Travel – Wikipedia

Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip.[1][2] Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.

The origin of the word “travel” is most likely lost to history. The term “travel” may originate from the Old French word travail, which means ‘work’.[3] According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century. It also states that the word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words “travail”, which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers’ Tales (2004), the words “travel” and “travail” both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means “three stakes”, as in to impale). This link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose (e.g. Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether you decide to “rough it” (see extreme tourism and adventure travel). “There’s a big difference between simply being a tourist and being a true world traveler”, notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted.[4]

Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel,[5] the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages[5] and mission trips, business travel,[5] trade,[5] commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care[5] or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling; or vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.

Motives for travel include:

Travel dates back to antiquity where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as Pompeii and Baiae.[7]While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible.[8] Mankind has come a long way in transportation since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination; to the 21st century where aircraft allow travel from Spain to the United States overnight.

Travel in the Middle Ages offered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society. The wholesale sector depended (for example) on merchants dealing with/through caravans or sea-voyagers, end-user retailing often demanded the services of many itinerant peddlers wandering from village to hamlet, gyrovagues (Wandering Monks) and wandering friars brought theology and pastoral support to neglected areas, travelling minstrels practiced the never-ending tour, and armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars.[7]Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travellers both locally (Canterbury Tales-style) and internationally.[9]

In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature. This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Paris, Venice, Florence and Rome.However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour.[7]

Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network of railways in the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task. This was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together.[10] Airships and airplanes took over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots.[7]

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.[11]

Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one’s surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one’s passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one’s national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers’ licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one’s own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]

There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a DETR survey in October 2000):[15]

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Travel – Wikipedia

3 Ways Litecoin (LTC) Will Grow In 2018

Observers and experts have noticed growing unrest, uncertainty and frustration in the cryptomarket. Even though several coins have been witnessing a price drop/stagnation over the last three months, the industry is attempting to find its place as a technology that had promised innovation but had fallen short on delivering that.

This article highlights the three ways in which Litecoin can grow in 2018 amidst the growing dissatisfaction with blockchain and crypto-derived currencies. The landscape for cryptocurrency beyond this year is obviousthe focus has to switch from price speculation to usability and real-world application. It is important that functionality supersedes profit potential.

Recognition for Litecoin utility

Litecoin has struggled to differentiate itself from Bitcoin for years, partly because of a compliant marketing slant by founder Charlie Lee. But within the past two months, the narrative has started altering. More people are coming to acknowledge Litecoin as a cryptocurrency with real use. The fundamentals of this currencytransaction speeds, fees, and ability to scale through Segwit and lightning networkhave all proved to be superior to Bitcoin at this point. The attributes that make Litecoin a better option that Bitcoin can be subjective. But on grounds of what each currency is attempting to do in terms of technology (be it a digital, decentralized form of money for the transaction) Litecoin has outclassed all other coins. Scaling issues may come to cripple the Litecoins network someday the same way it has with Bitcoin, but the currency has become synonymous with sending and receiving crypto. Most people, when sending Bitcoin from one exchange to another, convert to Litecoin first in order to capitalize on the cost savings and transaction speeds that the latter offers.

Both coins, despite being mirror images in potential use, play a significant role in the expanding cryptocurrency landscape. The shortcomings of Bitcoin are distorting the growth of the cryptocurrency. Until the issues associated with scaling are solved, Litecoin offers a better alternative to the culture and development team of the cryptocurrency is committed to the superior quality utility of Litecoin as a transacting token. Litecoin has continued to be on the forefront of innovations in crypto technology and will continue to lead the way as a transacting currency. Litecoin has had Segwit longer and is very likely to be the first to implement Lightning Network or some other innovative solution.

Adoption of LitePay

Even though there has been a backlash towards LitePay from certain quarters, LitePay is a step in the right direction. While the debit card has been delayed for some time, it still serves as a two-way payment LTC processor that allows both sides of the transaction equation to participate in cryptocurrency. This equips Litecoin with ample marketing and growth potential. Merchants using LitePay instantly become sources of advertisement for LitePay. With the advent of a debit card, Litecoin spenders have an opportunity to elucidate to their friends and colleagues, the potential use for the cryptocurrency. Thus LitePay acts as an immediate and effective avenue for increasing revenue for Litecoin by tapping into a completely new consumer base. It also gives real crypto enthusiasts to use their currency.

Erosion of Bitcoin brand name

For those enthused by the technology and the possibility of cryptocurrency, whether for political, social or innovative reasons, Litecoin becomes a natural anchor. Litecoin is a fork of the original Bitcoin code, with alterations to expand the utility of the currency. The most remarkable features of Litecoin have been the drastically reduced fees and speedier confirmation times. Even the allure surrounding the mysterious Bitcoin founder Satoshi Nakamoto is not that dissimilar than the present state of Litecoin. That is because Charlie Lee has completely detached himself from a financial stake in his project by selling his entire holding of Litecoin. This gives Litecoin a strong developer, advocate, and leader without the uncertainty of motivation determining its performance. Charlie Lee is growing Litecoin, regardless of its price. Even though investors might find the financial incentive to be a bit lacking to grow Litecoin, but in terms of terms of strategic collaborations with major players like Amazon, the removal of a central authoritarian figure with the potential to become a billionaire is proving to be a positive thing for the Litecoin brand.

While most of the major cryptocurrencies have been at their lowest points since October 2017, Litecoin has managed to gain a step over Ethereum and is just below Ripple in terms of Google trend results. The usability of Litecoin over Bitcoin is evident. Litecoin offers more clarity regarding decentralization and is more representative of cryptocurrency to enthusiasts than XRP, which is deemed by many as a tool for the financial sector. All of these factors have contributed to the growing popularity of Litecoin and could lead to an increase in the further rush for it. The possibility of Litecoin to nab the top spot of popularity away from Bitcoin has bolstered.

We will be updating our subscribers as soon as we know more. For the latest on LTC, sign up below!

Disclaimer: This article should not be taken as, and is not intended to provide, investment advice. Global Coin Report and/or its affiliates, employees, writers, and subcontractors are cryptocurrency investors and from time to time may or may not have holdings in some of the coins or tokens they cover. Please conduct your own thorough research before investing in any cryptocurrency.Please conduct your own thorough research before investing in any cryptocurrency and read our full disclaimer.

Image courtesy of Flickr

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3 Ways Litecoin (LTC) Will Grow In 2018

Travel – Wikipedia

Travel is the movement of people between distant geographical locations. Travel can be done by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip.[1][2] Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.

The origin of the word “travel” is most likely lost to history. The term “travel” may originate from the Old French word travail, which means ‘work’.[3] According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century. It also states that the word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words “travail”, which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers’ Tales (2004), the words “travel” and “travail” both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means “three stakes”, as in to impale). This link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose (e.g. Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether you decide to “rough it” (see extreme tourism and adventure travel). “There’s a big difference between simply being a tourist and being a true world traveler”, notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted.[4]

Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel,[5] the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages[5] and mission trips, business travel,[5] trade,[5] commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care[5] or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling; or vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.

Motives for travel include:

Travel dates back to antiquity where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as Pompeii and Baiae.[7]While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible.[8] Mankind has come a long way in transportation since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination; to the 21st century where aircraft allow travel from Spain to the United States overnight.

