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Smew – Wikipedia

The smew (Mergellus albellus) is a species of duck, and is the only living member of the genus Mergellus. Mergellus is a diminutive of Mergus and albellus is from Latin albus “white”.[2] This genus is closely related to Mergus and is sometimes included in it, though it might be closer to the goldeneyes (Bucephala).[3] The smew has interbred with the common goldeneye (B. clangula).[4]

A seaduck fossil from the Middle Miocene shows that birds similar to smew existed up to 13million years ago. The extant species dates back to the Pleistocene.

The drake smew, with its ‘cracked ice’ and ‘panda’ appearance, is unmistakable, and looks very black-and-white in flight. The females and immature males are grey birds with chestnut foreheads and crowns, and can be confused at a distance with the ruddy duck; they are often known as “redhead” smew. It has oval white wing-patches in flight. The smew’s bill has a hooked tip and serrated edges, which help it catch fish when it dives for them.

The smew is 3844cm (1517in) long.[4]

This species breeds in the northern taiga of Europe and Asia. It needs trees for breeding. The smew lives on fish-rich lakes and slow rivers. As a migrant, it leaves its breeding areas and winters on sheltered coasts or inland lakes of the Baltic Sea, the Black Sea, northern Germany and the Low Countries, with a small number reaching Great Britain (for example, at Dungeness), mostly at regular sites. Vagrants have been recorded in North America. On lakes it prefers areas around the edges, often under small trees. The smew breeds in May and lays 69 cream-colored eggs. It nests in tree holes, such as old woodpecker nests. It is a shy bird and flushes easily when disturbed.

The smew is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies. It is not considered threatened on the IUCN Red List, though its population is decreasing.[1]

An unnamed fossil seaduck, known from a humerus found in the Middle Miocene Sajvlgyi Formation (Late Badenian, 1312 million years ago) of Mtraszls, Hungary, was assigned to Mergus. However, the authors included the smew therein, and consequently, the bone is more properly assigned to Mergellusespecially as it was more similar to a smew’s than to the Bucephala remains also found at the site. It is sometimes argued[5] that the Mtraszls fossil is too old to represent any of the modern seaduck genera, but apparently these were all well-distinct even back then.[6]

Fossils from the earliest Pleistocene found in England indicate that the living species was extant 1.5 to 2.0 million years ago.[5]

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Smew – Wikipedia

Red hair – Wikipedia

Red hair occurs naturally in 12% of the human population. It occurs more frequently (26%) in people of northern or western European ancestry, and less frequently in other populations. Red hair appears most commonly in people with two copies of a recessive allele on chromosome 16 which produces an altered version of the MC1R protein.[citation needed]

Red hair varies in hues from a deep burgundy or bright copper (reddish-brown or auburn) through to burnt orange or red-orange and strawberry blond. It is characterized by high levels of the reddish pigment pheomelanin and relatively low levels of the dark pigment eumelanin. It is associated with fair skin color, lighter eye colors (gray, blue, green, and hazel), freckles, and sensitivity to ultraviolet light.[1]

Cultural reactions have varied from ridicule to admiration; many common stereotypes exist regarding redheads and they are often portrayed as fiery-tempered.

The term redhead has been in use since at least 1510.[2]

Several accounts by Greek writers mention redheaded people. A fragment by the poet Xenophanes describes the Thracians as blue-eyed and red-haired.[4]

In Asia, red hair has been found among the ancient Tocharians, who occupied the Tarim Basin in what is now the northwesternmost province of China. Caucasian Tarim mummies have been found with red hair dating to the 2nd millennium BC.[5]

Reddish-brown (auburn) hair is also found amongst some Polynesians, and is especially common in some tribes and family groups. In Polynesian culture reddish hair has traditionally been seen as a sign of descent from high-ranking ancestors and a mark of rulership.[6][7]

Red hair is most commonly found at the northern and western fringes of Europe;[8] it is centered around populations in the British Isles. Redheads today are commonly associated with the Celtic Nations[8] and to a far lesser extent the Germanic peoples.

Over the years there have been a number of studies measuring the percentage of redheads within the UK and Ireland. Exact figures, and methods, vary, but they all are in agreement that the highest percentages in the world are within these isles. England has a red hair prevalence of around 4%, with a gene carrying population of 28.5%.[9]

In Ireland, the percentage of population with red hair is estimated to be at around 10%.[10][11][12] According to Britain’s DNA, 34.7% of the Irish population carry the genes for red hair, although this doesn’t directly translate proportionally into births of red-haired children.[13]

Scotland also has a very high percentage with around 6% of the population having red hair.[9][14] Previously it was estimated that red hair occurrence in Scotland was around 13%, which had been widely reported in reliable media sources.[15] However, Dr. Jim Wilson of Britain’s DNA study used a sample of 2,343 people, and found red hair occurrence of 6% in Scotland, with 35% overall carrying the gene and Edinburgh having the highest proportion of gene carriers at 40%.[9][14][16] The largest ever study of hair colour in Scotland, which analysed over 500,000 people in 1907, found the percentage of Scots with red hair to be 5.3%.[17]

38% of Welsh people carry the red haired gene.[9] A 1956 study of hair colour among British army recruits found higher levels of red hair in Wales and the English Border counties.[18]

Carleton Coon’s 1939 book The Races of Europe stated that rufosity (reddish hair) often occurred in Montenegrins.[19][20][21]

In Italy, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.57% of the total population, without variation in frequency across the different regions of the country.[22] In Sardinia, red hair is found at a frequency of 0.24% of the population.[22]Victorian era ethnographers considered the Udmurt people of the Volga to be “the most red-headed men in the world”,[23] a claim which has a solid basis even today, as the Volga region has more redheads per population than anywhere else in the world with the exception of Ireland.[24]

The Berber populations of Morocco[25] and northern Algeria have occasional redheads. Red hair frequency is especially significant among the Riffians from Morocco and Kabyles from Algeria,[26][27][28] respectively. The Queen of Morocco, Lalla Salma wife of king Mohammed VI, has red hair. Abd ar-Rahman I also had red hair, his mother being a Christian Berber slave.

Red hair is also found amongst the Ashkenazi Jewish populations.[29] In 1903, 5.6% of Polish Jews had red hair.[30] Other studies have found that 3.69% of Jewish women overall were found to have red hair, but around 10.9% of all Jewish men have red beards.[31] In European culture, prior to the 20th century, red hair was often seen as a stereotypically Jewish trait: during the Spanish Inquisition, all those with red hair were identified as Jewish.[32] In Italy, red hair was associated with Italian Jews, and Judas was traditionally depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[33] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair.[34] The stereotype that red hair is Jewish remains in parts of Eastern Europe and Russia.[35]

In Asia, genetic red hair is rare, but can reddish-brown (auburn) hair can be found in the Levant (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine), in Turkey, in Caucasia, in Northern Kazakhstan, among Uighurs and among Indo-Iranians. The use of henna on hair and skin for various reasons is common in Asia. When henna is used on hair it dyes the hair to different shades of red.[36][37]

Emigration from Europe has multiplied the population of red haired humans in the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In the United States, it is estimated that 26% of the population has red hair. This would give the U.S. the largest population of redheads in the world, at 6 to 18 million, compared to approximately 420,000 in Ireland and 300,000 in Scotland.[9]

The pigment pheomelanin gives red hair its distinctive color. Red hair has far more of the pigment pheomelanin than it has of the dark pigment eumelanin.

The genetics of red hair, discovered in 1997, appear to be associated with the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), which is found on chromosome 16. Red hair is associated with fair skin color because low concentrations of eumelanin throughout the body of those with red hair caused by a MC1R mutation can cause both. The lower melanin concentration in skin confers the advantage that a sufficient concentration of important Vitamin D can be produced under low light conditions. However, when UV-radiation is strong (as in regions close to the equator) the lower concentration of melanin leads to several medical disadvantages, such as a higher risk of skin cancer.

The MC1R recessive variant gene that gives people red hair generally results in skin that is unable to tan. Because of the natural tanning reaction to the sun’s ultraviolet light and high amounts of pheomelanin in the skin, freckles are a common but not all-inclusive feature of red-haired people. Eighty percent of redheads have an MC1R gene variant,[1] and the prevalence of these alleles is highest in Scotland and Ireland.

Red hair can originate from several changes on the MC1R-gene. If one of these changes is present on both chromosomes then the respective individual is likely to have red hair. This type of inheritance is described as an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Even if both parents do not have red hair themselves, both can be carriers for the gene and have a redheaded child.

Genetic studies of dizygotic (fraternal) twins indicate that the MC1R gene is not solely responsible for the red hair phenotype; unidentified modifier genes exist, making variance in the MC1R gene necessary, but not always sufficient, for red hair production.[38]

The alleles Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His, and Arg142His on MC1R are shown to be recessives for the red hair phenotype.[39] The gene HCL2 (also called RHC or RHA) on chromosome 4 may also be related to red hair.[40][41]

In species other than primates, red hair has different genetic origins and mechanisms.

