Nootropic | Definition of Nootropic by Merriam-Webster

Recent Examples on the Web. Try Uplift Coffee, the first bottled coffee made with the revolutionary Warm Brewing process and infused with a patented melange of brain-enhancing nootropics! Christopher Mims, WSJ, “Why Youre Buying Products From Companies Youve Never Heard Of,” 4 Oct. 2018 Will nootropics combat it one day, or will some of these experiments end badly?

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Nootropic | Definition of Nootropic by Merriam-Webster

What are Nootropics? – Neurohacker Collective

Nootropics. You might have heard of them. The limitless pill that keeps Billionaires rich. The smart drugs that students are taking to help boost their hyperfocus. The cognitive enhancers that give corporate executives an advantage. All very exciting. But as always, the media are way behind the curve. Yes, for the past few decades, cognitive enhancers were largely sketchy substances that people used to grasp at a short term edge at the expense of their health and well being. But the days of taking prescription pills to pull an all-nighter are so 2010. The better, safer path isnt with these stimulants but with nootropics. Nootropics consist of dietary supplements and substances which enhance your cognition, in particular when it comes to motivation, creativity, memory, and other executive functions. They play an important role in supporting memory and promoting optimal brain function.

These days, nootropics are beginning to take their rightful place as a particularly powerful tool in the Neurohackers toolbox. After all, biochemistry is deeply foundational to neural function. Whether you are trying to fix the damage that is done to your nervous system by a stressful and toxic environment or support and enhance your neural functioning, getting the chemistry right is table-stakes. And we are starting to get good at getting it right. Whats changed?

A big part is that we are finally starting to apply complex systems science to psycho-neuro-pharmacology and a nootropic approach. The neural system is awesomely complex and old-fashioned reductionist science has a really hard time with complexity. Big companies spends hundreds of millions of dollars trying to separate the effects of just a single molecule from placebo and nootropics invariably show up as stacks of many different ingredients (ours, Qualia , currently has 42 separate synergistic nootropics ingredients from alpha GPC to bacopa monnieri and L-theanine). That kind of complex, multi pathway input requires a different methodology to understand well that goes beyond simply whats put in capsules.

But, thanks to the efforts of a number of remarkable scientists, researchers and plain-old neurohackers, we are beginning to put together a whole systems model of how all the different parts of the human brain work together and how they mesh with the complex regulatory structures of the body. Its going to take a lot more data and collaboration to dial this model in, but already we are empowered to design stacks that can meaningfully deliver on the promise of nootropics to enhance the quality of subjective experience and promote cognitive health, while having extremely low toxicity and possessing very few side effects. Its a type of brain hacking that is intended to produce noticeable cognitive benefits.

Before taking any supplement or chemical, people want to know if there will be long term effects or consequences, When Dr. Corneliu Giurgea first authored the term nootropics in 1972, he also outlined the characteristics that define nootropics. Besides the ability to benefit memory and support the cognitive processes, Dr. Giurgea believed that nootropics should be safe and non-toxic.

While some people focus on finding a short-term boost, nootropics emphasize long-term effects with noticeable cognitive support over a more extended period. Even though nootropics are intended to be safe, there are a few issues users want addressed before taking these supplements.

Many nootropics promote cognitive functioning as well as cognitive performance. Dr. Giurega also saw improved memory and reduced stress in many patients as well.

The first concern users have is with developing a tolerance to the nootropic. Developing a tolerance means the more you have of a substance, the less effective it gets over time.

Second, users are concerned with the possibility of withdrawal if they stop taking the nootropics. They worry that if they stop taking nootropics they wont be as smart as when they were taking nootropics, and will need to continue taking them to function. Some users report feeling a slight brain fog when discontinuing nootropics, but that isnt a sign of regression.

One of the most common strategies to beat this is cycling. Users who cycle their nootropics take them for a predetermined period, (usually around five days) before taking a two-day break from using them. Once the two days are up, they resume the cycle. By taking a break, nootropic users reduce the tolerance for nootropics and lessen the risk of regression and tolerance symptoms.

With so many different ones to choose from, choosing the best nootropics for you can be overwhelming at times. As usual, a decision this important will require research. Study up on the top nootropics which catch your eye the most. The nootropics you take will depend on what you want the enhancement for. The ingredients within each nootropic determine its specific function. For example, some nootropics contain ginkgo biloba, which can help memory, thinking speed, and increase attention span. Check the nootropic ingredients as you determine what end results you want to see. Some nootropics supplements can increase brain chemicals such as dopamine and serotonin. An increase in dopamine levels can be very useful for memory, alertness, reward and more. Many healthy adults, as well as college students take nootropics. This really supports the central nervous system and the brain.

Another factor to consider is whether the nootropic is natural or synthetic. Natural nootropics generally have effects which are a bit more subtle, while synthetic nootropics can have more pronounced effects. Its also important to note that there are natural and synthetic nootropics. Some natural nootropics include Ginkgo biloba and ginseng. One benefit to using natural nootropics is they boost brain function and support brain health. They do this by increasing blood flow and oxygen delivery to the arteries and veins in the brain. Moreover, some nootropics contain Rhodiola rosea, panxax ginseng, and more.

Some nootropics are more commonly used than others. These include nutrients like Alpha GPC, huperzine A, L-Theanine, bacopa monnieri, and vinpocetine. Other types of nootropics ware still gaining traction. With all that in mind, to claim there is a best nootropic for everyone would be the wrong approach since every person is unique and looking for different benefits.

Even the best of todays nootropics only just barely scratch the surface. You might say that we are in the Nokia 1100 phase of taking nootropics, and as better tools and more data come along, the leading thinkers in the space see a powerful future. For example, they are already beginning to look past biochemistry to the epigenome. Not only is the epigenome the code that runs much of your native biochemistry, we now know that experiences in life can be recorded in your epigenome and then passed onto future generations. There is every reason to believe that you are currently running epigenetic code that you inherited from your great-grandmothers life experiences. And there is every reason to believe that the epigenome can be hacked that the nootropics of the future can not only support and enhance our biochemistry, but can permanently change the epigenetic code that drives that biochemistry and that we pass onto our children. This is why many healthy individuals use nootropics. They have great benefits and can promote brain function and reduce oxidative stress. They can also improve sleep quality.

Well dive into the cognition – enhancing possibilities in future posts such as brain plasticity and more, but for now, here are just a few resources to get you started in exploring this domain of neurohacking:

Steven Fowkes – quora – facebook – google+ – youtube – linkedin

* Organic chemist who co-wrote the foundational book on Smart Drugs

* Founded the Cognitive Enhancement Research Institute

* Founded Project Wellbeing

* Related interests: Nutrition, Neurohacking/ Biohacking, Human Performance, Nano-tech

David Pearce – @webmasterdave – facebook* Wrote the online bible of nootropics at nootropics.com* Founder of The Hedonistic Imperative, a project outlining how bioengineering and nanotechnology will abolish suffering in all sentient life* The Hedonistic Imperative Facebook public group* The Abolitionist Project* Related Interests: Philosophy of mind, Ethics, Transhumanism, AI

Joe Cohen – @Selfhacked* Authors the blog SelfHacked* Embodies much of the neurohacker ethos; taking responsibility for his health & wellbeing and upgrading his experience through research and self-experimentation

Longecity: Brain Health – @imminst – facebook

* Forum for discussing nootropic stacks and mental health

Reddit Forum Groups – Forum for discussing nootropics and cognitive enhancers

* r/Nootropics/ – @CognitvEnhancer , @Smart_Drugs, @Nootropix

* r/CognitiveEnhancement/

* r/DrugNerds – @DrugNerds


* Forum for discussing brain nootropics and psychedelics


* An independent encyclopedia on supplementation and nutrition.


