. Victor was the only test subject to survive the experiments. Cyntechnics was bought up by LuthorCorp shortly before Victor’s escape. Lex denies any knowledge of Cyntechnics’ secretive activities.

Although Victor’s cybernetic enhancements are entirely on the inside [under his skin] instead of exoskeletal as they are in the comics and other media, a shot of Clark Kent’s X-ray vision reveals that Victor’s cranial armor covers the same-shaped area as it does in the comics. He also bleeds a dark fluid as he does in the comics. Smallville never uses the name “Cyborg” in his first appearance. Instead, Victor refers to his enhancements as bionic.

Lee Thompson Young reprises his role of Cyborg in the season 6 episode “Justice”, episode about Green Arrow gathering together a group of individuals to combat Lex Luthor and his experiments. The episode premiered on 18 January 2007. In this episode, Victor has finally taken the name “Cyborg”, as Green Arrow’s team uses code names. Also on the team are Aquaman and Impulse. While Victor was last seen with a girlfriend named Katherine, he explains that his mechanical parts put a strain on the relationship. After their eventual break up, Victor states that it was Green Arrow who kept him from committing suicide. The episode also shows Cyborg wearing a stylized silver vest and black pants, and utilizing further enhancements Green Arrow gave him. One of his new functions allows him to hack into and disable security systems. While connecting to machines, Cyborg’s left eye glows red.

Teen Titans Go!

Cyborg appears as a member of the Teen Titans in this more humorous take on the DC Universe.

Cyborg appears as a playable character in Lego Batman 2. He has a laser eye and the ability to pull magnetic legos.

Cyborg appears as a playable character in the game. He appears to be a combination of a power/gadget character in game.

Visit link:

Cyborg (Character) – Comic Vine

Cyborg – Wikipedia

A cyborg (short for “cybernetic organism”) is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

D. S. Halacy’s Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a “new frontier” that was “not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between ‘inner space’ to ‘outer space’ a bridge…between mind and matter.”[3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g., the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, etc.). Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will.[citation needed] Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).[citation needed]

According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are also cyborg enhancements. Some theorists[who?] cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested.[5]

The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares.[6] Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally (e.g. the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (e.g. Elysium, RoboCop). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where “Omar” is a Russian translation of the word “Lobster” (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story “The Man That Was Used Up”. In 1911, Jean de la Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero who was perhaps the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystre des XV (later translated as The Nyctalope on Mars).[8][9][10] Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, “After a Judgment Day,” to describe the “mechanical analogs” called “Charlies,” explaining that “[c]yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s…cybernetic organisms.” In the short story “No Woman Born” in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body. Cyborgs are becoming more of a reality each day.

The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:

Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.

The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer was published by Doubleday in 2001.[13] Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.

Cyborg tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr, 3rd, talk number SS4.04.[14] The cyborg obtained is inexpensive, light and has unique mechanical properties. It can also be shaped in desired forms. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Likewise, dried cells still acted as a stable matrix for the MWCNT network. When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. A rather specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells was observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall (the most outer part of fungal and plant cells) may play a major active role in establishing a CNTs network and its stabilization. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from heating to sensing and has the potential to open important new avenues to be exploited in electromagnetic shielding for radio frequency electronics and aerospace technology. In particular using Candida albicans cells cyborg tissue materials with temperature sensing properties have been reported.[15]

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[16] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[17]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[18]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[19]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[20][21]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[22] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[23] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[24] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[24] Neil Harbisson is the first person to be officially recognized as a cyborg by a government; he is a co-founder of the Cyborg Foundation (2004)[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

bodyNET is an application of human-electronic interaction currently in development by researchers from Stanford University.[31] The technology is based on stretchable semiconductor materials (Elastronic). According to their article in Nature (journal), the technology is composed of smart devices, screens, and a network of sensors that can be implanted into the body, woven into the skin or worn as clothes. It has been suggested, that this platform can potentially replace the smartphone in the future.[32]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[33] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[34] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[35] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[36] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University,[37][38] UC Berkeley,[39][40] and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore,[41][42] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[35] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [43] and PETA [44] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[45] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[46] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[47] Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[48] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[49] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[50]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[51]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[52]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low number of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[53]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[54]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[55]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[56] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[57]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[58] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[59][60] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[61][62] The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[63]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[64]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[65] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[66] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[67]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[68][69] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[68]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[70]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[71]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[72] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[73]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[74]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[75] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[76] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[76]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[77]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[78]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term. Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[79] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[80] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[81] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[82] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[79]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[83] augmented reality[84] and QR codes[85] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[86][87] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[88]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[89]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[90] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[91] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[92] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[91]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[93] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[94] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[95]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[96] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing number of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[97] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[98] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[99] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[100]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[101]