Red hair is the rarest natural hair color in humans. The non-tanning skin associated with red hair may have been advantageous in far-northern climates where sunlight is scarce. Studies by Bodmer and Cavalli-Sforza (1976) hypothesized that lighter skin pigmentation prevents rickets in colder climates by encouraging higher levels of Vitamin D production and also allows the individual to retain heat better than someone with darker skin.[42] In 2000, Harding et al. concluded that red hair is not the result of positive selection but of a lack of negative selection. In Africa, for example, red hair is selected against because high levels of sun harm untanned skin. However, in Northern Europe this does not happen, so redheads can become more common through genetic drift.[39]

Estimates on the original occurrence of the currently active gene for red hair vary from 20,000 to 100,000 years ago.[43][44]

A DNA study has concluded that some Neanderthals also had red hair, although the mutation responsible for this differs from that which causes red hair in modern humans.[45]

A 2007 report in The Courier-Mail, which cited the National Geographic magazine and unnamed “geneticists”, said that red hair is likely to die out in the near future.[46] Other blogs and news sources ran similar stories that attributed the research to the magazine or the “Oxford Hair Foundation”. However, a HowStuffWorks article says that the foundation was funded by hair-dye maker Procter & Gamble, and that other experts had dismissed the research as either lacking in evidence or simply bogus. The National Geographic article in fact states “while redheads may decline, the potential for red isn’t going away”.[47]

Red hair is caused by a relatively rare recessive gene, the expression of which can skip generations. It is not likely to disappear at any time in the foreseeable future.[47]

Melanin in the skin aids UV tolerance through suntanning, but fair-skinned persons lack the levels of melanin needed to prevent UV-induced DNA-damage. Studies have shown that red hair alleles in MC1R increase freckling and decrease tanning ability.[48] It has been found that Europeans who are heterozygous for red hair exhibit increased sensitivity to UV radiation.[49]

Red hair and its relationship to UV sensitivity are of interest to many melanoma researchers. Sunshine can both be good and bad for a person’s health and the different alleles on MC1R represent these adaptations. It also has been shown that individuals with pale skin are highly susceptible to a variety of skin cancers such as melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.[50][51]

Two studies have demonstrated that people with red hair have different sensitivity to pain compared to people with other hair colors. One study found that people with red hair are more sensitive to thermal pain (associated with naturally occurring low vitamin K levels),[52] while another study concluded that redheads are less sensitive to pain from multiple modalities, including noxious stimuli such as electrically induced pain.[53][54][55]

Researchers have found that people with red hair require greater amounts of anesthetic.[56] Other research publications have concluded that women with naturally red hair require less of the painkiller pentazocine than do either women of other hair colors or men of any hair color. A study showed women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to that particular pain medication than men.[57] A follow-up study by the same group showed that men and women with red hair had a greater analgesic response to morphine-6-glucuronide.[55]

The unexpected relationship of hair color to pain tolerance appears to exist because redheads have a mutation in a hormone receptor that can apparently respond to at least two types of hormones: the pigmentation-driving melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), and the pain-relieving endorphins. (Both derive from the same precursor molecule, POMC, and are structurally similar.) Specifically, redheads have a mutated melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene that produces an altered receptor for MSH.[58] Melanocytes, the cells that produce pigment in skin and hair, use the MC1R to recognize and respond to MSH from the anterior pituitary gland. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone normally stimulates melanocytes to make black eumelanin, but if the melanocytes have a mutated receptor, they will make reddish pheomelanin instead. MC1R also occurs in the brain, where it is one of a large set of POMC-related receptors that are apparently involved not only in responding to MSH, but also in responses to endorphins and possibly other POMC-derived hormones.[58] Though the details are not clearly understood, it appears that there is some crosstalk between the POMC hormones; this may explain the link between red hair and pain tolerance.

There is little or no evidence to support the belief that people with red hair have a higher chance than people with other hair colors to hemorrhage or suffer other bleeding complications.[59][60] One study, however, reports a link between red hair and a higher rate of bruising.[60]

Most red hair is caused by the MC1R gene and is non-pathological. However, in rare cases red hair can be associated with disease or genetic disorder:

In various times and cultures, red hair has been prized, feared, and ridiculed.

A common belief about redheads is that they have fiery tempers and sharp tongues. In Anne of Green Gables, a character says of Anne Shirley, the redheaded heroine, that “her temper matches her hair”, while in The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield remarks that “People with red hair are supposed to get mad very easily, but Allie [his dead brother] never did, and he had very red hair.”

During the early stages of modern medicine, red hair was thought to be a sign of a sanguine temperament.[63] In the Indian medicinal practice of Ayurveda, redheads are seen as most likely to have a Pitta temperament.

Another belief is that redheads are highly sexed; for example, Jonathan Swift satirizes redhead stereotypes in part four of Gulliver’s Travels, “A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms,” when he writes that: “It is observed that the red-haired of both sexes are more libidinous and mischievous than the rest, whom yet they much exceed in strength and activity.” Swift goes on to write that “neither was the hair of this brute [a Yahoo] of a red colour (which might have been some excuse for an appetite a little irregular) but black as a sloe”.[64] Such beliefs were given a veneer of scientific credibility in the 19th century by Cesare Lombroso and Guglielmo Ferrero. They concluded that red hair was associated with crimes of lust, and claimed that 48% of “criminal women” were redheads.[65]

In the novel and film Red-Headed Woman, the titular protagonist is a sexually aggressive home-wrecker who frequently throws violent temper tantrums.

Queen Elizabeth I of England was a redhead, and during the Elizabethan era in England, red hair was fashionable for women. In modern times, red hair is subject to fashion trends; celebrities such as Nicole Kidman, Alyson Hannigan, Marcia Cross, Christina Hendricks, Emma Stone and Geri Halliwell can boost sales of red hair dye.[citation needed]

Sometimes, red hair darkens as people get older, becoming a more brownish color or losing some of its vividness. This leads some to associate red hair with youthfulness, a quality that is generally considered desirable. In several countries such as India, Iran, Bangladesh and Pakistan, henna and saffron are used on hair to give it a bright red appearance.[66]

Many painters have exhibited a fascination with red hair. The hair color “Titian” takes its name from the artist Titian, who often painted women with red hair. Early Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli’s famous painting The Birth of Venus depicts the mythological goddess Venus as a redhead. Other painters notable for their redheads include the Pre-Raphaelites, Edmund Leighton, Modigliani,[67] and Gustav Klimt.[68]

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s Sherlock Holmes story “The Red-Headed League” (1891) involves a man who is asked to become a member of a mysterious group of red-headed people. The 1943 film DuBarry Was a Lady featured red-heads Lucille Ball and Red Skelton in Technicolor.

Red hair was thought to be a mark of a beastly sexual desire and moral degeneration. A savage red-haired man is portrayed in the fable by Grimm brothers (Der Eisenhans) as the spirit of the forest of iron. Theophilus Presbyter describes how the blood of a red-haired young man is necessary to create gold from copper, in a mixture with the ashes of a basilisk.[69]

Montague Summers, in his translation of the Malleus Maleficarum,[70] notes that red hair and green eyes were thought to be the sign of a witch, a werewolf or a vampire during the Middle Ages;

Those whose hair is red, of a certain peculiar shade, are unmistakably vampires. It is significant that in ancient Egypt, as Manetho tells us, human sacrifices were offered at the grave of Osiris, and the victims were red-haired men who were burned, their ashes being scattered far and wide by winnowing-fans. It is held by some authorities that this was done to fertilize the fields and produce a bounteous harvest, red-hair symbolizing the golden wealth of the corn. But these men were called Typhonians, and were representatives not of Osiris but of his evil rival Typhon, whose hair was red.

During the Spanish Inquisition, people of red hair were identified as Jewish and isolated for persecution.[32] In Medieval Italy and Spain, red hair was associated with the heretical nature of Jews and their rejection of Jesus, and thus Judas Iscariot was commonly depicted as red-haired in Italian and Spanish art.[33] Writers from Shakespeare to Dickens would identify Jewish characters by giving them red hair, with red-hair being given by the authors to villainous Jewish characters such as Shylock and Fagin.[34] The antisemitic association persisted into modern times in Soviet Russia.[35] The medieval prejudice against red-hair may have derived from the Ancient biblical tradition, in relation to biblical figures such as Esau and King David. The Ancient historian Josephus would mistranslate the Hebrew Torah to describe the more positive figure of King David as ‘golden haired’, in contrast to the negative figure of Esau, even though the original Hebrew Torah implies that both King David and Esau had ‘fiery red hair’.[71]

In his 1885 book I Say No, Wilkie Collins wrote “The prejudice against habitual silence, among the lower order of the people, is almost as inveterate as the prejudice against red hair.”