* Citations for biomedical literature


* Independent testing of health and nutrition products

Educational Blogs & WebsitesNootriment* Research-backed content & reviews of effectiveness of supplementsSmarter Nootropics

Self Tracking Apps & Brain Training ProgramsCambridge Brain SciencesTrackMyStackStackDB.netNootDBDual N-BackQuantified Mind

Vendors / SuppliersCeretropic



What are Nootropics? – Neurohacker Collective

What are Nootropics? | Braintropic

Nootropics are supplements, drugs, or functional foods, that enhance cognitive functions such as intelligence, memory, creativity, and attention.

Nootropics have seen an influx of interest over the last several years as people search for ways to maximize their brains potential.

The word itself, coined by the Romanian psychologist and chemist Dr. Corneliu E. Giurgea who synthesized the first nootropic piracetam over 50 years ago, is a combination of the Greek words nous (mind) and trepein (to bend or turn).

According to Dr. Giurgeas definition, nootropics:

Piracetam, the first nootropic created, is still widely regarded as one of the best nootropics available, particularly a good choice for first-time users.

However, since piracetam was first synthesized, several more nootropics have been created meaning that today we now have a whole array of options to choose from.

While nootropics are not a miracle drugs that will turn an ordinary person into a genius overnight, research suggests that some nootropics are able to augment the power of the human brain, especially its capacity for memory and ability to learn, essentially making people smarter.

Nootropics are not a substitute for a healthy lifestyle. You still need to work hard when learning. However, nootropics may provide an edge that allows your brain to function at its best.

Nootropics are also regarded for their ability to contribute to the brains overall long-term well-being. Billions of neurotransmitters and receptors control the brain and all of its functions and modulating their behavior can result in improved brain function.

In addition to providing enhanced learning ability, the improved responses of neurotransmitters mean greater resistance to the normal cognitive decline that comes with aging as well as to cognitive disorders such as amnesia and dementia.

Some nootropics work by increasing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the brain or by increasing the brains acetylcholine levels, the neurotransmitter that is largely responsible for the brains memory, learning, and mood functions.

Other nootropics, such as Lions Mane can even stimulate the production of Nerve Growth Factor wherein protein synthesis results in the growth of brain cells, particularly in the cells dendrites that make the communication of impulses possible throughout the central nervous system. Dendritic growth means faster communication, which in turn translates into improved learning and memory. It must be noted that some nootropics must be taken for days or weeks for its beneficial effects to kick in.

There are others, such as Noopept or phenylpiracetam, that have immediate effects.

With so many options out there, its important to do your research and find the right nootropic for your needs.

Nootropics are generally categorized into three main groups: racetams, stimulants, and nutraceuticals. Each nootropic group has a specific set of functions that contribute to preserving and improving the brains capability and health.

It is possible also possible to combine different nootropics, known as stacking, resulting in a powerful synergistic effect where the individual components of the stack produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects.

If youre a student facing difficulty in exams, a working professional looking for that extra edge, and an older person that wants to continue enjoying the mental agility of a young mind, nootropics may be the answer youre looking for.

Planning to start a new supplementation regimen? See our medical disclaimer.

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What are Nootropics? | Braintropic

Top 10 Brain Pills and Nootropic Reviews. Best Nootropic …

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Nootroo 5.0 The Gold Standard in Nootropics

Nootroo 5.0 – The Gold Standard in Nootropics – Nootroo

Nootropics have been shown to enhance the learning ability of healthy adults.

The brain is more able to process and recall verbalized words if nootropics were administered prior.

Increase Memory Formation

Memory formation is facilitated by the presence of nootropics in the brain.

Greater Interconnectivity

The amount of information passing between hemispheres of the brain is significantly increased by nootropics

Enhance Learning & Memory

Improve learning acquistion and enhance resistance to learning impairments from casues such as lack of oxygen (hypoxia), electroconvulsive shock (ECS), and chemicals that tend to prevent memory formation (scopolamine).

Facilitate Interhemispheric Transfer & Synchronization

Facilitate the transfer of information from one hemisphere to the other, across the corpus callosum which increases synchronization between the hemispheres.

Non-Stimulant & Non-Sedative

Work by increasing the integration of higher-level (telencephalic) activity. On over 30 classical pharmacological tests, the original nootropic shows no activity, including as neither a central nervous stimulant nor a sedative.

Enhance Cerebral Resistance

Increase the brain’s ability to resist aggressions and increase recovery time after loss of oxygen, physical trauma, and many chemical intoxications.

StrengthenControl of SubcorticalProcesses

While not acting on directly the central nervous system, nootropics are still able to modulate cortical tonic control, as seen in central nystagmus and spinal fixiation.

Non-Toxic & Low-to-No Side Effects

Must work in harmony with the brain, being virtually free of side-effects and non-toxic even in high doses. Nootropics must not be habit-forming or cause withdrawal.

The nootropic concept had to be developed because a molecule was discovered that had properties unilke anything before it. This molecule, now known as Piracetam, was able to enhance learning and memory while being protective of the brain, and had little to no side effects.

Piracetam was the prototype for the nootropic concept and forms the greatest body of evidence on the efficacy of nootropics. The Nootroo Gold and Silver Formulas are based off of this research and include next-generation, more advanced versions of piracetam each stacked synergystically with citicoline (Cognizin).

The term nootropics is derived from the Greek words for mind and towards and means towards the mind. Nootropics are molecules that have a selective activity upon the higher-integrative mechanisms of the brain. They act directly on the parts of the brain where information is brought together on the highest level and as such are able to positively enhance the processes related to learning, speech, and memory acquisition, consolidation, and recall. To be considered a nootropic, these properties of enhanced activity must occur while also being protective of the brain and while having little to no side-effects.

In 1964, scientists in Belgium were working to develop a sleep-aid. The scientists modified the naturally occurring neurotransmitter GABA, but what resulted instead of a sleep-aid, was something much more profound, a molecule that would come to be known as piracetam. As they probed the properties of the molecule, it became increasingly clear that it was so unqiue, that an entirely new category would be required to describe it, and so in 1972, Cornlieu Giurgea proposed the nootropic concept.

Nootroo Gold & Silver is our premium nootropic stack based on the continued research into nootropics over the last 50 years. The Gold and Silver Formulas each have a different main, next-generation nootropic paired with the precursor for the memory neurotransmitter. The Gold Formula contains Noopept and Citicoline (Cognizin) and the Silver Formula contains Phenylpiracetam and Citicoline (Cognizin). Each bottle contains 30 total pills, with 15 of the Gold Formula and 15 of the Silver Formula and can be distinguished by their non-artifically colored capsules. We are now shipping our 5.0 version of Nootroo Gold & Silver Formulas.

The combination of the ingredients in both the Gold & Silver Formulas are considered to besynergistic stacks. Research shows that the underlying mechanism of the combination has a profound effect on memory enhancement. Citicoline administration alone in healthy adults alone increases the levels of the main neurotransmitter responsible for memory formation, acetylcholine in the outside areas of the brain. When combined with piracetam-like nootropics, the increased acetylcholine is brought into the hippocampus where it is more fully utilized by the brain. The combined effects of nootropics+choline are greater than either alone.

Founded in 2014, Nootroo is dedicated to creating the highest quality nootropic stacks available. Our tagline is The Gold Standard in Nootropics because of our commitment to using only the highest possible quality ingredients. In fact, that tagline (and our gold branding) comes from the fact that we used to use actual 23.5k gold flakes in our Gold Formula and 100% pure silver flakes in our Silver Formula to distinguish betwen them, before we manufactured our custom, non-artifically colored capsules. Our commitment to quality goes beyond aesthethics though, as we are commited to making sure everything else in the capsules is pure as possible. We carry out 3rd-party lab testing on all of our ingredients with a spec of 99% purity and A+ ratings, and we license the purest form of citicoline, a patented bioidentical form from Japan called Cognizin. Our capsules also contain no binding agents, fillers, excipients or anything besides the high-purity ingredients listed. With Nootroo you can be confident knowing that we never cut corners and that you always have the best nootropics available.

Understanding the Original Nootropic: Piracetam

Piracetam was shown to significantly increase the memory of healthy college students in less than 14 days of daily use on a word recall test. Nootropic effects generally increase over time and this study concluded that nootropics are “capable of extending the intellectual functions of man.”

