Data.GISS: GISTEMP Update: NASA Analysis Finds August 2016 …

NASA Analysis Finds August 2016 Another Record Month

Posted Sep. 12, 2016

August 2016 was the warmest August in 136 years of modern record-keeping, according to a monthly analysis of global temperatures by scientists at NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) in New York.

Although the seasonal temperature cycle typically peaks in July, August 2016 wound up tied with July 2016 for the warmest month ever recorded. August 2016’s temperature was 0.16 degrees Celsius warmer than the previous warmest August in 2014. Last month also was 0.98 degrees Celsius warmer than the mean August temperature from 1951-1980.

“Monthly rankings, which vary by only a few hundredths of a degree, are inherently fragile,” said GISS Director Gavin Schmidt. “We stress that the long-term trends are the most important for understanding the ongoing changes that are affecting our planet.”

The record warm August continued a streak of 11 consecutive months dating back to October 2015 that have set new monthly high-temperature records. The monthly analysis by the GISS team is assembled from publicly available data acquired by about 6,300 meteorological stations around the world, ship- and buoy-based instruments measuring sea surface temperature, and Antarctic research stations. The modern global temperature record begins around 1880 because previous observations didn’t cover enough of the planet.

For more information on NASA GISS’s monthly temperature analysis, visit: data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp.

For more information about NASA GISS, visit: http://www.giss.nasa.gov.

Michael Cabbage, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, N.Y., 212-678-5516, mcabbage@nasa.gov

Leslie McCarthy, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, N.Y., 212-678-5507, leslie.m.mccarthy@nasa.gov

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Data.GISS: GISTEMP Update: NASA Analysis Finds August 2016 …

NASA – Wikipedia

Coordinates: 385259N 77059W / 38.88306N 77.01639W / 38.88306; -77.01639

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.[note 1]

President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958[7] with a distinctly civilian (rather than military) orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29, 1958, disestablishing NASA’s predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new agency became operational on October 1, 1958.[8][9]

Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo moon-landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles. The agency is also responsible for the Launch Services Program (LSP) which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches.

NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System,[10] advancing heliophysics through the efforts of the Science Mission Directorate’s Heliophysics Research Program,[11] exploring bodies throughout the Solar System with advanced robotic spacecraft missions such as New Horizons,[12] and researching astrophysics topics, such as the Big Bang, through the Great Observatories and associated programs.[13] NASA shares data with various national and international organizations such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite.

From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.[14] In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year (195758). An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world’s first artificial satellite (Sputnik 1) on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. The US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership (known as the “Sputnik crisis”), urged immediate and swift action; President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his advisers counseled more deliberate measures. This led to an agreement that a new federal agency mainly based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application.[15]

On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA. When it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact; its 8,000 employees, an annual budget of US$100million, three major research laboratories (Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Ames Aeronautical Laboratory, and Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory) and two small test facilities.[16] A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959.[17] Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA’s entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, who was now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA), which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard’s earlier works.[18] Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force[16] and many of ARPA’s early space programs were also transferred to NASA.[19] In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology.[16]

NASA has conducted many manned and unmanned spaceflight programs throughout its history. Unmanned programs launched the first American artificial satellites into Earth orbit for scientific and communications purposes, and sent scientific probes to explore the planets of the solar system, starting with Venus and Mars, and including “grand tours” of the outer planets. Manned programs sent the first Americans into low Earth orbit (LEO), won the Space Race with the Soviet Union by landing twelve men on the Moon from 1969 to 1972 in the Apollo program, developed a semi-reusable LEO Space Shuttle, and developed LEO space station capability by itself and with the cooperation of several other nations including post-Soviet Russia. Some missions include both manned and unmanned aspects, such as the Galileo probe, which was deployed by astronauts in Earth orbit before being sent unmanned to Jupiter.

The experimental rocket-powered aircraft programs started by NACA were extended by NASA as support for manned spaceflight. This was followed by a one-man space capsule program, and in turn by a two-man capsule program. Reacting to loss of national prestige and security fears caused by early leads in space exploration by the Soviet Union, in 1961 President John F. Kennedy proposed the ambitious goal “of landing a man on the Moon by the end of [the 1960s], and returning him safely to the Earth.” This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program, and NASA planned even more ambitious activities leading to a manned mission to Mars. However, reduction of the perceived threat and changing political priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary space laboratory, and a semi-reusable Earth orbital shuttle. In the 1990s, funding was approved for NASA to develop a permanent Earth orbital space station in cooperation with the international community, which now included the former rival, post-Soviet Russia. To date, NASA has launched a total of 166 manned space missions on rockets, and thirteen X-15 rocket flights above the USAF definition of spaceflight altitude, 260,000 feet (80km).[20]

The X-15 was an NACA experimental rocket-powered hypersonic research aircraft, developed in conjunction with the US Air Force and Navy. The design featured a slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systems.[21]Requests for proposal were issued on December 30, 1954, for the airframe, and February 4, 1955, for the rocket engine. The airframe contract was awarded to North American Aviation in November 1955, and the XLR30 engine contract was awarded to Reaction Motors in 1956, and three planes were built. The X-15 was drop-launched from the wing of one of two NASA Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses, NB52A tail number 52-003, and NB52B, tail number 52-008 (known as the Balls 8). Release took place at an altitude of about 45,000 feet (14km) and a speed of about 500 miles per hour (805km/h).

Twelve pilots were selected for the program from the Air Force, Navy, and NACA (later NASA). A total of 199 flights were made between 1959 and 1968, resulting in the official world record for the highest speed ever reached by a manned powered aircraft (current as of 2014[update]), and a maximum speed of Mach 6.72, 4,519 miles per hour (7,273km/h).[22] The altitude record for X-15 was 354,200 feet (107.96km).[23] Eight of the pilots were awarded Air Force astronaut wings for flying above 260,000 feet (80km), and two flights by Joseph A. Walker exceeded 100 kilometers (330,000ft), qualifying as spaceflight according to the International Aeronautical Federation. The X-15 program employed mechanical techniques used in the later manned spaceflight programs, including reaction control system jets for controlling the orientation of a spacecraft, space suits, and horizon definition for navigation.[23] The reentry and landing data collected were valuable to NASA for designing the Space Shuttle.[21]

Shortly after the Space Race began, an early objective was to get a person into Earth orbit as soon as possible, therefore the simplest spacecraft that could be launched by existing rockets was favored. The US Air Force’s Man in Space Soonest program considered many manned spacecraft designs, ranging from rocket planes like the X-15, to small ballistic space capsules.[24] By 1958, the space plane concepts were eliminated in favor of the ballistic capsule.[25]

When NASA was created that same year, the Air Force program was transferred to it and renamed Project Mercury. The first seven astronauts were selected among candidates from the Navy, Air Force and Marine test pilot programs. On May 5, 1961, astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American in space aboard Freedom7, launched by a Redstone booster on a 15-minute ballistic (suborbital) flight.[26]John Glenn became the first American to be launched into orbit by an Atlas launch vehicle on February 20, 1962, aboard Friendship7.[27] Glenn completed three orbits, after which three more orbital flights were made, culminating in L. Gordon Cooper’s 22-orbit flight Faith 7, May 1516, 1963.[28]

The Soviet Union (USSR) competed with its own single-pilot spacecraft, Vostok. They sent the first man in space, by launching cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin into a single Earth orbit aboard Vostok 1 in April 1961, one month before Shepard’s flight.[29] In August 1962, they achieved an almost four-day record flight with Andriyan Nikolayev aboard Vostok 3, and also conducted a concurrent Vostok 4 mission carrying Pavel Popovich.

