12345...102030...

Nanotechnology – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Nanotechnology and nanoscience is about controlling and understanding matter on the sub-micrometer and atomic scale.

This wikibook on nanoscience and nanotechnology gathers information about the various tools, methods and systems to provide students, researchers and everyone else an open-source handbook and overview guide to this vast interdisciplinary and expanding field – a book that can be adjusted as new things appear and improved by you!

Why is nanotechnology such a ‘hot’ subject – and is it more hype than substance? This part gives a brief introduction to the visions of nanotechnology and why so many people are working on it around the world. To help set a perspective there are overview tables with timelines, length scales and information resources.

Microscopes allows us to probe the structure of matter with high spatial resolution, making it possible to see for instance individual atoms with tools such as the scanning tunneling microscope, the atomic force microscope, and the transmission electron microscope. With the related spectroscopic methods, we can study the energy levels in nanosystems. This part gives an overview of the tools and methods used in microscopy and spectroscopy of nanostructures.

On the nanoscale force that we in everyday life do not consider strong, such as contact adhesion, become much more important. In addition, many things behave in a quantum mechanical way. This chapter looks into the scaling of the forces and fundamental dynamics of matter on the nanoscale.

Many unique nanostructured materials have been made, such as carbon nanotubes that can be mechanically stronger than diamond. This part provides an overview of nanoscale materials such as carbon nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots and nanoparticles, their unique properties and fabrication methods.

To understand the novel possibilities in nanotechnology, this part gives an overview of some typical nanoscale systems – simple experimental devices that show unique nanoscale behavior useful in for instance electronics.

Combining nanodevices into functional units for real life application is a daunting task because making controlled structures with molecularly sized components requires extreme precision and control. Here we look at ways to assemble nanosystems into functional units or working devices with top-down or bottom-up approaches.

See also the Wikibook on Microtechnology which contains information about many fabrication and processing details.

Your body is based on a fantastic amount of biological nanotechnology operating right now in each of your body’s cells, which has evolved over aeons to an awesome level of complexity. Much of current nanotechnology research is aimed at bio-applications, such as bio-sensors and biologically active nanoparticles for medical therapy or targeting cancer. This part is an introduction to this cross-disciplinary field.

People are very enthusiastic about the visions of nanotechnology, but at the same time there is a natural worry about the environmental issues of the emerging technologies. This area is being increasingly brought into focus to ensure a healthy development.

Visit link:

Nanotechnology – Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Nanotechnology – The New York Times

Latest Articles

Alain Kaloyeros, president of the State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, resigned from the boards of two groups that seek to revive upstate cities.

By JESSE McKINLEY

The finding may be the key to once again increasing the speed of computer processors, which has been stalled for the last decade.

By JOHN MARKOFF

A consortium of which the company is a part has made working versions of ultradense seven-nanometer chips, capable of holding much more information than existing chips.

By JOHN MARKOFF

A new technique makes minute biological features, some just 70 nanometers wide, more visible through regular optical microscopes.

By JOHN MARKOFF

Submicroscopic particles of gold and silver create unusual optical effects.

By CATHERINE CHAPMAN

Ben Jensen, a British scientist, explains why his companys new invention, Vantablack, may not work in your home. Not even on an accent wall.

By LINDA LEE

Researchers say they have developed an electrical conductor that is highly flexible and transparent, a combination that could help usher in flexible flat-screen televisions and smartphones.

By DOUGLAS QUENQUA

Scientists are looking for new ways to make computer chips and investigating materials that can self-assemble.

By JOHN MARKOFF

The achievement was reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday. Carbon nanotubes are viewed as having the potential to extend the limits of silicon.

By JOHN MARKOFF

Researchers using nanoparticles of gold have been able to stop blood in test tubes from clotting, and then make it clot again.

By SINDYA N. BHANOO

Dr. Rohrer helped invent the scanning tunneling microscope, which made it possible to see individual atoms and move them around.

By DOUGLAS MARTIN

Carbon nanotubes may prove to be the material of the future when todays silicon-based chips reach their fundamental physical limits.

The group As You Sow said nanoparticles, the size of molecules, have been found in the blood stream after ingestion and inhalation.

A new wave of imaging technologies, driven by the falling cost of computing, is transforming the way doctors can examine patients.

Scientists have made a vibrating bridgelike device millionths of a meter long that changes frequency when a molecule arrives; the change is measured to determine the molecules mass.