Given the technical scope of current and future implantable sensory/telemetric devices, these devices will be greatly proliferated, and will have connections to commercial, medical, and governmental networks. For example, in the medical sector, patients will be able to login to their home computer, and thus visit virtual doctors offices, medical databases, and receive medical prognoses from the comfort of their own home from the data collected through their implanted telemetric devices[102]. However, this online network presents huge security concerns because it has been proven by several U.S. universities that hackers could get onto these networks and shut down peoples electronic prosthetics[102]. These sorts of technologies are already present in the U.S. workforce as a firm in River Falls, Wisconsin called Three Square Market partnered with a Swedish firm called Biohacks Technology to implant RFID microchips in the hands of its employees (which are about the size of a grain of rice) that allow employees to access offices, computers, and even vending machines. More than 50 of the firms 85 employees were chipped. It was confirmed that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved of these implantations[103] . If these devices are to be proliferated within society, then the question that begs to be answered is what regulatory agency will oversee the operations, monitoring, and security of these devices? According to this case study of Three Square Market, it seems that the FDA is assuming the role in regulating and monitoring these devices.

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

Cyborg (1989) – IMDb

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Gibson Rickenbacker is a hired fighter living in a plague-ravaged apocalyptic America where a plague has infested most of the United States and the rest of the world. In New York City, Gibson encounters a woman named Pearl Prophet. Pearl reveals to Gibson that she is a cyborg who is carrying vital-information for a group of scientists in Atlanta who are working on a cure to the plague and Pearl hires Gibson to escort her back to Atlanta. But Pearl is kidnapped by “Pirates” a murderous gang led by Fender Tremolo, who wants the cure for themselves and they decide to take Pearl to Atlanta themselves. Gibson, joined by a young woman named Nady Simmons, goes in pursuit of Fender and his gang, as Gibson sets out to rescue Pearl, stop Fender and his gang from reaching Atlanta and defeat Fender who slaughtered Gibson’s family. Written byDaniel Williamson

Taglines:He’s the First Hero of the 21st Century…And He’s Our Only Hope.

Budget:$500,000 (estimated)

Opening Weekend USA: $3,179,811,9 April 1989, Wide Release

Gross USA: $10,166,459

Runtime: 86 min

Aspect Ratio: 1.85 : 1

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Cyborg (1989) – IMDb

Cyborg 2: Glass Shadow (Video 1993) – IMDb

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In the year 2074 the PinWheel corporation creates an ‘almost-human’ cyborg Casella Reese, aka Cash, designed specifically to charm/seduce her way into a rival manufacturer’s headquarters and then self-detonate. Things go awry, when she starts to have feelings for a human Colton Ricks, aka Colt 45, who works for PinWheel as a martial arts instructor. He falls for Cash as well, and with the help of Mercy, they escape. PinWheel Corp. sends Danny Bench, a ‘Cyborg Tracker’ after both Colt and Cash. Violence ensues. Written byJoshua Burgin

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Cyborg 2: Glass Shadow (Video 1993) – IMDb

Kevin Warwick | "I feel that we are all philosophers, and …

Kevin Warwick is Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) at Coventry University. Prior that he was Professor of Cybernetics at The University of Reading, England. His research areas are artificial intelligence, control, robotics and biomedical engineering. He is a Chartered Engineer (CEng.) and is a Fellow of The Institution of Engineering & Technology (FIET). He is the youngest person ever to become a Fellow of the City & Guilds of London Institute (FCGI). He is the author or co-author of more than 600 research papers and has written or edited 27 books (three for general readership), as well as numerous magazine and newspaper articles on scientific and general subjects. He has broadcast and lectured widely and holds various visiting professorships.

Kevin was born in Coventry and left school to join British Telecom, at the age of 16. At 22 he took his first degree at Aston University, followed by a PhD and a research post at Imperial College, London. He subsequently held positions at Oxford, Newcastle, Warwick and Reading universities before being offered the DVC post at Coventry.

He has been awarded higher doctorates (DScs) by Imperial College and the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague on different scientific areas. He was presented with The Future of Health Technology Award at MIT (USA), was made an Honorary Member of the Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, was awarded the IEE Senior Achievement Medal in 2004, the Mountbatten Medal in 2008, the Ellison-Cliffe Medal in 2011 from the Royal Society of Medicine and in 2014 was elected as a member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. In 2000 Kevin presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, entitled The Rise of The Robots. He has also been awarded Honorary DSc Degrees by the Universities of Aston, Coventry, Bradford, Bedfordshire, Portsmouth and Kingston and an Honorary DTech Degree by Robert Gordon University.