Healthy adults had a 15% increase in the number of words recalled on a test of verbal recall. Words heard by the left ear had to cross the corpus callosum in order to reach the verbal processing region on the other side of the brain in order to be verbalized.

Piracetam is not a stimulant and does not work by directly affecting the central nervous system as caffeine or an amphetamine does. Piracetam shows no activity on over 30 different tests and has demonstrated little to no side-effects, including no toxicity, even in extremely high doses.

Next-Generation Nootropics

While piracetam is an amazing molecule, its accidental discovery meant that it wasn’t invented with a directed focus on cognitive enhancement or neuroprotection. Fortunately, in the intervening decades since piracetam’s discovery, research labs around the world set out to make improved versions with additional benefits and they succeeded beyond their expectations. Two of the best versions created were noopept and phenylpiracetam.

Noopept is a di-peptide version of piracetam that has very high bioavailability and demonstrated anxiolytic properties. Phenylpiracetam was created by adding a “phenyl” group to piracetam which gives it increased bioavailability and some psychomotor activity.

The circles below show where the piracetam structure is within these new molecules. Taking these advanced forms of piracetam and adding a bio-identical form of the body’s preferred choline source is how you get the Nootroo Gold & Silver Formulas.

Discounted For Subscription15 Gold Formula & 15 Silver FormulaUnlimited Protocol AccessNever Run Out of Supply1-Click Unsubscribe

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Noopept is a di-peptide version of piracetam specifically developed to be more powerful and absorbable from oral administration. The researchers from the lab that created it, specialized in creating peptide versions of other molecules, and created hundreds of modified versions of piracetam before selecting Noopept because it is was highly absorbed and “demonstrated a wide spectrum of cognition improving effects.” This molecule has been demonstrated to have both positive short-term and long-term effects at enhancing memory and mental processing, especially in older populations.

In adults with (a) cognitive decline and (b) post-concussional syndrome, Noopept was shown to have an even more powerful and consistent effect compared to piracetam.

Noopept significantly increased the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the brain. BDNF levels control the quantity of new neurons created by the brain.

Noopept has been shown to increase the firing rate of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus. These neurons are implicated in memory formation and recall.

CDP-Choline, as will be discussed more in depth down below, is the bodys preferred precursor for the memory neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Supplementation of acetylcholine alone will increase acetylcholine production in the brain. Nootropics alone will increase the bodys use of acetylcholinein the process of forming memory. So when combined, the power of this increased supply to meet the brains increased neurochemical demands, has been shown to have profound effects compared to either alone.

Phenylpiracetam is a version of piracetam with an added phenyl group designed to increase processing speed and provide mental endurance. This added group increases piracetam’s affinity for the receptors that control psychomotor activity (where movement and thinking are combined), while not not being a central nervous stimulant. Phenylpiraceatam has been shown to significantly speed up processing and endurance, even in single doses. It was utilized by the Russian space program for use by cosmonauts on extended missions.

Phenylpiracetam was shown to increase the amount of distance covered in exploratory trials. This correlates to an increase in mental activation and endurance.

Phenylpiracetam was shown in this study to regulate the brain waves against aggression in an epilepsy model. Autonomic normalization is a property that helps ensure consistent brain activity against things that would tend to disrupt it.

Phenylpiracetam has also been shown to prevent a memory blocking agent, scopolamine, from blocking memory formation. This is a powerful indicator of the effect of phenylpiracetam on memory formation.

One way phenylpiracetam works,is by activating and enhancing the activity of the cholinergicsystem in the brain. The cholinergic system modulates memory and learning and in order for it to operate optimally, it needs the molecule acetylcholine to be at certain levels in synapses. CDP-Choline is the precursor for acetylcholine, and by adding it to the body, the brain will increase its choline levels. By increasing the amount of choline available, the brain will then utilize more of it and in doing so, will enhance the firing mechanisms of this system. This allows phenylpiracetam to have an optimized cholinergic system to interact with.

CiticolineIn Gold & Silver Formulas:

CDP-Choline, also known as citicoline, is a precursor for the memory neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Supplementation has been shown to increase acetylcholine production in the brain. Citicoline administration has also been shown to increase brain bioenergetics by increasing energy reserves and utilization of energy.. Studies in healthy adult women show that taking Cognizin citicoline significantly improved their verbal memory after just 28 days. Studies suggest that citicoline also can help increase dopamine receptor densities , which is the neurotransmitter associated with motivation. We license Cognizin, a patented form of Citicoline, that is the only pure, free-base form of citicoline that is bioidentical to the form found in nature.

Healthy adult women taking CDP-Choline have been shown to have an improvement in memory and focus after 28 days.

The levels of the energy carrier molecule (ATP) were increased by 13.6% by CDP Choline and cell membrane turnover was increased by more than 25%.

CDP-Choline alone in adolescent males for 28 days was shown to significantly increase psychomotor speed and improve attention compared to placebo.

CDP-Choline is an essential nutrient that is crucial in the brains processes of memory formation, attention and learning, yet most people are deficient in it. CDP-Choline is typically obtained by the body from food and supplies choline for the brain to make the neurotransmitter acetylcholine as well as neuronal cell membranes. That is why simply adding it to the body results in a >25% increase in cell membrane formation as well as >10% increase in cellular energy (ATP) levels. The recommendations for adults is between 450-550 mg per day, both Nootroo Gold & Silver have approximately 500 mg of the purest form of CDP-Choline available, Cognizin branded CDP-Choline. It is made in an enzymatic process in a bioreactor that takes 6 months and is imported from Japan. This patented-form of CDP-Choline is the only form that is bioidentical to the form found in nature, in a free-base and not a salt.

Meditation is a key element to enhancing your brains ability to focus and stay on task. Mindfulness meditation can change your brain in as little at 8 weeks. We will provide resources to help you learn and sustain a meditation practice.

Exercise is crucial for optimizing brain health, metabolism and neuroplasticity. The Nootroo Protocol will teach you the most effective and efficient exercises for the brain from both the physical and mental realms.

Nootroo Gold & Silver have you covered in this category, but we will also share with you additional tips, tricks, nutrients, and supplements that can help you get the most out of your nootropics (and brain).

Sleep is crucial to memory formation, consolidation, and general brain health. We will teach you techniques to help you sleep better, increase neurotransmitter synthesis, wake up feeling more refreshed and even how to fall asleep more easily.

Diet is a key regulator of energy and how you feel. We will teach you dietary tricks to optimize your bodys metabolism so that your brain can receive more energy and utilize that energy more effectively.

The Nootroo Protocol has been designed to bring together all of the most important aspects for optimal performance and health. As a subscriber, you will receive continued access to our knowledge-base as well as a step-by-step tips and information to aid you in achieving optimal performance.

Its not like every tech worker in Silicon Valley is taking nootropics to get ahead, Burke acknowledges. Its the few who are getting ahead who are using supplements to do that… These days, he buys his stack from Nootroo, a San Francisco company.

“Tweaking brains with smart drugs to get ahead in Silicon Valley”

Nootropics are a broad category of cognitive-enhancing supplements that include a range of compounds to improve memory, focus and mood…Matzner said he wants to get these things out to as many smart people as possible so people could get smarter and make the world better.

‘Nootropics gain momentum as ‘smart pills

Were talking about…a new type of biology where were taking these things into our own hands but also to try and proactively go from baseline to above, said Matzner.

A real-life ‘Limitless’ pill? Silicon Valley entrepreneurs pursue brain hacking with nootropics, or ‘smart drugs’

Nootropics are trending right now in Silicon Valley. A crop of new companies are selling these so-called productivity pills to “biohackers” looking to get an edge in work and life…A company based in San Francisco called Nootroo sells two pills — one gold, one silver…

Nootropics, Biohacking and Silicon Valley’s Pursuit of Productivity

“Eric takes nootropics…a mix of compounds…that claim to improve cognitive function, increase alertness and strengthen memory and recall.”