Nicknamed the Queen of Carbon, Mildred Spiewak Dresselhaus studies the fundamental properties of carbon, as insulator one moment, superconductor the next.

The work of the winning scientists spanned the outer reaches of the solar system and penetrated the inner workings of brain circuits and nanotubes.

Industries based on nanotechnology are a rapidly growing niche in the economy of the Czech Republic, which, although small, is widely respected for its technical prowess.

A National Academy of Sciences committee called for further study of the minuscule substances, which are found in products from makeup to paint and drive a $225 billion market.

Findings from research conducted at I.B.M., being reported Thursday in the journal Science, could lead to a new class of more powerful and efficient nanomaterials.

Alain Kaloyeros, president of the State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, resigned from the boards of two groups that seek to revive upstate cities.

By JESSE McKINLEY

The finding may be the key to once again increasing the speed of computer processors, which has been stalled for the last decade.

By JOHN MARKOFF

A consortium of which the company is a part has made working versions of ultradense seven-nanometer chips, capable of holding much more information than existing chips.

By JOHN MARKOFF

A new technique makes minute biological features, some just 70 nanometers wide, more visible through regular optical microscopes.

By JOHN MARKOFF

Submicroscopic particles of gold and silver create unusual optical effects.

By CATHERINE CHAPMAN

Ben Jensen, a British scientist, explains why his companys new invention, Vantablack, may not work in your home. Not even on an accent wall.

By LINDA LEE

Researchers say they have developed an electrical conductor that is highly flexible and transparent, a combination that could help usher in flexible flat-screen televisions and smartphones.

By DOUGLAS QUENQUA

Scientists are looking for new ways to make computer chips and investigating materials that can self-assemble.

By JOHN MARKOFF

The achievement was reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday. Carbon nanotubes are viewed as having the potential to extend the limits of silicon.

By JOHN MARKOFF

Researchers using nanoparticles of gold have been able to stop blood in test tubes from clotting, and then make it clot again.

By SINDYA N. BHANOO

Dr. Rohrer helped invent the scanning tunneling microscope, which made it possible to see individual atoms and move them around.

By DOUGLAS MARTIN

Carbon nanotubes may prove to be the material of the future when todays silicon-based chips reach their fundamental physical limits.

The group As You Sow said nanoparticles, the size of molecules, have been found in the blood stream after ingestion and inhalation.

A new wave of imaging technologies, driven by the falling cost of computing, is transforming the way doctors can examine patients.

Scientists have made a vibrating bridgelike device millionths of a meter long that changes frequency when a molecule arrives; the change is measured to determine the molecules mass.

Nicknamed the Queen of Carbon, Mildred Spiewak Dresselhaus studies the fundamental properties of carbon, as insulator one moment, superconductor the next.

The work of the winning scientists spanned the outer reaches of the solar system and penetrated the inner workings of brain circuits and nanotubes.

Industries based on nanotechnology are a rapidly growing niche in the economy of the Czech Republic, which, although small, is widely respected for its technical prowess.

A National Academy of Sciences committee called for further study of the minuscule substances, which are found in products from makeup to paint and drive a $225 billion market.

Findings from research conducted at I.B.M., being reported Thursday in the journal Science, could lead to a new class of more powerful and efficient nanomaterials.

Original post:

Nanotechnology – The New York Times

Nanotechnology: The Basics – Rice University | Coursera

About the Course

Nanotechnology is an exciting research area that spans disciplines from electrical engineering to biology. Over the last two decades the basic science of this area has launched new technologies, the first examples of which are finding their way into commercial products. This four week course will provide students with a bird’s eye view into this fast moving area and leave students with an appreciation of the importance and foundation of super-small materials and devices.

Nanotechnology: The Basics Week 1: Small, strange and useful! This first week we will introduce nanotechnology. As you will learn, defining the term itself can be a challenge and the discipline has a rich and somewhat controversial history. We will conclude the week with a tour of the different types of materials in the nanotechnology pantheon that sets up the class for the weeks to come.

Week 2: Electronics when materials are super small. There is no doubt our lives have been changed by the small and powerful computers we now use in everything from our cell phones to our coffeemakers. This week you will learn how nanotechnology has been a part of this revolution and what the limits are to making wires and transistors super, super small.