Based on studies to grow the Mercury spacecraft capabilities to long-duration flights, developing space rendezvous techniques, and precision Earth landing, Project Gemini was started as a two-man program in 1962 to overcome the Soviets’ lead and to support the Apollo manned lunar landing program, adding extravehicular activity (EVA) and rendezvous and docking to its objectives. The first manned Gemini flight, Gemini 3, was flown by Gus Grissom and John Young on March 23, 1965.[30] Nine missions followed in 1965 and 1966, demonstrating an endurance mission of nearly fourteen days, rendezvous, docking, and practical EVA, and gathering medical data on the effects of weightlessness on humans.[31][32]

Under the direction of Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev, the USSR competed with Gemini by converting their Vostok spacecraft into a two- or three-man Voskhod. They succeeded in launching two manned flights before Gemini’s first flight, achieving a three-cosmonaut flight in 1963 and the first EVA in 1964. After this, the program was canceled, and Gemini caught up while spacecraft designer Sergei Korolev developed the Soyuz spacecraft, their answer to Apollo.

The U.S public’s perception of the Soviet lead in the space race (by putting the first man in space) motivated President John F. Kennedy to ask the Congress on May 25, 1961, to commit the federal government to a program to land a man on the Moon by the end of the 1960s, which effectively launched the Apollo program.[33]

Apollo was one of the most expensive American scientific programs ever. It cost more than $20 billion in 1960s dollars[34] or an estimated $206billion in present-day US dollars.[35] (In comparison, the Manhattan Project cost roughly $26.3billion, accounting for inflation.)[35][36] It used the Saturn rockets as launch vehicles, which were far bigger than the rockets built for previous projects.[37] The spacecraft was also bigger; it had two main parts, the combined command and service module (CSM) and the lunar landing module (LM). The LM was to be left on the Moon and only the command module (CM) containing the three astronauts would eventually return to Earth.

The second manned mission, Apollo 8, brought astronauts for the first time in a flight around the Moon in December 1968.[38] Shortly before, the Soviets had sent an unmanned spacecraft around the Moon.[39] On the next two missions docking maneuvers that were needed for the Moon landing were practiced[40][41] and then finally the Moon landing was made on the Apollo 11 mission in July 1969.[42]

The first person to stand on the Moon was Neil Armstrong, who was followed by Buzz Aldrin, while Michael Collins orbited above. Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972. Throughout these six Apollo spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon. These missions returned a wealth of scientific data and 381.7 kilograms (842lb) of lunar samples. Topics covered by experiments performed included soil mechanics, meteoroids, seismology, heat flow, lunar ranging, magnetic fields, and solar wind.[43] The Moon landing marked the end of the space race; and as a gesture, Armstrong mentioned mankind when he stepped down on the Moon.[44]

Apollo set major milestones in human spaceflight. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond low Earth orbit, and landing humans on another celestial body.[45]Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while Apollo 17 marked the last moonwalk and the last manned mission beyond low Earth orbit to date. The program spurred advances in many areas of technology peripheral to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including avionics, telecommunications, and computers. Apollo sparked interest in many fields of engineering and left many physical facilities and machines developed for the program as landmarks. Many objects and artifacts from the program are on display at various locations throughout the world, notably at the Smithsonian’s Air and Space Museums.

Skylab was the United States’ first and only independently built space station.[46] Conceived in 1965 as a workshop to be constructed in space from a spent Saturn IB upper stage, the 169,950lb (77,088kg) station was constructed on Earth and launched on May 14, 1973, atop the first two stages of a Saturn V, into a 235-nautical-mile (435km) orbit inclined at 50 to the equator. Damaged during launch by the loss of its thermal protection and one electricity-generating solar panel, it was repaired to functionality by its first crew. It was occupied for a total of 171 days by 3 successive crews in 1973 and 1974.[46] It included a laboratory for studying the effects of microgravity, and a solar observatory.[46] NASA planned to have a Space Shuttle dock with it, and elevate Skylab to a higher safe altitude, but the Shuttle was not ready for flight before Skylab’s re-entry on July 11, 1979.[47]

To save cost, NASA used one of the Saturn V rockets originally earmarked for a canceled Apollo mission to launch the Skylab. Apollo spacecraft were used for transporting astronauts to and from the station. Three three-man crews stayed aboard the station for periods of 28, 59, and 84 days. Skylab’s habitable volume was 11,290 cubic feet (320m3), which was 30.7 times bigger than that of the Apollo Command Module.[47]

On May 24, 1972, US President Richard M. Nixon and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin signed an agreement calling for a joint manned space mission, and declaring intent for all future international manned spacecraft to be capable of docking with each other.[48] This authorized the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), involving the rendezvous and docking in Earth orbit of a surplus Apollo Command/Service Module with a Soyuz spacecraft. The mission took place in July 1975. This was the last US manned space flight until the first orbital flight of the Space Shuttle in April 1981.[49]

The mission included both joint and separate scientific experiments, and provided useful engineering experience for future joint USRussian space flights, such as the ShuttleMir Program[50] and the International Space Station.

The Space Shuttle became the major focus of NASA in the late 1970s and the 1980s. Planned as a frequently launchable and mostly reusable vehicle, four space shuttle orbiters were built by 1985. The first to launch, Columbia, did so on April 12, 1981,[51] the 20th anniversary of the first known human space flight.[52]

Its major components were a spaceplane orbiter with an external fuel tank and two solid-fuel launch rockets at its side. The external tank, which was bigger than the spacecraft itself, was the only major component that was not reused. The shuttle could orbit in altitudes of 185643km (115400 miles)[53] and carry a maximum payload (to low orbit) of 24,400kg (54,000lb).[54] Missions could last from 5 to 17 days and crews could be from 2 to 8 astronauts.[53]

On 20 missions (198398) the Space Shuttle carried Spacelab, designed in cooperation with the European Space Agency (ESA). Spacelab was not designed for independent orbital flight, but remained in the Shuttle’s cargo bay as the astronauts entered and left it through an airlock.[55] Another famous series of missions were the launch and later successful repair of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990 and 1993, respectively.[56]

In 1995, Russian-American interaction resumed with the ShuttleMir missions (19951998). Once more an American vehicle docked with a Russian craft, this time a full-fledged space station. This cooperation has continued with Russia and the United States as two of the biggest partners in the largest space station built: the International Space Station (ISS). The strength of their cooperation on this project was even more evident when NASA began relying on Russian launch vehicles to service the ISS during the two-year grounding of the shuttle fleet following the 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.