Billion Dollar Deals and How They Changed Your World | Health

[Nootroos] pills come in gold and silver formulas, which are to be taken on alternating days. Over time, theyre intended to enhance focus, memory, and cognitive function.

Nightline News dropped by to see what all the hype over nootropics is about. They interviewed a Nootroo customer to find the secret to her work hard play hard lifestyle.

The BBC came to check out what is going on in Silicon Valley with those choosing to enhance their biology and push forward science, to see if they just might end up pushing forward the world.

NPR wanted some tips on how biohacker and Nootroo founder, Eric Matzner, starts his day, so he showed them a basic adaption of the Nootroo Protocol.

Discounted For Subscription15 Gold Formula & 15 Silver FormulaUnlimited Protocol AccessNever Run Out of Supply1-Click Unsubscribe

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Humanity will not wait millions of years until Mother Nature will hand it a functionally better brain…[Humankind] will directly, openly and consciously take part in evolution.

In the early 1960s, scientists were working to develop a form of the neurotransmitter GABA, that would be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and potentially work as a sleep aid..

While they succeeded in developing a molecule with the ability to enter the brain, they failed at creating a sleep aid. What they discovered instead, however, was a molecule that would later prove to be much more profound.

Like a sculptor removing parts of the stone to reveal the beauty within, Corneliu Giurgea, the lead scientist at the lab, and his team would work diligently to chip away at the unknowns of piracetam, to reveal the properties within it.

After 9 years of research, Giurgea had determined that this molecule (piracetam) acted in such a unique way on the higher-level, integrative activities of the brain, that in order to classify it, the creation of an entirely new classification was required: ” the nootropic approach to integrative activity of the mind.”

On over 30 pharmacological tests, Piracetam was found to have no activity, including being neither a sedative nor a stimulant. It also had no toxicity and few side effects, even when given in extremely high doses, such as grams per kilogram of body weight, to mice, rats, cats, dogs, and monkeys with single or multiple doses, even over long-term administration.

In fact, because of those properties, piracetam seemed to be inactive. Had it not been for a test on nystagmus (involuntary eye movements), where they found it immediately active, piracetam likely would have been passed over. This discovery was especially intriguing to the researchers because all of the then-known agents active against nystagmus were either antihistamines or anticholinergics.

It was clear that piracetam did not fit into either of those classes, so the researchers set out to understand which class it did fit into. As they would eventually discover, no existing class embodied the properties of this “unusual” molecule.

The first human trials began in 1965 and showed that piracetam was able to significantly inhibit nystagmus. Because there was extremely low toxicity and seemingly few side-effects, they began to test piracetam in other populations. Further data reported internally then claimed “fairly good efficacy against motion sickness and vertigo” in humans. These findings lead them to search for a “more comprehensive picture of piracetam from the neurophysiological point of view.”

As they were carrying out these follow up studies over 1966-1967, a series of surprising results were reported. First, results came in from a study done at a hospital in Finland on post-concussion patients. The scientists running the study wrote to Giurgea to let him know that the “patients memory seemed somehow improved, that they declared to ‘think’ better.”.

Then came word from a trial in Brusseles on epileptic children administered piracetam. The parents of the children in the study “claimed a kind of improvement in the overall mental efficiency.” And then another researcher reported to him that his Parkinsonian patients under Piracetam were “somehow more aware of their sickness.”

Since Giurgea and his team had previously demonstrated piracetam selectively enhanced interhemispheric communication (see associated image), he had suspected that the compound might facilitate other cortically integrated mental functions, but at that time, he had no idea the extent.

This new information changed the course of their clinical work and they began to focus on “studies related to a potential beneficial effect of Piracetam on mental activity.”

Nootropic Properties Revealed

As experimental data on the neurochemical mechanisms of piracetam continued to expand, Giurgea and his team began to zero in on some overarching properties of the molecule that would come to define the nootropic class.

In normal subjects, piracetam appeared to “activate efficiency of higher nervous function” and in the case of injury, piracetam appeared to “protect and/or facilitate restoration of normal brain activity.”

From these observations and others, Giurgea surmised that piracetam, and potentially other molecules like it, “appeared to have a selective activity upon the higher-integrative mechanisms of the brain.”

Enhancement of Learning & Memory

Rats learned how to exit a water maze much more quickly when on piracetam.

Facilitation of Interhemispheric Transfer

Notice the change in the amplitude of the evoked potential of the corpus callosum, without a change in morphology. Demonstrating telencephalic selectivity.

Protection Against Loss of Oxygen

Memory is protected from disruption during a loss of oxygen (hypoxia) if the rats are given Piracetam prior.

Protection From Electroconvulsive Shock

After having their brains electroconvulsively shocked, after 24-hours, rats given piracetam prior remembered 100%, while rats on placebo remembered less than 20% of the time.

Increased Control of SubcorticalProcesses


Nootroo 5.0 The Gold Standard in Nootropics

Nootropics | Cognitive Enhancers | Nootropics Supplements

Nootropics Also referred to as smart drugsandcognitive enhancers, are supplements, drugs, and nutraceuticals that can help (if used properly) to improve mental functions such as concentration, cognition, memory, and motivation. Here at Nootropics City, we believe that nootropics can help to accomplish this if used responsibly in a recorded and measured manner.

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Nootropics | Cognitive Enhancers | Nootropics Supplements

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Nootropic stacks can maximise your learning capacity, memory, focus, concentration and prevent high levels of stress. The best nootropic stack for beginners is caffeine and L-theanine. If you are an intermediate user you should try either Pramiracetam and Alpha GPC or Phenylpiracetam and Choline. Four popular nootropics: Aniracetam, Alpha GPC, Huperzina A and Vinpocetine are used by those who consider themselves as advanced users. Learning accelerator is the latest category of nootropics. iQuzil is the best cognitive enhancer for expert users. Although nootropic stacks are best known for their ability to enhance mental capacity, concentration, focus and memory, they can also be very effective at preventing the high levels of anxiety, including social anxiety. Students are likely to experience enough challenges and pressures without having to think about dealing with high levels of anxiety. The best nootropic stack to reduce anxiety and help with studying is Choline Bitatrate, Phenibut and Picamilon. The above nootropic stacks will help students to maximise their potential and reach goals by improving their brain power, working memory and focus.

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Nootropics | definition of Nootropics by Medical dictionary

(redirected from Nootropics)Also found in: Dictionary.nootropic (n–trop’ik),

Denotes an agent having an effect on memory.


a chemical designed to increase brain metabolism.

There is little clinical evidence that most agents advertised as nootropics actually work as advertised.

Capable of improving or preserving memory, of potentiating learning, or of preventing cognitive decline or dementia.

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Nootropics | definition of Nootropics by Medical dictionary

Supplements to Support Brain and Body Function | Nootrobox …

Found in fish and krill oil, Omega-3 acts as a signal in the body and as the building blocks of cell membranes

Omega-3 fatty acids in Kado help the absorption of fat soluble vitamins (D & K)

The main types of Omega-3 fatty acids derived from animal sources are EPA (signaler to help reduce inflammation), DHA (promotes fluidity at synaptic junctions, where memories are formed in neural networks)

Kado contains a high 2:1 ratio of DHA:EPA for cognitive health

Improve memory and reaction time17,18,19

Supplementation has many other benefits for cardiovascular and metabolic health

Can reduce depression20

Shown to improve attention, executive function, and memory19,17,18

Protective against cognitive decline21

Helps reduce inflammation and soreness after exercise22,23,24,25

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Nootropics | HVMN Biohacker Guide

Nootropics are a broad classification of cognition-enhancing compounds that produce minimal side effects and are suitable for long-term use. These compounds include those occurring in nature or already produced by the human body (such as neurotransmitters), and their synthetic analogs. We already regularly consume some of these chemicals: B vitamins, caffeine, and L-theanine, in our daily diets.