Week 3: How magnets change when they are made small. Magnetism is quite mysterious and the foundation of such cool technologies as flash drives and MRI imaging. Nanotechnology has played a crucial role in advancing all of these diverse applications and in week 3 you’ll gain some insight into how that is possible.

Week 4: Shedding light on nanoscale materials and photonics. Compared to electrons, photons are difficult things to trap and control with normal materials. Nanomaterials offer completely new approaches to manipulating light. Whether its through diffraction, or plasmonics, nanotechnology can provide new capabilities for solid state lasers as well as super resolution microscopes.

We expect some knowledge of freshman chemistry and physics, as well as algebra. Access to a spreadsheet program would also be of value. However, we recognize that for some interested participants this knowledge may be rusty and will provide where possible optional review videos to go over terminology and concepts relevant to the week’s material.

Every week students will be expected to view between6 and9 video lectures which are about 10 minutes each; optional refresher lectures will sometimes be added to provide background on concepts relevant for the week. Most lectures will have integrated questions to keep students engaged, and these will not count towards any grade. There will also be weekly ‘basic’quizzes and a final exam for students seeking a statement of accomplishment. For those seeking a statement of accomplishment with distinction, ‘in-depth’ quizzes and a peer-graded project will be required in addition to the statement of accomplishment criteria. Students will have two weeks to complete every assignment once its posted, and eight late days to apply as needed.

Link:

Nanotechnology: The Basics – Rice University | Coursera

nanotechnology | eBay

Enter your search keyword

All Categories Antiques Art Baby Books Business & Industrial Cameras & Photo Cell Phones & Accessories Clothing, Shoes & Accessories Coins & Paper Money Collectibles Computers/Tablets & Networking Consumer Electronics Crafts Dolls & Bears DVDs & Movies eBay Motors Entertainment Memorabilia Gift Cards & Coupons Health & Beauty Home & Garden Jewelry & Watches Music Musical Instruments & Gear Pet Supplies Pottery & Glass Real Estate Specialty Services Sporting Goods Sports Mem, Cards & Fan Shop Stamps Tickets & Experiences Toys & Hobbies Travel Video Games & Consoles Everything Else

See the original post:

nanotechnology | eBay

Nanotechnology – US Forest Service Research & Development

Small and the Technology of Small

Nano is small, really, really, small. It comes from a Greek word meaning dwarf. One nanometer (nm) is one billionth of a meter (1 meter = 39.4 inches).

A nanometer is much, much smaller than a spot on a lady bug. An ant is about 5,000,000 nm (0.2 inches) long; human hair is about 100,000 nm (0.004 inches) wide; and an atom is approximately 1 nm.

Nanotechnology is the understanding and control of matter at dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers, where unique phenomena enable novel applications. Unusual physical, chemical, and biological properties can emerge in materials at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology also encompasses any nanoscale systems and devices and unique systems and devices that are involved in the manufacturing of nanoscale materials.

As an enabling technology, nanotechnology has the potential to benefit all aspects of forestry and forest products: from plants, forest management, harvesting, forest operations, wood-base products, application of wood-based products to the understanding of consumer behavior. In international conferences, scientists have briefly touched upon the ideas of using nanotechnology enabled products in resolving issue of international interest such as climate change (nanotechnology enabled sensors for example), energy efficiency (nanotechnology enabled catalysts for example) and water resources (nanotechnology enabled water harvesting for example). The forest products industry has identified nanotechnology as one of the technologies that will enable new products and product features.

The industry has goals to create new bio-based composites and nanomaterials, and to achieve improvement in the performance-to-weight ratio of paper and packaging products through nanotechnology and nanotechnology-enabled new paper features such as optical, electronic, barrier, sensing thermal and surface texture.

Due to its ability to reduce carbon footprints of petroleum based products, renewable forest-based nanocelluloses, together with other natural-occurring nanocelluloses, have been the subject of active research and development internationally. Often requested by user industries, nanocellulose has found its way in the research and development of plastics, coatings, sensors, electronics, automobile body and aerospace materials, medical implants and body armor. In the future, we can claim plastics, cellular telephones, medical implants, body armors and flexible displays as forest products.