The Shuttle fleet lost two orbiters and 14 astronauts in two disasters: Challenger in 1986, and Columbia in 2003.[57] While the 1986 loss was mitigated by building the Space Shuttle Endeavour from replacement parts, NASA did not build another orbiter to replace the second loss.[57] NASA’s Space Shuttle program had 135 missions when the program ended with the successful landing of the Space Shuttle Atlantis at the Kennedy Space Center on July 21, 2011. The program spanned 30 years with over 300 astronauts sent into space.[58]

The International Space Station (ISS) combines NASA’s Space Station Freedom project with the Soviet/Russian Mir-2 station, the European Columbus station, and the Japanese Kib laboratory module.[59] NASA originally planned in the 1980s to develop Freedom alone, but US budget constraints led to the merger of these projects into a single multi-national program in 1993, managed by NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency (RKA), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).[60][61] The station consists of pressurized modules, external trusses, solar arrays and other components, which have been launched by Russian Proton and Soyuz rockets, and the US Space Shuttles.[59] It is currently being assembled in Low Earth Orbit. The on-orbit assembly began in 1998, the completion of the US Orbital Segment occurred in 2011 and the completion of the Russian Orbital Segment is expected by 2016.[62][63][needs update] The ownership and use of the space station is established in intergovernmental treaties and agreements[64] which divide the station into two areas and allow Russia to retain full ownership of the Russian Orbital Segment (with the exception of Zarya),[65][66] with the US Orbital Segment allocated between the other international partners.[64]

Long duration missions to the ISS are referred to as ISS Expeditions. Expedition crew members typically spend approximately six months on the ISS.[67] The initial expedition crew size was three, temporarily decreased to two following the Columbia disaster. Since May 2009, expedition crew size has been six crew members.[68] Crew size is expected to be increased to seven, the number the ISS was designed for, once the Commercial Crew Program becomes operational.[69] The ISS has been continuously occupied for the past 700850918196900000016years and 49 days, having exceeded the previous record held by Mir; and has been visited by astronauts and cosmonauts from 15 different nations.[70][71]

The station can be seen from the Earth with the naked eye and, as of 2016, is the largest artificial satellite in Earth orbit with a mass and volume greater than that of any previous space station.[72] The Soyuz spacecraft delivers crew members, stays docked for their half-year-long missions and then returns them home. Several uncrewed cargo spacecraft service the ISS, they are the Russian Progress spacecraft which has done so since 2000, the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) since 2008, the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) since 2009, the American Dragon spacecraft since 2012, and the American Cygnus spacecraft since 2013. The Space Shuttle, before its retirement, was also used for cargo transfer and would often switch out expedition crew members, although it did not have the capability to remain docked for the duration of their stay. Until another US manned spacecraft is ready, crew members will travel to and from the International Space Station exclusively aboard the Soyuz.[73] The highest number of people occupying the ISS has been thirteen; this occurred three times during the late Shuttle ISS assembly missions.[74]

The ISS program is expected to continue until at least 2020, and may be extended beyond 2028.[75]

The Dragon is seen being berthed to the ISS in May 2012

The Standard variant of Cygnus is seen berthed to the ISS in September 2013

The development of the Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) vehicles began in 2006 with the purpose of creating American commercially operated uncrewed cargo vehicles to service the ISS.[76] The development of these vehicles was under a fixed price milestone-based program, meaning that each company that received a funded award had a list of milestones with a dollar value attached to them that they didn’t receive until after they had successful completed the milestone.[77] Private companies were also required to have some “skin in the game” which refers raising an unspecified amount of private investment for their proposal.[78]

On December 23, 2008, NASA awarded Commercial Resupply Services contracts to SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation.[79] SpaceX uses its Falcon 9 rocket and Dragon spacecraft.[80] Orbital Sciences uses its Antares rocket and Cygnus spacecraft. The first Dragon resupply mission occurred in May 2012.[81] The first Cygnus resupply mission occurred in September 2013.[82] The CRS program now provides for all America’s ISS cargo needs; with the exception of a few vehicle-specific payloads that are delivered on the European ATV and the Japanese HTV.[83]

The Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program was initiated in 2010 with the purpose of creating American commercially operated crewed spacecraft capable of delivering at least four crew members to the ISS, staying docked for 180 days and then returning them back to Earth.[84] It is hoped that these vehicles could also transport non-NASA customers to private space stations such those planned by Bigelow Aerospace.[85] Like COTS, CCDev is also a fixed price milestone-based developmental program that requires some private investment.[77]

In 2010, NASA announced the winners of the first phase of the program, a total of $50million was divided among five American companies to foster research and development into human spaceflight concepts and technologies in the private sector. In 2011, the winners of the second phase of the program were announced, $270million was divided among four companies.[86] In 2012, the winners of the third phase of the program were announced, NASA provided $1.1 billion divided among three companies to further develop their crew transportation systems.[87] In 2014, the winners of the final round were announced.[88] SpaceX’s Dragon V2 (planned to be launched on a Falcon 9 v1.1) received a contract valued up to $2.6 billion and Boeing’s CST-100 (to be launched on an Atlas V) received a contract valued up to $4.2 billion.[89] NASA expects these vehicles to begin transporting humans to the ISS in 2017.[89]

Computer rendering of CST-100 in orbit

For missions beyond low Earth orbit (BLEO), NASA has been directed to develop the Space Launch System (SLS), a Saturn-V class rocket, and the two to six person, beyond low Earth orbit spacecraft, Orion. In February 2010, President Barack Obama’s administration proposed eliminating public funds for the Constellation program and shifting greater responsibility of servicing the ISS to private companies.[90] During a speech at the Kennedy Space Center on April 15, 2010, Obama proposed a new heavy-lift vehicle (HLV) to replace the formerly planned Ares V.[91] In his speech, Obama called for a manned mission to an asteroid as soon as 2025, and a manned mission to Mars orbit by the mid-2030s.[91] The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 was passed by Congress and signed into law on October 11, 2010.[92] The act officially canceled the Constellation program.[92]

The Authorization Act required a newly designed HLV be chosen within 90 days of its passing; the launch vehicle was given the name “Space Launch System”. The new law also required the construction of a beyond low earth orbit spacecraft.[93] The Orion spacecraft, which was being developed as part of the Constellation program, was chosen to fulfill this role.[94] The Space Launch System is planned to launch both Orion and other necessary hardware for missions beyond low Earth orbit.[95] The SLS is to be upgraded over time with more powerful versions. The initial capability of SLS is required to be able to lift 70 mt into LEO. It is then planned to be upgraded to 105 mt and then eventually to 130 mt.[94][96]

Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1), an unmanned test flight of Orion’s crew module, was launched on December 5, 2014, atop a Delta IV Heavy rocket.[96]Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1) is the unmanned initial launch of SLS that would also send Orion on a circumlunar trajectory, which is planned for 2017.[96] The first manned flight of Orion and SLS, Exploration Mission 2 (EM-2) is to launch between 2019 and 2021; it is a 10- to 14-day mission planned to place a crew of four into Lunar orbit.[96] As of March 2012, the destination for EM-3 and the intermediate focus for this new program is still in-flux.[97]

On June 5, 2016, NASA and DARPA announced plans to build a series of new X-planes over the next 10 years.[98] One of the planes will reportedly be a supersonic vehicle that burns low-carbon biofuels and generates quiet sonic booms.[98]

NASA plans to build full scale deep space habitats as part of its Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program.[99]

More than 1,000 unmanned missions have been designed to explore the Earth and the solar system.[100] Besides exploration, communication satellites have also been launched by NASA.[101] The missions have been launched directly from Earth or from orbiting space shuttles, which could either deploy the satellite itself, or with a rocket stage to take it farther.