In his 1895 memoir and history The Gurneys of Earlham, Augustus John Cuthbert Hare described an incident of harassment: “The second son, John, was born in 1750. As a boy he had bright red hair, and it is amusingly recorded that one day in the streets of Norwich a number of boys followed him, pointing to his red locks and saying, “Look at that boy; he’s got a bonfire on the top of his head,” and that John Gurney was so disgusted that he went to a barber’s, had his head shaved, and went home in a wig. He grew up, however, a remarkably attractive-looking young man.”[72]

In British English, the words “ginger” or “ginga” are sometimes used to describe red-headed people (and are at times considered insulting),[73] with terms such as “gingerphobia”[74] and “gingerism”[75] used by the British media. In Britain, redheads are also sometimes referred to disparagingly as “carrot tops” and “carrot heads”. (The comedian “Carrot Top” uses this stage name.) “Gingerism” has been compared to racism, although this is widely disputed, and bodies such as the UK Commission for Racial Equality do not monitor cases of discrimination and hate crimes against redheads.[75]

Nonetheless, individuals and families in Britain are targeted for harassment and violence because of their hair colour. In 2003, a 20-year-old was stabbed in the back for “being ginger”.[76] In 2007, a UK woman won an award from a tribunal after being sexually harassed and receiving abuse because of her red hair;[77] in the same year, a family in Newcastle upon Tyne, was forced to move twice after being targeted for abuse and hate crime on account of their red hair.[78] In May 2009, a schoolboy committed suicide after being bullied for having red hair.[79] In 2013, a fourteen-year-old boy in Lincoln had his right arm broken and his head stamped on by three men who attacked him “just because he had red hair”. The three men were subsequently jailed for a combined total of ten years and one month for the attack.[80]

This prejudice has been satirised on a number of TV shows. The British comedian Catherine Tate (herself a redhead) appeared as a red-haired character in a running sketch of her series The Catherine Tate Show. The sketch saw fictional character Sandra Kemp, who was forced to seek solace in a refuge for ginger people because she had been ostracised from society.[81] The British comedy Bo’ Selecta! (starring redhead Leigh Francis) featured a spoof documentary which involved a caricature of Mick Hucknall presenting a show in which celebrities (played by themselves) dyed their hair red for a day and went about daily life being insulted by people. (Hucknall, who says that he has repeatedly faced prejudice or been described as ugly on account of his hair colour, argues that Gingerism should be described as a form of racism.[82][83]) Comedian Tim Minchin, himself a redhead, also covered the topic in his song “Prejudice”.[84]

Film and television programmes often portray school bullies as having red hair.[85]

The pejorative use of the word “ginger” and related discrimination was used to illustrate a point about racism and prejudice in the “Ginger Kids”, “Le Petit Tourette”, “It’s a Jersey Thing” and “Fatbeard” episodes of South Park. However, children with red hair are often themselves targeted by bullies; “Somebody with ginger hair will stand out from the crowd,” says anti-bullying expert Louise Burfitt-Dons.[86]

In Australian slang, redheads are often nicknamed “Blue” or “Bluey”.[87] More recently, they have been referred to as “rangas” (a word derived from the red-haired ape, the orangutan), sometimes with derogatory connotations.[88] The word “rufus” has been used in both Australian and British slang to refer to red-headed people;[89] based on a variant of rufous, a reddish-brown color.

In November 2008 social networking website Facebook received criticism after a ‘Kick a Ginger’ group, which aimed to establish a “National Kick a Ginger Day” on 20 November, acquired almost 5,000 members. A 14-year-old boy from Vancouver who ran the Facebook group was subjected to an investigation by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for possible hate crimes.[90]

In December 2009 British supermarket chain Tesco withdrew a Christmas card which had the image of a child with red hair sitting on the lap of Santa Claus, and the words: “Santa loves all kids. Even ginger ones” after customers complained the card was offensive.[91]

In October 2010, Harriet Harman, the former Equality Minister in the British government under Labour, faced accusations of prejudice after she described the red-haired Treasury secretary Danny Alexander as a “ginger rodent”.[92] Alexander responded to the insult by stating that he was “proud to be ginger”.[93] Harman was subsequently forced to apologise for the comment, after facing criticism for prejudice against a minority group.[94]

In September 2011, Cryos International, one of the world’s largest sperm banks, announced that it would no longer accept donations from red-haired men due to low demand from women seeking artificial insemination.[95]

The term ang mo (Chinese: ; pinyin: hng mo; Peh-e-j: ng-mo) in Hokkien (Min Nan) Chinese means “red-haired”,[96] and is used in Malaysia and Singapore to refer to white people. The epithet is sometimes rendered as ang mo kui () meaning “red-haired devil”, similar to the Cantonese term gweilo (“foreign devil”). Thus it is viewed as racist and derogatory by some people.[97] Others, however, maintain it is acceptable.[98] Despite this ambiguity, it is a widely used term. It appears, for instance, in Singaporean newspapers such as The Straits Times,[99] and in television programmes and films.

The Chinese characters for ang mo are the same as those in the historical Japanese term Km (), which was used during the Edo period (16031868) as an epithet for Dutch or Northern European people. It primarily referred to Dutch traders who were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan during Sakoku, its 200-year period of isolation.[100]

An annual festival in the Netherlands, Redhead Day, attracts red-haired participants from around the world. The festival is paid for by the local government in Breda, a city in the south east of the Netherlands.[101] The festival in the Netherlands attracts participants from over 80 different countries. The festival began in 2005, when Dutch painter Bart Rouwenhorst decided he wanted to paint 15 redheads. Today, the festival includes music, fashion shows, art exhibitions and a picnic[102]

The Irish Redhead Convention, held in late August in County Cork, claims to be a global celebration and attracts people from several continents. The celebrations include crowning the ginger King and Queen, competitions for the best red eyebrows and most freckles per square inch, orchestral concerts and carrot throwing competitions.[103]

A smaller red-hair day festival is held since 2013 by the UK’s anti bullying alliance in London, with the aim of instilling pride in having red-hair.[104]

Since 2014, a red-hair event is held in Israel, at Kibbutz Gezer (Carrot), held for the local Israeli red hair community,[105] including both Ashkenazi and Mizrahi red-heads.[106] However, the number of attendees has to be restricted due to the risk of rocket attacks, leading to anger in the red-hair community.[107] The organizers state; “The event is a good thing for many redheads, who had been embarrassed about being redheads before.[107]

The first and only festival for red heads in the United States, was launched in 2015. Held in Highwood, Illinois, Chicago, Redhead Days, draws participants from across the United States.[108]

In the Iliad, Achilles’ hair is described as [109] (ksanths), usually translated as blonde, or golden[110] but sometimes as red or tawny.[111][112] His son Neoptolemus also bears the name Pyrrhus, a possible reference to his own red hair.[113]

The Norse god Thor is usually described as having red hair.[114][bettersourceneeded]

The Hebrew word usually translated “ruddy” or “reddish-brown” (admoni , from the root ADM , see also Adam and Edom)[115][116][117][118] was used to describe both Esau and David.

Early artistic representations of Mary Magdalene usually depict her as having long flowing red hair, although a description of her hair color was never mentioned in the Bible, and it is possible the color is an effect caused by pigment degradation in the ancient paint.

Judas Iscariot is also represented with red hair in Spanish culture[119][120] and in the works of William Shakespeare,[121] reinforcing the negative stereotype.

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Red hair – Wikipedia

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Famous Cartoon Redheads | ReelRundown

After I finally got around to posting my “Famous Redheads Throughout History” article, I got to thinking. I knew that there was something missing. But what was it? I wasn’t sure at the time.

Several people made suggestions, and left great comments, concerning people who had been left out, but still, it felt like something still needed to be done. I was at a loss. You ever get that feeling? You are getting ready to do something, and you know that you forgot something. You leave the house with a feeling like you forgot about something important. The feeling is a little like that. I really hate that feeling, and it will nag at me until I have figured it out.

Then, last night, as I watched hour after hour of Family Guy, it hit me! Cartoons!! Cartoon redheads!! I was leaving out a very important group of redheads that have been a part of my life since childhood! So, naturally, that leads me here. The many ginger-ific cartoon characters and a couple of fictional non-cartoons. You will see what I mean.

*After originally publishing this article, I have received numerous comments. Most of them suggesting additions. It seems as if I have forgotten so many characters. I am sorry for that. They are being added, and an additional article is in the works to cover the overwhelming number of responses I have received.

We all remember those classic cartoons. The ones like The Flintstones and The Jetsons, that have been around forever. I admit, I watched a lot of classic cartoons when I was a kid. I sometimes still do. I don’t see anything wrong with that. I have even managed to share some of them with my own daughters.

Having said that, let’s take a look at some of them.

The Flintstones gave us not one, but two, beautiful, cartoon redheads. The smart and patient, Wilma Flintstone, who often had her hands full with her bumbling, not-so-bright husband, Fred. She also had Pebbles, another redhead, to tend to. Pebbles was an adorable, bubbly little girl, who already had Bam-Bam fawning over her.

The Jetsons gave us Jane Jetson, futuristic and classy. She too, had a lot to deal with. A fumbling husband who often got himself into trouble, a teenage daughter and a very bright son. Not to mention Astro, the family’s beloved dog. At least Jane had the good luck to have a robot maid to help her out. I’m still waiting on my robot maid. I thought they would have had those by now. Unfortunately, all we have are weird, little robot vacuums.

Let’s not forget a classic comic strip of iconic status. I am talking about The Peanuts cartoon here. Charlie Brown, Snoopy and the rest of the gang. I can’t count the number of times I have watched all the Charlie Brown holiday specials. The Christmas one is my favorite. But, do you remember the girl Charlie pined over year after year? She didn’t even have a name, and she was rarely seen. “The little red haired girl”; that’s all she was ever called, if memory serves me. Such mystery.

