RCom arm in tie-up for cloud computing – Moneycontrol.com

Reliance Communications undersea cable arm Global Cloud Xchange has entered into an agreement with two other companies to provide cloud computing services.

Under the agreement, data centre company Aegis Data will host cloud solutions of vScaler within its data centre and GCX will connect customers to access cloud solution through its network.

“As part of this strategic partnership, Aegis will provide vScaler with the necessary power and infrastructure requirements that will allow both organisations to capture the increasing demand for scalable HPC (high power compute)-on- demand services from enterprises in the region,” a joint statement from the three firms said.

The partnership supported by Global Cloud Xchange (GCX) will enable direct access to vScaler’s Cloud Services platform, it added.

Industry findings have projected that the HPC market is expected to grow up to USD 36.62 billion by 2020, at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.45 percent.

“This triangulated partnership supports these demands in perfect harmony, meaning that those organisations looking for HPC requirements can have their demands serviced all under one roof,” vScaler Chief Technology Officer David Power said.

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RCom arm in tie-up for cloud computing – Moneycontrol.com

How Do You Define Cloud Computing? – Data Center Knowledge

Steve Lack is Vice President of Cloud Solutions for Astadia.

New technology that experiences high growth rates will inevitably attract hyperbole. Cloud computing is no exception, and almost everyone has his or her own definition of cloud from its on the internet to a full-blown technical explanation of the myriad compute options available from a given cloud service provider.

Knowing what is and what is not a cloud service can be confusing. Fortunately, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has provided us with a cloud computing definition that identifies five essential characteristics.

On-demand self-service. A consumer [of cloud services] can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed, automatically without requiring human interaction with each service provider.

Read: Get what you want, when you want it, with little fuss.

Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops and workstations).

Read: Anyone, anywhere can access anything you build for them.

Resource pooling. The providers computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand.

Read: Economies of scale on galactic proportions.

Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be elastically provisioned and released, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with demand. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time.

Read: Get what you want, when you want it then give it back.

Measured service. Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource usage by providing a metering capability as appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.

Read: Get what you want, when you want it, then give it back and only pay for what you use.

Each of these five characteristics must be present, or it is just not a cloud service, regardless of what a vendor may claim. Now that public cloud services exist that fully meet this cloud computing definition, you the consumer of cloud services can log onto one of the cloud service providers dashboards and order up X units of compute capacity, Y units of storage capacity and toss in other services and capabilities as needed. Your IT team is not provisioning any of the hardware, building images, etc., and this all happens within minutes vs. the weeks it would normally take in a conventional on-premise scenario.

Opinions expressed in the article above do not necessarily reflect the opinions of Data Center Knowledge and Penton.

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How Do You Define Cloud Computing? – Data Center Knowledge

What is Quantum Computing? Webopedia Definition

Main TERM Q

First proposed in the 1970s, quantum computing relies on quantum physics by taking advantage of certain quantum physics properties of atoms or nuclei that allow them to work together as quantum bits, or qubits, to be the computer’s processor and memory. By interacting with each other while being isolated from the external environment, qubits can perform certain calculations exponentially faster than conventional computers.

Qubits do not rely on the traditional binary nature of computing. While traditional computers encode information into bits using binary numbers, either a 0 or 1, and can only do calculations on one set of numbers at once, quantum computers encode information as a series of quantum-mechanical states such as spin directions of electrons or polarization orientations of a photon that might represent a 1 or a 0, might represent a combination of the two or might represent a number expressing that the state of the qubit is somewhere between 1 and 0, or a superposition of many different numbers at once.

A quantum computer can do an arbitrary reversible classical computation on all the numbers simultaneously, which a binary system cannot do, and also has some ability to produce interference between various different numbers. By doing a computation on many different numbers at once, then interfering the results to get a single answer, a quantum computer has the potential to be much more powerful than a classical computer of the same size. In using only a single processing unit, a quantum computer can naturally perform myriad operations in parallel.

Quantum computing is not well suited for tasks such as word processing and email, but it is ideal for tasks such as cryptography and modeling and indexing very large databases.

Microsoft: Quantum Computing 101

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What is Quantum Computing? Webopedia Definition

Quantum computing: A simple introduction – Explain that Stuff

by Chris Woodford. Last updated: February 18, 2017.

How can you get more and more out of less and less? The smaller computers get, the more powerful they seem to become: there’s more number-crunching ability in a 21st-century cellphone than you’d have found in a room-sized, military computer 50 years ago. Yet, despite such amazing advances, there are still plenty of complex problems that are beyond the reach of even the world’s most powerful computersand there’s no guarantee we’ll ever be able to tackle them. One problem is that the basic switching and memory units of computers, known as transistors, are now approaching the point where they’ll soon be as small as individual atoms. If we want computers that are smaller and more powerful than today’s, we’ll soon need to do our computing in a radically different way. Entering the realm of atoms opens up powerful new possibilities in the shape of quantum computing, with processors that could work millions of times faster than the ones we use today. Sounds amazing, but the trouble is that quantum computing is hugely more complex than traditional computing and operates in the Alice in Wonderland world of quantum physics, where the “classical,” sensible, everyday laws of physics no longer apply. What is quantum computing and how does it work? Let’s take a closer look!

Photo: Quantum computing means storing and processing information using individual atoms, ions, electrons, or photons. On the plus side, this opens up the possibility of faster computers, but the drawback is the greater complexity of designing computers that can operate in the weird world of quantum physics. Photo courtesy of US Department of Energy.

You probably think of a computer as a neat little gadget that sits on your lap and lets you send emails, shop online, chat to your friends, or play gamesbut it’s much more and much less than that. It’s more, because it’s a completely general-purpose machine: you can make it do virtually anything you like. It’s less, because inside it’s little more than an extremely basic calculator, following a prearranged set of instructions called a program. Like the Wizard of Oz, the amazing things you see in front of you conceal some pretty mundane stuff under the covers.

Photo: This is what one transistor from a typical radio circuit board looks like. In computers, the transistors are much smaller than this and millions of them are packaged together onto microchips.

Conventional computers have two tricks that they do really well: they can store numbers in memory and they can process stored numbers with simple mathematical operations (like add and subtract). They can do more complex things by stringing together the simple operations into a series called an algorithm (multiplying can be done as a series of additions, for example). Both of a computer’s key tricksstorage and processingare accomplished using switches called transistors, which are like microscopic versions of the switches you have on your wall for turning on and off the lights. A transistor can either be on or off, just as a light can either be lit or unlit. If it’s on, we can use a transistor to store a number one (1); if it’s off, it stores a number zero (0). Long strings of ones and zeros can be used to store any number, letter, or symbol using a code based on binary (so computers store an upper-case letter A as 1000001 and a lower-case one as 01100001). Each of the zeros or ones is called a binary digit (or bit) and, with a string of eight bits, you can store 255 different characters (such as A-Z, a-z, 0-9, and most common symbols). Computers calculate by using circuits called logic gates, which are made from a number of transistors connected together. Logic gates compare patterns of bits, stored in temporary memories called registers, and then turn them into new patterns of bitsand that’s the computer equivalent of what our human brains would call addition, subtraction, or multiplication. In physical terms, the algorithm that performs a particular calculation takes the form of an electronic circuit made from a number of logic gates, with the output from one gate feeding in as the input to the next.