The first US unmanned satellite was Explorer 1, which started as an ABMA/JPL project during the early part of the Space Race. It was launched in January 1958, two months after Sputnik. At the creation of NASA the Explorer project was transferred to this agency and still continues to this day. Its missions have been focusing on the Earth and the Sun, measuring magnetic fields and the solar wind, among other aspects.[102] A more recent Earth mission, not related to the Explorer program, was the Hubble Space Telescope, which as mentioned above was brought into orbit in 1990.[103]

The inner Solar System has been made the goal of at least four unmanned programs. The first was Mariner in the 1960s and ’70s, which made multiple visits to Venus and Mars and one to Mercury. Probes launched under the Mariner program were also the first to make a planetary flyby (Mariner 2), to take the first pictures from another planet (Mariner 4), the first planetary orbiter (Mariner 9), and the first to make a gravity assist maneuver (Mariner 10). This is a technique where the satellite takes advantage of the gravity and velocity of planets to reach its destination.[104]

The first successful landing on Mars was made by Viking 1 in 1976. Twenty years later a rover was landed on Mars by Mars Pathfinder.[105]

Outside Mars, Jupiter was first visited by Pioneer 10 in 1973. More than 20 years later Galileo sent a probe into the planet’s atmosphere, and became the first spacecraft to orbit the planet.[106]Pioneer 11 became the first spacecraft to visit Saturn in 1979, with Voyager 2 making the first (and so far only) visits to Uranus and Neptune in 1986 and 1989, respectively. The first spacecraft to leave the solar system was Pioneer 10 in 1983. For a time it was the most distant spacecraft, but it has since been surpassed by both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2.[107]

Pioneers 10 and 11 and both Voyager probes carry messages from the Earth to extraterrestrial life.[108][109] Communication can be difficult with deep space travel. For instance, it took about 3 hours for a radio signal to reach the New Horizons spacecraft when it was more than halfway to Pluto.[110] Contact with Pioneer 10 was lost in 2003. Both Voyager probes continue to operate as they explore the outer boundary between the Solar System and interstellar space.[111]

On November 26, 2011, NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory mission was successfully launched for Mars. Curiosity successfully landed on Mars on August 6, 2012, and subsequently began its search for evidence of past or present life on Mars.[112][113][114]

NASA’s ongoing investigations include in-depth surveys of Mars (Mars 2020 and InSight) and Saturn and studies of the Earth and the Sun. Other active spacecraft missions are Juno for Jupiter, Cassini for Saturn, New Horizons (for Jupiter, Pluto, and beyond), and Dawn for the asteroid belt. NASA continued to support in situ exploration beyond the asteroid belt, including Pioneer and Voyager traverses into the unexplored trans-Pluto region, and Gas Giant orbiters Galileo (19892003), Cassini (1997), and Juno (2011).

The New Horizons mission to Pluto was launched in 2006 and successfully performed a flyby of Pluto on July 14, 2015. The probe received a gravity assist from Jupiter in February 2007, examining some of Jupiter’s inner moons and testing on-board instruments during the flyby. On the horizon of NASA’s plans is the MAVEN spacecraft as part of the Mars Scout Program to study the atmosphere of Mars.[115]

On December 4, 2006, NASA announced it was planning a permanent moon base.[116] The goal was to start building the moon base by 2020, and by 2024, have a fully functional base that would allow for crew rotations and in-situ resource utilization. However, in 2009, the Augustine Committee found the program to be on a “unsustainable trajectory.”[117] In 2010, President Barack Obama halted existing plans, including the Moon base, and directed a generic focus on manned missions to asteroids and Mars, as well as extending support for the International Space Station.[118]

Since 2011, NASA’s strategic goals have been[119]

In August 2011, NASA accepted the donation of two space telescopes from the National Reconnaissance Office. Despite being stored unused, the instruments are superior to the Hubble Space Telescope.[120]

In September 2011, NASA announced the start of the Space Launch System program to develop a human-rated heavy lift vehicle. The Space Launch System is intended to launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and other elements towards the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and one day Mars.[121] The Orion MPCV conducted an unmanned test launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December 2014.[122]

The James Webb Space Telescope is currently scheduled to launch in late 2018.[citation needed]

On August 6, 2012, NASA landed the rover Curiosity on Mars. On August 27, 2012, Curiosity transmitted the first pre-recorded message from the surface of Mars back to Earth, made by Administrator Charlie Bolden:

Since the beginning of time, humankinds curiosity has led us to constantly seek new life…new possibilities just beyond the horizon. I want to congratulate the men and women of our NASA family as well as our commercial and government partners around the world, for taking us a step beyond to Mars. This is an extraordinary achievement. Landing a rover on Mars is not easy others have tried only America has fully succeeded. The investment we are making…the knowledge we hope to gain from our observation and analysis of Gale Crater, will tell us much about the possibility of life on Mars as well as the past and future possibilities for our own planet. Curiosity will bring benefits to Earth and inspire a new generation of scientists and explorers, as it prepares the way for a human mission in the not too distant future. Thank you.[123]

NASA’s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate conducts aeronautics research.

NASA has made use of technologies such as the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), which is a type of Radioisotope thermoelectric generator used on space missions.[124] Shortages of this material have curtailed deep space missions since the turn of the millennia.[125] An example of a spacecraft that was not developed because of a shortage of this material was New Horizons 2.[125]

The earth science research program was created and first funded in the 1980s under the administrations of Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush.[126][127]

NASA also researches and publishes on climate issues.[128] Its statements concur with the interpretation that the global climate is heating.[129] Bob Walker, who has advised president-elect Donald Trump on space issues, has advocated that NASA shut down its climate study operations.[130] The “Washington Post” reported that NASA scientists are copying data on climate change that is held on U.S. government computers, out of a fear that a Trump administration would end access to data on climate change. [131]

The agency’s leader, NASA’s administrator, reports to the President of the United States and serves as the President’s senior space science adviser. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President.[132] The agency’s administration is located at NASA Headquarters in Washington, DC and provides overall guidance and direction.[133] Except under exceptional circumstances, NASA civil service employees are required to be citizens of the United States.[134]

The first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan, appointed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research.[135]

The third administrator was James E. Webb (served 19611968), appointed by President John F. Kennedy. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy’s Moon landing goal by the end of the 1960s, Webb directed major management restructuring and facility expansion, establishing the Houston Manned Spacecraft (Johnson) Center and the Florida Launch Operations (Kennedy) Center.

In 2009, President Barack Obama nominated Charles Bolden as NASA’s twelfth administrator.[136] Administrator Bolden is one of three NASA administrators who were astronauts, along with Richard H. Truly (served 19891992) and Frederick D. Gregory (acting, 2005).

NASA’s facilities are research, construction and communication centers to help its missions. Some facilities serve more than one application for historic or administrative reasons. NASA also operates a short-line railroad at the Kennedy Space Center and own special aircraft, for instance two Boeing 747 that transport Space Shuttle orbiter.