As far as classics go, this is a popular favorite even today. Besides a variety of television shows and animated movies, there have also been two live action movies involving this character. Who am I talking about? Daphne Blake from Scooby-Doo, of course! Daphne, and the rest of the Scooby Gang, have been solving mysteries and chasing ghosts for many, many years. She has held up surprisingly well.

A few classic cartoon redheads I seem to have forgotten are Raggedy Ann and Andy. That adorable little rag doll brother and sister team. They are so cute!! I don’t know how I forgot about them. I’m pretty sure I had a Raggedy Ann doll when I was little.

Also left off the original list is Josie, from Josie and The Pussycats. Kind of a take off Scooby-Doo, with a trio of girl rockers getting into all sorts of interesting situations. It was another fun cartoon that was also made into a live-action movie several years ago. Warner Brothers also brought us the untamed excitement of one Yosemite Sam. He always made me laugh as a small child.

I do admit. I watch a lot of kids’ shows. I have a young daughter, and another not-so-young daughter, and they both love cartoons. I get to see a wide range of children’s television thanks to them. Some of it by choice, most of it… not so much. One of them is just breaking into the pre-school aged shows, and the other has moved onto other things.

She used to be a huge fan of Playhouse Disney, on the Disney Channel. She was always asking me if she could watch one show or another. She is a big fan of Winnie the Pooh, and there was a new incarnation of that show on The Disney Channel when my oldest was little. With the help of a little girl named, Darby, Pooh and Tigger solve mysteries. Darby is a cute little cartoon redhead, and the show was decent. I just miss the classic Winnie the Pooh that I remember.

Same thing goes for Strawberry Shortcake. She has completely changed from when I was a kid. Her hair isn’t even red anymore. For some reason, it’s now pink. She wears pink, not red, and she looks nothing like the Strawberry Shortcake from my childhood. It makes me sad in a way, but I guess in time, all things change. LOL!

Rugrats is another show that has been around for a while. My sister used to watch Rugrats when she was younger, and it’s still on today, in re-runs, though the kids have grown up some. Chuckie is the scared best friend of Tommy on the show. With his glasses and spiky red hair, he fits the classic mold of redheaded children as goofy, nerdy or strange. Still, he is likeable and sweet.

As my daughter has gotten older, she has moved on to other cartoon shows, aimed at a slightly older audience. Like the crime fighting, Kim Possible, who saves the world, and goes to cheer-leading practice all in the same day. I actually liked Kim Possible; it was kind of cute and funny, and it sends a positive message to kids.

Other shows I have come across, thanks to her, are Dexter’s Laboratory, with little, redheaded genius, Dexter, who is constantly at odds with his sister, Dee-Dee, hiding in his lab, creating various strange inventions.

Or The Powerpuff Girls, with spunky Blossom, leading the group of super-powered little girls, in an effort to stop the plots of villains of many different sorts.

It seems that I have forgotten more in this category than in any other. Where to start? I could double the size of this section alone!

Let’s start with Phineas and Ferb. My daughter loves this show, and I just became aware of it a couple years ago, when she asked to watch it. She now has a Candace doll, and we watch the show together. Not only is Phineas a redhead, so are his sister, Candace, and their mother. The show is sweet and funny, and really sparks the imagination. Even my husband will watch it with me.

Another imaginative show with a redheaded character is Foster’s Home for Imaginary Friends. The character, Frankie helps out at the home, taking care of all sorts of strange and wonderful imaginary friends that have been abandoned or left behind by their children. Sadly, this show is a lot harder to find than it used to be. The few seasons that they made of the show can be found on Netflix, though.

Movies…I love movies. I will watch just about anything. I have seen terrible movies, incredible movies, and some of the silliest movies ever made. Not too often have there been movies involving cartoon redheads. Yes, there have been live action movies that were based on cartoons, that had redheaded characters. That’s not what I mean.

There are a couple of exceptions. One is the sexy, Jessica Rabbit from Who Framed Roger Rabbit? Long, flowing red hair, curves everywhere, and a sexy, smokey voice; she had more than just Roger’s cartoon heart thumping in that movie. Even flesh and blood characters were not immune to her…charms.

Another notable example is the sassy and tough Princess Fiona, from the Shrek movies. Whether she is a human princess or a big, green ogre, she comes across as strong and confident; not the normal damsel in distress that is characteristic of most fairy tales.

Of course, my favorite is the adorable, Ariel from The Little Mermaid. I still wish I could be her. I loved that movie growing up, and I often watch the cartoon show on the Disney Channel with my daughter. She loves Ariel, as well, and has several dolls and various toys to prove it. She will always be my favorite cartoon redhead.

Another beloved redhead character from the movies was Anastasia. I loved this movie! Even though I was a bit older when it came out, my mom still bought me an Anastasia doll. It was partly as a joke, because my name is short for Anastasia. I recently introduced my daughter to the movie, and she loves it as much as I do.

I don’t read comic books, and I honestly know very little about them, so this took some work. I apologize if I leave any comic book redheads out of my list. Please feel free to make suggestions as to redheads I can add to this section or others.

Let’s start with Batman. No, Batman is not a redhead. I know that. I am talking about the sexy villain, Poison Ivy, with her wild, flaming red hair and a great affinity for plant life. She manages to seduce every warm-blooded man she can in an attempt to get what she wants.

Now, let’s make the leap from Batman to Spiderman. Peter Parker, better known as Spiderman, was in love with a redhead. Of course he was! With red hair, and the name Mary Jane, Spiderman was helpless to resist. Mary Jane shows the sweeter, more innocent side of comic book redheads.

Not so sweet and innocent, but still on the side of good, is Jean Grey, from the X-Men. With her amazing mutant powers, she fights evil, and defends other mutants like herself. She is a strong, independent character, fully capable of taking care of herself.

There have also been male comic characters with red hair. The most notable example is Archie from the Archie comics. Endlessly torn between the adorable and sweet, blonde, Betty and the difficult, but alluring, brunette, Veronica, Archie was engaged in an ongoing struggle that plagues most men.

The only non-comic book addition to this section is the one, the only, Alfred E. Newman. That name may sound familiar to some of you, but where he comes from, should sound familiar to most of you. He was the goofy looking, gap-toothed, cover boy of Mad Magazine.

Added due to suggestions are Brenda Starr, from the comic strip, and Little Orphan Annie.

I was not aware of Brenda Starr, but I knew of Little Orphan Annie, but not that there was a comic strip. I was only aware of the movie musical, and broadway play. Sorry about those. They have been faithfully added now.

While most cartoons are seen as kid’s stuff, cartoons are quickly becoming socially acceptable forms of entertainment for the adults of the world. From baby boomers to Gen X-er’s, cartoons remind us of our youth, but these cartoons are nothing like the Saturday morning cartoons we faithfully watched every day. These tackle more adult topics, full of adult language, violence and sexuality.

Despite what the opening song says, Family Guy is full of violence and sexual jokes. That doesn’t mean it isn’t a great show. And where would Family Guy be without the sexy and smart mom, Lois Griffin??

The cartoon MILF, as she is often referred to, not only gets Peter’s blood pumping. She is also on the receiving end of unrequited love from the talking family dog, Brian, and the stalker-like behavior of everyone’s favorite pervert, Quagmire. She definitely deserves the attention!

One of my favorite shows, now quite absent from the television programing, only to return again, and is now leaving again, is Futurama. It’s from the same people who created The Simpsons, but never took off the same way. It does have a faithful, cult following, though. T

he show centers around a man by the name of Fry, who after a pizza delivery gone wrong, ended up in the future. Fry is what you expect from a male redheaded character. He’s not too bright, he is socially awkward, and like most of the youth of my time, spends a lot of time watching TV and playing video games. Yet, somehow, he is still endearing.

Of course, I seem to have forgotten one of my favorite redheads! Partly to blame is the fact that more often than not, he is wearing his trademark hat. Of course I am talking about Kyle from South Park.

I love South Park. They make fun of everything that people take so seriously. While it may be disturbing and vulgar at times, ok, most of the time, it is a good reminder to not take life so seriously, and we should all be able to laugh at ourselves sometimes.

The last redhead in this category comes from a lesser known show that used to be on Comedy Central. That show is Drawn Together, and the character is Princess Clara. Draw Together is an animated parody of reality shows like Survivor and Big Brother.

Princess Clara closely resembles a princess out of a Walt Disney movie, and sounds that way, as well. With her super conservative views, and various other interesting characteristics, she often butts heads with the other characters.

Continued here:

Famous Cartoon Redheads | ReelRundown

Redhead Porn Videos: Hot Red Head Sex Videos | Redtube

Kimmy Granger is a Crazy Step Sister Just Trying to Show Her Step Brother She Cares. SisLovesMe Invites You to Watch Kimmy Get a Mouthful!