Travel in the Middle Ages offered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society. The wholesale sector depended (for example) on merchants dealing with/through caravans or sea-voyagers, end-user retailing often demanded the services of many itinerant peddlers wandering from village to hamlet, gyrovagues (Wandering Monks) and wandering friars brought theology and pastoral support to neglected areas, travelling minstrels practiced the never-ending tour, and armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars.[7]Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travellers both locally (Canterbury Tales-style) and internationally.[9]

In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature. This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Paris, Venice, Florence and Rome.However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour.[7]

Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network of railways in the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task. This was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together.[10] Airships and airplanes took over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots.[7]

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.[11]

Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one’s surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one’s passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one’s national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers’ licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one’s own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]

There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a DETR survey in October 2000):[15]

Read more from the original source:

Travel – Wikipedia

Spiritual Enlightenment: What It Is and How to Experience It

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Spiritual Enlightenment: What It Is and How to Experience It

American Nihilist Underground Society: Nihilism, Nihilists …

Social Media Finalized The Death Of The InternetJune 2, 2017A few years ago a working farm opened up near me. These are farms that are open to the public, but show you how that exotic class of human beings known as “farmers” actually make food and survive without Amazon Prime accounts.The farm came about because a farmer allowed school groups to witness the slaughter, breeding and care of animals. Then they wanted to see how the potatoes were planted. Now tours of the fields were added, including a visit to the manure pile, where tourists could genuflect and debase themselves in order to assert humility, which always pleases the crowd.Soon the tours became more valuable than the farm output.They came from the cities — doctors, plumbers, lawyers, carpenters, architects — looking for a way to school their children in a way of life that had passed into history, hoping to bestow “authenticity” to a life defined by conformity, products, political correctness and public relations. They wanted an escape from the transactional life of the city, and an insight instead into what life is like when results in reality matter more than what other people think.In this way, the needs of the herd overwhelmed the realistic nature of original human behavior. The farm became a stage, and soon a gift shop appeared, and then there were videos and public image adjustments. Reality was forgotten and replaced by the human, as happens with every homo sapiens endeavor when it is about to fail.Humans love posturing and pretending. For them, to act like a farmer is to be the real thing because that is what people in their social group react to. They have no concern for being accurate, only for having other people nod and acknowledge them as having achieved another milestone on the path to greatness.Social media is the same thing. No one can tell you are a dog on the internet; via social media, however, you can be whatever you want. Ignore that failed marriage, day job in a cubicle, and personal ineptitude. On the social media internet, you are whatever you can project.Starting in 2007, the internet permanently shifted to the mobile device consumer audience, which means that it plunged far below the 120 IQ point minimum required by the old internet. Before Eternal September, the internet was limited to those who had demonstrated competence. After that, the herd began coming in.With the rise of Google and Facebook, the herd dominated the internet. This merely showed to us the need for hierarchy and aristocracy: if left up to the Crowd, every human venture degenerates to the lowest common denominator, and whatever makes it exceptional is lost.Social media is democracy with no standards: whatever herd shows up, and whatever majority emerges from the midst of it, takes the day. It is the equivalent of the audience for a circus or tent revival deciding our future, and in the case of social media, they choose our path by excluding anything that is not popular.Following that pattern, social media selects lies over truth. It prefers what most people want to believe is true over what is real according to the best minds we have. It is the triumph of the herd in denying reality so that each member of the herd may pretend to be a king, hero, genius, artist or inventor.On the other hand, this means the rise of an underground within the internet: the sites that cannot be found by Google, will not show up in your news feed, and will be censored by Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, Tumblr, Pinterest and Instagram. The is the underground internet, and it is rising as the utility of the public internet plummets since it is now designed for and populated with the same people who watched a lot of daytime TV in the 1980s, like the poor, old, housewives, cube McJob slaves, mentally ill, physically broke, neurotic, intoxicated and lonely.class=”post”>Ten Types Of Modern FoolJune 4, 2017When you live in a dying time, the most common response is to into denial, which consists of ignoring the actual problem and finding some way to distract oneself instead. For example, heroin addicts routinely insist that their problem is too much clutter around the house, a speck in the face of the larger problem of heroin addiction that looms over them like an unseen predatory god.With complex problems, craftier and cannier evasions commence. That is: people find proxies for dealing with the problem, or substitutes, excuses, rationalizations and justifications. These are symbolic problems that they either can conquer or will persist whether conquered or not, making them the safest enemy (one against whom the knight cannot fail or prevail). Null proxies like this consist of 90% of the activity of a democratic state or troupe of monkeys in the wild.You will find the following non-answers to be happilly promoted by humans from every race, caste, sex, class, religion, political alignment and sexual orientation. We all know our civilization has fallen and we are living in a vile and evil time, and that the solution is to give up our arrogance which insists we have the lottery of being able to do pretty much whatever we want but also having to suffer others doing the same.These null proxies are used by people who will proclaim them as “the solution” and then, like a monkey who has found a bone, will use that answer to beat on all the other monkeys to force them into submission to the will of the original monkey. Any time you hear someone speaking in this way, you may be dealing with an idiot — not always — but you are certainly dealing with someone who has lied to themselves at such a fundamental level that they will never tell the truth again:

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American Nihilist Underground Society: Nihilism, Nihilists …

Nothing Is Solid & Everything Is Energy Scientists …

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It has been written about before, over and over again, but cannot be emphasized enough. The world of quantum physics is an eerie one, one that sheds light on the truth about our world in ways that challenge the existing framework of accepted knowledge.

What we perceive as our physical material world, is really not physical or material at all, in fact, it is far from it. This has been proven time and time again by multiple Nobel Prize (among many other scientists around the world) winning physicists, one of them beingNiels Bohr, a Danish Physicist who made significant contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory.

If quantum mechanics hasnt profoundly shocked you, you havent understood it yet.Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real. Niels Bohr

At the turn of the nineteenth century, physicists started to explore the relationship between energy and the structure of matter. In doing so, the belief that a physical, Newtonian material universe that was at the very heart of scientific knowing was dropped, and the realization that matter is nothing but an illusion replaced it. Scientists began to recognize that everything in the Universe is made out of energy.

Despite the unrivaled empirical success of quantum theory, the very suggestion that it may be literally true as a description of nature is still greeted with cynicism, incomprehension and even anger. (T. Folger, Quantum Shmantum; Discover 22:37-43, 2001)

Quantum physicists discovered that physical atoms are made up of vortices of energy that are constantly spinning and vibrating, each one radiating its own unique energy signature. Therefore, if we really want to observe ourselves and find out what we are, we are really beings of energy and vibration, radiating our own unique energy signature -this is fact and is what quantum physics has shown us time and time again. We are much more than what we perceive ourselves to be, and its time we begin to see ourselves in that light. If you observed the composition of an atom with a microscope you would see a small, invisible tornado-like vortex, with a number of infinitely small energy vortices called quarks and photons. These are what make up the structure of the atom. As you focused in closer and closer on the structure of the atom, you would see nothing, you would observe a physical void. The atom has no physical structure, we have no physical structure, physical things really dont have any physical structure! Atoms are made out of invisible energy, not tangible matter.

Get over it, and accept the inarguable conclusion. The universe is immaterial-mental and spiritual (1) Richard Conn Henry, Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University (quote taken from the mental universe)

Its quite the conundrum, isnt it? Our experience tells us that our reality is made up of physical material things, and that our world is an independently existing objective one. The revelation that the universe is not an assembly of physical parts, suggested by Newtonian physics, and instead comes from a holistic entanglement of immaterial energy waves stems from the work of Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Werner Heisenberg, among others. (0)

What does it mean that our physical material reality isnt really physical at all? It could mean a number of things, and concepts such as this cannot be explored if scientists remain within the boundaries of the only perceived world existing, the world we see. As Nikola Tesla supposedly said:

The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.

Fortunately, many scientists have already taken the leap, and have already questioned the meaning and implications of what weve discovered with quantum physics. One of these potential revelations is that the observer creates the reality.