A fundamental aspect of human evolution has been the drive to augment our capabilities. The neocortex is the neural seat of abstract and higher order cognitive processes. As it grew, so did our ability to create. The invention of tools and weapons, writing, the steam engine, and the computer have exponentially increased our capacity to influence and understand the world around us. These advances are being driven by improved higher-order cognitive processing.1Fascinatingly, the practice of modulating our biology through naturally occurring flora predated all of the above discoveries. Indeed, Sumerian clay slabs as old as 5000 BC detail medicinal recipes which include over 250 plants2. The enhancement of human cognition through natural compounds followed, as people discovered plants containing caffeine, theanine, and other cognition-enhancing, or nootropic, agents.

There is an ancient precedent to humans using natural compounds to elevate cognitive performance. Incan warriors in the 15th century would ingest coca leaves (the basis for cocaine) before battle. Ethiopian hunters in the 10th century developed coffee bean paste to improve hunting stamina. Modern athletes ubiquitously consume protein powders and hormones to enhance their training, recovery, and performance. The most widely consumed psychoactive compound today is caffeine. Millions of people use coffee and tea to be more alert and focused.

The term nootropic is simply a descriptor, and this descriptor spans across all legal classifications of compounds. Broadly speaking, there are four main classifications:

Nootrobox stacks are strictly derived from the first category – compounds that are GRAS and approved for human consumption as dietary supplements.

The mechanisms by which nootropic compounds influence our cognition and neurophysiology are as diverse as those of prescription drugs. We present below our in-progress work, detailing the mechanisms, effects, and history of various nootropic compounds. Check in for updates and additions.

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Nootropics | HVMN Biohacker Guide

What is a Nootropic – What are nootropics?

The word nootropic is derived from the greek words noos, meaning mind, and trope, meaning turning. In essence, nootropic perform one function: they turn your mind to boost your cognitive abilities and make your mental state better in some way, shape, or form.

Different groups classify different drugs as nootropics, but for the most part, everyone agrees that nootropics have two defining characteristics:

Keep in mind that nootropics are not vitamins or minerals. Usually, theyre synthetic chemicals produced in laboratories. Theyre not essential to your bodys functions. Theyre add-ons in that you use them and you feel better, but if you dont, its not like your body is lacking anything otherwise required. We do advocate getting the proper amount of essential nutrients, and minerals as a starting point to improved cognitive health. Well talk about generally optimizing brain health (your cognitive baseline) through sleep, diet, and exercise a later post.

Were being relatively vague here because there is a wide spectrum of nootropics available today. And they all claim to do different things for you. Its up to you to pick the right nootropic for what you want to accomplish. Later posts will cover the different types of nootropics, as well as specific nootropics to use in certain scenarios for studying, for sharpness, for recovery after partying, etc.

After understanding what a nootropic is, the next question that begs to be asked is, How do they work?

Every nootropic affects your body in a different way. Its important to note the distinction between results and commonly referred to as working mechanisms. One thing that we also want to note is that nootropics are a very subjective experience, and although one person may have great results with a particular nootropic, another person may have no result when using that same nootropic.

If the working mechanism for a drug is known, we know exactly how it affects your body. As in, if you ingest drug A, it affects receptors X, Y, and Z. This modification to receptors X, Y, and Z produces effects B, C, and D.

If the working mechanism for a drug isnt known, then we only know A, B, C, and D in the above example. For most nootropics, there is speculation behind the working mechanisms, but there has not been any conclusive evidence of these claims. As such, the working mechanisms being discussed are theories, not fact.

Dont let this turn you off of nootropics as a safe way to improve your mental function. The human body is incredibly complex, and we havent even begun to understand how all the pieces of the puzzle fit together. We dont even know the working mechanisms for some of the most popular drugs sold worldwide.

Take acetaminophen (the active ingredient in Tylenol) as an example. There have been tens of thousands of studies conducted with this drug, and after studying human reactions to it over, and over, and over again, weve come to these three conclusions:

Youd think that after tens of thousands of studies, a working mechanism would have been found, right? Unfortunately not the working mechanism for acetaminophen isnt known, and it doesnt look like well know exactly how it works anytime soon.

Take this example and apply it to nootropics. The working mechanisms usually arent known, but after observing empirical evidence over, and over, and over again, we can come to some pretty consistent conclusions about them.

Now, we know what youre thinking; If these drugs claim to enhance your cognitive abilities but the working mechanisms arent 100% known, are they legal?

The answer is both yes and no.

Yes: most nootropics are perfectly legal to possess. This means that if a police officer were to see you taking one and stop you, hed likely be suspicious (nootropics often come in the form of white powder), but if he were to conduct a field test on it, you would not be arrested or issued a ticket. Your package wont be taken if inspected by customs, etc.

No: like dietary supplements, most nootropics arent approved by the FDA. All countries vary on the legality of nootropics. In Russia, most are legal, and many are prescription medicines. We suggest that you research the laws of your country regarding possession of a particular nootropic before you order. Those are just two examples. Always do your research on your specific countrys laws before purchasing any nootropic supplements.

The cool (and sometimes off-putting) thing about nootropics is that everyone reacts differently to each one. This is pretty standard with drugs in general if we take marijuana as an example, it relaxes some people, whereas it makes other anxious and paranoid. Its your personal reaction.

In general, the effects of nootropics are fairly mild. Theyre not meant to be stimulants like adderall, ritalin, vyvanse, or concerta. Instead, they aim to take your base level of cognitive performance and bring it up. Go from being able to give 100% when not taking nootropics, to being able to give 105% or 110% when you are. If you focus in on how the nootropic is affecting you, youll be able to tell, but with the vast majority of nootropics, you wont feel over-stimulated or anything of that nature, sometime the effects are rather subtle. One thing that we suggest is tracking the efficacy of the nootropics you take to really determine the value you are getting from nootropics; this is covered later.

Also, you should expect no comedown and no come up. Nootropics work in the background. When you dose, you wont feel a rush (although some do report a tingly feeling), and when the nootropic starts to wear off, you wont feel like youre crashing. Instead, youll slowly climb to where your cognitive abilities are enhanced, and then gradually ease off of that as the chemical is depleted until youre at your normal baseline mental state.

Every nootropic out there can be categorized into a certain subset of nootropics. Here are the main ones below all popular nootropics will fall into one of these categories. Well talk about some more specific nootropics later. If youd like to skip ahead to the best nootropics for beginners, click here

Racetams (One our of favorites)

All racetams (about 20 in total, depending on who you ask) are derived from the king: piracetam. After being synthesized in the early 1970s, piracetam quickly took its place at the vanguard of the nootropic movement if you ask someone to name a nootropic, piracetam will always be the first answer.

The formula for piracetam is C6H10N2O2, and most of its derivatives such a aniracetam, oxiracetam, and pramiracetam have certain elements added or removed from that base structure. Good ol piracetam provides a wide range of cognitive enhancements including improved memory, improved verbal articulation, improved long and short term memory, etc.

More often than not, a racetam is the base of any nootropic stack. Users often add other nootropics to enhance the effects of a racetam.

If youre diving into nootropics and want the surefire bet, choose piracetam. But if you have certain needs maybe you want more energy than piracetam, or you need a creative boost then its worth checking out its derivatives. Despite their formulaic similarities, users report substantially different effects when taking them.

Choline (usually paired with racetams)

Choline isnt usually used by itself in the nootropic landscape, but its a very common addition to any nootropic combination (stack). There are two reasons for this, choline itself gives you additional cognitive enhancements, and adding choline is theorized to boost the effects of any racetam that increases acetylcholine uptake. Choline was once classified as vitamin B4 and has since been reclassified as an essential nutrient and is metabolized by the body in acetylcholine.

Before going further I want to note that acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter that is thought to be responsible for decision making and certain types of learning. Many nootropics have some effect on the way the body processes or interacts with acetylcholine and those effects generally have cognitive benefits when utilized responsibly.

To put it simply, adding in a choline source means that you have an increased amount of acetylcholine available in your body. Having plenty of acetylcholine is said to have cognitive enhancing benefits all by itself, but theyre usually amplified when you have another nootropic in the mix.