Enjoy a virtual date with a smoking hot REDHEAD in some webcam videos for FREE at RedTube’s kinky porntube. These rare beauties are hard enough to find out in the real world. Yet, we’ve managed to gather up quite a few of them, especially the sexually liberated ones. Our talented actresses don’t let their looks alone carry them through their lust filled careers; they bring out their horny desires every time the camera clicks on. See that red hair spill out over milky white shoulders, draping across big breasts and perky nipples. Enjoy a POV style movie where the hard cock on the screen will seem like your rigid penis. Even as that lovely lass is sucking it, swallowing it deep down her throat, you can feel as if you’re right there in the action. Don’t miss out on the chance to put yourself in the actor’s shoes as he penetrates that tight asshole for her first time. Take a fist full of red hairs and pull with each powerful thrust. Listen to that cute babe moan in ecstasy with that thick pole inside her. RedTube.com understands the need to quench your thirst for fantasy, and wants to help out.

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Redhead Porn Videos: Hot Red Head Sex Videos | Redtube

Redhead Porn Videos: Sex with Pale Skin Girls – xHamster

Roughly 1 to 2 percent of women have natural red hair, making them exceedingly rare and thus explaining a large part of the allure. Many redheaded women are fair-skinned, looking milky white and thus more innocent in appearance. These qualities are often irresistible to men that lust after the redheads in this variety of porn scenes.

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Redhead Porn Videos: Sex with Pale Skin Girls – xHamster

The Red Heads – facebook.com

Sais-tu combien nous pensons toi en cette journe o les sentiments sont tous un peu mls… On sait bien qu’aujourd’hui, c’est une premire fois. Le premier 30 mars sans l’homme de ta vie.

Difficile bien sr de clbrer comme l’accoutume, de fter dans l’insouciance et la joie au cur. Et pourtant, comme nous aimerions que tu puisses rire et danser, chanter tue-tte et te sentir heureuse et apaise.

Tu nous as appris que la musique adoucit les murs… Bien souvent tu as jet tes notes sur nos curs meurtris d’adolescents et jeunes adultes. Bien souvent, ta voix a su panser nos plaies, les rendre moins vives et moins douloureuses.

Et si pour cette fois, c’est notre musique, comme un baume sur ta peine?

Et te rappeler que nous sommes des milliers travers le monde te prendre dans nos bras pour te murmurer… “Ma chre Cline… C’est ton tour… de te laisser parler d’amour…”.

Pour Toi Cline, notre chanson, notre dclaration : ——————————————- Dear Celine,

If only you’d know oh how much we think of you on this day when the feelings are so mixed… We know very well that today is a first. The first March 30th without the man of your life by your side.

Of course we find it hard to celebrate as usual with light and joyful hearts.

And yet, we’d love to know you are laughing and dancing and singing at the top of your lungs, being happy and peaceful today.

You taught us that music soothes the soul… Often you have cast your notes on our teenager and young adults’ bruised hearts. Even more so, your voice has been able to heal our wounds, making them less vivid and a lot less painful.

What if this time it is our music that soothes your pain?

And remember that there are thousands of us across the world who would take you into their arms and softly whisper… “My dear Celine… It’s your turn… to let you talk about love…”.

For You Celine, our song, our declaration:

The rest is here:

The Red Heads – facebook.com

Redhead and Proud – The home of Redheads – Fictional …

Sohryu Asukalangley

One of the main characters of the Japanese animation series Shin Seiki.

Archie Andrews

All American teenager, actually a comic strip character. Archie made his debut in the Pep Comic in 1941. With his chums Veronica, Betty Copper and Jughead Jones, Archie has entertained generations of US comic fans.

Anne of Green Gables

Poor little orphan girl who has been the subject of a number of films and TV series since she was created by Lucy Maud Montgomery. But times have changed, and these days Anne has her own on-line store – see our Links section.

Ariel

The Little Mermaid of Disney fame, with her long Red hair swishing about beneath the waves.

Beaker from the Muppets

Assistant to Dr. Bunsen Honeydew, resident scientist from Jim Hensons Muppet Show. Like all good Redheads, Beaker has a healthy interest in all things chemical. A Muppet Show is not complete without Beaker blowing something (usually himself) up.

Daphne Blake

The Pouting cartoon babe from Scooby-Doo added some much needed glamour and chutzpah to the 1970s kitsch-ridden animated Crimebusters. A Big Screen version is being threatened with Jennifer Love Hewitt being touted as the human Daphne. Grrrrrr, those pesky kids.

Basil Brush

Red brushed comedian and all round variety entertainer who made his name in the 1960s with his showbiz partner ‘Mr’ Roy North. His distinctive braying laugh and ‘Boom, Boom!’ cry made him a household name. His career is again on the up, a new TV series is to be screened in 2001.

Elmo (Sesame Street)

Long standing member of The Sesame Street ensemble, Elmo has now gone solo appearing in the US movie Elmo in Grouchland. Inseparable from his well-worn fuzzy blue blanket, Elmo is everything a Redheaded man should aspire to be.

Maude Flanders

Departed wife of The Simpsons’ do-gooder next-door-nrighbour Ned. A tireless champion of good causes, including the less than cherubic Springfield Youth, Maude was maybe just to good for this world.

Pebbles Flintstone

Perennial baby daughter Flintstone, inheriting her Redhair from Mum Wilma.

Wilma Flintstone

The long suffering wife of Fred, the self-styled King of Bedrock. The Flintstones was a Hanna Barbera creation, the first primetime cartoon made for TV. First aired on 30th September 1960 and still going strong. Yabba Dabba Dooooooooo!!

Ginger (Biggles)

Close friend and fellow flyer of James Bigglesworth, who you probably know better as ‘Biggles’. The creation of Captain W.E. Johns. With Algy close by in the cockpit, these three intrepid aviation enthusiasts did daring deeds both in the air and on the ground.

Ginger (Chicken Run)

Probably one of the greatest chicken actors of all time, Ginger is the star of the Nick Park directed movie hit of 2000, Chicken Run.

Ginger (Just William)

One of William Browns Outlaw gang from the fantastic Richmal Crompton books. Along with Douglas and Henry, Ginger helped William in and out of scrapes and away from Violet Elizabeth Bott.

Little Orphan Annie

Comic strip character created in 1924 by Harold Gray for The Chicago Tribune. The comic strip is still running, but it was the Broadway show Annie , featuring the song The Sun Will Come Up Tomorrow, that rocketed the little girl to mega stardom. Annie is now over 75 years of age and is celebrated on the website: http://www.annie75.com

Little Red Riding Hood

Brave Redheaded girl who was directly involved in the Wolf/Grandmother Incident deep in the Forest. Sent by her mother with a basket of cookies, Ms Hood set off into the Forest only to find a wolf wearing her Grandmothers clothes and her Grandmother hiding in a wardrobe. Ive been to those kind of parties. We believe the relevant authorities are still looking into this incident

Pippi Longstocking

A teller of outlandish stories of life on the sea, a thingfinder and a “master cook”, Pippi Longstocking is always at the centre of the action. So it’s not JUST her Red hair that catches everyone’s attention!

We’ve classified our Famous Redheads in the following categories. Click below to tour the various galleries

Galleries by classification

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Redhead and Proud – The home of Redheads – Fictional …

Red-Hot Facts About Women with Red Hair | Divine Caroline

It can be hard to grow up with red hair, constantly getting called names like ginger and carrot top. Having the rarest hair color might make a redhead feel awkward, but it turns out that there are some special attributes that make them pretty unique. Maybe theyre the ones who have more fun. At the very least, their hair doesnt go gray.

The Rarity of Red In the late 1990s, scientists discovered that gene mutation causes red headedness. Specifically, its a variant of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), one of the key proteins that determines hair and skin color. The mutated gene is recessive, so in order for someone to have red hair, she has to inherit two copies of the gene, one from each parent. Lots of people, especially those with Northern European ancestry, carry one copy of MC1R, but relatively few carry the two copies required for flaming tresses. Red hair can occur in any ethnicity, but the greatest concentration of redheads originates in Northern Europe, near the U.K. Scotland has the highest percentage of natural redheads, with 13 percent and Ireland is a close second, with 10 percent. Only about 2 percent of people in the United States have naturally red hair.

If red hair is so rare, why does it occur so often in the same geographic area? Some biologists think that its an evolutionary adaptation. In cold and dark climates, fair coloring lets the skin absorb more light, which encourages the body to retain heat and produce more vitamin D. Also, for most of human history, people didnt stray very far from the place where they were born and intermarried with people with similar genetic traits. When there were plenty of people carrying the gene, their children were very likely to get two copies of the mutated MC1R. Now that people migrate more, carriers of MC1R are more likely to intermarry with non-carriers. Thats good for genetic diversity, but maybe not so good for the survival of redheads in general.

For the past few years, theres been a rumor that redheads are going extinct, but thats not exactly true. Because of intermarriage, the numbers are declining, but there will always be redheads, because there will always be carriers of the MC1R gene. It might be less likely that one carrier will meet another and have redheaded children, but its always a possibility. In fact, its not so far-fetched to imagine a future where everyone knows exactly whats in his or her genome, and MC1R carriers can choose to have children with fellow carriers, maximizing the likelihood that their children will have red hair.