A fundamental conclusion of the new physics also acknowledges that the observer creates the reality. As observers, we are personally involved with the creation of our own reality. Physicists are being forced to admit that the universe is a mental construction. Pioneering physicist Sir James Jeans wrote: The stream of knowledge is heading toward a non-mechanical reality; the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears to be an accidental intruder into the realm of matter, we ought rather hail it as the creator and governor of the realm of matter. (R. C. Henry, The Mental Universe; Nature 436:29, 2005)

One great example that illustrates the role of consciousness within the physical material world (which we know not to be so physical) is the double slit experiment. This experiment has been used multiple times to explore the role of consciousness in shaping the nature of physical reality.(2)

A double-slit optical system was used to test the possible role of consciousness in the collapse of the quantum wave-function. The ratio of the interference patterns double-slit spectral power to its single-slit spectral power was predicted to decrease when attention was focused toward the double-slit as compared to away from it. The study found that factors associated with consciousness, such as meditation, experience, electrocortical markers of focused attention and psychological factors such as openness and absorption, significantly correlated in predicted ways with perturbations in the double-slit interference pattern.(2)

This is just the beginning. I wrote another article earlier this year that has much more, sourced information with regards to the role of consciousness and our physical material world:

10 Scientific Studies That Prove Consciousness Can Alter Our Physical Material World.

The significance of this information is for us to wake up, and realize that we are all energy, radiating our own unique energy signature. Feelings, thoughts and emotions play a vital role, quantum physics helps us see the significance of how we all feel. If all of us are in a peaceful loving state inside, it will no doubt impact the external world around us, and influence how others feel as well.

If you want to know the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration. Nikola Tesla.

Studies have shown that positive emotions and operating from a place of peace within oneself can lead to a very different experience for the person emitting those emotions and for those around them. At our subatomic level, does the vibrational frequency change the manifestation of physical reality? If so, in what way? We know that when an atom changes its state, it absorbs or emits electromagnetic frequencies, which are responsible for changing its state. Do different states of emotion, perception and feelings result in different electromagnetic frequencies? Yes! This has been proven. (3)

HERE is a great video that touches on what I am trying to get across here. We are all connected.

Space is just a construct that gives the illusion that there areseparate objects Dr. Quantum (source)

Sources:

(1)http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/The.mental.Universe.pdf

(2)http://media.noetic.org/uploads/files/PhysicsEssays-Radin-DoubleSlit-2012.pdf

(3)http://www.heartmath.org/research/research-publications/energetic-heart-bioelectromagnetic-communication-within-and-between-people.html

communities.washinghttp://media.noetic.org/uploads/files/PhysicsEssays-Radin-DoubleSlit-2012.pdftontimes.com/neighborhood/energy-harnassed/2012/sep/30/secrets-universe-unlocked/

The Sacred Science follows eight people from around the world, with varying physical and psychological illnesses, as they embark on a one-month healing journey into the heart of the Amazon jungle.

This incredible true story details how ancient shamanic healing methods can work to shift our bodies and minds. here.

Read the incredible true story here.

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Nothing Is Solid & Everything Is Energy Scientists …

Cloud computing – Simple English Wikipedia, the free …

In Computer science, cloud computing describes a type of outsourcing of computer services, similar to the way in which electricity supply is outsourced. Users can simply use it. They do not need to worry where the electricity is from, how it is made, or transported. Every month, they pay for what they consumed.

The idea behind cloud computing is similar: The user can simply use storage, computing power, or specially crafted development environments, without having to worry how these work internally. Cloud computing is usually Internet-based computing. The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet based on how the internet is described in computer network diagrams; which means it is an abstraction hiding the complex infrastructure of the internet.[1] It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided as a service,[2] allowing users to access technology-enabled services from the Internet (“in the cloud”)[3] without knowledge of, or control over the technologies behind these servers.[4]

According to a paper published by IEEE Internet Computing in 2008 “Cloud Computing is a paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include computers, laptops, handhelds, sensors, etc.”[5]

Cloud computing is a general concept that utilizes software as a service (SaaS), such as Web 2.0 and other technology trends, all of which depend on the Internet for satisfying users’ needs. For example, Google Apps provides common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the Internet servers.

Cloud computing is often confused with other ideas:

Cloud computing often uses grid computing, has autonomic characteristics and is billed like utilities, but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model.[8] Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralised infrastructure or billing systems including peer-to-peer networks like BitTorrent and Skype.[9]

The majority of cloud computing infrastructure currently consists of reliable services delivered through data centers that are built on computer and storage virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere in the world, with The Cloud appearing as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements.[10] Open standards and open source software are also critical to the growth of cloud computing.[11]

As customers generally do not own the infrastructure or know all details about it, mainly they are accessing or renting, so they can consume resources as a service, and may be paying for what they do not need, instead of what they actually do need to use. Many cloud computing providers use the utility computing model which is analogous to how traditional public utilities like electricity are consumed, while others are billed on a subscription basis. By sharing consumable and “intangible” computing power between multiple “tenants”, utilization rates can be improved (as servers are not left idle) which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development.

A side effect of this approach is that “computer capacity rises dramatically” as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads.[12] Adoption has been enabled by “increased high-speed bandwidth” which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.

Cloud computing is being driven by providers including Google, Amazon.com, and Yahoo! as well as traditional vendors including IBM, Intel,[13] Microsoft[14] and SAP.[15] It can adopted by all kinds of users, be they individuals or large enterprises. Most internet users are currently using cloud services, even if they do not realize it. Webmail for example is a cloud service, as are Facebook and Wikipedia and contact list synchronization and online data backups.

The Cloud[16] is a metaphor for the Internet,[17] or more generally components and services which are managed by others.[1]

The underlying concept dates back to 1960 when John McCarthy expressed his opinion that “computation may someday be organized as a public utility” and the term Cloud was already in commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large ATM networks.[18] By the turn of the 21st century, cloud computing solutions had started to appear on the market,[19] though most of the focus at this time was on Software as a service.

Amazon.com played a key role in the development of cloud computing when upgrading their data centers after the dot-com bubble and providing access to their systems by way of Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis. They found the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements.[20]

2007 observed increased activity, including Google, IBM and a number of universities starting large scale cloud computing research project,[21] around the time the term started gaining popularity in the mainstream press. It was a hot topic by mid-2008 and numerous cloud computing events had been scheduled.[22]

In August 2008 Gartner observed that “organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models” and that the “projected shift to cloud computing will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas”.[23]

Clouds cross many country borders and “may be the ultimate form of globalisation”.[24] As such it is the subject of complex geopolitical issues, whereby providers must satisfy many legal restrictions in order to deliver service to a global market. This dates back to the early days of the Internet, where libertarian thinkers felt that “cyberspace was a distinct place calling for laws and legal institutions of its own”; author Neal Stephenson envisaged this as a tiny island data haven in his science-fiction classic novel Cryptonomicon.[24]

Although there have been efforts to match the legal environment (such as US-EU Safe Harbor), providers like Amazon Web Services usually deal with international markets (typically the United States and European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select their countries.[25] However, there are still concerns about security and privacy for individual through various governmental levels, (for example the USA PATRIOT Act and use of national security letters and title II of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the Stored Communications Act).

In March 2007, Dell applied to trademark the term ‘”cloud computing” in the United States. It received a “Notice of Allowance” in July 2008 which was subsequently canceled on August 6, resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application in less than a week later.

In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License (abbreviated as Affero GPL and AGPL), a version of GPLv3 designed to close a perceived legal loophole associated with Free software designed to be run over a network, particularly software as a service. According to the AGPL license application service providers are required to release any changes they make to an AGPL open source code.

Cloud architecture[26] is the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing (e.g. hardware, software) as designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces (usually web services).[27]

This is very similar to the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.

Cloud architecture extends to the client where web browsers and/or software applications are used to access cloud applications.

Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds, each independently delivering data to applications or users.

A cloud application influences The Cloud model of software architecture, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer’s own computer, thus reducing software maintenance, ongoing operations, and support. For example:

A cloud client is computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on The Cloud for application delivery, or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services, and which is in either case essentially useless without a Cloud.[33] For example:

Cloud infrastructure (e.g. Infrastructure as a service) is the delivery of computer infrastructure (typically a platform virtualization environment) as a service.[41] For example:

A cloud platform (e.g. Platform as a service) (the delivery of a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service) [42] facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.[43] For example:

A cloud service (e.g. Web Service) is “software system[s] designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network”[44] which may be accessed by other cloud computing components, software (e.g. Software plus services) or end users directly.[45] For example:

Cloud storage is the delivery of data storage as a service (including database-like services), often billed on a utility computing basis (e.g. per gigabyte per month).[46] For example:

Traditional storage vendors have recently begun to offer their own flavor of cloud storage, sometimes in conjunction with their existing software products (e.g. Symantec’s Online Storage for Backup Exec). Others focus on providing a new kind of back-end storage optimally designed for delivering cloud storage (EMC’s Atmos), categorically known as Cloud Optimized Storage.