John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), is one of the best-known NASA facilities. It has been the launch site for every United States human space flight since 1968. Although such flights are currently on pause, KSC continues to manage and operate unmanned rocket launch facilities for America’s civilian space program from three pads at the adjoining Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston is home to the Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center, where all flight control is managed for manned space missions. JSC is the lead NASA center for activities regarding the International Space Station and also houses the NASA Astronaut Corps that selects, trains, and provides astronauts as crew members for US and international space missions.

Another major facility is Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama at which the Saturn 5 rocket and Skylab were developed.[137] The JPL worked together with ABMA, one of the agencies behind Explorer 1, the first American space mission.

The ten NASA field centers are:

Numerous other facilities are operated by NASA, including the Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Virginia; the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana; the White Sands Test Facility in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and Deep Space Network stations in Barstow, California; Madrid, Spain; and Canberra, Australia.

NASA’s budget has generally been approximately 1% of the federal budget from the early 1970s on, after briefly peaking at approximately 4.41% in 1966 during the Apollo program.[132][138] Public perception of NASA’s budget has differed significantly from reality; a 1997 poll indicated that most Americans responded that 20% of the federal budget went to NASA.[139]

The percentage of federal budget that NASA has been allocated has been steadily dropping since the Apollo program and in 2012 it was estimated at 0.48% of the federal budget.[140] In a March 2012 meeting of the United States Senate Science Committee, Neil deGrasse Tyson testified that “Right now, NASAs annual budget is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice thata penny on a dollarwe can transform the country from a sullen, dispirited nation, weary of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th century birthright to dream of tomorrow.”[141][142]

For Fiscal Year 2015, NASA received an appropriation of US$18.01 billion from Congress$549 million more than requested and approximately $350 million more than the 2014 NASA budget passed by Congress.[143]

The exhaust gases produced by rocket propulsion systems, both in Earth’s atmosphere and in space, can adversely effect the Earth’s environment. Some hypergolic rocket propellants, such as hydrazine, are highly toxic prior to combustion, but decompose into less toxic compounds after burning. Rockets using hydrocarbon fuels, such as kerosene, release carbon dioxide and soot in their exhaust.[144] However, carbon dioxide emissions are insignificant compared to those from other sources; on average, the United States consumed 802,620,000 US gallons (3.0382109L) gallons of liquid fuels per day in 2014, while a single Falcon 9 rocket first stage burns around 25,000 US gallons (95,000L) of kerosene fuel per launch.[145][146] Even if a Falcon 9 were launched every single day, it would only represent 0.006% of liquid fuel consumption (and carbon dioxide emissions) for that day. Additionally, the exhaust from LOx- and LH2- fueled engines, like the SSME, is almost entirely water vapor.[147] NASA addressed environmental concerns with its canceled Constellation program in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act in 2011.[148] In contrast, ion engines use harmless noble gases like xenon for propulsion.[149][150]

On May 8, 2003, Environmental Protection Agency recognized NASA as the first federal agency to directly use landfill gas to produce energy at one of its facilitiesthe Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.[151]

An example of NASA’s environmental efforts is the NASA Sustainability Base. Additionally, the Exploration Sciences Building was awarded the LEED Gold rating in 2010.[152]

Plot of orbits of known Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (size over 460 feet (140m) and passing within 4.7million miles (7.610^6km) of Earth’s orbit)

Various nebulae observed from a NASA space telescope

James Webb Space Telescope

Articles and topics related to NASA

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NASA – Wikipedia

AAA Alabama – home

Roadside Assistance is the main reason people join AAA and why they renew year after year. Not just for major breakdowns, either. Lock your keys in the car or get a flat and well be there, day or night throughout the U.S. and Canada. Your membership covers you, not your vehicle, so you can call whether you are in your own car, a friends car, or a rental.

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AAA Alabama – home

NASA’s Astronomy Picture of the Day – apod.nasa.gov

Discover the cosmos! Each day a different image or photograph of our fascinating universe is featured, along with a brief explanation written by a professional astronomer.

2016 December 11

Explanation: What created the strange spiral structure on the left? No one is sure, although it is likely related to a star in a binary star system entering the planetary nebula phase, when its outer atmosphere is ejected. The huge spiral spans about a third of a light year across and, winding four or five complete turns, has a regularity that is without precedent. Given the expansion rate of the spiral gas, a new layer must appear about every 800 years, a close match to the time it takes for the two stars to orbit each other. The star system that created it is most commonly known as LL Pegasi, but also AFGL 3068. The unusual structure itself has been cataloged as IRAS 23166+1655. The featured image was taken in near-infrared light by the Hubble Space Telescope. Why the spiral glows is itself a mystery, with a leading hypothesis being illumination by light reflected from nearby stars.

Authors & editors: Robert Nemiroff (MTU) & Jerry Bonnell (UMCP) NASA Official: Phillip Newman Specific rights apply. NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices A service of: ASD at NASA / GSFC & Michigan Tech. U.

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NASA’s Astronomy Picture of the Day – apod.nasa.gov

NASATX – National Auto Sport Association – Texas Region

2015 Season Finale at:

October 16-18, 2015 (2.9 mile CCW)

HPDE, Time Trial, Racing, Comp School (Friday) as well as Test/Tune and HPDE on Friday!

Registration page: Click Here

Napa Valley, CA The National Auto Sport Association (NASA) and NASA Texas are pleased to announce that Will Faules, NASAs Assistant Divisional Director, will assume the responsibilities of Regional Director of the NASA Texas Region. Faules will be taking over the region from Dave and Revkah Balingit who have effectively managed the Texas Region for the last 4 years during a period of growth and prosperity. Dave will still have an active role in the region working side by side with Will to ensure a smooth transition and Faules gets up to speed. This new change will allow Dave and Revkah the opportunity to focus on their home region of Rocky Mountain as they continue growing the fantastic events NASA members have come to expect in the Rocky Mountain Region.

This move for Faules will all be in addition to his current duties as National Event Manager and Assistant Divisional Director for NASA. This is a dream come true for me said Faules. Dave and Revkah have done wonders for NASA and Im excited to step up into this additional role. NASA has some of the finest customers, staff, and tracks that I am fortunate to get to work with. The addition of Texas hospitality makes this experience even better. I look forward to working with all the great people of NASA Texas, continuing on the huge growth weve seen over the last year, and most of all putting on the best amateur events in Texas.

Faules has been involved with NASA since the mid-90s. He was the first ever licensed NASA teen driver at the age of 13 after several years racing go-karts. Hes raced in many NASA classes and highlights include the 2003 25 Hours of Thunderhill Class Winner, 2005 NorCal SM Season Championship Winner, 2005 Western Endurance Racing Championship E-2 Winner, and 2006 NASA Championships PT-E Winner.

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NASATX – National Auto Sport Association – Texas Region

Space Center Houston – Houston Vacations

Space Center Houston, the official visitors center for NASA’s Johnson Space Center, is the only place on earth where guests can embark on an out-of-this-world journey through human adventures in space.

Space Center Houston features a multitude of permanent exhibits, attractions and theaters. In addition, the venue presents an array of traveling exhibits and events created exclusively by Space Center Houston’s creative exhibit team.

NEW: The space shuttle replica Independence is now on display at Space Center Houston. The 122-foot, 130,000-pound wooden replica was restored so the public can go inside the capsule and it’s NASA 747 carrier aircraft as part of a behind-the-scenes look at life inside a space shuttle, an experience only available at Space Center Houston.