A Redheaded Knockout? The mutated MC1R gene has some other surprising effects. Although doctors and medical practitioners have long speculated that redheads were harder to sedate, a recent study from the University of Louisville determined that redheads really do require more anesthesia during surgery.

The researchers ran an experiment where they put women under sedation, and then tested their response to pain. The redheaded patients required 20 to 30 percent more anesthetic than other women to achieve the same level of sedation. Scientists at the university also tried to replicate the experiment with mice, and found that animals with a MC1R mutation required more sedation, too. They theorize that the mutated gene somehow has implications beyond hair color, and perhaps affects hormones or enzymes involved in our neurological system.

The Siren Song of Red Hair Throughout history, redheads have been mistrusted and maligned. In medieval Europe, the infamous witch-hunting manual, Malleus Maleficarum, instructed that red hair and green eyes were marks of a witch, as were freckles, which redheads tend to have aplenty. This belief might have stemmed from the general consensus that redheads were evil, wanton, and hot-tempered. In the Bible, Mary Magdalene and Judas Iscariot are often portrayed as redheads, as was Lilith, Adams first wife who insisted on sexual equality. Even Jonathan Swift, in his 1726 classic Gullivers Travels, characterized redheads as being wanton and promiscuous.

There might actually be some truth to the myth of the lustful redhead. A recent study by a sex researcher in Hamburg, Germany found that women with red hair had sex more often. Another survey in England duplicated those findings, and reported that redheads had sex an average of three times per week, compared to twice per week for blondes and brunettes. For these studies, it didnt matter whether the womens hair was naturally red or Natural Instincts. Of all the women who color their hair, 30 percent choose to become redheadsmore than the 27 percent who go brunette and the 26 percent who go blonde. Some scientists theorize that these women are capitalizing on the perception of the fiery redhead to signal to men that they are looking for partners.

Even if redheads do have to endure a lifetime of sunburns and being called ginger, their hair doesnt just make them stand out, it makes them incredibly unique. Some famous fiery redheads include Queen Elizabeth I, Galileo, Thomas Jefferson, Napoleon, and Vincent Van Gogh. More recent redheads include comedienne Lucille Ball and birth control pioneer Margaret Sanger. Not exactly a bad crowd to be associated with, if you ask me. If this is the company that redheads keep, then Im off to the salon.

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Red-Hot Facts About Women with Red Hair | Divine Caroline

Richelle Mead’s Journal/Blog/Random Thoughts

March 14th, 2016, 12:58 pm Fun Glittering Court Stuff My main job is writing the books, so half the time, I don’t know what promo stuff is going on behind the scenes. Today I sat down at my desk to find these two challenges waiting for me:

Which Glittering Court Jewel Are You? The girls in the Glittering Court have pretty distinct personalities! See who you sync up with.

Which Five Friends are in Your Court? Who’d have your back in an intense boarding school and subsequent adventures in a strange new land? Friends can be real or fictitious, which makes it extra tricky to think of a good list.

*US only. It’s the law with sweepstakes, and this is a US publisher running it. Sorry!

Tuesday, April 5th – 7:00 PM – Washington, DC Barnes & Noble 7851 Tysons Corner Center McLean, VA 22102

Wednesday, April 6th – 6:00 PM – New York, NY Barnes & Noble 97 Warren St. New York, NY 10007

Thursday, April 7th – 7:00 PM – Boston, MA An Unlikely Story 111 South Street Plainville, MA 02762

Friday, April 8th – 6:30 PM – Denver, CO Douglas County Libraries Philip S. Miller branch 100 S. Wilcox St. Castle Rock, CO 80104 *BOOKS SOLD ON-SITE BY TATTERED COVER

Monday, April 11th – 7:00 PM – Anchorage, AK Barnes & Noble 200 East Northern Lights Blvd Anchorage, AK 99503

Tuesday, April 12th – 7:00 PM – Portland, OR Powells 3415 SW Cedar Hills Blvd. Beaverton, OR 97005

Wednesday, April 13th – 7:00 PM – Seattle, WA University Bookstore 4326 University Way NE Seattle, WA 98105

Saturday, April 16th – Las Vegas, NV RT Booklovers Convention The Rio Hotel, Las Vegas, NV Giant Book Fair Signing – 10:30am-2pm –This signing is open to the public for $5 admission and includes 600+ authors –See rtconvention.com for more info and Richelles Friday/Saturday panels

Saturday, April 30th – Santa Monica, CA YALLWest Book Festival, Santa Monica High School An amazing day of authors, panels, signings, and more! Check yallwest.org for updates, schedule, and guest list

Thursday, May 12th – 7:00 PM – Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN Red Balloon Bookshop 891 Grand Ave St Paul, MN 55105

Friday, May 13th – 6:00 PM – Milwaukee, WI Oak Creek Library Drexel Town Center 8040 S. 6th Street Oak Creek, WI 53154 *BOOKS SOLD ON-SITE BY BOSWELL BOOKS

Saturday, May 14th – Chicago, IL BookCon West Building at McCormick Place, Chicago, IL Signing and panels TBA Follow thebookcon.com for schedule updates and to buy tickets (FYI – tickets go fast!)

Good to know: -At bookstore/library events, theres a limit of three books per person. One will be personalized to you and the others just signed. If you have more, have friends/family carry three books each or hop back in line. -Buying or pre-ordering The Glittering Court at a participating bookstore will get you a wristband that puts you in the first part of the signing line. Otherwise, youll go to the second half of the line. You can bring any of Richelles books from home to be signed (or buy other ones you dont have at the store). Powells is the exception – they dont use wristbands. -RT will have a limit of three books, and again, you may buy on-site or bring from home. -BookCon signings specs are still TBD, but they will also have small limits. Stay tuned for updates. -Photos are done with Richelle if time permits! -Contact hosting stores for additional questions!

It’s been a while since I posted. Looking back, I see that my last entry was just before the Soundless tour. Recovering from that and then going straight into Thanksgiving and Christmas took a lot out of me. But, I had a great time meeting fans in the South, and thanks to everyone’s support, Soundless debuted on The New York Times bestseller list. So, thank you for that! You guys are the best.

A dazzling, romantic new fantasy series set in a mix of Elizabethan and frontier worlds fromRichelle Mead, #1 internationally bestselling author of Vampire Academy.

Big and sweeping, spanning the refined palaces of Osfrid to the gold dust and untamed forests of Adoria, The Glittering Court tells the story of Adelaide, an Osfridian countess who poses as her servant to escape an arranged marriage and start a new life in Adoria, the New World. But to do that, she must join the Glittering Court.

Both a school and a business venture, the Glittering Court is designed to transform impoverished girls into upper-class ladies who appear destined for powerful and wealthy marriages in the New World.Adelaide naturally excels in her training and even makes a few friends: the fiery former laundress Tamsin and the beautiful Sirminican refugee Mira. She manages to keep her true identity hidden from all but one: the intriguing Cedric Thorn, son of the wealthy proprietor of the Glittering Court.

When Adelaide discovers that Cedric is hiding a dangerous secret of his own, together, they hatch a scheme to make the best of Adelaides deception. Complications soon arisefirst, as they cross the treacherous seas from Osfrid to Adoria, and later, when Adelaide catches the attention of a powerful governor.

But no complication will prove quite as daunting as the potent attraction simmering between Adelaide and Cedric. An attraction that, if acted on, would scandalize the Glittering Court and make them both outcasts in wild, vastly uncharted lands. . . .

And if that doesn’t tell you enough, good news! The first eleven chapters are online for your reading pleasure. So, go catch up because things are about to get fast and furious over the next few months!

1. What is your next book? It’s called Soundless. It comes out November 10 (that’s less than 2 weeks away!). It’s a standalone–so it is NOT part of any series. The first 30 pages are here, and this is its sweet cover:

2. What is Soundless about?

3. Are you going on tour for Soundless? Yes. I will be signing in Seattle, WA; Raleigh, NC; Fairhope, AL; Charleston, SC; Coral Gables, FL; and Santa Monica, CA. Stores, times, and signing policies are here.

4. What’s after Soundless? In April 2016, I have a brand new series coming. It has nothing to do with Soundless or Vampire Academy or anything else I’ve done. It’s called The Glittering Court, and you’ll go crazy when you read it. The description is here, and this is its sweet cover:

5. What’s the big Soundless pre-order deal that involves The Glittering Court? If you pre-order Soundless from a select independent bookstore, you will get a limited edition copy of Soundless that’s autographed by me and has a fancy translucent cover wrap over it. You’ll also get a special sampler that includes the FIRST ELEVEN CHAPTERS of The Glittering Court. The whole deal looks like this:

7. Can I get this deal if I pre-order Soundless from Amazon or Barnes and Noble? No. You’ll get a standard copy of Soundless, which is still cool, but it won’t have the fancy cover wrap, autograph, or The Glittering Court chapters. By the way–that is my actual autograph in all those limited edition ones. I signed 10,000 copies this summer.

8. I’m going to one of your November book signings! Sweet! It’s at a store that’s offering the special Soundless pre-order. What should I do? Pre-order it to make sure they don’t run out. Then still come see me the night I sign, and I’ll personalize the copy to you. Right now, they just have my signature, but I’ll write something like, “To [your name], thanks for being awesome!”