A cloud computing provider or cloud computing service provider owns and operates cloud computing systems serve someone else. Usually this needs building and managing new data centers. Some organisations get some of the benefits of cloud computing by becoming “internal” cloud providers and servicing themselves, though they do not benefit from the same economies of scale and still have to engineer for peak loads. The barrier to entry is also significantly higher with capital expenditure required and billing and management creates some overhead. However, significant operational efficiency and quickness advantages can be achieved even by small organizations, and server consolidation and virtualization rollouts are already in progress.[47] Amazon.com was the first such provider, modernising its data centers which, like most computer networks were using as little as 10% of its capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes. This allowed small, fast-moving groups to add new features faster and easier, and they went on to open it up to outsiders as Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis.[20]

The companies listed in the Components section are providers.

A user is a consumer of cloud computing.[33] The privacy of users in cloud computing has become of increasing concern.[48][49] The rights of users is also an issue, which is being addressed via a community effort to create a bill of rights (currently in draft).[50][51]

A vendor sells products and services that facilitate the delivery, adoption and use of cloud computing.[52] For example:

A cloud standard is one of a number of existing (typically lightweight) open standards that have facilitated the growth of cloud computing, including:[57]

Read more:

Cloud computing – Simple English Wikipedia, the free …

American Nihilist Underground Society: Nihilism, Nihilists …

Social Media Finalized The Death Of The InternetJune 2, 2017A few years ago a working farm opened up near me. These are farms that are open to the public, but show you how that exotic class of human beings known as “farmers” actually make food and survive without Amazon Prime accounts.The farm came about because a farmer allowed school groups to witness the slaughter, breeding and care of animals. Then they wanted to see how the potatoes were planted. Now tours of the fields were added, including a visit to the manure pile, where tourists could genuflect and debase themselves in order to assert humility, which always pleases the crowd.Soon the tours became more valuable than the farm output.They came from the cities — doctors, plumbers, lawyers, carpenters, architects — looking for a way to school their children in a way of life that had passed into history, hoping to bestow “authenticity” to a life defined by conformity, products, political correctness and public relations. They wanted an escape from the transactional life of the city, and an insight instead into what life is like when results in reality matter more than what other people think.In this way, the needs of the herd overwhelmed the realistic nature of original human behavior. The farm became a stage, and soon a gift shop appeared, and then there were videos and public image adjustments. Reality was forgotten and replaced by the human, as happens with every homo sapiens endeavor when it is about to fail.Humans love posturing and pretending. For them, to act like a farmer is to be the real thing because that is what people in their social group react to. They have no concern for being accurate, only for having other people nod and acknowledge them as having achieved another milestone on the path to greatness.Social media is the same thing. No one can tell you are a dog on the internet; via social media, however, you can be whatever you want. Ignore that failed marriage, day job in a cubicle, and personal ineptitude. On the social media internet, you are whatever you can project.Starting in 2007, the internet permanently shifted to the mobile device consumer audience, which means that it plunged far below the 120 IQ point minimum required by the old internet. Before Eternal September, the internet was limited to those who had demonstrated competence. After that, the herd began coming in.With the rise of Google and Facebook, the herd dominated the internet. This merely showed to us the need for hierarchy and aristocracy: if left up to the Crowd, every human venture degenerates to the lowest common denominator, and whatever makes it exceptional is lost.Social media is democracy with no standards: whatever herd shows up, and whatever majority emerges from the midst of it, takes the day. It is the equivalent of the audience for a circus or tent revival deciding our future, and in the case of social media, they choose our path by excluding anything that is not popular.Following that pattern, social media selects lies over truth. It prefers what most people want to believe is true over what is real according to the best minds we have. It is the triumph of the herd in denying reality so that each member of the herd may pretend to be a king, hero, genius, artist or inventor.On the other hand, this means the rise of an underground within the internet: the sites that cannot be found by Google, will not show up in your news feed, and will be censored by Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, Tumblr, Pinterest and Instagram. The is the underground internet, and it is rising as the utility of the public internet plummets since it is now designed for and populated with the same people who watched a lot of daytime TV in the 1980s, like the poor, old, housewives, cube McJob slaves, mentally ill, physically broke, neurotic, intoxicated and lonely.class=”post”>Ten Types Of Modern FoolJune 4, 2017When you live in a dying time, the most common response is to into denial, which consists of ignoring the actual problem and finding some way to distract oneself instead. For example, heroin addicts routinely insist that their problem is too much clutter around the house, a speck in the face of the larger problem of heroin addiction that looms over them like an unseen predatory god.With complex problems, craftier and cannier evasions commence. That is: people find proxies for dealing with the problem, or substitutes, excuses, rationalizations and justifications. These are symbolic problems that they either can conquer or will persist whether conquered or not, making them the safest enemy (one against whom the knight cannot fail or prevail). Null proxies like this consist of 90% of the activity of a democratic state or troupe of monkeys in the wild.You will find the following non-answers to be happilly promoted by humans from every race, caste, sex, class, religion, political alignment and sexual orientation. We all know our civilization has fallen and we are living in a vile and evil time, and that the solution is to give up our arrogance which insists we have the lottery of being able to do pretty much whatever we want but also having to suffer others doing the same.These null proxies are used by people who will proclaim them as “the solution” and then, like a monkey who has found a bone, will use that answer to beat on all the other monkeys to force them into submission to the will of the original monkey. Any time you hear someone speaking in this way, you may be dealing with an idiot — not always — but you are certainly dealing with someone who has lied to themselves at such a fundamental level that they will never tell the truth again:

Link:

American Nihilist Underground Society: Nihilism, Nihilists …

Nothing Is Solid & Everything Is Energy Scientists Explain The World …

We’re creating viewer supported news. Become a member!

It has been written about before, over and over again, but cannot be emphasized enough. The world of quantum physics is an eerie one, one that sheds light on the truth about our world in ways that challenge the existing framework of accepted knowledge.

What we perceive as our physical material world, is really not physical or material at all, in fact, it is far from it. This has been proven time and time again by multiple Nobel Prize (among many other scientists around the world) winning physicists, one of them beingNiels Bohr, a Danish Physicist who made significant contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory.

If quantum mechanics hasnt profoundly shocked you, you havent understood it yet.Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real. Niels Bohr

At the turn of the nineteenth century, physicists started to explore the relationship between energy and the structure of matter. In doing so, the belief that a physical, Newtonian material universe that was at the very heart of scientific knowing was dropped, and the realization that matter is nothing but an illusion replaced it. Scientists began to recognize that everything in the Universe is made out of energy.

Despite the unrivaled empirical success of quantum theory, the very suggestion that it may be literally true as a description of nature is still greeted with cynicism, incomprehension and even anger. (T. Folger, Quantum Shmantum; Discover 22:37-43, 2001)

Quantum physicists discovered that physical atoms are made up of vortices of energy that are constantly spinning and vibrating, each one radiating its own unique energy signature. Therefore, if we really want to observe ourselves and find out what we are, we are really beings of energy and vibration, radiating our own unique energy signature -this is fact and is what quantum physics has shown us time and time again. We are much more than what we perceive ourselves to be, and its time we begin to see ourselves in that light. If you observed the composition of an atom with a microscope you would see a small, invisible tornado-like vortex, with a number of infinitely small energy vortices called quarks and photons. These are what make up the structure of the atom. As you focused in closer and closer on the structure of the atom, you would see nothing, you would observe a physical void. The atom has no physical structure, we have no physical structure, physical things really dont have any physical structure! Atoms are made out of invisible energy, not tangible matter.