Lux Research estimated that by 2015, US$3.1 trillion worth of products will have incorporated nanotechnology in their value chain. Successful realization of this technology using sustainable forest-based products will increase use of materials from renewable resources and decrease reliance on petroleum-based products and other non-renewable materials. With adequate investing in Forest Service nanotechnology R&D, the forest products industry envisions replacing the 300,000 jobs lost since 2006 with skilled workers, many of them in rural America – using materials we can grow, transport, and assemble into finished products in the United States more efficiently than nearly anywhere else in the world.

Excerpt from:

Nanotechnology – US Forest Service Research & Development

Nanotechnology : ATS

Considered futuristic a just a few years ago, nanotechnology where scientists utilize nano-sized objects measuring less than 1/100,000 the width of a human hair today is showing great promise in areas such as medicine, materials science and defense technology.

The Technions Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute is a world-leader in nanotechnology research having made seminal discoveries in the field.

Prof. Ester Segal and a team of Israeli and American researchers find that silicon nanomaterials used for the localized delivery of chemotherapy drugs behave differently in cancerous tumors than they do in healthy tissues. The findings could help scientists better design such materials to facilitate the controlled and targeted release of the chemotherapy drugs to tumors.

Associate Professor Alex Leshansky of the Faculty of Chemical Engineering is part of an international team that has created a tiny screw-shaped propeller that can move in a gel-like fluid, mimicking the environment in a living organism. The breakthrough brings closer the day robots that are only nanometers billionths of a meter in length, can maneuver and perform medicine inside the human body and possibly inside human cells.

Prof. Amit Miller and a team of researchers at the Technion and Boston University have discovered a simple way to control the passage of DNA molecules through nanopore sensors. The breakthrough could lead to low-cost, ultra-fast DNA sequencing that would revolutionize healthcare and biomedical research, and spark major advances in drug development, preventative medicine and personalized medicine.

To read more Technion breakthroughs in nanotechnology, please click here.

For more information, please contact breakthroughs@ats.org.

Originally posted here:

Nanotechnology : ATS

NASA – Nanotechnology

Ultrasensitive Label-Free Electronic Biochips Based on Carbon Nanotube Nanoelectrode Arrays The potential for low-cost disposable chips for rapid molecular analysis using handheld devices is ideal for space applications. + Read More Bulk Single-walled Carbon Nanotube Growth Carbon nanotubes can play a variety of roles in future space systems, including wiring, high-strength lightweight composite materials, thermal protection and cooling systems and electronics/sensors. + Read More CAD for Miniaturized Electronics and Sensors Computer-aided design of nanoscale devices and sensors is a cost effective way to infuse emerging nanoelectronics technologies in on-board information processing. + Read More Carbon Nanotube Field Emitters We are developing Carbon Nanotube (CNT) field emitters to improve their efficiency and durability. Current densities of ~1A/cm2 have been measured from these emitters. + Read More Nanoengineered Heat Sink Materials Advanced thermal materials will radically improve the performance of devices and instruments such as high-performance computers and high power optical components used in exploration hardware. + Read More Human-Implantable Thermoelectric Devices We are developing thermoelectric power sources that will be able to generate power from even a small temperature gradient, such as temperature variations available internally and externally throughout the human body. + Read More Automatic Program Synthesis for Data Monitors and Classifiers The AutoBayes and AutoFilter program synthesis systems can automatically generate efficient, certified code for data monitors from compact specifications. The tools enable advanced on-board statistical data analysis algorithms and highly flexible ISHM. + Read More Carbon Nanotubes for Removal of Toxic Gases in Life Support Systems Single walled carbon nanotubes can greatly increase the catalytic efficiency and decrease the mass and energy requirements of life support systems on future space missions, allowing new thermal processes for waste management and resource recovery. + Read More Carbon Nanotube Sensors for Gas Detection A nanosensor technology has been developed using nanostructures: single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), combined with a silicon-based microfabrication and micromachining process. + Read More Carbon Nanotubes as Vertical Interconnects A bottom-up approach is developed to integrate vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into nanoscale vertical interconnects, which can conduct much higher currents and enable more layers for Si-based integrated circuit (IC) chips. + Read More Nanoelectronics for Logic and Memory Nanowire-based electronic devices offer great potential to implement future integrated nanoelectronic systems for both on-board computing and information storage. + Read More Nonvolatile Molecular Memory Approaching the limits in miniaturization for ultra-high density, low power consumption media, this capability may enable orders of magnitude increases in on-board data storage capabilities that are compatible with space exploration system resource limitations of mass, power and volume. + Read More Large-Scale Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Probe Tips for Space Imaging and Sensing Applications An innovative approach has been developed that combines nanopatterning and nanomaterials synthesis with traditional silicon micromachining technologies for large-scale fabrication of carbon nanotube (CNT) probe tips. + Read More Nano and Micro Fabrication Process Modeling Development of manufacturable technologies for nanoelectronics and MEMS devices for advanced computing and sensing applications presents significant challenges. + Read More Nanoelectronics for Space Extracting a signal from radiation resistant devices or nanoscale devices for NASA mission is highly challenging. We study the electrode-device contact systematically. + Read More Solid-state Nanopores for Gene Sequencing he objective of this project is to develop a revolutionary device that can sequence single molecules of nucleic acid, DNA or RNA, at a rate of a million bases per second by electrophoresis of the charged polymers through a solid-state nanopore channel of molecular dimensions. + Read More Nanoscale Mass Transport and Carbon Nanotube Based Membranes Carbon nanotube based membranes known as buckypaper may be used as filter media for analytical mission instruments or implantable device support for astronaut health monitoring. + Read More Nanotechnology at Ames The Life Sciences Division at NASA Ames Research Center conducts research and development in nanotechnology to address critical life science questions. + Read More Optoelectronics and Nanophotonics Developing smaller, faster, and more efficient lasers, detectors, and sensors through first-principle design, nanoscale engineering, and prototyping for space communications, computing, lidar ranging, and spectroscopic profiling applications. + Read More Plasma Diagnostics A standardized plasma diagnostic reactor, known as the “GEC Cell” is equipped with a wide range of diagnostics for measuring and understanding plasma physics and chemistry for a variety of low temperature plasmas + Read More Thermal, Radiation and Impact Protective Shields (TRIPS) Nanotechnology is providing new concepts for multipurpose shields against the triple threats of Aeroheating during atmospheric entry, Radiation (Solar and Galactic Cosmic Rays) and Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris (MMOD) strikes. + Read More