The trouble with conventional computers is that they depend on conventional transistors. This might not sound like a problem if you go by the amazing progress made in electronics over the last few decades. When the transistor was invented, back in 1947, the switch it replaced (which was called the vacuum tube) was about as big as one of your thumbs. Now, a state-of-the-art microprocessor (single-chip computer) packs hundreds of millions (and up to two billion) transistors onto a chip of silicon the size of your fingernail! Chips like these, which are called integrated circuits, are an incredible feat of miniaturization. Back in the 1960s, Intel co-founder Gordon Moore realized that the power of computers doubles roughly 18 monthsand it’s been doing so ever since. This apparently unshakeable trend is known as Moore’s Law.

Photo: This memory chip from a typical USB stick contains an integrated circuit that can store 512 megabytes of data. That’s roughly 500 million characters (536,870,912 to be exact), each of which needs eight binary digitsso we’re talking about 4 billion (4,000 million) transistors in all (4,294,967,296 if you’re being picky) packed into an area the size of a postage stamp!

It sounds amazing, and it is, but it misses the point. The more information you need to store, the more binary ones and zerosand transistorsyou need to do it. Since most conventional computers can only do one thing at a time, the more complex the problem you want them to solve, the more steps they’ll need to take and the longer they’ll need to do it. Some computing problems are so complex that they need more computing power and time than any modern machine could reasonably supply; computer scientists call those intractable problems.

As Moore’s Law advances, so the number of intractable problems diminishes: computers get more powerful and we can do more with them. The trouble is, transistors are just about as small as we can make them: we’re getting to the point where the laws of physics seem likely to put a stop to Moore’s Law. Unfortunately, there are still hugely difficult computing problems we can’t tackle because even the most powerful computers find them intractable. That’s one of the reasons why people are now getting interested in quantum computing.

Quantum theory is the branch of physics that deals with the world of atoms and the smaller (subatomic) particles inside them. You might think atoms behave the same way as everything else in the world, in their own tiny little waybut that’s not true: on the atomic scale, the rules change and the “classical” laws of physics we take for granted in our everyday world no longer automatically apply. As Richard P. Feynman, one of the greatest physicists of the 20th century, once put it: “Things on a very small scale behave like nothing you have any direct experience about… or like anything that you have ever seen.” (Six Easy Pieces, p116.)

If you’ve studied light, you may already know a bit about quantum theory. You might know that a beam of light sometimes behaves as though it’s made up of particles (like a steady stream of cannonballs), and sometimes as though it’s waves of energy rippling through space (a bit like waves on the sea). That’s called wave-particle duality and it’s one of the ideas that comes to us from quantum theory. It’s hard to grasp that something can be two things at oncea particle and a wavebecause it’s totally alien to our everyday experience: a car is not simultaneously a bicycle and a bus. In quantum theory, however, that’s just the kind of crazy thing that can happen. The most striking example of this is the baffling riddle known as Schrdinger’s cat. Briefly, in the weird world of quantum theory, we can imagine a situation where something like a cat could be alive and dead at the same time!

What does all this have to do with computers? Suppose we keep on pushing Moore’s Lawkeep on making transistors smaller until they get to the point where they obey not the ordinary laws of physics (like old-style transistors) but the more bizarre laws of quantum mechanics. The question is whether computers designed this way can do things our conventional computers can’t. If we can predict mathematically that they might be able to, can we actually make them work like that in practice?

People have been asking those questions for several decades. Among the first were IBM research physicists Rolf Landauer and Charles H. Bennett. Landauer opened the door for quantum computing in the 1960s when he proposed that information is a physical entity that could be manipulated according to the laws of physics. One important consequence of this is that computers waste energy manipulating the bits inside them (which is partly why computers use so much energy and get so hot, even though they appear to be doing not very much at all). In the 1970s, building on Landauer’s work, Bennett showed how a computer could circumvent this problem by working in a “reversible” way, implying that a quantum computer could carry out massively complex computations without using massive amounts of energy. In 1981, physicist Paul Benioff from Argonne National Laboratory tried to envisage a basic machine that would work in a similar way to an ordinary computer but according to the principles of quantum physics. The following year, Richard Feynman sketched out roughly how a machine using quantum principles could carry out basic computations. A few years later, Oxford University’s David Deutsch (one of the leading lights in quantum computing) outlined the theoretical basis of a quantum computer in more detail. How did these great scientists imagine that quantum computers might work?

The key features of an ordinary computerbits, registers, logic gates, algorithms, and so onhave analogous features in a quantum computer. Instead of bits, a quantum computer has quantum bits or qubits, which work in a particularly intriguing way. Where a bit can store either a zero or a 1, a qubit can store a zero, a one, both zero and one, or an infinite number of values in betweenand be in multiple states (store multiple values) at the same time! If that sounds confusing, think back to light being a particle and a wave at the same time, Schrdinger’s cat being alive and dead, or a car being a bicycle and a bus. A gentler way to think of the numbers qubits store is through the physics concept of superposition (where two waves add to make a third one that contains both of the originals). If you blow on something like a flute, the pipe fills up with a standing wave: a wave made up of a fundamental frequency (the basic note you’re playing) and lots of overtones or harmonics (higher-frequency multiples of the fundamental). The wave inside the pipe contains all these waves simultaneously: they’re added together to make a combined wave that includes them all. Qubits use superposition to represent multiple states (multiple numeric values) simultaneously in a similar way.

Just as a quantum computer can store multiple numbers at once, so it can process them simultaneously. Instead of working in serial (doing a series of things one at a time in a sequence), it can work in parallel (doing multiple things at the same time). Only when you try to find out what state it’s actually in at any given moment (by measuring it, in other words) does it “collapse” into one of its possible statesand that gives you the answer to your problem. Estimates suggest a quantum computer’s ability to work in parallel would make it millions of times faster than any conventional computer… if only we could build it! So how would we do that?

In reality, qubits would have to be stored by atoms, ions (atoms with too many or too few electrons) or even smaller things such as electrons and photons (energy packets), so a quantum computer would be almost like a table-top version of the kind of particle physics experiments they do at Fermilab or CERN! Now you wouldn’t be racing particles round giant loops and smashing them together, but you would need mechanisms for containing atoms, ions, or subatomic particles, for putting them into certain states (so you can store information), knocking them into other states (so you can make them process information), and figuring out what their states are after particular operations have been performed.