Get over it, and accept the inarguable conclusion. The universe is immaterial-mental and spiritual (1) Richard Conn Henry, Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University (quote taken from the mental universe)

Its quite the conundrum, isnt it? Our experience tells us that our reality is made up of physical material things, and that our world is an independently existing objective one. The revelation that the universe is not an assembly of physical parts, suggested by Newtonian physics, and instead comes from a holistic entanglement of immaterial energy waves stems from the work of Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Werner Heisenberg, among others. (0)

What does it mean that our physical material reality isnt really physical at all? It could mean a number of things, and concepts such as this cannot be explored if scientists remain within the boundaries of the only perceived world existing, the world we see. As Nikola Tesla supposedly said:

The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.

Fortunately, many scientists have already taken the leap, and have already questioned the meaning and implications of what weve discovered with quantum physics. One of these potential revelations is that the observer creates the reality.

A fundamental conclusion of the new physics also acknowledges that the observer creates the reality. As observers, we are personally involved with the creation of our own reality. Physicists are being forced to admit that the universe is a mental construction. Pioneering physicist Sir James Jeans wrote: The stream of knowledge is heading toward a non-mechanical reality; the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears to be an accidental intruder into the realm of matter, we ought rather hail it as the creator and governor of the realm of matter. (R. C. Henry, The Mental Universe; Nature 436:29, 2005)

One great example that illustrates the role of consciousness within the physical material world (which we know not to be so physical) is the double slit experiment. This experiment has been used multiple times to explore the role of consciousness in shaping the nature of physical reality.(2)

A double-slit optical system was used to test the possible role of consciousness in the collapse of the quantum wave-function. The ratio of the interference patterns double-slit spectral power to its single-slit spectral power was predicted to decrease when attention was focused toward the double-slit as compared to away from it. The study found that factors associated with consciousness, such as meditation, experience, electrocortical markers of focused attention and psychological factors such as openness and absorption, significantly correlated in predicted ways with perturbations in the double-slit interference pattern.(2)

This is just the beginning. I wrote another article earlier this year that has much more, sourced information with regards to the role of consciousness and our physical material world:

10 Scientific Studies That Prove Consciousness Can Alter Our Physical Material World.

The significance of this information is for us to wake up, and realize that we are all energy, radiating our own unique energy signature. Feelings, thoughts and emotions play a vital role, quantum physics helps us see the significance of how we all feel. If all of us are in a peaceful loving state inside, it will no doubt impact the external world around us, and influence how others feel as well.

If you want to know the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration. Nikola Tesla.

Studies have shown that positive emotions and operating from a place of peace within oneself can lead to a very different experience for the person emitting those emotions and for those around them. At our subatomic level, does the vibrational frequency change the manifestation of physical reality? If so, in what way? We know that when an atom changes its state, it absorbs or emits electromagnetic frequencies, which are responsible for changing its state. Do different states of emotion, perception and feelings result in different electromagnetic frequencies? Yes! This has been proven. (3)

HERE is a great video that touches on what I am trying to get across here. We are all connected.

Space is just a construct that gives the illusion that there areseparate objects Dr. Quantum (source)

Sources:

(1)http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/The.mental.Universe.pdf

(2)http://media.noetic.org/uploads/files/PhysicsEssays-Radin-DoubleSlit-2012.pdf

(3)http://www.heartmath.org/research/research-publications/energetic-heart-bioelectromagnetic-communication-within-and-between-people.html

communities.washinghttp://media.noetic.org/uploads/files/PhysicsEssays-Radin-DoubleSlit-2012.pdftontimes.com/neighborhood/energy-harnassed/2012/sep/30/secrets-universe-unlocked/

The Sacred Science follows eight people from around the world, with varying physical and psychological illnesses, as they embark on a one-month healing journey into the heart of the Amazon jungle.

This incredible true story details how ancient shamanic healing methods can work to shift our bodies and minds. here.

Read the incredible true story here.

Excerpt from:

Nothing Is Solid & Everything Is Energy Scientists Explain The World …

Cloud computing – Simple English Wikipedia, the free …

In Computer science, cloud computing describes a type of outsourcing of computer services, similar to the way in which electricity supply is outsourced. Users can simply use it. They do not need to worry where the electricity is from, how it is made, or transported. Every month, they pay for what they consumed.

The idea behind cloud computing is similar: The user can simply use storage, computing power, or specially crafted development environments, without having to worry how these work internally. Cloud computing is usually Internet-based computing. The cloud is a metaphor for the Internet based on how the internet is described in computer network diagrams; which means it is an abstraction hiding the complex infrastructure of the internet.[1] It is a style of computing in which IT-related capabilities are provided as a service,[2] allowing users to access technology-enabled services from the Internet (“in the cloud”)[3] without knowledge of, or control over the technologies behind these servers.[4]

According to a paper published by IEEE Internet Computing in 2008 “Cloud Computing is a paradigm in which information is permanently stored in servers on the Internet and cached temporarily on clients that include computers, laptops, handhelds, sensors, etc.”[5]

Cloud computing is a general concept that utilizes software as a service (SaaS), such as Web 2.0 and other technology trends, all of which depend on the Internet for satisfying users’ needs. For example, Google Apps provides common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the Internet servers.

Cloud computing is often confused with other ideas:

Cloud computing often uses grid computing, has autonomic characteristics and is billed like utilities, but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model.[8] Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralised infrastructure or billing systems including peer-to-peer networks like BitTorrent and Skype.[9]

The majority of cloud computing infrastructure currently consists of reliable services delivered through data centers that are built on computer and storage virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere in the world, with The Cloud appearing as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements.[10] Open standards and open source software are also critical to the growth of cloud computing.[11]

As customers generally do not own the infrastructure or know all details about it, mainly they are accessing or renting, so they can consume resources as a service, and may be paying for what they do not need, instead of what they actually do need to use. Many cloud computing providers use the utility computing model which is analogous to how traditional public utilities like electricity are consumed, while others are billed on a subscription basis. By sharing consumable and “intangible” computing power between multiple “tenants”, utilization rates can be improved (as servers are not left idle) which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development.

A side effect of this approach is that “computer capacity rises dramatically” as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads.[12] Adoption has been enabled by “increased high-speed bandwidth” which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites.

Cloud computing is being driven by providers including Google, Amazon.com, and Yahoo! as well as traditional vendors including IBM, Intel,[13] Microsoft[14] and SAP.[15] It can adopted by all kinds of users, be they individuals or large enterprises. Most internet users are currently using cloud services, even if they do not realize it. Webmail for example is a cloud service, as are Facebook and Wikipedia and contact list synchronization and online data backups.

The Cloud[16] is a metaphor for the Internet,[17] or more generally components and services which are managed by others.[1]

The underlying concept dates back to 1960 when John McCarthy expressed his opinion that “computation may someday be organized as a public utility” and the term Cloud was already in commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large ATM networks.[18] By the turn of the 21st century, cloud computing solutions had started to appear on the market,[19] though most of the focus at this time was on Software as a service.

Amazon.com played a key role in the development of cloud computing when upgrading their data centers after the dot-com bubble and providing access to their systems by way of Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis. They found the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements.[20]

2007 observed increased activity, including Google, IBM and a number of universities starting large scale cloud computing research project,[21] around the time the term started gaining popularity in the mainstream press. It was a hot topic by mid-2008 and numerous cloud computing events had been scheduled.[22]

In August 2008 Gartner observed that “organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models” and that the “projected shift to cloud computing will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas”.[23]

Clouds cross many country borders and “may be the ultimate form of globalisation”.[24] As such it is the subject of complex geopolitical issues, whereby providers must satisfy many legal restrictions in order to deliver service to a global market. This dates back to the early days of the Internet, where libertarian thinkers felt that “cyberspace was a distinct place calling for laws and legal institutions of its own”; author Neal Stephenson envisaged this as a tiny island data haven in his science-fiction classic novel Cryptonomicon.[24]

Although there have been efforts to match the legal environment (such as US-EU Safe Harbor), providers like Amazon Web Services usually deal with international markets (typically the United States and European Union) by deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select their countries.[25] However, there are still concerns about security and privacy for individual through various governmental levels, (for example the USA PATRIOT Act and use of national security letters and title II of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, the Stored Communications Act).