Continued here:

NASA – Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology – Friends of the Earth

Nanotechnology is a powerful emerging technology for engineering nature at the atomic and molecular level. Nanoparticles are infinitesimally small, about 1000 times thinner than a human hair. At this scale, familiar substances change in ways that scientists may not expect or predict, presenting new toxicity risks. A growing body of scientific data suggests that nanoparticles can be harmful to our health and to the environment.

Nanomaterials are now being used in hundreds of consumer products, from toys to clothes to toothpaste. These new products are being commercialized largely outside of public view or debate and with few regulations to protect workers, the public and the environment.

As just one example of potential concerns, studies indicate that manufactured nanomaterials used in sunscreens have the potential to harm our health. When we shower or swim, the nanoparticles in sunscreens end up in our water systems — these substances could damage microbes that are helpful to ecosystems and could be absorbed up the food chain from smaller to larger organisms.

Friends of the Earth is pushing policymakers in the U.S. and internationally to apply a precautionary approach to the regulation of nanotechnology by putting the health of people and the environment before corporate profits. We are also advocating for mandatory labeling of products that contain nanomaterials so that consumers can make informed decisions.

Friends of the Earth has published several groundbreaking reports on the prevalence and risks of nanomaterials to inform public debate and government solutions, and we work with a variety of partners around the world to monitor the increasing use of this technology and advance common principles for government oversight. We joined over 70 groups from six continents to endorse a guiding document called Principles for the Oversight of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials.

Originally posted here:

Nanotechnology – Friends of the Earth

Erie Community College :: Nanotechnology

The Nanotechnology AAS degree program is designed to help prepare students from a broad range of disciplines for careers in fields involving Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is engineering at theatomiclength scale, a size range which until recently was only available to nature. Being able to engineer such small structures opens the door to a multitude of new opportunities in the fields of electronic and semiconductor fabrication technology, micro-technology labs, material science labs, chemical technology, biotechnology, biopharmaceutical technology, and environmental science.

Students will study electronic device and circuit behavior, basic chemistry and fabrication techniques used to create micron and submicron scale structures. Techniques covered include reactive ion etching, metallization, thick and thin film deposition and photolithography.

