Index of Economic Freedom – heritage.org

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Brazils economic freedom score is 51.4, making its economy the 153rd freest in the 2018 Index. Its overall score has decreased by 1.5 points, with a steep drop in fiscal health and declines in labor freedom, business freedom, government spending, and government integrity overwhelming improvements in judicial effectiveness and property rights. Brazil is ranked 27th among 32 countries in the Americas region, and its overall score is below the regional and world averages.

Since taking office in August 2016, President Michel Temer has proposed economic reforms to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 70 percent of GDP at the end of 2016, up from 50 percent in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazils workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have increased employment at the expense of investment.

Brazil, the worlds fifth-largest country, has a mostly coastal population of more than 200 million and is dominated by the Amazon River and the worlds largest rain forest. Public corruption scandals have led to political chaos. Former President Luiz Incio Lula da Silva of the socialist Workers Party faces multiple judicial trials on charges of corruption. His successor, Dilma Rousseff, continued his leftist and populist agenda but was impeached and removed from office early in her second term for alleged budgetary misconduct to boost vote-buying during an ongoing economic downturn precipitated by crashing commodity prices. Michel Temer, a market-oriented centrist who then assumed the presidency, has also been tainted by allegations of corruption. His top priority has been consolidation of public finances.

Property rights are enforced, but challenges to intellectual property rights persist in Brazil. The judiciary, although largely independent, is overburdened, inefficient, and often subject to intimidation and other external influences. Corruption and graft remain pervasive, especially among elected officials, undermining the governments ability to make and implement policy without undue influence from private or criminal interests.

The personal income tax rate is 27.5 percent. The standard corporate rate is 15 percent, but other taxes, including a financial transactions tax, make the effective rate 34 percent. The overall tax burden equals 32.0 percent of total domestic income. Over the past three years, government spending has amounted to 40.5 percent of total output (GDP), and budget deficits have averaged 8.4 percent of GDP. Public debt is equivalent to 78.3 percent of GDP.

High nonsalary labor costs, low domestic productivity, and ongoing political uncertainties hamper business formation. Business owners often complain about the Custo Brasil (Brazil Cost), including poor infrastructure, rigid labor laws, and complex tax, local content, and regulatory requirements. The government has cut back on subsidized lending by the national development bank (BNDES) and has reduced fuel subsidies.

Trade is moderately important to Brazils economy; the combined value of exports and imports equals 25 percent of GDP. The average applied tariff rate is 8.3 percent. Nontariff barriers impede trade. Government openness to foreign investment is below average. Banking and capital markets are diversified and growing, but state involvement in credit markets has expanded steadily, and public banks account for 50 percent of loans to the private sector.

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Index of Economic Freedom – heritage.org

Index of Economic Freedom – heritage.org

Download PDF Quick Facts

Brazils economic freedom score is 51.4, making its economy the 153rd freest in the 2018 Index. Its overall score has decreased by 1.5 points, with a steep drop in fiscal health and declines in labor freedom, business freedom, government spending, and government integrity overwhelming improvements in judicial effectiveness and property rights. Brazil is ranked 27th among 32 countries in the Americas region, and its overall score is below the regional and world averages.

Since taking office in August 2016, President Michel Temer has proposed economic reforms to slow the growth of government spending and reduce barriers to foreign investment. Government spending growth helped to push public debt to 70 percent of GDP at the end of 2016, up from 50 percent in 2012. Policies to strengthen Brazils workforce and industrial sector, such as local content requirements, may have increased employment at the expense of investment.

Brazil, the worlds fifth-largest country, has a mostly coastal population of more than 200 million and is dominated by the Amazon River and the worlds largest rain forest. Public corruption scandals have led to political chaos. Former President Luiz Incio Lula da Silva of the socialist Workers Party faces multiple judicial trials on charges of corruption. His successor, Dilma Rousseff, continued his leftist and populist agenda but was impeached and removed from office early in her second term for alleged budgetary misconduct to boost vote-buying during an ongoing economic downturn precipitated by crashing commodity prices. Michel Temer, a market-oriented centrist who then assumed the presidency, has also been tainted by allegations of corruption. His top priority has been consolidation of public finances.

Property rights are enforced, but challenges to intellectual property rights persist in Brazil. The judiciary, although largely independent, is overburdened, inefficient, and often subject to intimidation and other external influences. Corruption and graft remain pervasive, especially among elected officials, undermining the governments ability to make and implement policy without undue influence from private or criminal interests.