In March 2007, Dell applied to trademark the term ‘”cloud computing” in the United States. It received a “Notice of Allowance” in July 2008 which was subsequently canceled on August 6, resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application in less than a week later.

In November 2007, the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License (abbreviated as Affero GPL and AGPL), a version of GPLv3 designed to close a perceived legal loophole associated with Free software designed to be run over a network, particularly software as a service. According to the AGPL license application service providers are required to release any changes they make to an AGPL open source code.

Cloud architecture[26] is the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing (e.g. hardware, software) as designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating with each other over application programming interfaces (usually web services).[27]

This is very similar to the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts.

Cloud architecture extends to the client where web browsers and/or software applications are used to access cloud applications.

Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds, each independently delivering data to applications or users.

A cloud application influences The Cloud model of software architecture, often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer’s own computer, thus reducing software maintenance, ongoing operations, and support. For example:

A cloud client is computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on The Cloud for application delivery, or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services, and which is in either case essentially useless without a Cloud.[33] For example:

Cloud infrastructure (e.g. Infrastructure as a service) is the delivery of computer infrastructure (typically a platform virtualization environment) as a service.[41] For example:

A cloud platform (e.g. Platform as a service) (the delivery of a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service) [42] facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.[43] For example:

A cloud service (e.g. Web Service) is “software system[s] designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network”[44] which may be accessed by other cloud computing components, software (e.g. Software plus services) or end users directly.[45] For example:

Cloud storage is the delivery of data storage as a service (including database-like services), often billed on a utility computing basis (e.g. per gigabyte per month).[46] For example:

Traditional storage vendors have recently begun to offer their own flavor of cloud storage, sometimes in conjunction with their existing software products (e.g. Symantec’s Online Storage for Backup Exec). Others focus on providing a new kind of back-end storage optimally designed for delivering cloud storage (EMC’s Atmos), categorically known as Cloud Optimized Storage.

A cloud computing provider or cloud computing service provider owns and operates cloud computing systems serve someone else. Usually this needs building and managing new data centers. Some organisations get some of the benefits of cloud computing by becoming “internal” cloud providers and servicing themselves, though they do not benefit from the same economies of scale and still have to engineer for peak loads. The barrier to entry is also significantly higher with capital expenditure required and billing and management creates some overhead. However, significant operational efficiency and quickness advantages can be achieved even by small organizations, and server consolidation and virtualization rollouts are already in progress.[47] Amazon.com was the first such provider, modernising its data centers which, like most computer networks were using as little as 10% of its capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes. This allowed small, fast-moving groups to add new features faster and easier, and they went on to open it up to outsiders as Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis.[20]

The companies listed in the Components section are providers.

A user is a consumer of cloud computing.[33] The privacy of users in cloud computing has become of increasing concern.[48][49] The rights of users is also an issue, which is being addressed via a community effort to create a bill of rights (currently in draft).[50][51]

A vendor sells products and services that facilitate the delivery, adoption and use of cloud computing.[52] For example:

A cloud standard is one of a number of existing (typically lightweight) open standards that have facilitated the growth of cloud computing, including:[57]

Original post:

Cloud computing – Simple English Wikipedia, the free …

American Nihilist Underground Society: Nihilism, Nihilists …

Social Media Finalized The Death Of The InternetJune 2, 2017A few years ago a working farm opened up near me. These are farms that are open to the public, but show you how that exotic class of human beings known as “farmers” actually make food and survive without Amazon Prime accounts.The farm came about because a farmer allowed school groups to witness the slaughter, breeding and care of animals. Then they wanted to see how the potatoes were planted. Now tours of the fields were added, including a visit to the manure pile, where tourists could genuflect and debase themselves in order to assert humility, which always pleases the crowd.Soon the tours became more valuable than the farm output.They came from the cities — doctors, plumbers, lawyers, carpenters, architects — looking for a way to school their children in a way of life that had passed into history, hoping to bestow “authenticity” to a life defined by conformity, products, political correctness and public relations. They wanted an escape from the transactional life of the city, and an insight instead into what life is like when results in reality matter more than what other people think.In this way, the needs of the herd overwhelmed the realistic nature of original human behavior. The farm became a stage, and soon a gift shop appeared, and then there were videos and public image adjustments. Reality was forgotten and replaced by the human, as happens with every homo sapiens endeavor when it is about to fail.Humans love posturing and pretending. For them, to act like a farmer is to be the real thing because that is what people in their social group react to. They have no concern for being accurate, only for having other people nod and acknowledge them as having achieved another milestone on the path to greatness.Social media is the same thing. No one can tell you are a dog on the internet; via social media, however, you can be whatever you want. Ignore that failed marriage, day job in a cubicle, and personal ineptitude. On the social media internet, you are whatever you can project.Starting in 2007, the internet permanently shifted to the mobile device consumer audience, which means that it plunged far below the 120 IQ point minimum required by the old internet. Before Eternal September, the internet was limited to those who had demonstrated competence. After that, the herd began coming in.With the rise of Google and Facebook, the herd dominated the internet. This merely showed to us the need for hierarchy and aristocracy: if left up to the Crowd, every human venture degenerates to the lowest common denominator, and whatever makes it exceptional is lost.Social media is democracy with no standards: whatever herd shows up, and whatever majority emerges from the midst of it, takes the day. It is the equivalent of the audience for a circus or tent revival deciding our future, and in the case of social media, they choose our path by excluding anything that is not popular.Following that pattern, social media selects lies over truth. It prefers what most people want to believe is true over what is real according to the best minds we have. It is the triumph of the herd in denying reality so that each member of the herd may pretend to be a king, hero, genius, artist or inventor.On the other hand, this means the rise of an underground within the internet: the sites that cannot be found by Google, will not show up in your news feed, and will be censored by Facebook, Twitter, Reddit, Tumblr, Pinterest and Instagram. The is the underground internet, and it is rising as the utility of the public internet plummets since it is now designed for and populated with the same people who watched a lot of daytime TV in the 1980s, like the poor, old, housewives, cube McJob slaves, mentally ill, physically broke, neurotic, intoxicated and lonely.class=”post”>Ten Types Of Modern FoolJune 4, 2017When you live in a dying time, the most common response is to into denial, which consists of ignoring the actual problem and finding some way to distract oneself instead. For example, heroin addicts routinely insist that their problem is too much clutter around the house, a speck in the face of the larger problem of heroin addiction that looms over them like an unseen predatory god.With complex problems, craftier and cannier evasions commence. That is: people find proxies for dealing with the problem, or substitutes, excuses, rationalizations and justifications. These are symbolic problems that they either can conquer or will persist whether conquered or not, making them the safest enemy (one against whom the knight cannot fail or prevail). Null proxies like this consist of 90% of the activity of a democratic state or troupe of monkeys in the wild.You will find the following non-answers to be happilly promoted by humans from every race, caste, sex, class, religion, political alignment and sexual orientation. We all know our civilization has fallen and we are living in a vile and evil time, and that the solution is to give up our arrogance which insists we have the lottery of being able to do pretty much whatever we want but also having to suffer others doing the same.These null proxies are used by people who will proclaim them as “the solution” and then, like a monkey who has found a bone, will use that answer to beat on all the other monkeys to force them into submission to the will of the original monkey. Any time you hear someone speaking in this way, you may be dealing with an idiot — not always — but you are certainly dealing with someone who has lied to themselves at such a fundamental level that they will never tell the truth again:

Read more:

American Nihilist Underground Society: Nihilism, Nihilists …

Nothing Is Solid & Everything Is Energy Scientists …

We’re creating viewer supported news. Become a member!

It has been written about before, over and over again, but cannot be emphasized enough. The world of quantum physics is an eerie one, one that sheds light on the truth about our world in ways that challenge the existing framework of accepted knowledge.

What we perceive as our physical material world, is really not physical or material at all, in fact, it is far from it. This has been proven time and time again by multiple Nobel Prize (among many other scientists around the world) winning physicists, one of them beingNiels Bohr, a Danish Physicist who made significant contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory.