Graduates will enter the job market with the skills necessary for positions in the following areas:

Upon graduation with an Associate in Applied Science degree in Nanotechnology, the graduate will be qualified in working with the following items and their associated tasks:

Total Degree Credits: 63.0

First Year, Fall Semester NS 100 – Introduction to Nanotechnology Credit Hours: 3 BI 110 – Biology I Credit Hours: 3 BI 115 – Laboratory for BI 110 Credit Hours: 1.5 EL 118 – Electrical Circuits I Credit Hours: 2 EN 110 – College Composition Credit Hours: 3 MT 125 – College Mathematics Credit Hours: 4

First Year, Spring Semester CH 180 – University Chemistry I Credit Hours: 3 CH 181 – Lab for CH 180 Credit Hours: 1.5 MT 126 – College Mathematics II Credit Hours: 4 PH 270 – College Physics I Credit Hours: 4.5 PH 271 – Lab for PH 270 Credit Hours: (Included in the 4.5 credit hours for PH 270) Social Science or Humanities Elective Credit Hours: 3

Second Year, Fall Semester NS 201 – Materials, Safety and Equipment Overview for Nanotechnology Credit Hours: 3 EL 158 – Electrical Circuits II Credit Hours: 3 EL 159 – Lab for EL 158 Credit Hours: 1 PH 272 – College Physics II Credit Hours: 4.5 PH 273 – Lab for PH 272 Credit Hours: (Included in the 4.5 credit hours for PH 272) Approved Elective Credit Hours: 4*

Second Year, Spring Semester NS 202 – Basic Nanotechnology Processes Credit Hours: 3 NS 203 – Characterization of Nanotechnology Structures and Materials Credit Hours: 3 NS 204 – Materials in Nanotechnology Credit Hours: 3 NS 205 – Patterning for Nanotechnology Credit Hours: 3 NS 206 – Vacuum Systems and Nanotechnology Applications Credit Hours: 3

*Approved Electives: BI 230/231 Microbiology and Lab (4 credits); CH 182/183 University Chemistry II and Lab (4.5 credits); EL 154/155 Electronics I and Lab (4 credits); IT 126 Statistical Process Control (3 credits) and IT 210 Industrial Inspection/Metrology(2 credits); MT 143 Introductory Statistics I (4 credits); MT 180 Pre-Calculus Mathematics (4 credits)

More here:

Erie Community College :: Nanotechnology

Learn About Nanotechnology in Cancer

Nanotechnologythe science and engineering of controlling matter, at the molecular scale, to create devices with novel chemical, physical and/or biological propertieshas the potential to radically change how we diagnose and treat cancer. Although scientists and engineers have only recently (ca. 1980’s) developed the ability to industrialize technologies at this scale, there has been good progress in translating nano-based cancer therapies and diagnostics into the clinic and many more are in development.

Nanoscale objectstypically, although not exclusively, with dimensions smaller than 100 nanometerscan be useful by themselves or as part of larger devices containing multiple nanoscale objects. Nanotechnology is being applied to almost every field imaginable including biosciences, electronics, magnetics, optics, information technology, and materials development, all of which have an impact on biomedicine. Explore the world of nanotechnology

Nanotechnology can provide rapid and sensitive detection of cancer-related targets, enabling scientists to detect molecular changes even when they occur only in a small percentage of cells. Nanotechnology also has the potential to generate unique and highly effective theraputic agents. Learn about nanotechnology in cancer research

The use of nanotechnology for diagnosis and treatment of cancer is largely still in the development phase. However, there are already several nanocarrier-based drugs on the market and many more nano-based therapeutics in clinical trials. Read about current developments

Here is the original post:

Learn About Nanotechnology in Cancer

Nanotechnology – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on a near-atomic scale to produce new structures, materials and devices. The technology promises scientific advancement in many sectors such as medicine, consumer products, energy, materials and manufacturing. Nanotechnology is generally defined as engineered structures, devices, and systems. Nanomaterials are defined as those things that have a length scale between 1 and 100 nanometers. At this size, materials begin to exhibit unique properties that affect physical, chemical, and biological behavior. Researching, developing, and utilizing these properties is at the heart of new technology.

Workers within nanotechnology-related industries have the potential to be exposed to uniquely engineered materials with novel sizes, shapes, and physical and chemical properties. Occupational health risks associated with manufacturing and using nanomaterials are not yet clearly understood. Minimal information is currently available on dominant exposure routes, potential exposure levels, and material toxicity of nanomaterials.