Also, there have been studies that suggest piracetam (and most other racetams) deplets the acetylcholine you havein your brain. If your body doesnot have enough acetylcholine, the end result is that youll often end up with headaches. The same works the other way, which is another reason why almost no one adds in a choline source without adding in a nootropic, as having too much acetylcholine (or anything else for that matter) is generally not a good thing. They balance each other out perfectly to give you cognitive enhancementand prevent you from getting headaches; its a symbiotic relationship that requires balancing.

Youll notice that there are two terms mentioned here acetylcholine and choline sources. Choline sources are the actual supplements you take, and once ingested, they increase your acetylcholine levels.Every choline source will produce a different amount of acetylcholine. Alpha GPC is considered to be the most potent with highest bioavailability. A rudimentary search will put you on the right track see what others users have paired with their particular nootropics to balance acetylcholine levels correctly. For more information on choline, check out our beginners guide to choline.

The Natural Ones

Natural nootropics are no different from what youd referred to as natural herbs or natural remedies; they are naturally-occurring elements (from plants) that when ingested, provide cognitive enhancing effects.

The effects of natural nootropics vary greatly, and by and large, users have vastly different experiences with each and every one. Some claim theyre straight placebo, whereas others think that they can be even more potent than their human-made counterparts. However, the general consensus is that theyre less potent than synthetic nootropics are.

This shouldnt turn you off to them as a whole. Although less potent, some natural nootropics provide benefits in some way, shape, or form that synthetic ones cant match. Generall speaking, because natural nootropics are (by definition) from nature, they are often available at a cheaper price than synthetic nootropics are. No laboratories, purity tests, etc. are needed.

Bacopi Monneri is one of the most prevalent natural nootropics. It acts as a memory and anxiety aid, but effects usually take 6-8 weeks to kick in this is a great example of natural nootropics being less potent than a synthetic memory or anxiety aid that might take effect within just a couple of days, or even immediately. Its also a great example of how one can work in a way that its synthetic counterpart cant while anti-anxiety nootropics are usually borderline sedative, users report that Bacopi Monneri works in the background so that you dont feel like youre under the influence.

Other popular natural nootropics are Huperzine-A, and Gingko Biloba. If youre interested in nootropics but arent a fan of the ones produced in laboratories, these three are great jumping-off points.

Smart Drugs

Smart drugs are where the border between nootropic and drug is tested; some consider smart drugs to be nootropics, whereas others think that they should be heavily regulated just as prescription medications are.

Modafinil is the best example of a smart drug. Its prescribed in some countries, banned in some, and completely legal in others. It promises a full-blown energy increase similar to adderall, but without the euphoria or other side effects.

Many people think that smart drugs like modafinil arent nootropics because of how they affect you. If you take a standard nootropic like piracetam for a month straight and then abruptly stop, you might notice the nootropic not being present, but you wont have any real side effects. On the other hand, dosing a smart drug like modafinil on a consistent basis and then suddenly stopping might lead to insomnia, lack of focus, etc.

Were not saying that smart drugs are bad, necessarily. Were just saying that you shouldnt expect a subtle effect like other nootropics give you. When you take one, youll easily notice the effects, and when you come off of it, youll easily notice that you arent on it.

Vitamin B & Vitamin B Derivatives

B vitamins are unique in how they affect us. One of the most popular energy drinks, 5 Hour Energy, has vitamin B6 as its main ingredient (albeit 10,000x the RDA) because of the energy boost that it gives to us.

Naturally, with such effects, B vitamins are being explored as nootropics. Its important to note that vitamin B derivatives arent the same thing as B vitamins;theyve been modified in some way to become something other than the naturally-occurring vitamin.As of 2015, vitamin B derivatives are relatively new. Sulbutiamine is a derivative of vitamin B1 that was originally developed by the Japanese to combat fatigue, and it has the largest user base out of all of them. Picamillion is also a B derived nootropic as it combines niacin (B3) with GABA . More research is needed to conclude anything about B vitamins, but if youve had success from taking a B-complex or an energy drink like 5 Hour Energy, theyre worth exploring.


Ampakides are generally seen as piracetam was in the 80s and 90s interesting, but not researched a whole lot. Actually, out of all of the different types of nootropics, ampakides have the least research done on them.

They appear to work by antagonizing the AMPA and NDMA receptors in your body; this in turn leads to an uptick in glutamate available for your brain to use. Glutamate is said to increase memory span and focus abilities. But again, there hasnt been a whole lot of research done on ampakides or how they will affect you in the long-term.Only use ampakides if youre an explorer and willing to ingest something that hasnt been fully studied.


Peptides are interesting in that they operate similarly to racetams, but arent the same thing. There arent a whole lot on the market today aside from noopept.

Noopept has quickly earned a reputation for being 1,000x more potent than piracetam while having similar effects. This means that the dosage is a lot smaller whereas you need 1.6g to 4.8g of piracetam per day, you only need 10mg to 40mg of noopept per day.

Although not as popular as racetams, peptides are worth exploring. Many users report similar effects as racetams, but not identical. Some like peptides more, whereas others stick with racetams. If you dont like what you feel from a certain racetam, its worth exploring peptides.


Many companies have jumped on the nootropic bandwagon and created nootropic blends. These blends are just a bunch of nootropics combined into a single pill, which is similar to stacking nootropics all on your own just easier.

Its important to take a look at the ingredients of each blend that youre considering. Sometimes, there will be ingredients that arent nootropics, and other times, there will be a blend of ingredients that you could easily concoct yourself for a fraction of the price. Often times they dont contain proper dosages of the ingredients to make them worthwhile.

The most popular nootropic blend is Alpha Brain from Onnit; you can check out our Alpha Brain full review and analysis here. By and large, people see success with this blend, but a lot of marketing is put into it its hard to get unbiased information when you look online. Wed recommend starting with pure nootropics first, and if you find one that you like, possibly getting a blend that has your choice nootropic as the #1 ingredient. If theres something we missed, please let us know so that we can bring our customers the most relevant information possible.

In a follow up blog post we will introduce you to the best nootropics for beginners, and from there we will cover some popular combinations of the individual nootropics in our post on the best nootropic stacks.

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What is a Nootropic – What are nootropics?

Ranking the best nootropics of 2019 – BodyNutrition

Many deep thinkers, CEOs and people of mastery are taking nootropics, commonly known as smart drugs, for increased brain function.

(This is your ability to learn, focus, remember things, and solve complex problems)

From Joe Rogan to Tim Ferriss, smart drugs were being talked about years ago before recently hitting mainstream.

Nootropics work, but you got to be careful.

Since nootropics are such a hot topic right now, it can be hard to separate whats legit and whats whack.

Our research team looked at the scientific research in-depth to find the best nootropics on the market right now.

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OptiMind provides the best balance among proven nootropic ingredients. It balances a moderate dose of vitamin D with a heavy dose of vitamin B12, and several key nootropic supplements, including L-tyrosine, bacopa extract, caffeine, ALA, and vinpocetine, to name just a few. The dosages are on-point and there arent any extraneous ingredients, making OptiMind come out number one.

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The widely-known nootropic supplement from Onnit, made famous in part thanks to Joe Rogans ringing endorsement, fares well thanks to the strong results from a clinical trial conducted at the Boston Center for Memory and published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal in 2016 (1).

Alpha Brains blend of supplements seems particularly effective at boosting verbal skills, so its great if you need to read or write a lot.

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NeuroIgnite contains high doses of several powerful nootropic supplements, and moreover, the label actually tells you how much of each extract is in the supplement, unlike other companies who hide the specifics of their blend under the veil of a proprietary blend.

The heavy hitters in this blend are bacopa monnieri, DMAE, and ginkgo biloba, all heavily-researched supplements with evidence for nootropic effects.

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Zhou Nutritions Neuro-Peak is an immensely popular nootropic supplement that includes a massive dose of vitamin B12 and a slew of herbal extracts. Rhodiola rosea extract is one of the distinguishing factors in Neuro-Peak; this herbal extract appears to be effective at staving off mental fatigue.