Both the shuttle and carrier feature interior exhibits featuring the flight deck and cockpit of the shuttle, astronaut living quarters mid-deck, history on the development of the shuttle program, and how the carrier aircraft docks with shuttles. Visitors walking through the payload bay even get to see a recently returned artifact from STS-49, a space satellite rescue mission.

Independence Plaza is the worlds first and only shuttle/carrier replica open to the public. The exhibit is the largest project Space Center Houston has taken on since it was founded in 1992. Along with original artifacts and history, the complex offers educational workshops and problem-solving activities for those interested in science, mathematics, and engineering careers. At the final leg, guests can watch a film covering the history of space shuttle program as well as a special tribute to the crew members of the Challenger and Columbia missions.

Visitors to Space Center Houston can experience the monumental exhibit at no extra charge as part of museum general admission. Timed ticketing will ensure that a manageable number of guests can access the shuttles smaller space at different intervals.

Permanent Exhibits Blast Off Blast-Off is an unparalleled multi-media sensory experience. Visitors encounter a dramatic high-definition audio/video extravaganza culminating in a dynamic space shuttle blast off.

Living in Space Living in Space is a hands-on exhibit where guests can test their skills at landing the shuttle or retrieving a satellite through interactive computer simulators. A Mission Briefing Officer receives help from an audience participant in a live presentation showing how astronauts handle daily activities like showering, sleeping and preparing meals in space.

The NASA Tram Tour With this behind-the-scenes journey through NASA’s Johnson Space Center, you may visit the Historic Mission Control Center, the Space Vehicle Mockup Facility or the current Mission Control Center. Before returning to Space Center Houston, you can visit the “all new” Saturn V Complex at Rocket Park. Occasionally, the tour may visit other facilities, such as the Sonny Carter Training Facility or Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. You may even get to see astronauts training for upcoming missions.

The Astronaut Gallery This unparalleled exhibit features spacesuits dating back to the first American trip to space and a wall that contains portraits and crew photos of every U.S. astronaut who has flown in space.

Mission Status Mission briefing officers provide live updates on current space flights and astronaut training activities. Guests can listen to communications between Mission Control and astronaut crews aboard the space shuttle. A live video shows a behind-the-scenes view of activities in the Johnson Space Center and a satellite link of a shuttle launch via Kennedy Space Center of Florida.

The Martian Matrix Four stories of out-of-this-world fun for kids, Pepsi’s Martian Matrix is an action-packed play area with a space theme. Slides, swings and foam ball battles are just a few of the featured activities.

Kids Space Place Interactive stations and themed areas give children a chance to explore and investigate the different aspects of space exploration. Jumping on the Moon, manning the space shuttle, building a rocket and flying in space are all a part of the growing exhibit.

Starship Gallery On Human Destiny is shown in the Starship Gallery, which highlights great moments in space exploration. The gallery contains artifacts and hardware from the Mercury program through Apollo-Soyuz, including a special Lunar Vault. The New Explorers video wall shares the visions of today’s NASA engineers and scientists.

Greater Houston Convention and Visitors Bureau – Member

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Space Center Houston – Houston Vacations

NASA Blogs

Check out the following NASA opportunities for the education community. Full descriptions are listed below. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ New This Week! ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Free NASA Educator Professional Development Webinars Audience: In-service, Pre-service, Home School and Informal Educators Next Event Date: March 10, 2016, at 6:30 p.m. EST Live Video Chat With Researcher Studying Protein Crystals on Space Station Audience: All Educators Read full post

Rodent Research (RR) Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Hardware Gather: Peake gathered hardware and consumables needed to set up MSG for RR operations which will begin following the arrival of SpX-8. Spaceflight causes a rapid loss of bone and muscle mass especially in the legs and spine with symptoms similar to Read full post

Last week the crew performed some setup and preliminary checkout activities of the Space Automated Bioproduct Laboratory (SABL) facility. SABL is a facility that can support a wide range of investigations across life sciences, physical sciences, and materials sciences, with a main focus on research that enables biological systems and Read full post

The first half of the F-level work platforms for NASAs Space Launch System (SLS)rocket arrived today at the Vehicle Assembly Building at the agencys Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing upgrades and modifications to High Bay 3 to support processing of the Read full post

The first half of the F-level work platforms for NASAs Space Launch System (SLS) rocket arrived today at the Vehicle Assembly Building at the agencys Kennedy Space Center in Florida. A total of 10 levels of new platforms, 20 platform halves altogether, will surround the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft Read full post

MAGVECTOR: Peake performed a data transfer from the jump drive to an SSC folder and reconfigured the switches on the portable power supply 1 (PPS1), completing the 7th run of European Space Agencys (ESA) MAGVECTOR experiment. Run #8 scheduled for next week will be the last experiment run for Increment Read full post

This morning the three Expedition 47 crew members practiced evacuating the International Space Station in the event of an emergency. Afterward, it was back to work on advanced space science and orbital lab maintenance. Several times a year the station residents get together to practice the communication and procedures necessary to Read full post

While NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and his Russian colleague, cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, have returned to Earth after a year on the International Space Station, work goes on aboard the orbiting outpost. To keep supplies coming to the current ISS crew and those who soon will join them, an Orbital ATK Read full post

While NASA astronaut Scott Kelly and his Russian colleague, cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, have returned to Earth after a year on the International Space Station, work goes on aboard the orbiting outpost. To keep supplies coming to the current ISS crew and those who soon will join them, an Orbital ATK Read full post

Editor’s note: You can watch both the solar eclipse program and the raw video feed on the Watch the March 8 Solar Eclipse Live page. NASA, in partnership with the Exploratorium Science Center in San Francisco, will host activities around the March 8 total solar eclipse, including opportunities to talk with Read full post

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NASA Blogs

Interactive Weather Satellite Imagery Viewers from NASA Earth …

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Interactive Weather Satellite Imagery Viewers from NASA Earth …

Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Home – NASA Mars rover

Mars Rover Opportunity Busy Through Depth of Winter NASA’s Opportunity rover, which landed on Mars 12 years ago this week, remained active through the shortest-sunshine days of the current Martian winter. Read News >> View Related Image >> Opportunity Mars Rover Preparing for Active Winter NASA’s Opportunity Mars rover will soon drive to the southern side of a valley where a sunward tilt will help the solar-powered rover keep active through the Martian winter. Read News >> View Related Image >> Opportunity Rover’s 7th Mars Winter to Include New Study Area NASA’s Opportunity rover has resumed driving after Mars emerged from behind the sun. Plans call for the rover to examine sites in Marathon Valley during the upcoming winter. Read News >> Watch Related Video >> Mars Missions to Pause Commanding in June, Due to Sun Next month, Mars will swing almost directly behind the sun from Earth’s perspective, and this celestial geometry will lead to diminished communications with spacecraft at Mars. >> Martian Reminder of a Pioneering Flight Names related to the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic have been informally assigned to a crater NASA’s Opportunity Mars rover is studying. This false-color view of the “Spirit of St. Louis Crater” and the “Lindbergh Mound” inside it comes from Opportunity’s panoramic camera. >> Rock Spire in ‘Spirit of St. Louis Crater’ on Mars An elongated crater called “Spirit of St. Louis,” with a rock spire in it, dominates a recent scene from the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. >> Mars Test Rover Joins Runners at Finish Line Runners at JPL cheer as a test model of NASA’s Mars rover Opportunity does a ceremonial “crossing the finish line” after a relay marathon to celebrate the real rover surpassing the distance of a marathon race on Mars. >> Rover Amnesia Event Follows Latest Memory Reformatting The team operating NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity learned Thursday that the long-lived rover experienced a brief amnesia event related to its flash memory, the first since a reformatting of that nonvolatile type of memory a week earlier. >> NASA’s Opportunity Mars Rover Passes Marathon Distance NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity completed its first Mars marathon Tuesday — 26.219 miles (42.195 kilometers) with a finish time of roughly 11 years and two months. >> NASA Reformats Memory of Longest-Running Mars Rover After avoiding use of the rover’s flash memory for three months, the team operating NASA’s 11-year-old Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has reformatted the vehicle’s flash memory banks and resumed storing some data overnight for transmitting later. >> Rover Examining Odd Mars Rocks at Valley Overlook NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is investigating unusual rocks before reformatting the rover’s memory and continued driving toward “Marathon Valley.” >> Opportunity Rover Nears Mars Marathon Feat In February 2015, NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is approaching a cumulative driving distance on Mars equal to the length of a marathon race. This map shows the rover’s position relative to where it could surpass that distance. >> Hilltop Panorama Marks Mars Rover’s 11th Anniversary A panorama from one of the highest elevations that NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has reached in its 11 years on Mars includes the U.S. flag at the summit. >> NASA Mars Rover Opportunity Climbs to High Point on Rim NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, continuing to drive while engineers tackle a flash-memory issue, has reached a crater-rim high point on “Cape Tribulation.” >> All Press Releases >> All Spotlights >>

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Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Home – NASA Mars rover


What is MU-SPIN?

NASA created the Minority University-SPace Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) program to train the next generation of NASA’s minority scientists and engineers. This program serves America’s Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Tribal Colleges.

Minority Outreach Coordinator James L. Harrington james.l.harrington@nasa.gov

MUSPIN Coordination Office NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Mail Code 606.3 Greenbelt, MD 20771 301.286.3409 301.286.1775 (fax)

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Space Center Houston – Clear Lake – Houston, TX – Yelp

I really really wanted to love this place.

It has been on my list of top places to visit for a while. I was expecting much more of a museum feel, but instead found it to be much more like an amusement park. Long lines, long wait times, loads of kids, very noisy, over priced bland food, uninspiring public speakers, and young inexperienced staff.

I did get the audio tour device which I would highly recommend.

Despite the fact that the center is laid out in a totally nonsensical design and that only one of the four main exhibit areas feels thorough and complete. Fortunately this section, the Starship Gallery felt like what I wanted the entire experience to be. Guided audio tour on a per display basis, with in-depth information from the people who used or created it. Amazing replicas and models, great lighting, and some truly amazing stories and inspiration. However, this section, which takes about an hour to get through was the only one I would really recommend to an adult.

With so many movie theaters, it feels like watching a lot of YouTube videos, for far more money.

The tram tour (I took the blue, to see Mission Control) was about 40 minutes longer than it needed to be, and after an hour wait-in line was a huge let down. To be fair, seeing the Mission Control room (or one of them) was really neat, and standing next to the Saturn V rocket was an amazing bit of perspective, but the amount of time spent herding people, the noise of the group, the PR friendly “talk” from the NASA guide all felt too generalized and simple. I can read about all of this online, if I come to the MUSEUM I want to see and hear things that are unique and more in-depth and practical than I can get elsewhere.

I was thinking how difficult it must be to try and populate this place with content, when so much of what makes it great was 40+ years ago.

I would have loved to see an entire section dedicated to the Space Shuttle and all the amazing things it and her crews accomplished, but instead it was relegated to a montage I saw in one of the videos.

There is a section about the ISS and is intended to be a “live look” at what is going on there, but the lady giving the lecture was so bland, and hard to listen to, not to mention that all her information was largely homogenized and generic, lacking any real “live” details, that I felt like I was wasting my time just listening to her.

I wish I could say this is an amazing, wonderful, fun, and unique, one-of-a-kind, must-see sort of places, but it’s not. It might be fun for kids, and that’s great, but I am the one who pays taxes and funds NASA, so I want to be blown away.

If you do go, hit the Starship Gallery, spend plenty of time there, listen to every audio recording, and enjoy it. It’s really really great.

Everything else? Time permitting…

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Space Center Houston – Clear Lake – Houston, TX – Yelp

NASA Visible Earth: Dallas, Texas

The Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area is the largest in Texas, with an approximate population of 6 million people in 2005. Founded by John Neely Bryan in 1841, the city became the center for the United States oil economy with the discovery of oilfields to the east of the city in 1930. The darkest day in the citys history occurred on November 22, 1963 when President John F. Kennedy was assassinated while traveling by motorcade through Dealey Plaza. The Dallas-Forth Worth region today is a major corporate, banking, and technological center.

This astronaut photograph captures the northwestern portion of the metropolitan area. Standing water bodies such as Lake Lewisville and Grapevine Lake are highlighted by sunglint, where the surface of the water acts as a mirror reflecting sunlight back towards the astronauts in the International Space Station (read Sunglint in Astronaut Photography of Earth for a more detailed explanation of sunglint). Using the sunglint to define edges of water helps when mapping water bodies and stream courses on a landscapenote the region of small ponds to the north of Grapevine Lake highlighted by sunglint. Images such as these help characterize surface hydrology and areas of potential flooding hazard.

Note: Often times, due to the size, browsers have a difficult time opening and displaying images. If you experiece an error when clicking on an image link, please try directly downloading the image (using a right click, save as method) to view it locally.

This image originally appeared on the Earth Observatory. Click here to view the full, original record.

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NASA Visible Earth: Dallas, Texas

NASA MRI – Neuroscience and Spine Associates

Established in 1996, a group of experienced neurologists and neurosurgeons joined together to establish Neuroscience and Spine Associates, P.L. As Floridas leading practitioners in neurology, neurosurgery, pain management, orthopedics, rehabilitation and diagnostics, their combined resources and expertise, provide patients with the highest quality, most technologically advanced medical care.


NASA MRI – Neuroscience and Spine Associates

Home Page – NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI …

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What is the NASA STI Program?

The NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program was established to support the objectives of NASAs missions and research. It is dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science. This program is essential to help NASA avoid duplication of research by sharing information and to ensure that the U.S. maintains its preeminence in aerospace-related industries and education. The NASA STI Program acquires, processes, archives, announces, and disseminates NASA STI and acquires worldwide STI of critical importance to NASA and the Nation.

The STI Program and its support contract services are critical components in the worldwide activity of scientific and technical aerospace research and development. Collected from U.S. and international sources, STI is organized according to content prior to being added to the NTRS Registered, which is a world-class collection of STI that includes over 4 million bibliographic records and a growing number of full-text documents. A public interface is available through the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS).

Learn More or Contact the NASA STI Information Desk for more information or to register for enhanced NASA STI services and products.