Studies have indicated that low solubility nanoparticles are more toxic than larger particles on a mass for mass basis. There are strong indications that particle surface area and surface chemistry are responsible for observed responses in cell cultures and animals. Studies suggests that some nanoparticles can move from the respiratory system to other organs. Research is continuing to understand how these unique properties may lead to specific health effects.

NIOSH leads the federal government nanotechnology initiative. Research and activities are coordinated through the NIOSH Nanotechnology Research Center (NTRC) established in 2004.

See the article here:

Nanotechnology – Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Ethics of Nanotechnology – Santa Clara University

Introduction

Imagine a world in which cars can be assembled molecule-by-molecule, garbage can be disassembled and turned into beef steaks, and people can be operated on and healed by cell-sized robots. Sound like science fiction? Well, with current semiconductor chip manufacturing encroaching upon the nanometer scale and the ability to move individual atoms at the IBM Almaden laboratory, we are fast approaching the technological ability to fabricate productive machines and devices that can manipulate things at the atomic level. From this ability we will be able to develop molecular-sized computers and robots, which would give us unprecedented control over matter and the ability to shape the physical world as we see fit. Some may see it as pure fantasy, but others speculate that it is an inevitability that will be the beginning of the next technological revolution.

Laboratories, such as the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility (SNF), have already been researching nanofabrication techniques with applications in fiber optics, biotechnology, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and wide variety of other research fields relevant to today’s technology. MEMS, “tiny mechanical devices such as sensors, valves, gears, mirrors, and actuators embedded in semiconductor chips”, are particularly interesting because they are but a mere step away from the molecular machines envisioned by nanotechnology. MEMS are already being used in automobile airbag systems as accelerometers to detect collisions and will become an increasing part of our everyday technology.

In 1986, a researcher from MIT named K. Eric Drexler already foresaw the advent of molecular machines and published a book, Engines of Creation, in which he outlined the possibilities and consequences of this emerging field, which he called nanotechnology. He was inspired by Nobel laureate Richard Feynman’s 1959 lecture, There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, about miniaturization down to the atomic scale. Since then, Drexler has written numerous other books on the subject, such as Unbounding the Future, and has founded the Foresight Institute, which is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the responsible development of nanotechnology. It hosts conferences and competitions to raise the awareness of nanotechnology and the ethical issues involved in its development.

Today, nanotechnology research and development is quite wide spread, although not high profile yet. Numerous universities, such as Univ. of Washington and Northwestern Univ., have established centers and institutes to study nanotechnology, and the U.S. government has created an organization, the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), to monitor and guide research and development in this field. In fact, as noted in an April 2001 Computerworld article, the Bush administration increased funding to nanoscale science research by 16% through its National Science Foundation (NSF) budget increase. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) and the NSF are currently the two largest sources of funding for nanotechnology research and have an enormous influence on the direction of scientific research done in the United States. With so many resources dedicated to its development, nanotechnology will surely have an impact within our lifetime, so it is important to examine its ethical implications while it is still in its infancy.

What is Nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology, also called molecular manufacturing, is “a branch of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small electronic circuits and mechanical devices built at the molecular level of matter.” [Whatis.com] The goal of nanotechnology is to be able to manipulate materials at the atomic level to build the smallest possible electromechanical devices, given the physical limitations of matter. Much of the mechanical systems we know how to build will be transferred to the molecular level as some atomic analogy. (see nanogear animation on the right)

As envisioned by Drexler, as well as many others, this would lead to nanocomputers no bigger than bacteria and nanomachines, also known as nanites (from Star Trek: The Next Generation), which could be used as a molecular assemblers and disassemblers to build, repair, or tear down any physical or biological objects.

In essence, the purpose of developing nanotechnology is to have tools to work on the molecular level analogous to the tools we have at the macroworld level. Like the robots we use to build cars and the construction equipment we use to build skyscrapers, nanomachines will enable us to create a plethora of goods and increase our engineering abilities to the limits of the physical world.

Potential Benefits…

It would not take much of a leap, then, to imagine disassemblers dismantling garbage to be recycled at the molecular level, and then given to assemblers for them to build atomically perfect engines. Stretching this vision a bit, you can imagine a Star Trek type replicator which could reassemble matter in the form of a juicy steak, given the correct blueprints and organization of these nanomachines.