Photo: A single atom can be trapped in an optical cavitythe space between mirrorsand controlled by precise pulses from laser beams.

In practice, there are lots of possible ways of containing atoms and changing their states using laser beams, electromagnetic fields, radio waves, and an assortment of other techniques. One method is to make qubits using quantum dots, which are nanoscopically tiny particles of semiconductors inside which individual charge carriers, electrons and holes (missing electrons), can be controlled. Another method makes qubits from what are called ion traps: you add or take away electrons from an atom to make an ion, hold it steady in a kind of laser spotlight (so it’s locked in place like a nanoscopic rabbit dancing in a very bright headlight), and then flip it into different states with laser pulses. In another technique, the qubits are photons inside optical cavities (spaces between extremely tiny mirrors). Don’t worry if you don’t understand; not many people do! Since the entire field of quantum computing is still largely abstract and theoretical, the only thing we really need to know is that qubits are stored by atoms or other quantum-scale particles that can exist in different states and be switched between them.

Although people often assume that quantum computers must automatically be better than conventional ones, that’s by no means certain. So far, just about the only thing we know for certain that a quantum computer could do better than a normal one is factorisation: finding two unknown prime numbers that, when multiplied together, give a third, known number. In 1994, while working at Bell Laboratories, mathematician Peter Shor demonstrated an algorithm that a quantum computer could follow to find the “prime factors” of a large number, which would speed up the problem enormously. Shor’s algorithm really excited interest in quantum computing because virtually every modern computer (and every secure, online shopping and banking website) uses public-key encryption technology based on the virtual impossibility of finding prime factors quickly (it is, in other words, essentially an “intractable” computer problem). If quantum computers could indeed factor large numbers quickly, today’s online security could be rendered obsolete at a stroke.

Does that mean quantum computers are better than conventional ones? Not exactly. Apart from Shor’s algorithm, and a search method called Grover’s algorithm, hardly any other algorithms have been discovered that would be better performed by quantum methods. Given enough time and computing power, conventional computers should still be able to solve any problem that quantum computers could solve, eventually. In other words, it remains to be proven that quantum computers are generally superior to conventional ones, especially given the difficulties of actually building them. Who knows how conventional computers might advance in the next 50 years, potentially making the idea of quantum computers irrelevantand even absurd.

Photo: Quantum dots are probably best known as colorful nanoscale crystals, but they can also be used as qubits in quantum computers). Photo courtesy of Argonne National Laboratory.

Three decades after they were first proposed, quantum computers remain largely theoretical. Even so, there’s been some encouraging progress toward realizing a quantum machine. There were two impressive breakthroughs in 2000. First, Isaac Chuang (now an MIT professor, but then working at IBM’s Almaden Research Center) used five fluorine atoms to make a crude, five-qubit quantum computer. The same year, researchers at Los Alamos National Laboratory figured out how to make a seven-qubit machine using a drop of liquid. Five years later, researchers at the University of Innsbruck added an extra qubit and produced the first quantum computer that could manipulate a qubyte (eight qubits).

These were tentative but important first steps. Over the next few years, researchers announced more ambitious experiments, adding progressively greater numbers of qubits. By 2011, a pioneering Canadian company called D-Wave Systems announced in Nature that it had produced a 128-qubit machine. Thee years later, Google announced that it was hiring a team of academics (including University of California at Santa Barbara physicist John Martinis) to develop its own quantum computers based on D-Wave’s approach. In March 2015, the Google team announced they were “a step closer to quantum computation,” having developed a new way for qubits to detect and protect against errors. In 2016, MIT’s Isaac Chang and scientists from the University of Innsbruck unveiled a five-qubit, ion-trap quantum computer that could calculate the factors of 15; one day, a scaled-up version of this machine might evolve into the long-promised, fully fledged encryption buster! There’s no doubt that these are hugely important advances. Even so, it’s very early days for the whole fieldand most researchers agree that we’re unlikely to see practical quantum computers appearing for many yearsperhaps even decades.

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Quantum computing: A simple introduction – Explain that Stuff

quantum computing – WIRED UK

Wikimedia Commons

In a world where we are relying increasingly on computing, to share our information and store our most precious data, the idea of living without computers might baffle most people.

But if we continue to follow the trend that has been in place since computers were introduced, by 2040 we will not have the capability to power all of the machines around the globe, according to a recent report by the Semiconductor Industry Association.

To prevent this, the industry is focused on finding ways to make computing more energy efficient, but classical computers are limited by the minimum amount of energy it takes them to perform one operation.

This energy limit is named after IBM Research Lab’s Rolf Landauer, who in 1961 found that in any computer, each single bit operation must use an absolute minimum amount of energy. Landauer’s formula calculated the lowest limit of energy required for a computer operation, and in March this year researchers demonstrated it could be possible to make a chip that operates with this lowest energy.

It was called a “breakthrough for energy-efficient computing” and could cut the amount of energy used in computers by a factor of one million. However, it will take a long time before we see the technology used in our laptops; and even when it is, the energy will still be above the Landauer limit.

This is why, in the long term, people are turning to radically different ways of computing, such as quantum computing, to find ways to cut energy use.

Quantum computing takes advantage of the strange ability of subatomic particles to exist in more than one state at any time. Due to the way the tiniest of particles behave, operations can be done much more quickly and use less energy than classical computers.

In classical computing, a bit is a single piece of information that can exist in two states 1 or 0. Quantum computing uses quantum bits, or ‘qubits’ instead. These are quantum systems with two states. However, unlike a usual bit, they can store much more information than just 1 or 0, because they can exist in any superposition of these values.

“Traditionally qubits are treated as separated physical objects with two possible distinguishable states, 0 and 1,” Alexey Fedorov, physicist at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology told WIRED.

“The difference between classical bits and qubits is that we can also prepare qubits in a quantum superposition of 0 and 1 and create nontrivial correlated states of a number of qubits, so-called ‘entangled states’.”

D-Wave

A qubit can be thought of like an imaginary sphere. Whereas a classical bit can be in two states – at either of the two poles of the sphere – a qubit can be any point on the sphere. This means a computer using these bits can store a huge amount more information using less energy than a classical computer.

Last year, a team of Google and Nasa scientists found a D-wave quantum computer was 100 million times faster than a conventional computer. But moving quantum computing to an industrial scale is difficult.

IBM recently announced its Q division is developing quantum computers that can be sold commercially within the coming years. Commercial quantum computer systems “with ~50 qubits” will be created “in the next few years,” IBM claims. While researchers at Google, in Nature comment piece, say companies could start to make returns on elements of quantum computer technology within the next five years.

Computations occur when qubits interact with each other, therefore for a computer to function it needs to have many qubits. The main reason why quantum computers are so hard to manufacture is that scientists still have not found a simple way to control complex systems of qubits.