The personal income tax rate is 27.5 percent. The standard corporate rate is 15 percent, but other taxes, including a financial transactions tax, make the effective rate 34 percent. The overall tax burden equals 32.0 percent of total domestic income. Over the past three years, government spending has amounted to 40.5 percent of total output (GDP), and budget deficits have averaged 8.4 percent of GDP. Public debt is equivalent to 78.3 percent of GDP.

High nonsalary labor costs, low domestic productivity, and ongoing political uncertainties hamper business formation. Business owners often complain about the Custo Brasil (Brazil Cost), including poor infrastructure, rigid labor laws, and complex tax, local content, and regulatory requirements. The government has cut back on subsidized lending by the national development bank (BNDES) and has reduced fuel subsidies.

Trade is moderately important to Brazils economy; the combined value of exports and imports equals 25 percent of GDP. The average applied tariff rate is 8.3 percent. Nontariff barriers impede trade. Government openness to foreign investment is below average. Banking and capital markets are diversified and growing, but state involvement in credit markets has expanded steadily, and public banks account for 50 percent of loans to the private sector.

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Index of Economic Freedom – heritage.org

Moon Trance – Lindsey Stirling (Original Song) – YouTube

Get my album Shatter Me on iTunes: http://smarturl.it/ShatterMe or the exclusive deluxe version at Target: http://smarturl.it/ShatterMeTAR

Get the Lindsey Stirling Deluxe Album at: Amazon — http://smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingAMZ Newbury — http://smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingNBY Best Buy — http://smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingBBYBarnes & Noble — http://smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingBNiTunes: http://www.smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingITTarget: http://www.smarturl.it/LindseyStirlin…

Watch “Behind the Scenes” footage for the vid here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gCHuIt…

Sheet Music: https://lindseystirlingsheetmusic.com

https://www.facebook.com/lindseystirl…https://twitter.com/LindseyStirlinghttp://www.lindseystirling.com/

Mobile App: http://mobileroadie.com/apps/lindseyapp

Merchandise: http://www.shopbenchmark.com/lindseys…

Check out my “Behind the Scenes” channel:http://www.youtube.com/lindseytime

Sign up for my super-cool newsletter here ;)http://lindseystirling.fanbridge.com/

Music Produced by FIXYN. These guys are amazing so give them some love at these links:www.facebook.com/FIXYNwww.twitter.com/FIXYNmusic

Check out the recipes that Duncan Hines made for me and download a free coupon so you can make them:https://www.facebook.com/DuncanHines/…

Written and Directed by EMMY Award winning director Nathan D. Lee

1st Assistant Director Katie Schwarz

Production Design by Chloe Huber

Director of Photography Jacob Schwarz http://mysterybox.us/

Dance Choreography by Marc AlexandaUtah Urban Dance Organization (U.D.O.) utahudo@gmail.comhttp://www.facebook.com/utahudo

Dancers: Chaz Layne Bodily, Marcquet Hill, Arianna Brockbank, Kelsey Skousen, Leif Belnap, Rylie Tucker, Denali Pontvianne, Tia Aiono, Bethany Boutwell, Kalli Haws

Makeup:Dale Flink, Noah Bailey, Joanna Bishop, Shiloh White, Meg Sorensen, and Emily Jacobsen

Gaffer John Bills

Key Grip Tyler Stevens

Edited by Lindsey Stirling

Special thanks to Adam Abel and Kent Findley

See the original post here:

Moon Trance – Lindsey Stirling (Original Song) – YouTube

Health Care : NPR

Health Care : NPR

Health Care The state of health care, health insurance, new medical research, disease prevention, and drug treatments. Interviews, news, and commentary from NPR’s correspondents. Subscribe to podcasts.