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Home Page – NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI …

NASA News — ScienceDaily

Jan. 28, 2016 Inside a massive clean room at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland the James Webb Space Telescope team is steadily installing the largest space telescope mirror ever. … read more Rotation Speed May Be Bad News for Red Planet Pioneers Jan. 25, 2016 New research has revealed the importance of a circadian body clock that matches the rotational speed of the … read more Jason-3 Delivers First Data, Products Four Days After Launch Jan. 21, 2016 Four days after its launch on 17 January, the Jason-3 high-precision ocean altimetry satellite is delivering its first sea surface height measurement data in near-real time, report … read more Jan. 12, 2016 Features on dwarf planet Ceres that piqued the interest of scientists throughout 2015 stand out in exquisite detail in the latest images from NASA’s Dawn spacecraft, which recently reached its … read more The ‘Eyes’ Have It: Astronaut Vision and Ophthalmologic Problems Explained Jan. 11, 2016 Just when you think you’ve seen it all, our eyes look to be victims of a low-gravity environments, too. According to new research two significant genetic differences in enzymes that direct the … read more Jan. 8, 2016 Major improvements to methods used to process observations from NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have yielded an expanded, higher-quality set of data that allows astronomers to produce the … read more Jan. 7, 2016 Astronomers have made the most detailed study yet of an extremely massive young galaxy cluster using three of NASA’s Great Observatories. This multiwavelength image shows this galaxy cluster, … read more Jan. 7, 2016 One dozen flight mirrors are now installed on NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope, out of the eighteen mirror segments that make up the primary mirror. The assembly of the primary mirror is an … read more Jan. 7, 2016 Astronomers have detected a massive, sprawling, churning galaxy cluster that formed only 3.8 billion years after the Big Bang. Located 10 billion light years from Earth and potentially comprising … read more Momentum Builds for Creation of ‘Moon Villages’ Jan. 6, 2016 Villages on the moon, constructed through cooperation between astronauts and robotic systems on the lunar surface, could become a reality as early as 2030. That’s the consensus of a recent … read more Jan. 6, 2016 Eta Carinae, the most luminous and massive stellar system located within 10,000 light-years of Earth, is best known for an enormous eruption seen in the mid-19th century that hurled an amount of … read more Jan. 5, 2016 Astronomers are finding dozens of the fastest stars in our galaxy. When some speedy, massive stars plow through space, they can cause material to stack up in front of them in the same way that water … read more Jan. 5, 2016 NASA’s Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, has captured the best high-energy X-ray view yet of a portion of our nearest large, neighboring galaxy, Andromeda. The space mission has … read more Jan. 5, 2016 NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover, partway through the first up-close study ever conducted of extraterrestrial sand dunes, is providing dramatic views of a dune’s steep face, where cascading sand … read more Dec. 23, 2015 The first U.S. production in nearly 30 years of a specialized fuel to power future deep space missions has been completed by researchers at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National … read more Dec. 23, 2015 After thorough examination, NASA managers have decided to suspend the planned March 2016 launch of the Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) mission. … read more Dec. 22, 2015 NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has begun transmitting data and images from the mission’s final close flyby of Saturn’s active moon Enceladus. Cassini passed Enceladus at a distance of 3,106 … read more Dec. 22, 2015 NASA’s Dawn spacecraft, cruising in its lowest and final orbit at dwarf planet Ceres, has delivered the first images from its best-ever viewpoint. The new images showcase details of the cratered … read more Dec. 22, 2015 The Moon was never a fully homogenized body like Earth, analysis of Moon rocks made by the Chinese rover, Yutu, suggests. The basalts the rover examined are a new type, chemically different from … read more

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NASA News — ScienceDaily

Enos: Psychedelic Space Rock from Brighton UK

We are very happy to say that Enos will have a track appearing on H42 Records sampler CD Home Of The Deer: Vol 1. Released on CD these will be available with all orders from H42 Records and is limited to just 300 copies. Available on a first come first serve basis there has never been a better reason to pick up some of the fantastic releases (including our Son of A Gun/Grey Belly split with Mangoo) from H42. We have submitted a live version of Devil Makes Work taken from our DVD Live at The East Slope. Home of The Deer: Vol 1 includes a mixture of exclusive, unreleased, live and familiar tracks from other H42 bands

Mos Generator,Sons of Alpha Centauri,Lord Of Giant,Mangoo,Daily Thompson,The Loranes,Molior Superum,The Flying Eyes,Dean Allen Foyd,Black Salvation,Mother of God,Larman Clamor,Odd Couple,Coogans BluffAlpha Cat.

Keep an eye on H42 Records Facebook page for tracks and updates.

We have got some more copies of of Chapter One, and The East Slope EP on CD as well as the Live at The East Slope DVD currently available via our online shop. Unfortunately All Too Human is currently sold out on vinyl but we do have copies on CD available.

If you have yet to see Live at The East Slope here is Collisions featuring guest vocals from Sigrid Jakobson


Until next time..

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Enos: Psychedelic Space Rock from Brighton UK

NASA Mars rover – Mars planet facts news & images

What’s New?

A Planetary Quintet is Dancing Across the Skies

NASA Mars Rover Curiosity Tastes Scooped, Sieved Sand

Curiosity Continues to Study the Bagnold Sand Dunes

Opportunity Rover Nears 12 Years on Mars!

Rover Rounds Martian Dune to Get to the Other Side

NASA Suspends 2016 Launch of InSight Mission to Mars

Recent Videos

Curiosity Rover Report: First Visit to Martian Dunes

Crazy Engineering: CubeSats

50 Years of Mars Exploration


Be A Mars Maker

Send a Postcard to Curiosity

Mars in The Palm of Your Hands

Explore Curiosity’s Journey in 3D

Come explore Mars with us

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NASA Mars rover – Mars planet facts news & images

Goddard Visitor Center – Maryland – VisitNASA.com – NASA …

Goddards visitor center demonstrates our innovative and exciting work in Earth science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary science, engineering, communication and technology development. Browse the unique, informative exhibits and learn about climate change, climb inside a Gemini capsule model, encourage a child to dream as he or she pulls on our kid-sized spacesuit, or participate in one of the monthly model rocket launches.

Only 30 minutes from Washington, D.C., Baltimore, and Annapolis, dont miss this opportunity to explore the universe in your own backyard. Admission is free to the public.

Passportholders receive a commemorative stamp in theirPassport.Passportscan be stamped and redeemed at the information desk.

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Goddard Visitor Center – Maryland – VisitNASA.com – NASA …

Nasa Federal Credit Union – Rockville, MD – Yelp

First to Review

It started out promising, and countless emails and phone calls later, I’ve given up trying to refinance with these people. It’s not that they’re not intelligent, but completely unprofessional. When you send and email, you’d think that you’d get a response, if only to let you know that they got the email and will be in touch soon. Instead, I had to call them, and when I did connect with the woman who was helping me, Mary Nezam, to be specific, I was politely told that I never sent her any emails, and that she was doing me a favor and that I could go work with someone else. The funny thing is that she clearly had no idea who I was as the favor she mentioned had nothing to do with my case. Stay clear of these people. They don’t even deserve the one star that I gave.

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Nasa Federal Credit Union – Rockville, MD – Yelp