Now, scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Russian Quantum Centre are looking into an alternative way of quantum computing. Not content with single qubits, the researchers decided to tackle the problem of quantum computing another way.

“In our approach, we observed that physical nature allows us to employ quantum objects with several distinguishable states for quantum computation,” Fedorov, one of the authors of the study, told WIRED.

The team created qubits with various different energy “levels”, that they have named qudits. The “d” stands for the number of different energy levels the qudit can take. The term “level” comes from the fact that typically each logic state of a qubit corresponds to the state with a certain value of energy – and these values of possible energies are called levels.

“In some sense, we can say that one qudit, quantum object with d possible states, may consist of several ‘virtual’ qubits, and operating qudit corresponds to manipulation with the ‘virtual’ qubits including their interaction,” continued Federov.

“From the viewpoint of abstract quantum information theory everything remains the same but in concrete physical implementation many-level system represent potentially useful resource.”

Quantum computers are already in use, in the sense that logic gates have been made using two qubits, but getting quantum computers to work on an industrial scale is the problem.

“The progress in that field is rather rapid but no one can promise when we come to wide use of quantum computation,” Fedorov told WIRED.

Elsewhere, in a step towards quantum computing, researchers have guided electrons through semiconductors using incredibly short pulses of light. Inside the weird world of quantum computers

These extremely short, configurable pulses of light could lead to computers that operate 100,000 times faster than they do today. Researchers, including engineers at the University of Michigan, can now control peaks within laser pulses of just a few femtoseconds (one quadrillionth of a second) long. The result is a step towards “lightwave electronics” which could eventually lead to a breakthrough in quantum computing.

A bizarre discovery recently revealed that cold helium atoms in lab conditions on Earth abide by the same law of entropy that governs the behaviour of black holes. What are black holes? WIRED explains

The law, first developed by Professor Stephen Hawking and Jacob Bekenstein in the 1970s, describes how the entropy, or the amount of disorder, increases in a black hole when matter falls into it. It now seems this behaviour appears at both the huge scales of outer space and at the tiny scale of atoms, specifically those that make up superfluid helium.

“It’s called an entanglement area law, explained Adrian Del Maestro, physicist at the University of Vermont. “It points to a deeper understanding of reality and could be a significant step toward a long-sought quantum theory of gravity and new advances in quantum computing.

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quantum computing – WIRED UK

Chinese scientists build world’s first quantum computing machine – India Today

China has beaten the world at building the first ever quantum computing machine that is 24,000 times faster than its international counterparts.

Making the announcement at a press conference in the Shanghai Institute for Advanced Studies of University of Science and Technology, the scientists said that this quantum computing machine may dwarf the processing power of existing supercomputers.

Researchers also said that quantum computing could in some ways dwarf the processing power of today’s supercomputers.

HOW THE WORLD’S FIRST QUANTUM COMPUTING MACHINE CAME TO BE?

The manipulation of multi-particle entanglement is the core of quantum computing technology and has been the focus of international quantum computing research.

Recently, Pan Jianwei of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lu Chaoyang and Zhu Xiaobo of the University of Science and Technology of China and Wang Haohua of Zhejiang University set international records in quantum control of the maximal numbers of entangled photonic quantum bits and entangled superconducting quantum bits.

Pan said quantum computers could, in principle, solve certain problems faster than classical computers.

Despite substantial progress in the past two decades, building quantum machines that can actually outperform classical computers in some specific tasks – an important milestone termed “quantum supremacy” – remains challenging.

In the quest for quantum supremacy, Boson sampling – an intermediate quantum computer model – has received considerable attention, as it requires fewer physical resources than building universal optical quantum computers, Pan was quoted as saying by the state-run Xinhua news agency.

Last year, the researchers had developed the world’s best single photon source based on semiconductor quantum dots.

Now, they are using the high-performance single photon source and electronically programmable photonic circuit to build a multi-photon quantum computing prototype to run the Boson sampling task.

The test results show the sampling rate of this prototype is at least 24,000 times faster than international counterparts, researchers said.

At the same time, the prototype quantum computing machine is 10 to 100 times faster than the first electronic computer, ENIAC, and the first transistor computer, TRADIC, in running the classical algorithm, Pan said.

It is the first quantum computing machine based on single photons that goes beyond the early classical computer, and ultimately paves the way to a quantum computer that can beat classical computers.

Last year, China had successfully launched the world’s first quantum satellite that will explore “hack proof” quantum communications by transmitting unhackable keys from space, and provide insight into the strangest phenomenon in quantum physics – quantum entanglement.

The research was published in the journal Nature Photonics.

(With inputs from PTI)

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Chinese scientists build world’s first quantum computing machine – India Today

The Quantum Computer Revolution Is Closer Than You May Think – National Review

Lets make no mistake: The race for a quantum computer is the new arms race.

As Arthur Herman wrote in a recent NRO article, Quantum Cryptography: A Boon for Security, the competition to create the first quantum computer is heating up. The country that develops one first will have the ability to cripple militaries and topple the global economy. To deter such activity, and to ensure our security, the United States must win this new race to the quantum-computer revolution.

Classical computers operate in bits, with each bit being either a 0 or 1. Quantum computers, by contrast, operate in quantum bits, or qubits, which can be both 0 and 1 simultaneously. Therefore, quantum computers can do nearly infinite calculations at once, rather than sequentially. Because of these properties, a single quantum computer could be the master key to hijack our country.

The danger of a quantum computer is its ability to tear through the encryption protecting most of our online data, which means it could wipe out the global financial system or locate weapons of mass destruction. Quantum computers operate much differently from todays classical computers and could crack encryption in less time than it takes to snap ones fingers.

In 2016, 4.2 billion computerized records in the United States were compromised, a staggering 421 percent increase from the prior year. Whats more, foreign countries are stealing encrypted U.S. data and storing it because they know that in roughly a decade, quantum computers will be able to get around the encryption.

Many experts agree that the U.S. still has the advantage in the nascent world of quantum computing, thanks to heavy investment by giants such as Microsoft, Intel, IBM, D-Wave, and Google. Yet with China graduating 4.7 million of its students per year with STEM degrees while the U.S. graduates a little over half a million, how long can the U.S. maintain its lead?

Maybe not for long. Half of the global landmark scientific achievements of 2014 were led by a European consortium and the other half by China, according to a 2015 MIT study. The European Union has made quantum research a flagship project over the next ten years and is committed to investing nearly $1 billion. While the U.S. government allocates about $200 million per year to quantum research, a recent congressional report noted that inconsistent funding has slowed progress.

According to Dr. Chad Rigetti, a former member of IBMs quantum-computing group and now the CEO of Rigetti Computing, computing superiority is fundamental to long-term economic superiority, safety, and security. Our strategy, he continues, has to be viewing quantum computing as a way to regain American superiority in high-performance computing.