Kevin instigated a series of pioneering experiments involving the neuro-surgical implantation of a device (Utah Array/BrainGate) into the median nerves of his left arm in order to link his nervous system directly to a computer to assess the latest technology for use with the disabled. The development of the implant technology was carried out by a team of researchers headed by Dr Mark Gasson who, along with Kevin, used it to perform the ground-breaking research. Kevin was successful with the first extra-sensory (ultrasonic) input for a human and with the first purely electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans. His research has been discussed by the US White House Presidential Council on BioEthics, The European Commission and led to him being widely referenced and featured in academic circles as well as appearing as cover stories in several magazines e.g. Wired (USA), The Week (India).

The Institute of Physics selected Kevin as one of only 7 eminent scientists to illustrate the ethical impact their scientific work can have: the others being Galileo, Einstein, Curie, Nobel, Oppenheimer and Rotblat.

His work is used as material in several advanced Level Physics courses in the UK and in many University courses including Harvard, Stanford, MIT & Tokyo. His implants are on display in the Science Museums in London and Naples. As a result, Kevin regularly gives invited Keynote presentations.

Kevins research has involved robotics and he was responsible (with Dr Jim Wyatt) for Cybot, a robot exported around the world as part of a magazine Real Robots this resulted in royalties totalling over 1M for Reading University. Robots designed and constructed by Kevins group (Dr Ian Kelly, Dr Ben Hutt) were on permanent interactive display in the Science Museums in London, Birmingham and Linz.

Some of Kevins recent research involves a collaborative project with the Oxford neurosurgeon, Prof. Tipu Aziz, using intelligent computer methods to predict the onset of Parkinsonian tremors such that they can be stopped by means of a deep brain implant. This work was hailed in the Mail on Sunday as the most significant recent advance in biomedical engineering.

He also led an EPSRC sponsored project in which a cultured neural network (using biological neurons) was trained to control a mobile robot platform. This work, which was reported on in a New Scientist feature article, is now being used as an exercise for high school science studies in the UK. A Youtube video of this research has been downloaded/viewed 1.9 million times.

His presentations include The 1998 Robert Boyle Memorial Lecture at Oxford University, The 2000 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, The 2001 Higginson Lecture at Durham University, The 2003 Royal Academy of Engineering/Royal Society of Edinburgh Joint lecture in Edinburgh, The 2004 Woolmer Lecture at York University, the 2005 Einstein Lecture in Potsdam, Germany and the 2006 IMechE Mechatronics Prestige Lecture in London.The Annual Science Faculty lecture at University of Leicester in 2007. In 2008 the Leslie Oliver Oration at Queens Hospital and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, guest lecture Four weddings and a Funeral for the Microsoft Research Chair. In 2009, Cardiff University, 125th Anniversary Lecture. In 2010 he launched the new Research Institute for Innovation Design and Sustainability at Robert Gordon University and gave the Ellison-Cliffe Lecture at the Royal Society of Medicine in 2011. In 2012 he presented the IET Pinkerton Lecture in Bangalore.

Kevin was a member of the 2001 HEFCE (unit 29) panel on Electrical & Electronic Engineering, was Deputy Chairman for the same panel in the 2007/8 exercise and is a member of the EPSRC Peer College. He also received the EPSRC Millenium Award (2000) for his schools robot league project. Kevins research has featured in many TV and film documentaries, e.g. Inventions that changed the world (BBC2), Late Night with Conan OBrien (NBC), Future Scope (RAI 1) and The Making of I Robot (Twentieth Century Fox/Channel 5). He has appeared 5 times in Time magazine and was selected by Channel 4 as one of the Top 6 UK Scientists for their 2001 series Living Science. In 2002 he was chosen by the IEE as one of the top 10 UK Electrical Engineers.

Kevins research is frequently referred to by other authors recent examples being in books by Robert Winston, Peter Cochrane, Jeremy Clarkson and Susan Greenfield. Kevins implant research was selected by National Geographic International for a 1 hour documentary, entitled I,Human screened in 2007 this was broadcast in 143 countries and translated into 23 different languages. Some of his TV appearances are logged on the imdb website.

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Kevin Warwick | "I feel that we are all philosophers, and …

Amber Case: We are all cyborgs now | TED Talk

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Amber Case: We are all cyborgs now | TED Talk

Cyborg | DC

Nowadays, everyones juggling an offline and online persona. But only one hero is a literal marriage of technology and man. Half human, half machine, Victor Stone is Cyborg, a digital and physical tankand a true superhero for the modern age.