9. Have you forgotten about Age of X #3? Nope. It’s still in the works. And it’s pretty cool. But I have to answer to a larger publishing schedule that dictates when and what I write. If it makes you feel better, I think there’s going to be a #4. But that probably didn’t make you feel better.

10. Why aren’t you writing more Vampire Academy stuff? I can’t speak for all authors, but I write because I have more ideas than I can keep inside me. I want to write them all. They keep me up at night. If I’d only ever written the first story idea I ever had, I never would have written VA–or, actually, any of my books that are out. I love the VA gang, and I love that you guys love them too, but I don’t plan on writing only VA books for the next sixty years. I would definitely love to revisit those crazy kids one day, but right now, I’ve got to get some of these other ideas on paper. Trust me: when you start reading TGC next year, you’ll be hooked into another series. And who knows? Maybe I haven’t even written your favorite book yet.

I dont get why people are so touchy. When I told Dinah Drozdov that I wanted to keep things casual and still date other people, she was fine with that. When I told her sister Aly the same thing, she was fine with that too. But for some reason, when Dinah found out Aly was one of the other people, she flipped out. And when Aly found out about Dinah, she really flipped out. I guess theres some special rule about dating two sisters at the same time. Like that you arent supposed to do it. But then things got really bad when their dad found out. He started going off about how I was going to suffer in new and terrible ways Id never dreamed possible. When Aunt Tatiana found out, things got really, REALLY bad. I guess Lord Drozdov is critical to some motion shes trying to get passed, and he threatened to pull his support because of me. Aunt Tatiana was pissed, to put it mildly. I still dont really understand these aura things I keep seeing, but hers was deep red, and that just didnt seem like a good sign. Neither was her screaming at me. Usually, she lets me get away with anything, but this crossed a line. She told me I couldnt stick around Court for Christmas, not with Lord Drozdov there too. She needs to smooth things over, and me sitting next to him at Christmas dinner might throw that off. So now I have to go spend the holidays at some crap ski lodge in Idaho. I hate skiing, but what I hate even worse is finding out my dad is coming along. Two weeks on vacation with Nathan Ivashkov? Looks like I really am going to suffer in new and terrible ways.

If Richelle isn’t coming to your city, click here to find out how to order a limited edition signed copy of Soundless from your local indie bookstore with a super cool embellished cover!(You can also pre-order one from a participating store she’s appearing at — contact them for more information!).

Tuesday, November 10th at 7:00pm Seattle, WA University Bookstore – 206-634-3400 4326 University Way NE Seattle, WA 98105 206-634-3400

Wednesday, November 11th at 7:00pm Chapel Hill, NC Flyleaf Books – 919-942-7373 752 Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd Chapel Hill, NC 27514

Thursday, November 12th at 6:00pm Fairhope, AL Page & Palette – 251-928-5295 32 S Section Street Fairhope, AL 36532

Friday, November 13th & Saturday, November 14th Charleston, SC YALLFest Details forthcoming – please check the YALLFest website for schedule and tickets to Richelle’s keynote

Sunday, November 15th at 1:00pm Miami, FL Books & Books – 305-442-4408 265 Aragon Ave Coral Gables, FL 33134

Thursday, November 19th at 7:00pm Los Angeles, CA Barnes & Noble Santa Monica – 310-260-9110 1201 3rd St Santa Monica, CA 90401

Signing Guidelines: -Richelle will sign three books per person, one will be personalized and the other two will just have signatures (have a friend bring three more books!) -You may bring books from home -Pictures will be allowed if time permits -Many bookstores have perks for buying Soundless from them, like going to the front of the signing line. Check back here or contact your store to find out any other details, such as line policies or tickets.

If you follow me on social media, you’ll know that yesterday I supported a fundraiser for Save the Children (which you can still contribute to) and told people if that goal was surpassed, I’d write up some entries from Adrian’s diary. Well, that goal was met (and then some), so as promised, here we go. I’m also working on a totally new, non-VA project right now, so I can’t spend too much time in Adrian’s head or else it’ll throw me off. So, you just get one today. I’ll try to do another next week.

Because the VA/Bloodlines series takes place in no specific year, I’m just generically dating these around the books they’re taking place in.

Date: Springtime, sometime during the year Vampire Academy #1 takes place

Well, I did it. I finally quit college. Again. I shouldve known better after the first time, but Mom kept pushing me to give it another shot. After half a semester, I knew I was done. Again. Dad said I didnt try hard enough to make it work, but I think the university didnt try hard enough to make it work for me. Like, on the first day of class, my watercolors professor kept going on and on about how we needed to express ourselves. But when I told her a couple weeks later that homework wasnt really an expression of the powerful emotions burning within my soul, she said I was going to fail her class. Hypocrite. At least I was doing good in Intro to Womens Studies. My professor wrote Good effort please rewrite on one of my papers, which I think is pretty solid. I also got six girls numbers, which is more than the only other two guys in class managed to do. But I dont really need to get up early and sit through a lecture to get phone numbers. I can do that anywhere. Dad asked me what Im going to do with my life, now that Im a second-time college dropout. I told him Im going to do what Ive always done. Be awesome. Be Adrian Ivashkov.

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Richelle Mead’s Journal/Blog/Random Thoughts

Stunning redheaded girls are all the rage : theCHIVE

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Stunning redheaded girls are all the rage : theCHIVE

Roodharigen – RedHeadDays Breda | 2- 5 september 2016 …

2 – 5 September 2016

Come and join us the first weekend in September and help us celebrate during the Redhead Days!

This annual festival takes place in the centre of Breda, a beautiful town in the south of the Netherlands.We welcome redheaded guests and their family and friends from around the globe.No entrance fee required.

Come and enjoy yourselves at our Friday evening Kick-off party and wewill keep you entertained the whole weekend with a variety of events and activities includingphoto shoots, fashion shows, workshops, readings, exhibitions, kids activities, music and dance.

Curious? Take a look at our website and sign up for our newsletter!

See more here:

Roodharigen – RedHeadDays Breda | 2- 5 september 2016 …

The Myths and History of Red Hair – Aliens, Atlantis and …

Homepage Aliens, Atlantis and Internet Conspiracies

Whilst scouring the Internet for information about red hair I’ve came across countless strange beliefs and conspiracies. A lot of them I find fascinating. I’ll reproduce some of the more interesting ones here. For the most part I’ve found these ideas amusing, but I must admit there’s always a slight doubt at the back of my mind – after all, who am I to judge what’s true and false. Maybe the truth is stranger than we’d all care to imagine.

One peculiar internet article I came across carried the heading, “The Master Race becomes Friendly Aliens.” In it the writer explains how the “familiar Nazi agenda is still being propagated” by aliens of “Germanic, Celtic and Anglo-Saxon” stock. These aliens in question are generally called “Nordics” by the UFO community and the writer describes them thusly:

“They are all tall, Blond or Red Hair with Blue eyes. They average in height from 6′ to 61/2′ tall with some reported to be as tall as 8′.”

The article continues, stating:

“Consistent to the reports throughout the world in regards to Nordics is the near perfect physical appearance. No one has ever reported plain or physically deficient members in their company. Just what one may expect if you had a choice in the matter through controlled genetics.”

Another message board article I came across was titled “Are redhead’s DNA of alien origin?” On it was posted this:

“There is another race that has branched off from this giant race, the red-haired Lyrans. Their hair was red to strawberry blonde in color. The skin tone very, very fair; these entities had a difficulty exposing their skin to certain frequencies of natural light, due to the planet they sprang from. Some of these were also giant in stature, though there were some who were average human size. Eye color was generally light to what you would now consider green, though it is a different quality of green than you see upon your world. These entities were some of the first Lyran pioneers. (Pioneers is a very kind word, for there are many worlds that consider the red-haired ones to be the invaders, marauders and the basic havoc-wreakers of the Lyran genotype).”

I’ve since read that the “Lyrans” are quite well-known in ufological circles and that, as the article states, they are generally seen as being red-haired. The post continues, making a link between these red-haired “Lyrans” and the redheads on earth:

“Well, to some degree we are speaking about the distant past as they interacted with your earth plane. These entities still exist but are much fewer in number. We would say that your closest mythological remnants are in your Norse mythology – Vikings etc. Some of that mythology was about actual Earth beings who were either influenced by or interacted with this red-headed Lyran strain. This is not a very common interaction on your world, not as common as that of the giants, but common enough to have made it into your mythology.”

The post then carries on:

“Apparently there’s a remnant of a red-haired group in the Pleiades…[t]he Pleiadian version is much more watered down. But the purebred red-head was very aggressive, violent, passionate and, to some degree, very rebellious.”

The article also asks the question,

“Did these red-haired people naturally evolve as red-haired, or was there intentional manipulation somewhere along the line?”

I keep imagining an episode of StarTrek were Captain Kirk lands on a planet inhabited entirely by ginger people.

In fact, the post actually reminds me of the famous “Villas Boas” abduction case. A case concerning a young Brazilian farmer, named Antonio Villas Boas, who was apparently abducted by a UFO and forced into a liaison with a beautiful alien woman who had red pubic hair. Incidentally, I also remember watching a TV show about UFO abductions a while back that stated that there had been a spate of abduction cases in Turkey that all specified red-haired aliens.