Additionally, cyber-policy advisor Tim Polk stated publicly that our edge in quantum technologies is under siege. In fact, China leads in unhackable quantum-enabled satellites and owns the worlds fastest supercomputers.

While quantum computers will lead to astounding breakthroughs in medicine, manufacturing, artificial intelligence, defense, and more, rogue states or actors could use quantum computers for fiercely destructive purposes. Recall the hack of Sony by North Korea, Russian spies hacking Yahoo accounts, and the exposure of 22 million federal Office of Personnel Management records by Chinese hackers.

How can the United States win this race? We must take a multi-pronged approach to guard against the dangers of quantum computers while reaping their benefits. The near-term priority is to implement quantum-cybersecurity solutions, which fully protect against quantum-computer attacks. Solutions can soon be built directly into devices, accessed via the cloud, integrated with online browsers, or implemented alongside existing fiber-optic infrastructure.

Second, the U.S. needs to consider increasing federal research and development and boost incentives for industry and academia to develop technologies that align private interests with national-security interests, since quantum technology will lead to advances in defense and forge deterrent capabilities.

Third, as private companies advance quicker than government agencies, Washington should engage regularly with industry. Not only will policies evolve in a timely manner, but government agencies could become valuable early adopters.

Fourth, translating breakthroughs in the lab to commercial development will require training quantum engineers. Dr. Robert Schoelkopf, director of the Yale Quantum Institute, launched Quantum Circuits, Inc., to bridge this gap and to perform the commercial development of a quantum computer.

The United States achieved the unthinkable when it put a man on the Moon. Creating the first quantum computer will be easier but the consequences if we dont will be far greater.

Idalia Friedson is a research assistant at the Hudson Institute.

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The Quantum Computer Revolution Is Closer Than You May Think – National Review

Time Crystals Could be the Key to the First Quantum Computer – TrendinTech

Its been proven that time crystals do in fact exist. Two different teams of researchers created some time crystals just recently, one of which was from the University of Maryland and the other from Harvard University. While the first team used a chain of charged particles called ytterbium ions, the others used a synthetic diamond to create an artificial lattice.

It took a while for the idea of time crystals to stick because they are essentially impossibilities. Unlike conventional crystals where the lattices simply repeat themselves in space, time crystals also repeat in time to breaking time-translation symmetry. This unique phenomenon is the first in demonstrating non-equilibrium phases of matter.

The Harvard researchers are excited with their discoveries so far and are now hoping to uncover more about these time crystals. Mikhail Lukin and Eugene Demler are both physics professors and joint leaders of the Harvard research group. Lukin said in a recent press release, There is now broad, ongoing work to understand the physics of non-equilibrium quantum systems. The team is keen to move on with further research as they know by researching materials such as time crystals will help us better understand our own world as well as the quantum world.

Research such as that carried out by the Harvard team will allow others to develop new technologies such as quantum sensors, atomic clocks, or precision measuring tools. In regards to quantum computing, time crystals could be the missing link that were searching for when it comes to developing the worlds first workable model. This is an area that is of interest for many quantum technologies, said Lukin, because a quantum computer is a quantum system thats far away from equilibrium. Its very much at the frontier of research and we are really just scratching the surface. Quantum computer could change the way in which research is carried out and help in solving the most complex of problems. We just need to figure it out first.

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Time Crystals Could be the Key to the First Quantum Computer – TrendinTech

Quantum Physics: Are Entangled Particles Connected Via An Undetected Dimension? – Forbes


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Quantum Physics: Are Entangled Particles Connected Via An Undetected Dimension?
Forbes
The informed reader will note a stunning parallel with the ultraviolet catastrophe which led to quantum theory. This term, discussed elsewhere, refers to the fact that using Maxwell's equations and classic mechanics, we get spontaneous infinite

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Quantum Physics: Are Entangled Particles Connected Via An Undetected Dimension? – Forbes

Quantum Mechanics Indefinite causality – Nature.com

Nature Physics | Research Highlights

Nature Physics | Research Highlights

Nature Physics | Research Highlights

Quantum Mechanics

Sci. Adv. 3, e1602589 (2017)

Causality is a concept deeply rooted in our understanding of the world and lies at the basis of the very notion of time. It plays an essential role in our cognition enabling us to make predictions, determine the causes of certain events, and choose the appropriate

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Quantum Mechanics Indefinite causality – Nature.com

Scientists ‘BREED’ Schrodinger’s Cat in massive quantum physics breakthrough – Express.co.uk

GETTY

In Erwin Schrodingers thought experiment, the hypothetical cat can either be alive or dead at the same time in a quantum phenomenon known as superposition.

Physicists have now found a way to carry out the experiment and reveal the exact point that objects can switch between classical physics and quantum physics physics on a subatomic scale.

Team leader Alexander Lvovsky, from the University of Calgary and the Russian Quantum Centre, said: “One of the fundamental questions of physics is the boundary between the quantum and classical worlds.

Can quantum phenomena, provided ideal conditions, be observed in macroscopic objects?

GETTY

“Theory gives no answer to this question – maybe there is no such boundary.

What we need is a tool that will probe it.

In the researchers experiment, two coherent light waves represented Schrodingers cat for which the fields of the electromagnetic waves pointed in opposite directions at the same time.

GETTY

The University of Calgarys Anastasia Pushkina, co-author of the research, said: In essence, we cause interference of two ‘cats’ on a beam splitter.

This leads to an entangled state in the two output channels of that beam splitter.

In one of these channels, a special detector is placed.

In the event this detector shows a certain result, a ‘cat’ is born in the second output whose energy is more than twice that of the initial one.

When the team measured the results, they found that they could convert a pair of negative Schrodingers cats with an amplitude of 1.15 to a single positive cat with an amplitude of 1.85 in steps which could have huge implications for the quantum physics.

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The X-ray caused a sensation when it was discovered by German scientist Prof. Roentgen in 1895. He was awarded the first Nobel Prize for physics in 1901. Pictured below are X-rays of the hands of King George and Queen Mary, 1896 / Pics: SSPL

Demid Sychev, a graduate student from the Russian Quantum Centre, added: It is important that the procedure can be repeated: new ‘cats’ can, in turn, be overlapped on a beam splitter, producing one with even higher energy, and so on.

“Thus, it is possible to push the boundaries of the quantum world step by step, and eventually to understand whether it has a limit.”

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Scientists ‘BREED’ Schrodinger’s Cat in massive quantum physics breakthrough – Express.co.uk

The application of three-axis low energy spectroscopy in quantum physics research – Phys.Org

May 1, 2017 ThALES. Credit: R. Cubitt, ILL

In modern physics of the past century, understanding the electronic properties and interactions between electrons inside matter has been a major challenge. Electrons are responsible for the chemical link between atoms and almost all factors that characterise a piece of matter, such as colour, heat transport, conductivity and magnetism. An elementary property of electrons is the spin, and the combination of electronic spins on the atomic level can induce a magnetic moment on certain atoms, which constitute the material. These moments can add up to macroscopic magnetic forces.