If quantum mechanics hasnt profoundly shocked you, you havent understood it yet.Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real. Niels Bohr

At the turn of the nineteenth century, physicists started to explore the relationship between energy and the structure of matter. In doing so, the belief that a physical, Newtonian material universe that was at the very heart of scientific knowing was dropped, and the realization that matter is nothing but an illusion replaced it. Scientists began to recognize that everything in the Universe is made out of energy.

Despite the unrivaled empirical success of quantum theory, the very suggestion that it may be literally true as a description of nature is still greeted with cynicism, incomprehension and even anger. (T. Folger, Quantum Shmantum; Discover 22:37-43, 2001)

Quantum physicists discovered that physical atoms are made up of vortices of energy that are constantly spinning and vibrating, each one radiating its own unique energy signature. Therefore, if we really want to observe ourselves and find out what we are, we are really beings of energy and vibration, radiating our own unique energy signature -this is fact and is what quantum physics has shown us time and time again. We are much more than what we perceive ourselves to be, and its time we begin to see ourselves in that light. If you observed the composition of an atom with a microscope you would see a small, invisible tornado-like vortex, with a number of infinitely small energy vortices called quarks and photons. These are what make up the structure of the atom. As you focused in closer and closer on the structure of the atom, you would see nothing, you would observe a physical void. The atom has no physical structure, we have no physical structure, physical things really dont have any physical structure! Atoms are made out of invisible energy, not tangible matter.

Get over it, and accept the inarguable conclusion. The universe is immaterial-mental and spiritual (1) Richard Conn Henry, Professor of Physics and Astronomy at Johns Hopkins University (quote taken from the mental universe)

Its quite the conundrum, isnt it? Our experience tells us that our reality is made up of physical material things, and that our world is an independently existing objective one. The revelation that the universe is not an assembly of physical parts, suggested by Newtonian physics, and instead comes from a holistic entanglement of immaterial energy waves stems from the work of Albert Einstein, Max Planck and Werner Heisenberg, among others. (0)

What does it mean that our physical material reality isnt really physical at all? It could mean a number of things, and concepts such as this cannot be explored if scientists remain within the boundaries of the only perceived world existing, the world we see. As Nikola Tesla supposedly said:

The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.

Fortunately, many scientists have already taken the leap, and have already questioned the meaning and implications of what weve discovered with quantum physics. One of these potential revelations is that the observer creates the reality.

A fundamental conclusion of the new physics also acknowledges that the observer creates the reality. As observers, we are personally involved with the creation of our own reality. Physicists are being forced to admit that the universe is a mental construction. Pioneering physicist Sir James Jeans wrote: The stream of knowledge is heading toward a non-mechanical reality; the universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine. Mind no longer appears to be an accidental intruder into the realm of matter, we ought rather hail it as the creator and governor of the realm of matter. (R. C. Henry, The Mental Universe; Nature 436:29, 2005)

One great example that illustrates the role of consciousness within the physical material world (which we know not to be so physical) is the double slit experiment. This experiment has been used multiple times to explore the role of consciousness in shaping the nature of physical reality.(2)

A double-slit optical system was used to test the possible role of consciousness in the collapse of the quantum wave-function. The ratio of the interference patterns double-slit spectral power to its single-slit spectral power was predicted to decrease when attention was focused toward the double-slit as compared to away from it. The study found that factors associated with consciousness, such as meditation, experience, electrocortical markers of focused attention and psychological factors such as openness and absorption, significantly correlated in predicted ways with perturbations in the double-slit interference pattern.(2)

This is just the beginning. I wrote another article earlier this year that has much more, sourced information with regards to the role of consciousness and our physical material world:

10 Scientific Studies That Prove Consciousness Can Alter Our Physical Material World.

The significance of this information is for us to wake up, and realize that we are all energy, radiating our own unique energy signature. Feelings, thoughts and emotions play a vital role, quantum physics helps us see the significance of how we all feel. If all of us are in a peaceful loving state inside, it will no doubt impact the external world around us, and influence how others feel as well.

If you want to know the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration. Nikola Tesla.

Studies have shown that positive emotions and operating from a place of peace within oneself can lead to a very different experience for the person emitting those emotions and for those around them. At our subatomic level, does the vibrational frequency change the manifestation of physical reality? If so, in what way? We know that when an atom changes its state, it absorbs or emits electromagnetic frequencies, which are responsible for changing its state. Do different states of emotion, perception and feelings result in different electromagnetic frequencies? Yes! This has been proven. (3)

HERE is a great video that touches on what I am trying to get across here. We are all connected.

Space is just a construct that gives the illusion that there areseparate objects Dr. Quantum (source)

Sources:

(1)http://henry.pha.jhu.edu/The.mental.Universe.pdf

(2)http://media.noetic.org/uploads/files/PhysicsEssays-Radin-DoubleSlit-2012.pdf

(3)http://www.heartmath.org/research/research-publications/energetic-heart-bioelectromagnetic-communication-within-and-between-people.html

communities.washinghttp://media.noetic.org/uploads/files/PhysicsEssays-Radin-DoubleSlit-2012.pdftontimes.com/neighborhood/energy-harnassed/2012/sep/30/secrets-universe-unlocked/

The Sacred Science follows eight people from around the world, with varying physical and psychological illnesses, as they embark on a one-month healing journey into the heart of the Amazon jungle.

This incredible true story details how ancient shamanic healing methods can work to shift our bodies and minds. here.

Read the incredible true story here.

Go here to see the original:

Nothing Is Solid & Everything Is Energy Scientists …

What is Cloud Computing? – Amazon Web Services

Whether you are running applications that share photos to millions of mobile users or youre supporting the critical operations of your business, a cloud services platform provides rapid access to flexible and low cost IT resources. With cloud computing, you dont need to make large upfront investments in hardware and spend a lot of time on the heavy lifting of managing that hardware. Instead, you can provision exactly the right type and size of computing resources you need to power your newest bright idea or operate your IT department. You can access as many resources as you need, almost instantly, and only pay for what you use.

Cloud computing provides a simple way to access servers, storage, databases and a broad set of application services over the Internet. A Cloud services platform such as Amazon Web Services owns and maintains the network-connected hardware required for these application services, while you provision and use what you need via a web application.

More here:

What is Cloud Computing? – Amazon Web Services

Donald Trump: Latest News, Top Stories & Analysis – POLITICO

President Donald Trump was back at it today firing off tweets at a range of targets from Mexico to his own Department of Justice.

Same as it ever was.

Trump was unsparing in his Twitter-based attacks … calling the Justice Department and FBI an embarrassment to our country, slamming the news media, taking on retail giant Amazon and blaming Democrats for a dead DACA program, POLITICOs Matthew Nussbaum reports. The outburst came as Trump returned to Washington in what is expected to be a relatively quiet week, with Congress away and few major events scheduled. Some in the White House viewed the attacks as an outgrowth of that unfilled time.

The vitriol poured out on the same morning that Trump briefly attended the White House Easter Egg Roll.

Read more from the original source:

Donald Trump: Latest News, Top Stories & Analysis – POLITICO

Travel – Wikipedia

Travel is the movement of people between relatively distant geographical locations, and can involve travel by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip.[1][2] Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.

The origin of the word “travel” is most likely lost to history. The term “travel” may originate from the Old French word travail, which means ‘work’.[3] According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century. It also states that the word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words “travail”, which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers’ Tales (2004), the words “travel” and “travail” both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means “three stakes”, as in to impale). This link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose (e.g. Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether you decide to “rough it” (see extreme tourism and adventure travel). “There’s a big difference between simply being a tourist and being a true world traveler”, notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted.[4]

Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel[5] the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages[5] and mission trips, business travel,[5] trade,[5] commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care[5] or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling; or vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.

Motives for travel include:

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.[7]

Travel dates back to antiquity where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as Pompeii and Baiae.[8] While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible.[9] Mankind has come a long way in transportation since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination; to the 21st century where aircraft allow travel from Spain to the United States overnight.