It’s amazing the number of articles I’ve come across on the internet that associate red hair with royalty and ruling elites. In fact, one comment I read on a blog about world political leaders stated:

“[A]nother disproportional thing in politics is hair color. the number of leaders who have red hair is actually amazing…how many of the founding fathers of the USA were redheads? lenin [and] Trotsky…malcom X…How much of the royal families? Cleopatra, napoleon, Alexander the great…seems like red hair and conquering the world go together.”

The commenter also relates some of his own personal experience of living with the colour:

“[W]hen i walk sometimes past old columbian women, they cross themselves and you can hear them say in spanish things against the devil.”

Another article I came across associated red hair with secret societies. The writer of this particular article linked red hair with the symbol of the rose and wrote:

“It’s all about the rose. It means rose-cross, or red cross of the Templars. It is found in rose-line, or Rosslyn, the Chapel of the Sinclairs. And, as strange as this may sound, red hair is their characteristic feature.”

It continued:

“It is a sign of descent from the Edomites, or more specifically, the Scythians of southern Russia, who were the Lost Tribes. They were known to the Jews of the Middle Ages as Red Jews. They later became Khazars. All the leading bloodlines of Europe descend from them. That’s the point of Brown’s book, that Da Vinci, painted the Magdalene with red hair, it is the ultimate signal.”

I found one foray into red-hair conspiracy lurking in the review section on Amazon. It was a review for the book “Henry Neville and The Shakespeare Code” by Brenda James, a book that questions the authorship of the works of Shakespeare. The enthusiastic reviewer wrote:

“MY THEORY…!!…is that Elizabeth [the First] was not a virgin – and had at least 8 children, among them Oxford, Bacon, Neville, Philip and Mary Sidney (I think their adoptive father was Elizabeth’s half brother), Essex, Cecil junior, and Southampton. You will find an act of parliament passed when she was 50 saying that the issue of her body will be her heirs – not her legally born children! If you remember that was what caused Henry VIIIs troubles – he did have illegitimate children, but tried impossibly hard to get a legal son – even changing the religion in England to do so. Every other King in Europe had tons of illegitimate children – so why not Elizabeth? Elizabeth’s very first letter to Cecil, when she is 13 or 14, asks him to squash the rumours going around that she is pregnant!”

“It goes on and on ..! Elizabethan history is a whole lot more interesting to me now! Everything fits, for the first time. All those loose ends, that made no sense. Why did Leicester adopt Essex? Well, he was his own son, by Elizabeth! Why did Elizabeth make Cecil a Baron the day before his daughter was married? Because his daughter was marrying Elizabeth’s own first son. It is endless – I could go on for hours! The modern world was created by Elizabeth’s bastards! They were all placed by Cecil, brilliantly educated, and given the European tour. Some of the plays are quite possibly a family effort! It is a BIG story! A Hollywood blockbuster – somebody will do it one day.”

“Look at the portraits of Elizabeth’s children – they all have thin faces with curly orangery hair – like their parents! I believe that if both parents have red hair the children must all have red hair too. Is that right? Leicester was with Elizabeth for about 15 years. I think they found his last letter to her on the desk next to her bed when she died.”

Although the tone of this review amuses me somewhat, I must admit that the issue does fill me with suspicion. I don’t think the “virgin queen” had eight children, but personally, I’d be surprised if she had none either. And it is true that Henry Neville had red hair, as did Leicester and Elizabeth.

The same reviewer then wrote another piece, this time in the review section for the book “Oxford: Son of Queen Elizabeth I” by Paul Streitz, continuing on the same theme.

“Compare the pictures of Henry VIII, Elizabeth, Edward de Vere, Sir Henry Neville, and Henry Wriothesly, the Earl of Southampton. They all have red hair, and look remarkably similar. It is begining to look like Edward and the two Henrys could have been brothers!!”

Brilliant!

In many ways this continues on the theme of red-haired rulers. Of all the theories about red hair on the Internet this one seems to be the most abundant, and it goes something like this:-

All the ancient civilisations of pre-history were started and ruled by seafaring redheads, who originally came from a land over the sea, often, but not always, equated with Atlantis. The evidence for this can be found in ancient myths and in the mummified remains of redheaded people discovered around the globe.

For the most part these theories begin in ancient Egypt and are centred around the fact that many mummies have been found displaying red hair. Needless to say, these finds have led to much speculation about the origin of the ancient Egyptians and their glorious culture. The basic premise of the theory being that red-haired survivors from Atlantis at some point arrived and sowed the seeds of civilisation. As you can imagine a lot of this speculation is wildly inventive. One internet article I read, titled “Red Haired Mummies of Egypt,” began with this statement:

“There were the blue-bloods of Ancient Times which extended into European Times. They actually did have blue blood, and it was not hemoglobin based but copper based. They were semi-human. There are still to this day, some animal species in South America that have copper based blood systems. There was a problem with hemophilia, and not because of intermarrying. The problem was that they started to marry outside of the copper based blood system. Hemoglobin and copper systems don’t mix. That’s where the laws against marrying commoners originated. Lobsters, octopuses, squids and horseshoe crabs have copper based blue blood.”

Incidentally, Egypt isn’t the only place where red-haired mummies have been found. They’ve been found as far afield as China and Peru. The Tarim mummies were found in what is now present day Xinjiang, China and some of them possessed red hair. Likewise in Peru mummies have been found with striking red locks.

Other discoveries of red-haired mummies have come in Polynesia and the Canary Islands. In fact, both these places are, or were, noted for red-haired people. The Canary Islands was the home of the Guanches, a red-haired tribe that built monuments which can still be seen on the islands today. And red-haired people have been noted sporadically throughout parts of Polynesia, including New Zealand. One internet writer relayed the following legend:

“One Kiribati legend describes eels (Serpents?) coming ashore who turned into red haired men when they swam ashore. Another legend (Bue the Ancestor) describes one of these red men copulating with a woman who was bathing in the shallows at sunrise. The legend describes the “Sun” entering her loins, suggesting a child of the sun was born to her. When this child grew up, he set sail to the East (America) to look for his ancestors.”

The writer also noted:

“The Urekehu – or red heads amongst the Maori are believed to have come from a hot dry land to the East.”

Perhaps unsurprisingly the writer elaborated by making reference to Atlantis.

“I am not suggesting that Englishmen came and did the Jack in the Green dance in front of the Tolai, nor that a Scottish mason jumped ship and taught these people a secret handshake. What I am saying is that Both European and Pacific cultures have a common link a long long way back in time, possibly in Atlantis 11,500 years ago…[t]he ancient culture of Atlantis was not just carried on by the Egyptians, but was also carried on by the red haired civilization of Tulapin (Terapin/Turtle Island) and were a dominant population in America until 6,000 years ago.”

Of particular interest in regards red hair is Easter Island. An article in Fortean Times about the island stated:

“Ethnically, Rapa Nui are polynesian, though paler-skinned and with an anomalous genetic trait of red hair dating from before first contact with Europeans.”

It should also be noted that the large statues on the island all have “topknots” of red stone. Many believe that these represent red hair.

Although I often make light of these ideas it must be said that the presence of red hair so far afield is actually quite interesting. It either suggests that red hair blossoms accidentally in populations rather easily or that there was a lot more migration in pre-history than modern experts would have us believe.

Another interesting thing I came across on this general theme was the story of Lovelock Cave. This is apparently a cave in Nevada that was found to contain the remains of red-haired giants. The story goes that the Paiutes, a tribe of natives who inhabited the area, were at war with these giants and killed them off by ambushing them in the cave. One webpage I came across stated:

“Growing up in Nevada I had heard stories of the Sitecah from the Paiute Indians that lived in the area. They told of red-haired men and women of light colored skin as tall as 12 feet who originally lived in the area when the Paiutes had first arrived. Evidently these human giants liked to eat the Indians so they had problems making friends. The Indian tribes of the area finally joined and ambushed the giants killing most of them on the spot.”

Some of the comments on the page make particularly good reading. One posted:

“Nice Hub, I asked some of the old people about these so called ‘red haired giants’. I dont know what was more surprising, your hub or the fact one of our respected elders not only had a name for them but could tell me prominent ancestors who migrated hundreds of years ago to this land through the polynesian islands who were fair, had red hair and were so called giants!?!? I was gobsmacked! He was talking as if it were common knowledge!”

Another said:

“I have been a barber in Nevada for 35 years and I cut many Piaute men’s hair.. I have heard the stories about the red haired giants for many years. The older ones told me the giants ate some of their great, great grand parents and the story about going to Lovelock to kill them is absolutley true (according to many of these men).”

And a final mentioned:

“I am Paiute and have heard of these giants. I’m from Oregon near the Nevada border and have heard of the Paiutes in Nevada talk of these red-head giants. I heard where these giants lived in caves and did eat some of the Natives.”

I can only begin to imagine what other stories are lurking out there on the Internet waiting to be discovered.

Originally posted here:

The Myths and History of Red Hair – Aliens, Atlantis and …


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