As magnetism is the footprint of the interactive behaviour of electrons, studying it on the atomic level informs us about the collective electronic behaviour in the atomic environment. This can explain macroscopically observed electronic properties, like the temperature dependence of the conductivity.

On the atomic level, magnetic ions are closely packed and thus mutually influence each other, resulting in the adoption of a common magnetic order to minimise their energy balance. A slight perturbation leads to a spin wave, whereby an oscillation of one magnetic moment around its central axis induces oscillating perturbations with a slight phase shift on the atomic neighbours. Spin waves are routinely observed in ordered magnetic materials by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) on spectrometers at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL).

Transitioning from a classical to a quantum magnetic world

The magnetic moment is characterised by its spin number. The larger the spin number, the more appropriate it is to compare the atomic magnetic moment with a classical magnet. Lowering the spin means accentuating its quantum properties; exploring the transition into the quantum world, which is fundamentally different from the daily, macroscopic world, is one of the most exciting challenges in solid state physics.

The most cited example is the spin -1/2 moments placed in the corner of an equidistant triangle. Due to its quantum nature, one spin can only point upwards or downwards with respect to its local axis. A magnetic exchange between the spin moments, that is antiferromagnetic in nature, forces them to align antiparallel to each other. As a quantum magnet cannot order, rather than adopting one ground state, several states are equally likely (6 in the case of the triangle), and the spins are in a super-positioned state pointing in several directions at once.

Combining equidistant triangles leads to a two-dimensional network of spins. Its ground state, i.e. the spin arrangement with the lowest possible energy cost, has challenged theorists for decades. In 1973, noble laureate P.W. Anderson proposed a so-called ‘quantum spin liquid state,’ which is conceptually completely different to ordered magnetic phases. Anderson argued that for a triangular system, it is energetically more favourable for spins to organise into bonds. In these valence bonds, electrons are quantum mechanically ‘entangled,’ a purely quantum mechanical state. A superposition of a manifold of bond pattern exists in parallel and bonds fluctuate due to a quantum mechanical principle, which imposes zero point motions on the particles. This state is called a Resonant Valence Bond (RVB) state.

Neutron scattering provides experimental proof for the RVB state

Here at ILL, two cold three-axis spectrometers, IN14 and IN12, contributed over decades to the discovery and unravelling of magnetic correlations in classical and non-conventional superconductors, multiferroic crystals and a wide range of low-dimensional, frustrated and quantum magnetic systems. As both instruments dated from the 1980s, they were in need of a complete refurbishment to be able to continue contributing to the scientific progress in these fields. The new IN12 spectrometer’s relocation and refurbishment was completed in 2012, and by the end of 2014, the IN14 spectrometer was replaced by its successor, ThALES.

ThALES, Three-Axis instrument for Low Energy Spectroscopy, is a next generation cold neutron three-axis spectrometer that builds on the strengths of its predecessor, IN14, but uses state-of-the-art neutron optics. The ThALES project is a collaboration between ILL and Charles University, Prague, and is financed by the Czech Ministry of Science and Education.

After replacing the IN14, ThALES became the new reference for cold single crystal neutron spectroscopy at a steady state neutron source like the ILL reactor. ThALES has been fully optimised to address the physics of highly correlated electron systems and scientific problems in the field of quantum magnetism. Moreover, the flexibility of the spectrometer has been enhanced through the implementation of various optical elements.

The key aims of ThALES are:

ThALES was used to carry out INS measurements in a recent study conducted by a collaboration of scientists, including ILL’s Martin Boehm, current co-ordinator of the EU-funded neutron network SINE2020. The study published in Nature, titled ‘Evidence for a spinon Fermi surface in a triangular lattice quantum-spin-liquid candidate,’ argued that the triangular-lattice antiferromagnet YbMgGaO4 has the long sought quantum spin liquid RVB ground state. This study was the first to use neutron scattering as a means of providing experimental proof for the RVB state.

The experimental effort to discover the RVB ground state has considerably increased since P.W. Anderson suggested that it might explain the phenomenon of superconductivity in a class of materials that show particularly high transition temperatures between a normal conducting and superconducting state. However, providing experimental proof for the existence of the RVB state is very challenging, because while a magnetically ordered system has a clear experimental response, the RVB state is characterised by the absence of a measurable quantity.

Due to the lack of a measurable quantity, the experimental approach of this study, using ThALES, selected indirect experimental proof by deliberately exciting the ground state with neutrons and measuring the dynamic response. According to theoretical expectations, the excited spin liquid behaves ‘exotically,’ meaning the excited state is explained by spinons with very unusual properties. Spinons can rearrange the distribution of valence bonds and travel throughout the triangular plane with a minimum amount of energy.

In a scattering process between the neutron and the spin liquid, the law of conservation of total momentum imposes the creation of two spin-1/2 spinons in the liquid. This pair of spinons travel in opposite directions with a total amount of energy equalling the loss of neutron energy in the scattering process. Using the ThALES spectrometer, it is possible to trace the direction and energies of the spinons by measuring the direction and energy of the neutron that created the spinon pair. In this way, this study traced a complete dynamical landscape of the spin quantum liquid in the triangular plane, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions, which gave strong evidence for the existence of the spin liquid phase in YbMgGaO4.

This research is important as a quantum spin liquid state of matter is potentially relevant for applications of quantum information. Moreover, experimental identification of a quantum spin liquid state contributes greatly to our understanding of quantum matter.

Explore further: Novel state of matter: Observation of a quantum spin liquid

More information: Yao Shen et al. Evidence for a spinon Fermi surface in a triangular-lattice quantum-spin-liquid candidate, Nature (2016). DOI: 10.1038/nature20614

Journal reference: Nature

Provided by: Institut Laue-Langevin

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Electrons are repelled by other electrons (Coulomb’s Law). This is the opposite of a “bond”. Electrons are attracted by protons. The most simple atom is Hydrogen. This is a very engaging subject, which I have studied since 1989. Max Planck’s original quantum theory was based on the hydrogen atom as an electronic system, and there were no conflicts. My book (“The Secret of Gravity”, 1997) presents proof that gravity is an electronic force. The dynamic forces of hydrogen atoms can be analyzed using special computer programs (“Analyzing Atoms Using the SPICE Computer Program”, Computing in Science and Engineering, Vol. 14, No. 3, May/June 2012). An electronic model of the hydrogen atom is presented and analyzed.