In this historical image, a doctor reviews an X-ray of a patient with black lung disease. Federal researchers say they’ve now identified the largest cluster ever recorded of the most advanced stage of the disease. Michael Sullivan/Getty Images/Science Source hide caption

When President Trump decided to stop making the cost-sharing reduction payments to health insurers, New York and Minnesota lost significant funding to a health program that covers more than 800,000 low-income residents. Pool/Getty Images hide caption

Patients seeking cancer treatment in the U.S. Virgin Islands must now go to the mainland. The Charlotte Kimelman Cancer Institute at Schneider Regional Medical Center on St. Thomas remains closed because of extensive damage to areas like the CAT scan suite. Greg Allen/NPR hide caption

Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar announced federal approval for changes to Indiana’s Medicaid program Friday in Indianapolis. Mandel Ngan/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

Undergraduate Shira Rubin gamely demonstrates the Gesundheit machine, which collects samples of virus from the breath that sick students exhale. Rubin helps Dr. Somayeh Youssefi (left) set up the machine before patients use it. Selena Simmons-Duffin/WAMU hide caption

Matilde Gonzalez (left) and Cesar Calles hold their son, Cesar Julian Calles, 10 months old, as he is immunized with a flu shot in January at Sea Mar Community Health Center in Seattle. Ted S. Warren/AP hide caption

A volunteer from the non-profit Accion Solidaria organizes imported medicines alphabetically, in a store room in Caracas, Venezuela, last April. The Pharmaceutical Federation of Venezuela estimates the country is suffering from an 85 percent shortage of medicine. Fidel Suarez/AP hide caption

Leah Sarris (center) is the head chef and program director at the Goldring Center for Culinary Medicine at Tulane University. She teaches healthy cooking techniques and educates people about the significant role that food plays in preventing and managing diseases. Paula Burch-Celentano | Tulane U hide caption

Then-Gov. Mike Pence announced in 2015 that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services had approved Indiana’s waiver to experiment with Medicaid requirements. Michael Conroy/AP hide caption

Brenda Fitzgerald, Georgia Department of Public Health commissioner, and Gov. Nathan Deal respond to questions about Ebola victims at Emory University Hospital and efforts to screen for Ebola in 2014. A report in Politico revealed documents showing several new investments, including in a tobacco company, by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Brenda Fitzgerald. David Tulis/AP hide caption

Chemotherapy has made a tremendous difference in survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common type of childhood cancer. FatCamera/Getty Images hide caption

(From left) Jamie Dimon, CEO of JPMorgan Chase; Warren Buffett, CEO of Berkshire Hathaway; and Jeff Bezos, CEO of Amazon, are creating health care venture, but details are scarce. (From left) Simon Dawson/Bloomberg via Getty Images; Andy Kropa/Invision/AP; Mark Wilson/Getty Images hide caption

Berkshire Hathaway Chairman and CEO Warren Buffett (left) in 2017; Jeff Bezos, CEO of Amazon, in 2013; and JP Morgan Chase Chairman and CEO Jamie Dimon in 2013. Berkshire Hathaway, Amazon and JPMorgan Chase are teaming up to create a health care company announced Tuesday that is “free from profit-making incentives and constraints.” AP hide caption

Patients with a history of polyps who need more subsequent tests may have to pick up some of those costs. PeopleImages/Getty Images hide caption

Critics say Idaho’s insurance department can’t unilaterally ignore federal law, including some of the Affordable Care Act’s protections for people with pre-existing conditions. Otto Kitsinger/AP hide caption

Dunn carefully loads Holt into the van as her mom, Meagan Holt, looks on. Heidi de Marco/KHN hide caption

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Health Care : NPR

The War on Drugs – "Red Eyes" (Official Video) – YouTube

The War On Drugs ‘Lost In The Dream’ out now on Secretly CanadianiTunes http://smarturl.it/warondrugs_itunes // Amazon/Physical Stores http://smarturl.it/warondrugs_amazonIndies http://smarturl.it/warondrugs_indies

Produced by Woodshop Films http://woodshopfilms.comhttp://www.scrapple.tv

CrewDirector: Anthony ZagarellaAssistant Director: Bil WilletsEditor: Andrew GellerDirector of Photography: Timothy W. StevensGaffer: Kevin GallagherProduction Designer: Scott JohnstonProduction Assistant: Max Amar-Olkus

Cast: BandStage Girl: Falon JoslynHula Hooper – Robyn CampbellMagician – Mac KennedySwing Dancers – Bob Concordia and Sue AllenSad Clown – Michael JohnsonLittle Dude – Max

The War On DrugsArtist Page http://www.secretlycanadian.com/artis…Official Site http://www.thewarondrugs.net/Facebook https://www.facebook.com/TheWarOnDrug…Twitter https://twitter.com/warondrugsjamsInstagram http://instagram.com/warondrugsjams

The War On Drugs “Red Eyes” from ‘Lost In The Dream’ out now on Secretly Canadian

Read more here:

The War on Drugs – "Red Eyes" (Official Video) – YouTube

The War on Drugs – "Red Eyes" (Official Video) – YouTube

The War On Drugs ‘Lost In The Dream’ out now on Secretly CanadianiTunes http://smarturl.it/warondrugs_itunes // Amazon/Physical Stores http://smarturl.it/warondrugs_amazonIndies http://smarturl.it/warondrugs_indies

Produced by Woodshop Films http://woodshopfilms.comhttp://www.scrapple.tv

CrewDirector: Anthony ZagarellaAssistant Director: Bil WilletsEditor: Andrew GellerDirector of Photography: Timothy W. StevensGaffer: Kevin GallagherProduction Designer: Scott JohnstonProduction Assistant: Max Amar-Olkus

Cast: BandStage Girl: Falon JoslynHula Hooper – Robyn CampbellMagician – Mac KennedySwing Dancers – Bob Concordia and Sue AllenSad Clown – Michael JohnsonLittle Dude – Max

The War On DrugsArtist Page http://www.secretlycanadian.com/artis…Official Site http://www.thewarondrugs.net/Facebook https://www.facebook.com/TheWarOnDrug…Twitter https://twitter.com/warondrugsjamsInstagram http://instagram.com/warondrugsjams

The War On Drugs “Red Eyes” from ‘Lost In The Dream’ out now on Secretly Canadian

Link:

The War on Drugs – "Red Eyes" (Official Video) – YouTube

Moon Trance – Lindsey Stirling (Original Song) – YouTube

Get my album Shatter Me on iTunes: http://smarturl.it/ShatterMe or the exclusive deluxe version at Target: http://smarturl.it/ShatterMeTAR

Get the Lindsey Stirling Deluxe Album at: Amazon — http://smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingAMZ Newbury — http://smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingNBY Best Buy — http://smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingBBYBarnes & Noble — http://smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingBNiTunes: http://www.smarturl.it/LindseyStirlingITTarget: http://www.smarturl.it/LindseyStirlin…

Watch “Behind the Scenes” footage for the vid here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gCHuIt…

Sheet Music: https://lindseystirlingsheetmusic.com

https://www.facebook.com/lindseystirl…https://twitter.com/LindseyStirlinghttp://www.lindseystirling.com/

Mobile App: http://mobileroadie.com/apps/lindseyapp

Merchandise: http://www.shopbenchmark.com/lindseys…

Check out my “Behind the Scenes” channel:http://www.youtube.com/lindseytime

Sign up for my super-cool newsletter here ;)http://lindseystirling.fanbridge.com/

Music Produced by FIXYN. These guys are amazing so give them some love at these links:www.facebook.com/FIXYNwww.twitter.com/FIXYNmusic

Check out the recipes that Duncan Hines made for me and download a free coupon so you can make them:https://www.facebook.com/DuncanHines/…

Written and Directed by EMMY Award winning director Nathan D. Lee

1st Assistant Director Katie Schwarz

Production Design by Chloe Huber

Director of Photography Jacob Schwarz http://mysterybox.us/

Dance Choreography by Marc AlexandaUtah Urban Dance Organization (U.D.O.) utahudo@gmail.comhttp://www.facebook.com/utahudo

Dancers: Chaz Layne Bodily, Marcquet Hill, Arianna Brockbank, Kelsey Skousen, Leif Belnap, Rylie Tucker, Denali Pontvianne, Tia Aiono, Bethany Boutwell, Kalli Haws

Makeup:Dale Flink, Noah Bailey, Joanna Bishop, Shiloh White, Meg Sorensen, and Emily Jacobsen

Gaffer John Bills

Key Grip Tyler Stevens

Edited by Lindsey Stirling

Special thanks to Adam Abel and Kent Findley

Read more from the original source:

Moon Trance – Lindsey Stirling (Original Song) – YouTube

Travel – Wikipedia

Travel is the movement of people between relatively distant geographical locations, and can involve travel by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip.[1][2] Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.

The origin of the word “travel” is most likely lost to history. The term “travel” may originate from the Old French word travail, which means ‘work’.[3] According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century. It also states that the word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words “travail”, which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers’ Tales (2004), the words “travel” and “travail” both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means “three stakes”, as in to impale). This link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose (e.g. Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether you decide to “rough it” (see extreme tourism and adventure travel). “There’s a big difference between simply being a tourist and being a true world traveler”, notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted.[4]

Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel[5] the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages[5] and mission trips, business travel,[5] trade,[5] commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care[5] or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling; or vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.