Travel in the Middle Ages offered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society. The wholesale sector depended (for example) on merchants dealing with/through caravans or sea-voyagers, end-user retailing often demanded the services of many itinerant peddlers wandering from village to hamlet, gyrovagues (Wandering Monks) and wandering friars brought theology and pastoral support to neglected areas, travelling minstrels practiced the never-ending tour, and armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars.[8] Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travellers both locally (Canterbury Tales-style) and internationally.[10]

In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature. This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Paris, Venice, Florence and Rome. However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour.[8]

Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network of railways in the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task. This was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together.[11] Airships and airplanes took over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots.[8]

Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one’s surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one’s passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one’s national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers’ licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one’s own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]

There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a DETR survey in October 2000):[15]

Read more:

Travel – Wikipedia

Travel – Wikipedia

Travel is the movement of people between relatively distant geographical locations, and can involve travel by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip.[1][2] Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.

The origin of the word “travel” is most likely lost to history. The term “travel” may originate from the Old French word travail, which means ‘work’.[3] According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century. It also states that the word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words “travail”, which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers’ Tales (2004), the words “travel” and “travail” both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means “three stakes”, as in to impale). This link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose (e.g. Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether you decide to “rough it” (see extreme tourism and adventure travel). “There’s a big difference between simply being a tourist and being a true world traveler”, notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted.[4]

Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel[5] the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages[5] and mission trips, business travel,[5] trade,[5] commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care[5] or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling; or vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.

Motives for travel include:

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.[7]

Travel dates back to antiquity where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as Pompeii and Baiae.[8] While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible.[9] Mankind has come a long way in transportation since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination; to the 21st century where aircraft allow travel from Spain to the United States overnight.

Travel in theMiddle Agesoffered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society. Thewholesale sectordepended (for example) onmerchantsdealing with/throughcaravansor sea-voyagers, end-userretailingoften demanded the services of many itinerantpeddlerswandering from village to hamlet,gyrovagues(Wandering Monks) and wanderingfriarsbroughttheologyandpastoral supportto neglected areas,travelling minstrelspracticed the never-ending tour, and armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars.[8] Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travellers both locally (Canterbury Tales-style) and internationally.[10]

In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature. This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Paris, Venice, Florence and Rome. However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour.[8]

Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network ofrailwaysin the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task. This was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together.[11]Airshipsandairplanestook over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots.[8]

Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one’s surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one’s passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one’s national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers’ licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one’s own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]

There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a DETR survey in October 2000):[15]

Link:

Travel – Wikipedia

Travel – Wikipedia

Travel is the movement of people between relatively distant geographical locations, and can involve travel by foot, bicycle, automobile, train, boat, bus, airplane, or other means, with or without luggage, and can be one way or round trip.[1][2] Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.

The origin of the word “travel” is most likely lost to history. The term “travel” may originate from the Old French word travail, which means ‘work’.[3] According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, the first known use of the word travel was in the 14th century. It also states that the word comes from Middle English travailen, travelen (which means to torment, labor, strive, journey) and earlier from Old French travailler (which means to work strenuously, toil). In English we still occasionally use the words “travail”, which means struggle. According to Simon Winchester in his book The Best Travelers’ Tales (2004), the words “travel” and “travail” both share an even more ancient root: a Roman instrument of torture called the tripalium (in Latin it means “three stakes”, as in to impale). This link may reflect the extreme difficulty of travel in ancient times. Today, travel may or may not be much easier depending upon the destination you choose (e.g. Mt. Everest, the Amazon rainforest), how you plan to get there (tour bus, cruise ship, or oxcart), and whether you decide to “rough it” (see extreme tourism and adventure travel). “There’s a big difference between simply being a tourist and being a true world traveler”, notes travel writer Michael Kasum. This is, however, a contested distinction as academic work on the cultures and sociology of travel has noted.[4]

Reasons for traveling include recreation,[5] tourism[5] or vacationing,[5] research travel[5] the gathering of information, visiting people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages[5] and mission trips, business travel,[5] trade,[5] commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care[5] or waging or fleeing war or for the enjoyment of traveling. Travellers may use human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling; or vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.

Motives for travel include:

Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round-trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from one location to another and returns.[7]

Travel dates back to antiquity where wealthy Greeks and Romans would travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas in cities such as Pompeii and Baiae.[8] While early travel tended to be slower, more dangerous, and more dominated by trade and migration, cultural and technological advances over many years have tended to mean that travel has become easier and more accessible.[9] Mankind has come a long way in transportation since Christopher Columbus sailed to the new world from Spain in 1492, an expedition which took over 10 weeks to arrive at the final destination; to the 21st century where aircraft allow travel from Spain to the United States overnight.

Travel in theMiddle Agesoffered hardships and challenges, however, it was important to the economy and to society. Thewholesale sectordepended (for example) onmerchantsdealing with/throughcaravansor sea-voyagers, end-userretailingoften demanded the services of many itinerantpeddlerswandering from village to hamlet,gyrovagues(Wandering Monks) and wanderingfriarsbroughttheologyandpastoral supportto neglected areas,travelling minstrelspracticed the never-ending tour, and armies ranged far and wide in various crusades and in sundry other wars.[8] Pilgrimages were common in both the European and Islamic world and involved streams of travellers both locally (Canterbury Tales-style) and internationally.[10]

In the late 16th century it became fashionable for young European aristocrats and wealthy upper class men to travel to significant European cities as part of their education in the arts and literature. This was known as the Grand Tour, it included cities such as London, Paris, Venice, Florence and Rome. However, The French revolution brought with it the end of the Grand Tour.[8]

Travel by water often provided more comfort and speed than land-travel, at least until the advent of a network ofrailwaysin the 19th century. Travel for the purpose of tourism is reported to have started around this time when people began to travel for fun as travel was no longer a hard and challenging task. This was capitalised on by people like Thomas Cook selling tourism packages where trains and hotels were booked together.[11]Airshipsandairplanestook over much of the role of long-distance surface travel in the 20th century, notably after the second World War where there was a surplus of both aircraft and pilots.[8]

Authorities emphasize the importance of taking precautions to ensure travel safety.[12] When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence.[13] Some safety considerations include being aware of one’s surroundings,[12] avoiding being the target of a crime,[12] leaving copies of one’s passport and itinerary information with trusted people,[12] obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited[12] and registering with one’s national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.[12] Many countries do not recognize drivers’ licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits.[14] Automobile insurance policies issued in one’s own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and it is often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited.[14] It is also advisable to become oriented with the driving-rules and -regulations of destination countries.[14] Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons; many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.[14]

There are three main statistics which may be used to compare the safety of various forms of travel (based on a DETR survey in October 2000):[15]

Read this article:

Travel – Wikipedia

Amazon Best Sellers: Best Space Exploration Science …

About Best Sellers in Space Exploration Science Fiction eBooks

These lists, updated hourly, contain bestselling items. Here you can discover the best Space Exploration Science Fiction eBooks in Amazon Best Sellers, and find the top 100 most popular Amazon Space Exploration Science Fiction eBooks. For non-U.S. customers, Kindle content availability and pricing will vary.

Read more here:

Amazon Best Sellers: Best Space Exploration Science …

Spiritual Enlightenment: What It Is and How to Experience It

Affiliate Disclosure: Certain products, tools and services we recommend on this site may be affiliate links. All the products we recommend are either things we use ourselves or have researched and confirmed are of the highest quality and integrity. Conscious Lifestyle Magazine is also a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to amazon.com. These programs allow us to provide quality content to you at no charge.

Read more:

Spiritual Enlightenment: What It Is and How to Experience It

Amazon Best Sellers: Best Space Exploration Science …

About Best Sellers in Space Exploration Science Fiction eBooks

These lists, updated hourly, contain bestselling items. Here you can discover the best Space Exploration Science Fiction eBooks in Amazon Best Sellers, and find the top 100 most popular Amazon Space Exploration Science Fiction eBooks. For non-U.S. customers, Kindle content availability and pricing will vary.

Original post:

Amazon Best Sellers: Best Space Exploration Science …