Because of this, Neuro-Peak is a good choice if youre faced with a long stretch of continuous, mentally challenging work to do.

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We Are Fits Neuro Spark goes heavy on the St. Johns wort and ginkgo biloba, but includes some of the newer nootropic supplements like vinpocetine, bacopa monnieri, and huperzine-A as well.

Its a well-balanced, stimulant-free nootropic thats well-suited for boosting your performance at any cognitively challenging task.

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Ciltep by Natural Stacks is a little unusualit doesnt follow the lead of the more popular nootropic supplements. It chooses to include unconventional nootropic compounds like artichoke extract and forskolin extract (better known for its use as a weight loss supplement).

As you might guess, theres far less research on the cognitive enhancement properties of these supplements, but if normal nootropics arent doing it for you, Ciltep might be worth a shot.

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TruBrain focuses on delivering amino acids, plus the tried and true caffeine (only 100 mg per shot) and magnesium to achieve its nootropic effects. This approach is more about providing your brain with the natural building blocks it needs to function properly, versus trying to boost its function above its natural level. If you want more of a tune up than an upgrade, TruBrain is a good choice.

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Neovictas Clarity supplement is firmly in the kitchen sink camp, which is to say that it includes just about everything that might affect cognitive function. Its got vitamins, minerals, supplements, extracts, and synthetic compounds.

This betrays a lack of an overarching strategy when it comes to boosting cognitive function, but if you just want to cover your bases, its not a bad choice.

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Brain Boost is essentially a multivitamin along with several herbal extracts that affect biological processes related to cognitive function. Its purpose to to make sure your body is fueled up with the right micronutrients and biological precursors to function at its best.

Unfortunately, because its nootropic ingredients are part of a proprietary blend, its impossible to see how much of each ingredient is present in the supplement.

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NeuroFit is another nootropic that goes heavy on the vitamins and minerals, but is secretive about the amounts of the actual nootropic ingredients in its formulation. With so many ingredients, it seems unlikely that the active ingredients are present in high concentrations.

Nootropics are supplements that are designed to boost cognitive functionthat is, enhance your brains ability to learn, remember, and solve problems.

Though they are extremely popular among students, nootropics have a much broader appeal. Just about anybody in a complex job wants the ability to work faster and more effectively, and people who are getting older like the appeal of staving off brain fog and some of the cognitive decline that comes along with aging.

When a supplement claims to impact cognitive function, its a fairly easy claim to test.

Unlike other supplements that claim to boost well-being or promote a healthy immune system, testing cognitive function is straightforward: you get a group of subjects, give them the supplement in question or a placebo, then subject them to a battery of psychometric tests to assess their cognitive function.

There are a variety of types of these kinds of tests, and different supplements seem to affect different aspects of cognitive function. Some seem to boost memory, while others influence verbal abilities or help reduce mental fatigue (the diminishing of cognitive performance after long, challenging efforts).

A good case study in how testing nootropics work can be observed in the 2016 study that validated the effects of Alpha Brain (2).

Researchers split a group of volunteers into two groups, one of which was given Alpha Brain, and the other of which was given a placebo supplement. Both groups were tested for their cognitive abilities at the outset of the study, then took their assigned supplement for six weeks before being tested again.

The psychometric battery of tests used in the study included visual, spatial, logical, and verbal reasoning and memory. The results showed no improvement in most metrics, but a statistically significant increase in verbal memory.

Other supplements have been studied on an individual level to identify potential nootropic benefits. As you might guess, the most popular ingredients among the top-ranked nootropic supplements are also among the best-studied and most effective.

Bacopa monnieri, for example, is an herbal extract thats been demonstrated to have specific cognitive enhancing effects. A 2001 study in the scientific journal Psychopharmacology conducted a similar protocol to the Alpha Brain studya group of healthy adult subjects were given a 300 mg dose of bacopa monnieri extract or a placebo for twelve weeks, and were subjected to a battery of cognitive tests before and after the supplementation period (3).

In this case, the researchers found that the bacopa supplement increased the speed of visual information processing, learning rate, and memory consolidation.

Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine looks to be an effective supplement when it comes to speeding up your short-term working memory.

A study published in the journal Human Psychopharmacology used a similar placebo-controlled experiment to study the effects of a combination of ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine on cognitive function, and found that the supplement combination increased the speed at which your working memory functions after being taken for two weeks (4).

When looking at nootropic supplements, youll have to think specifically about what kind of cognitive enhancement you are looking for.

When working on a major writing project, or attempting to work through a lot of reading material, taking something like Alpha Brain that increases verbal memory is could be very helpful.

On the other hand, something that improves visual information processing and learning rate, like bacopa monnieri extract, would likely speed your ability to learn math flash cards or process on-screen visual information.

If you were doing data entry, you might want something to improve short-term working memory, like ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine.

Its clear that taking the time to analyze the specific cognitive demands of the task in question will help immensely when you are deciding what the ideal nootropic supplement is for you.

Other nootropic supplements were studied initially to help with cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, but have been hypothesized to be effective as well in healthy people.

One example of this is the herbal supplement huperzine-A. Early research found that it had a strong anti-dementia effect. A 1999 experiment described using a huperzine-A supplement to reverse natural dementia in elderly monkeys, as well as reversing chemically-induced cognitive decline in young monkeys (5).

Research into whether it can be used to actually boost cognitive performance in healthy humans is still lacking, but this hasnt stopped people from betting that it will.

An entirely different strategy in nootropics is simply providing your brain with extra building blocks to use in the process of synthesizing neurotransmitters, which are chemicals your brain uses to think. Many nootropics simply provide high doses of the amino acids that are associated with cognitive function.

These are less well-studied, perhaps because simply keeping your brains amino acid reserved topped off isnt as exciting as artificially enhancing its performance, but its nevertheless a strategically sound approach.

Since nootropic supplements are so new, their side effect profile is not well-studied. So far, there have been no major adverse side effects reported that are associated with the ingredients used in the best and most popular nootropic supplements.

In this regard they appear to have a safer safety profile than other categories of multi-ingredient supplements, like weight loss supplements.

The one caveat to this applies to nootropic supplements that contain caffeine. While caffeine is one of the best-studied and most effective cognitive enhancement supplements (as every coffee addict knows), it can cause side effects like jitters and nausea in people who are sensitive to it.

Further, taking it at night is a bad idea, thanks to caffeines ability to act as a stimulantunless, of course, you are trying to stay up all night. Theres nothing wrong with caffeine in a nootropic supplement, but make sure you know how many milligrams each serving contains.

Only a small number of nootropics have established effective doses, and these are mostly derived from the dosages chosen in scientific studies that examined the supplement in question.

Bacopa monnieri, for example, appears to be effective at doses of 300 mg, and ginkgo biloba extract can be effective at doses as low as 40 mg.

Vinpocetine seems to require doses of 30 to 60 mg, but this comes from scientific literature using it to study cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, so its not clear if boosting brain function in healthy people can be accomplished with a lower dose.

DMAEs studied dosage range is typically about 100 mg, but this seems to come from studies looking at its use to induce lucid dreaming!

Clearly, more work is needed to establish optimal doses for nootropic supplements, but looking for dosages close to these guidelines is at least a good place to start.

Nootropics are a new field of supplementation, but there is fairly strong evidence emerging that a number of different supplements can positively affect your cognitive functioning.

Each seems to serve a slightly different purpose, so think about the cognitive demands in your life before you choose a nootropic supplement. Once you know the kinds of problems you want to solve, make sure your supplement of choice has dosages of the major nootropic compounds you want that are at least close to the range studied in the scientific literature.

When done with care, nootropics appear to be a safe and effective way to increase your brain power and help you work faster, smarter, and more effectively.

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Ranking the best nootropics of 2019 – BodyNutrition

Top 5 Brain Supplements – Brain Center

Product Claims

NeuroFuse came in a close second. It had the right idea to provide the wide range of ingredients it did in their formula. They included some key ingredients including Bacopa Monnieri, Huperzine A, Vinpocetine and also included a good Vitamin B blend. We did note that they include caffeine, but it is unclear from which source this is from.