Although a star athlete, Vic Stone only yearned for his fathers approval. But Dad was too focused on his scientific career to notice until the day Vic became his greatest experiment. After Vic suffered a grave injury, his father saved him by replacing over half his body with cybernetic parts.

Now Cyborg is plugged into every computer on Earth, and no firewallor brick wallcan keep him out. While his cybernetic enhancements provide superhuman strength, speed, and endurance, that same technology destroys his chances to live as a professional athlete. Now flourishing in the digital realm, Vic is desperately alone in the physical worldand still longs for his fathers affection. Hungry to find purpose again, he fights alongside the Worlds Greatest Super Heroes.

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Cyborg | DC

Cyborg – Wikipedia

A cyborg (short for “cybernetic organism”) is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

D. S. Halacy’s Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a “new frontier” that was “not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between ‘inner space’ to ‘outer space’ a bridge…between mind and matter.”[3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g., the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, etc.). Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will.[citation needed] Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).[citation needed]

According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are also cyborg enhancements. Some theorists[who?] cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested.[5]

The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares.[6] Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally (e.g. the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (e.g. Elysium, RoboCop). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where “Omar” is a Russian translation of the word “Lobster” (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story “The Man That Was Used Up”. In 1911, Jean de la Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero who was perhaps the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystre des XV (later translated as The Nyctalope on Mars).[8][9][10] Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, “After a Judgment Day,” to describe the “mechanical analogs” called “Charlies,” explaining that “[c]yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s…cybernetic organisms.” In the short story “No Woman Born” in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body. Cyborgs are becoming more of a reality each day.

The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:

Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.

The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer was published by Doubleday in 2001.[13] Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.

Cyborg tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr, 3rd, talk number SS4.04.[14] The cyborg obtained is inexpensive, light and has unique mechanical properties. It can also be shaped in desired forms. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Likewise, dried cells still acted as a stable matrix for the MWCNT network. When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. A rather specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells was observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall (the most outer part of fungal and plant cells) may play a major active role in establishing a CNTs network and its stabilization. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from heating to sensing and has the potential to open important new avenues to be exploited in electromagnetic shielding for radio frequency electronics and aerospace technology. In particular using Candida albicans cells cyborg tissue materials with temperature sensing properties have been reported.[15]

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[16] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[17]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[18]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[19]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[20][21]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[22] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[23] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[24] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[24] Neil Harbisson is the first person to be officially recognized as a cyborg by a government; he is a co-founder of the Cyborg Foundation (2004)[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

bodyNET is an application of human-electronic interaction currently in development by researchers from Stanford University.[31] The technology is based on stretchable semiconductor materials (Elastronic). According to their article in Nature (journal), the technology is composed of smart devices, screens, and a network of sensors that can be implanted into the body, woven into the skin or worn as clothes. It has been suggested, that this platform can potentially replace the smartphone in the future.[32]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[33] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[34] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[35] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[36] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University,[37][38] UC Berkeley,[39][40] and Nanyang Technological University, Singapore,[41][42] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[35] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [43] and PETA [44] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[45] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[46] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[47] Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[48] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[49] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[50]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[51]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[52]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low number of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[53]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[54]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[55]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[56] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[57]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[58] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[59][60] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[61][62] The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[63]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[64]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[65] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[66] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[67]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[68][69] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[68]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[70]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[71]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[72] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[73]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[74]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[75] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[76] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[76]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[77]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[78]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term. Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[79] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[80] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[81] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[82] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[79]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[83] augmented reality[84] and QR codes[85] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[86][87] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[88]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[89]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[90] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[91] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[92] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[91]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[93] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[94] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[95]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[96] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing number of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[97] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[98] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[99] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[100]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[101]

Given the technical scope of current and future implantable sensory/telemetric devices, these devices will be greatly proliferated, and will have connections to commercial, medical, and governmental networks. For example, in the medical sector, patients will be able to login to their home computer, and thus visit virtual doctors offices, medical databases, and receive medical prognoses from the comfort of their own home from the data collected through their implanted telemetric devices[102]. However, this online network presents huge security concerns because it has been proven by several U.S. universities that hackers could get onto these networks and shut down peoples electronic prosthetics[102]. These sorts of technologies are already present in the U.S. workforce as a firm in River Falls, Wisconsin called Three Square Market partnered with a Swedish firm called Biohacks Technology to implant RFID microchips in the hands of its employees (which are about the size of a grain of rice) that allow employees to access offices, computers, and even vending machines. More than 50 of the firms 85 employees were chipped. It was confirmed that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved of these implantations[103] . If these devices are to be proliferated within society, then the question that begs to be answered is what regulatory agency will oversee the operations, monitoring, and security of these devices? According to this case study of Three Square Market, it seems that the FDA is assuming the role in regulating and monitoring these devices.