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The application of three-axis low energy spectroscopy in quantum physics research – Phys.Org

Physicists breed Schrdinger’s cats to find boundaries of the | Cosmos – Cosmos

Entangled cats? Stranger things could happen if quantum rules scaled up to the everyday world.

Ryan Schneider / Getty

What is the limit to self-contradiction? The question arises in politics and quantum physics alike.

A team of Russian and Canadian physicists have figured out how to push the limits of self-contradicting quantum states, by breeding Schrdingers cats.

Their experiment, which involves sending cat-state photons through a hall of mirrors which multiplies their number, is described in Nature Photonics today.

Using the new method, the authors hope to help answer a fundamental question, namely: at what scale does the absurdity of quantum mechanics end and common-sense reality begin?

In the microscopic world of quantum mechanics, particles can do seemingly impossible things: such as being simultaneously in two contradictory states at once. For the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrdinger, who helped put quantum mechanics on firm foundations in 1926 with his Nobel- winning equation, this idea was too crazy to be believed.

In 1935, to illustrate how absurd quantum ideas had become, Schrdinger came up with a scenario involving a cat which, according to quantum theory, is both alive and dead at the same time.

The way he did it was to link the fate of a cat to a specific quantum event.

With ingenuity more typical of a Bond villain than a physicist, Schrdinger imagined a cat trapped inside a steel box along with some radioactive material, a Geiger counter, a hammer and a vial of hydrogen cyanide. If one of the radioactive atoms decays a chance quantum event it would trigger the hammer to smash the vial of poisonous gas, and farewell Felix.

Before you open the box to check, says quantum theory, the radioactive atom is both decayed and not-decayed. By extension, said Schrdinger, the cat is both alive and deadthe distinction between them blurry and smeared out.

But what seemed impossible to Schrdinger, is a commonplace for modern day physicists, who have worked out how to produce various analogues of Schrdingers cat in real physical systems. They are used in many quantum technologies including quantum computation, teleportation, and cryptography.

In essence, a particle in a Schrdingers cat state is one that is holding two contradictory states at once. For example, an electron could be simultaneously spin up and spin down. Or, a photon of light could be simultaneously waving in two opposite directions.

Until now, experimenters have only managed to muster small groups of Schrdingers cat photons with limited energies, but the new work creates any number by breeding them.

The method works by taking two photons, already in cat states, and firing them simultaneously through the same beam-splitter, which gets the two photons entangled. After some more beam-splitting the arrangement spits out more cat states than went in a bit like if Felix hopped through a cat-flap and two cats appeared on the other side.

The snag is, the process only works about one fifth of the time. (The rest of the time, there’s no entanglement, and no breeding of cats.)

And running the photons through the ring again would increase the amplitude even further. Using this iterative approach could potentially produce as many quantum cat states as you like.

Thus, it is possible to push the boundaries of the quantum world step by step, and eventually to understand whether it has a limit, says Demid Sychev, of the Russian Quantum Center and the Moscow State Pedagogical University, and lead author of the study.

Meanwhile, the debate which originated with Schrdinger, Bohr and Einstein continues today: the question of whether the universe is innately fuzzy or whether it is just the way we see it. As Schrdinger eloquently put it in 1935: There is a difference between a shaky or out-of-focus photograph and a snapshot of clouds and fog banks.

Producing quantum phenomena with more particles, and in larger scales, might just help us spot the difference between these two pictures, and finally get to grips with reality.

Even if our politicians still struggle with it.

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Physicists breed Schrdinger’s cats to find boundaries of the | Cosmos – Cosmos

Make America Great Again! | Donald J Trump for President

Donald J. Trump For President, Inc. Why Now?

On November 8, 2016, the American People delivered a historic victory and took our country back. This victory was the result of a Movement to put America first, to save the American economy, and to make America once again a shining city on the hill. But our Movement cannot stop now – we still have much work to do.

This is why our Campaign Committee, Donald J. Trump for President, Inc., is still here.

We will provide a beacon for this historic Movement as our lights continue to shine brightly for you – the hardworking patriots who have paid the price for our freedom. While Washington flourished, our American jobs were shipped overseas, our families struggled, and our factories closed – that all ended on January 20, 2017.

This Campaign will be a voice for all Americans, in every city near and far, who support a more prosperous, safe and strong America. Thats why our Campaign cannot stop now – our Movement is just getting started.

Together, we will Make America Great Again!

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Make America Great Again! | Donald J Trump for President

Donald Trump – The New York Times

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Donald Trump – The New York Times

The Donald Trump Zone of Uncertainty shows up in the health-care debate – Washington Post

During a news conference Wednesday, White House press secretary Sean Spicer was asked how an amendment to the American Health Care Act that could increase premiums for those with preexisting conditions squares with the presidents pledge that this wouldnt happen.

His response? Something we could have expected from this administration.

White House press secretary Sean Spicer said it would be “impossible” to calculate the potential cost of insurance plans for people with preexisting conditions who would be forced to buy insurance from state-run high-risk pools under the new GOP health care bill, on May 3 at the White House. (Reuters)

REPORTER: An analysis from AARP showed that the sickest patients will pay nearly $26,000 a year in premiums under the new health-care law and that $8 billion which was included in that amendment this morning is not nearly enough to lower those costs.

So Im wondering, how does that, which would be a major premium hike on the sickest patients, square with the presidents promise to both lower premiums and take care of those with preexisting conditions?

SPICER: So it sounds interesting to me that, without there are so many variables that are unknown, that to make an analysis of that level of precision, it seems almost impossible.

Let me give you an example. So right now preexisting conditions are covered in the bill. They always have been; weve talked about that before. States have a right to receive a waiver. If someone has continuous coverage, thats never going to be an issue, regardless of no circumstance does anyone with continuous coverage would ever have a problem with preexisting.

If someone chose not to have coverage for 63 days or more, and they were in a state that opted out, and they had a preexisting condition, and they were put into a high-risk pool then weve allocated an additional $8 billion over five years to help drive down those costs.

So for someone to know how many people that is, what number of states are going to ask for and receive a waiver is literally impossible at this point. So to do an analysis of any level of factual basis would be literally not a [possibility].

That right there is a natural end point of the Donald Trump phenomenon: A representative of the administration declaring that there is no knowable truth behind the debate over a policy, so the policy might just as well be supported.

It is true that it is literally impossible to know exactly how many people with preexisting conditions will live in states that ask for a waiver on their coverage and to know how much that will cost. It is similarly impossible to know precisely how many Americans do any number of things. How many Americans like President Trump? How many Americans have jobs? How many Americans are Hispanic? Measuring each of these things offers a level of imprecision, but that doesnt mean that we cant know generally what those numbers look like.