We did note a significant warning with this product, namely that the caffeine it contains may cause a negative impact, mainly that some users may experience the jitters. Their dosage suggests that one can take up to 6 pills a day, which we felt was too many. These issues made us a little wary of the product, even though they seem to know the right ingredients to include.

We felt that NeuroFuse was pretty much on par with other similar products. We were happy to see that this supplier offers a money-back guarantee. However, we didn’t really like the 14-day trial offer they promote. On the surface it seems good, however, our experience on these matters suggests that if consumers are not happy with the product, cancelling subscriptions can be a nightmare. We much prefer a simple clear money-back guarantee, it’s safer for consumers.

NeuroFuse was almost there with a top quality product but we felt that there were several key elements missing. It does contain a lot of the top natural ingredients for cognitive energy enhancement. However, the fact that their money-back guarantee is not apparent and that they are baiting customers in using a 14-day free trial offer, made us slightly wary. If they addressed these issues, we felt that this could have been a winner!

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Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence – Future of …

Many AI researchers roll their eyes when seeing this headline:Stephen Hawking warns that rise of robots may be disastrous for mankind. And as many havelost count of how many similar articles theyveseen.Typically, these articles are accompanied by an evil-looking robot carrying a weapon, and they suggest we should worry about robots rising up and killing us because theyve become conscious and/or evil.On a lighter note, such articles are actually rather impressive, because they succinctly summarize the scenario that AI researchers dontworry about. That scenario combines as many as three separate misconceptions: concern about consciousness, evil, androbots.

If you drive down the road, you have a subjective experience of colors, sounds, etc. But does a self-driving car have a subjective experience? Does it feel like anything at all to be a self-driving car?Although this mystery of consciousness is interesting in its own right, its irrelevant to AI risk. If you get struck by a driverless car, it makes no difference to you whether it subjectively feels conscious. In the same way, what will affect us humans is what superintelligent AIdoes, not how it subjectively feels.

The fear of machines turning evil is another red herring. The real worry isnt malevolence, but competence. A superintelligent AI is by definition very good at attaining its goals, whatever they may be, so we need to ensure that its goals are aligned with ours. Humans dont generally hate ants, but were more intelligent than they are so if we want to build a hydroelectric dam and theres an anthill there, too bad for the ants. The beneficial-AI movement wants to avoid placing humanity in the position of those ants.

The consciousness misconception is related to the myth that machines cant have goals.Machines can obviously have goals in the narrow sense of exhibiting goal-oriented behavior: the behavior of a heat-seeking missile is most economically explained as a goal to hit a target.If you feel threatened by a machine whose goals are misaligned with yours, then it is precisely its goals in this narrow sense that troubles you, not whether the machine is conscious and experiences a sense of purpose.If that heat-seeking missile were chasing you, you probably wouldnt exclaim: Im not worried, because machines cant have goals!

I sympathize with Rodney Brooks and other robotics pioneers who feel unfairly demonized by scaremongering tabloids,because some journalists seem obsessively fixated on robots and adorn many of their articles with evil-looking metal monsters with red shiny eyes. In fact, the main concern of the beneficial-AI movement isnt with robots but with intelligence itself: specifically, intelligence whose goals are misaligned with ours. To cause us trouble, such misaligned superhuman intelligence needs no robotic body, merely an internet connection this may enable outsmarting financial markets, out-inventing human researchers, out-manipulating human leaders, and developing weapons we cannot even understand. Even if building robots were physically impossible, a super-intelligent and super-wealthy AI could easily pay or manipulate many humans to unwittingly do its bidding.

The robot misconception is related to the myth that machines cant control humans. Intelligence enables control: humans control tigers not because we are stronger, but because we are smarter. This means that if we cede our position as smartest on our planet, its possible that we might also cede control.

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Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence – Future of …

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? – Definition from …

Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines. It has become an essential part of the technology industry.

Research associated with artificial intelligence is highly technical and specialized. The core problems of artificial intelligence include programming computers for certain traits such as:

Knowledge engineering is a core part of AI research. Machines can often act and react like humans only if they have abundant information relating to the world. Artificial intelligence must have access to objects, categories, properties and relations between all of them to implement knowledge engineering. Initiating common sense, reasoning and problem-solving power in machines is a difficult and tedious task.

Machine learning is also a core part of AI. Learning without any kind of supervision requires an ability to identify patterns in streams of inputs, whereas learning with adequate supervision involves classification and numerical regressions. Classification determines the category an object belongs to and regression deals with obtaining a set of numerical input or output examples, thereby discovering functions enabling the generation of suitable outputs from respective inputs. Mathematical analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is a well-defined branch of theoretical computer science often referred to as computational learning theory.

Machine perception deals with the capability to use sensory inputs to deduce the different aspects of the world, while computer vision is the power to analyze visual inputs with a few sub-problems such as facial, object and gesture recognition.

Robotics is also a major field related to AI. Robots require intelligence to handle tasks such as object manipulation and navigation, along with sub-problems of localization, motion planning and mapping.

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What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? – Definition from …

A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001) – IMDb

Nominated for 2 Oscars. Another 17 wins & 68 nominations. See more awards Learn more More Like This

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An android endeavors to become human as he gradually acquires emotions.

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Roy Neary, an electric lineman, watches how his quiet and ordinary daily life turns upside down after a close encounter with a UFO.

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As Earth is invaded by alien tripod fighting machines, one family fights for survival.

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Drama | History | War

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In 1839, the revolt of Mende captives aboard a Spanish owned ship causes a major controversy in the United States when the ship is captured off the coast of Long Island. The courts must decide whether the Mende are slaves or legally free.

Director:Steven Spielberg

Stars:Djimon Hounsou,Matthew McConaughey,Anthony Hopkins

Drama | History | War

Young Albert enlists to serve in World War I after his beloved horse is sold to the cavalry. Albert’s hopeful journey takes him out of England and to the front lines as the war rages on.

Director:Steven Spielberg

Stars:Jeremy Irvine,Emily Watson,David Thewlis

In the not-so-far future the polar ice caps have melted and the resulting rise of the ocean waters has drowned all the coastal cities of the world. Withdrawn to the interior of the continents, the human race keeps advancing, reaching the point of creating realistic robots (called mechas) to serve them. One of the mecha-producing companies builds David, an artificial kid which is the first to have real feelings, especially a never-ending love for his “mother”, Monica. Monica is the woman who adopted him as a substitute for her real son, who remains in cryo-stasis, stricken by an incurable disease. David is living happily with Monica and her husband, but when their real son returns home after a cure is discovered, his life changes dramatically. Written byChris Makrozahopoulos

Budget:$100,000,000 (estimated)

Opening Weekend USA: $29,352,630,1 July 2001, Wide Release

Gross USA: $78,616,689, 23 September 2001

Cumulative Worldwide Gross: $235,927,000

Runtime: 146 min

Aspect Ratio: 1.85 : 1

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A.I. Artificial Intelligence (2001) – IMDb

Freedom | Define Freedom at Dictionary.com

the state of being free or at liberty rather than in confinement or under physical restraint: He won his freedom after a retrial.

exemption from external control, interference, regulation, etc.

the power to determine action without restraint.

political or national independence.

personal liberty, as opposed to bondage or slavery: a slave who bought his freedom.

exemption from the presence of anything specified (usually followed by from): freedom from fear.

the absence of or release from ties, obligations, etc.

ease or facility of movement or action: to enjoy the freedom of living in the country.

frankness of manner or speech.

general exemption or immunity: freedom from taxation.

the absence of ceremony or reserve.

a liberty taken.

a particular immunity or privilege enjoyed, as by a city or corporation: freedom to levy taxes.

civil liberty, as opposed to subjection to an arbitrary or despotic government.

the right to enjoy all the privileges or special rights of citizenship, membership, etc., in a community or the like.

the right to frequent, enjoy, or use at will: to have the freedom of a friend’s library.

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Freedom | Define Freedom at Dictionary.com