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

Cyborg – TV Tropes

John Connor: Holy shit! You’re really real! I mean, you’re like a machine underneath, right? But sort of alive outside?

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Footage and descriptions by other characters imply that the Daleks are most likely somewhere between Mechas and cyborgs. The creature proper could exist outside the mechanical shell, but is very small and weak and must be augmented by the mechanical components. In their introduction, Ian Chesterton was able to “drive” a Dalek shell after discarding the creature. The expanded universe indicates that the Dalek creatures are so biologically degenerate that they have no functional digestive system, no vocal cords and even have difficulty breathing on their own; being implanted in their casings is vital for them to survive for any great length of time, and their nervous and circulatory systems are tied directly into the casing’s systems. The Dalek voice is harsh and grating because it is entirely artificial.

The “New Paradigm” Daleks introduced in Victory of the Daleks have an organic eye visible at the end of their eyestalks. Apparently this is the eye of the internal creature, with its optic nerve extruded down a metal pipe.

** The fish-people in The Underwater Menace, humans fitted with ‘plastic gills’ and artificial eyes that allow them to see better underwater.

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“… [And then] Kyne granted Perrif another symbol, a diamond soaked red with the blood of elves, [whose] facets could [un-sector and form] into a man whose every angle could cut her jailers and a name: PELIN-EL [which is] “The Star-Made Knight” [and he] was arrayed in armor [from the future time].”

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Kathryn: That’s terrifying.

Ennesby: It’s awesome! It makes you meat-sacks a lot more like me.

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Cyborg – TV Tropes

Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

With an unusually conservative runtime of just under two hours,Justice Leaguehad to cut a number of scenes including a flashback to Cyborgs old life. While audiences are quite familiar with the DCEUs take on Batman, Superman, and Wonder Woman,Justice League was able to focus a bit more on the genesis of its other heroes. When it comes to The Flash and Aquaman, most fansof pop culture understand the basics. Still, the film needed to fill in some of their backstory and introduce the updated take on the Leaguers. Cyborg, meanwhile, needed even more of a spotlight.

While fans of theTeen Titans animated series will get the gist of Cyborg, the film version is much more closer to the somber hero from the New 52 run in the comics. There, Victor Stone nearly dies in his fathers S.T.A.R. Labs accident and ends up bonding with the alien Mother Box the elder Stone was studying. The result sees the birth of Cyborg andJustice League hints that all of these events occurred. As a result, he has quite a contentious relationship with his father. What we dont see, however, is Victor before his evolution.

GameSpotspoke with the cast ofJustice League about the various scenes that were cut from the film, and it turns out a look at Cyborgs past had to be removed. Word is that Warner Bros. wantedJustice League under two hours, and that short runtime for a superhero team-up left plenty on the cutting room floor. As Cyborg actor Ray Fisher explains, one moment in particular carried some emotional weight for his character.

There were some things that youll probably end up seeing later on, that didnt make it into this version of the film.Theres a scene with Victor Stone, when he still was Victor Stone, and his mother, that was really special to shoot.

As Fisher alludes, the proposedCyborg film set to arrive in 2020 will be a chance to further explore the new and old versions of Victor Stone. Given his everyman status, Vic would provide the DCEU with a more grounded story albeit one with a superhero whos augmented by alien tech.

ThoughJustice League may have been light on Cyborg backstory, it did offer some teases of the characters complex dynamic with his father. And as Fisher explains, the evolution of their relationship is far from over.

What is great about this film going forward is youll be able to see him rebuild himself mentally the same way that his father rebuilt him physically.And its a process thats going to take time.

From all the trailers and TV spots forJustice League, its clear plenty of material didnt make it into the final cut of the film. Whether a result of Joss Whedons reshoots or the studio mandate to keep things short, we may never know. Theres a good chance, however, that a number of thescenes will end up on the home video release forJustice League. We may even get an extended directors cut from Zack Snyder, something the Justice Leaguefilmmaker is fond of.

Source: GameSpot

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Justice League’s Deleted Scenes Include Cyborg Flashback

American Cyborg: Steel Warrior (1993) – IMDb

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After the nuclear war people are sterile and ruled by the artifical intelligences they created in this violent world. The only woman who was able to give life to a child has to take the child through the dangerous city to the ship to save it. She is followed by an immortal killer robot through all the dangers, and only one guy tries to help her survive and protect her from the killing machine. Written byPeter Gervai

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American Cyborg: Steel Warrior (1993) – IMDb


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