As explained by the reporter, the estimate about those with preexisting conditions that is, serious health issues that existed beforereceiving insurance coverage comes from AARP. Heres the relevant excerpt from an April 27 article:

States that want to allow insurers to charge more for people with preexisting conditions would have to have a high-risk pool program or a reinsurance program. For consumers who buy coverage in a high-risk pool, AARPs PPI projects that the premiums could reach $25,700 a year in 2019, when this provision would go into effect.

That figure would disproportionately affect those ages 50to 64, since AARP estimates that 40 percent of Americans in that age bracket have such conditions. Whats more, the density of the population with such conditions is higher in Appalachia and the South, areas that are more conservative and therefore more likely to ask for some sort of waiver from the stipulations in place.

As Spicer notes, the $25,700 would be paid only by those whohad let their coverage lapse. How many that may be isnt known. But $8 billion spread over five years would cover $25,700 in premiums for fewer than 63,000 people a year.

AARP estimates that 24.8 million Americans have preexisting conditions, just within that 50-64 age range. The Kaiser Family Foundation figures that 52 million in total have such a condition.

So the question is valid: How does that square with the presidents promise to both lower premiums and take care of those with preexisting conditions? We dont know a hard number for those who will be affected, no. But we know that some large number is likely to be.

Over the course of the 2016 campaign, Trump used one rhetorical trick repeatedly. Questioned about an issue, hed gin up some anecdotal example providing an opposing line of thinking and use that to sort of shrug the whole thing off. Trump says his phones were wiretapped at Trump Tower and, look, the New York Times says that someone associated with his campaign was surveilled in some way, so that basically proves the point. Remember when he sat down with Bill OReilly and said explicitly to forget all that about not having actual data, pointing instead to a report that had nothing to do with voter fraud?

This is an actual strategy: Cast doubt about the certainty of an issue and use that doubt to press forward as you see fit.

In this case, theres a direct political advantage. When a Congressional Budget Office analysis of the original iteration of the AHCA came out in March showing that 24 million fewer people would be insured in a decade, it spurred a number of Republicans to bail on the legislation. Spicers who knows strategy isnt just meant to rebut reporters, its meant to keep House Republicans in line until they vote.

Spiceris right that we dont know precisely how many people will be negatively affected by the updated American Health Care Act. In fact, its probably safer to assume that the uncertainty in how many people will be negatively affected will work against the administration, given how many people have preexisting conditions. Regardless, the exact number isnt the point. The point is that we know that some will be, and we know that Trump said that wouldnt happen, which is why the question came up.

For that, Spicer had no answer.

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The Donald Trump Zone of Uncertainty shows up in the health-care debate – Washington Post

Donald Trump Predicts Mideast Peace Is ‘Not As Difficult As People Have Thought’ – Huffington Post

WASHINGTON President Donald Trump predicted an Israeli-Palestinian agreement might be not as difficult as people have thought in a meeting with Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas on Wednesday, but failed to mention what has been a key component to a deal a separate Palestinian state.

The omission continues Trumps seeming abandonment of what had been U.S. policy toward the region for decades during both Democratic and Republican administrations.

Trump said the Israelis and Palestinians had to agree on terms, not have them imposed by the United States or any other country. I will do whatever is necessary to facilitate the agreement, to mediate, to arbitrate anything theyd like to do, Trump said. But I would love to be a mediator or an arbitrator or a facilitator. And we will get this done.

Olivier Douliery/Pool via Getty Images

In neither the joint 15-minute appearance in the Roosevelt Room nor photo opportunities in the Oval Office and the Cabinet Room before and after did Trump address the two-state solution that presidents going back to Democrat Bill Clinton in the 1990s have supported.

When Abbas visited the White House in March 2014, for example, then-President Barack Obama spoke of two states, side by side in his public remarks.

Trump first publicly signaled the policy shift during the February White House visit of Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Im looking at two-state and one-state and I like the one that both parties like, Trump said in response to a question about the two-state policy, indicating that he did not have any real preference.

Abbas, for his part, continued the Palestinian Authoritys long-held position that a long-term peace agreement requires a separate Palestinian state, bounded by territorial borders as they were in 1967 and with East Jerusalem as its capital.

Abbas also called on Israel to withdraw from the Palestinian territories. We are the only remaining people in the world that still live under occupation. We are aspiring and want to achieve our freedom, our dignity, and our right to self-determination, Abbas said. And we also want for Israel to recognize the Palestinian state just as the Palestinian people recognize the state of Israel.

Trump since his election has said he would like to broker a long-term deal between the two sides. He returned to that idea in the Cabinet Room as he and Abbas were about to be served a lunch of steak and halibut.

We will be discussing details of what has proven to be a very difficult situation between Israel and the Palestinians, Trump said. Lets see if we can find the solution. Its something that I think is, frankly, maybe not as difficult as people have thought over the years. We need two willing parties. We believe Israel is willing. We believe youre willing. And if you are willing, we are going to make a deal.

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Donald Trump Predicts Mideast Peace Is ‘Not As Difficult As People Have Thought’ – Huffington Post

This is the best news Donald Trump has had in a while – CNN

But, there’s one number that has to warm Trump’s heart — and give some level of reassurance to Republicans jittery that Trump could bring the whole political world down on them in the 2018 midterm elections.

For the first time since 2003, more people say they are satisfied with the state of the economy than say they are dissatisfied — and by a relatively wide 13-point margin.

That’s a big deal.

At the heart of the many (many) promises Trump made on the campaign trail was the one to “Make America Great Again.” While that’s a decidedly amorphous pledge, most people translate that slogan to mean: Make my life better again. And, again, for the majority of people, things get better when they have more money in their pocket, when they can buy the things they want and when they feel that the national economy is humming.

Much of that is a perception rather than a series of cold hard facts. And it turns into a self-fulfilling prophecy. If people feel like the economy is stronger, they have a tendency to go spend money, which, in turn, helps the economy strengthen.

President Obama repeatedly struggled with the fact that while most economic indicators suggested the economy was improving — particularly in his second term — large numbers of people still felt squeezed. Insisting that things were going better while lots of people just didn’t feel that way was a total political loser.

If Trump can convince people that his election and his policies, which, to this point, are largely in undoing Obama-era regulations, are why the economy is stabilizing and even strengthening, he will be in better shape politically than he has any business being given the massive struggles of his first 100 days.

Trump’s not there yet. The April NBC-WSJ poll showed 44% approved of his handling of the economy and 46% disapproved — not exactly a world-beating number. But, “working to improve the economy” was one of the two most mentioned positive developments people cited when asked what they liked about Trump’s first 100 days, a finding he can certainly build on.

James Carville’s famous 1992 campaign mantra — “It’s the economy, stupid” — is as true today as it was 25 years ago. If Trump gets the economy right — and get credit for doing so — he will be in good shape as he moves into a 2020 reelection bid. That’s still a giant “if” but the early returns have to be promising for an administration desperate for some good news.

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This is the best news Donald Trump has had in a while – CNN