Motives for travel include:

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.[7]

While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible. Mankind has come a long way in transportation ever since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from England in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination; to the present day where anyone can go, buy a plane ticket, and fly like a bird to what is now called The United States of America overnight

While travel in theMiddle Agesoffered hardships and challenges, it was important to the economy and to society. Thewholesale sectordepended (for example) onmerchantsdealing with/throughcaravanor sea-voyagers, end-userretailingoften demanded the services of many itinerantpeddlerswandering from village to hamlet,gyrovagues(Wandering Monks) and wanderingfriarsbroughttheologyandpastoral supportto neglected areas,travelling minstrelspracticed the never-ending tour, and armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars.

Pilgrimages involved streams of travellers both locally (Canterbury Tales-style) and internationally.

Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network ofrailwaysin the 19th century.Airshipsandairplanestook over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century.

One of the earliest monk travelers was namedSiddhartha Gautama. Siddhartha became displeased with what he once found luxurious. Due to these strong feelings, he left his home and searched for enlightenment. After much seeking, Gautama sat under what is now known as the great Buddha tree, where he meditated and found peace. Through travel, Siddhartha was able to seek outknowledge,discipline, andmeditation.Travel gave Siddhartha the opportunity to find his purpose and have peace. For many people, travel gives an opportunity to learn new things and view the world in a different way. It helps us connect with the world on a closer level, and for some even to find their purpose. A lot of people have followed Siddharthas passion for travel and have decided to invent ways to make it easier. Much of this came around the same time as the industrial revolution. James Watt is credited for helping bring the steam engine to life, with this invention people were finally able to travel across land at a faster rate.Henry Fordis credited for the invention of the assembly line, making his patented Ford Motors easier and more affordable to afford for the everyday consumer. And theWright brothers, Wilbur and Orville, They are credited with being the first successful people to engineer a device capable of flying. In just a couple hundred years Travel has made bounds and leaps in progress. Another famous explorer who never really found his real destination isChristopher Columbus. In 1492 Christopher Columbus took a long 10 week journey to where he hoped would be India. But he instead landed on the continent now known as North America. Most famous travelers that people tend to think of are famous for making big discoveries on accident such as Columbus did. People such asLee Bergerhave found hidden caves with our human ancestors. He and his team have been credited for the discovery of over 1500 bones and a new ancestor to our human family tree calledHomo Naledi

Sometimes traveling can be misconstrued for Vacation. This seems to be an important part of living is to get away. Most jobs will give you days called vacation days where the receiver of the days can feel free to use them whenever they want. The definition of vacation would be an extended period of recreation, especially one spent away from home or in traveling. This means that most people would spend their time vacationing away from home, traveling can provide the outlet to the needed vacation time. There are also 4 great health reasons to continue to travel for vacation. It has been proven to help alleviate stress.A study released last year by the American Psychological Association concluded that vacations work to reduce stress by removing people from the activities and environments that they associate with stress and anxiety.Another great reason is to help prevent heart disease.A host of studies have highlighted the cardiovascular health benefits of taking a vacation. In one, men at risk for heart disease who skipped vacations for five consecutive years were 30 percent more likely to suffer heart attacks than those who took at least a week off each year. Vacation time can also improve productivity.In our perpetual rush to be productive, we often undermine our very ability to consistently perform at peak levels. Getting more done in less time allows us to get ahead and be more productive, but it takes consistent focus to be truly productive.This is where vacation comes into play. Having time away to not focus on any task will actually enhance your ability to perform when a task has to be completed. Lastly, vacations can help with sleep. Restless nights with thoughts constantly being tossed around in ones mind is not uncommon by any standard. Luckily with vacation, there doesn’t have to be the thought of completing tasks on time, this leads to a longer, deeper sleep.

Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[8] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[9] Some safety considerations include being aware of one’s surroundings,[8] avoiding being the target of a crime,[8] leaving copies of one’s passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[8] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[8] and registering with one’s national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[8] Many countries do not recognize drivers’ licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[10] Automobile insurance policies issued in one’s own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[10] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[10] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[10]

There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a DETR survey in October 2000):[11]

Read the rest here:

Travel – Wikipedia

Conscious Evolution: How to Save Humanity and the Planet

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Conscious Evolution: How to Save Humanity and the Planet