Just given the basic premises of nanotechnology, you can imagine the vast potential of this technology. Some of it’s more prominent benefits would be:

Along with all the obvious manufacturing benefits, there are also many potential medical and environmental benefits. With nanomachines, we could better design and synthesize pharmaceuticals; we could directly treat diseased cells like cancer; we could better monitor the life signs of a patient; or we could use nanomachines to make microscopic repairs in hard-to-operate-on areas of the body. With regard to the environment, we could use nanomachines to clean up toxins or oil spills, recycle all garbage, and eliminate landfills, thus reducing our natural resource consumption.

Potential Dangers…

The flip side to these benefits is the possibility of assemblers and disassemblers being used to create weapons, be used as weapons themselves, or for them to run wild and wreak havoc. Other, less invasive, but equally perilous uses of nanotechnology would be in electronic surveillance.

Weapons are an obvious negative use of nanotechnology. Simply extending today’s weapon capabilities by miniaturizing guns, explosives, and electronic components of missiles would be deadly enough. However, with nanotechnology, armies could also develop disassemblers to attack physical structures or even biological organism at the molecular level. A similar hazard would be if general purpose disassemblers got loose in the environment and started disassembling every molecule they encountered. This is known as “The Gray Goo Scenario.” Furthermore, if nanomachines were created to be self replicating and there were a problem with their limiting mechanism, they would multiply endlessly like viruses. Even without considering the extreme disaster scenarios of nanotechnology, we can find plenty of potentially harmful uses for it. It could be used to erode our freedom and privacy; people could use molecular sized microphones, cameras, and homing beacons to monitor and track others.

Ethical Issues & Analysis

With such awesome potential dangers inherent in nanotechnology, we must seriously examine its potential consequences. Granted, nanotechnology may never become as powerful and prolific as envisioned by its evangelists, but as with any potential, near-horizon technology, we should go through the exercise of formulating solutions to potential ethical issues before the technology is irreversibly adopted by society. We must examine the ethics of developing nanotechnology and create policies that will aid in its development so as to eliminate or at least minimize its damaging effects on society.

Ethical Decision Making Worksheet

Most relevant facts

We are reaching a critical point where technology will enable us to build complex molecular machines. Molecular assemblers and disassemblers could be developed from this technology, which would have great potential for both good and bad. The two greatest threats from development of nanotechnology are catastrophic accidents and misuse.

Professional Issues

Legal/Policy Issues

Ethical Issues

Stakeholders

Possible Actions

Consequences

Individual Rights/Fairness

The second and third options seem to be the most prudent course of action since the second option is commonly done now for emerging technologies and the third option consciously prevents designs that could lead to the catastrophic scenarios.

Common Good

The second and third options also seem to advance the most common good since the second option involves promoting ethics within the research community and the third option is a set of design principles to discourage unethical or accidental uses of nanotechnology.

Final Decision

Nanotechnology research should be allowed to continue but with a non-government advisory council to monitor the research and help formulate ethical guidelines and policies. Generally, nanomachines should NOT be designed to be general purpose, self replicating, or to be able to use an abundant natural compound as fuel. Furthermore, complex nanomachines should be tagged with a radioactive isotope so as to allow them to be tracked in case they are lost.

Conclusion

It would be difficult to deny the potential benefits of nanotechnology and stop development of research related to it since it has already begun to penetrate many different fields of research. However, nanotechnology can be developed using guidelines to insure that the technology does not become too potentially harmful. As with any new technology, it is impossible to stop every well funded organization who may seek to develop the technology for harmful purposes. However, if the researchers in this field put together an ethical set of guidelines (e.g. Molecular Nanotechnology Guidelines) and follow them, then we should be able to develop nanotechnology safely while still reaping its promised benefits.

References

Drexler, K. Eric Engines of Creation. New York: Anchor Books, 1986.

Drexler, K. Eric Unbounding the Future. New York: Quill, 1991.

Feynman, Richard P. There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom. 03 March 2002. http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html

The Foresight Institute. 03 March 2002. http://www.foresight.org/

Institute for Molecular Manufacturing. 03 March 2002. IMM.org

National Nanotechnology Initiative. 03 March 2002. http://www.nano.gov/

Thibodeau, Patrick. “Nanotech, IT research given boost in Bush budget”. 03 March 2002. (April 11, 2001) CNN.com

[Definitions]. 03 March 2002. Whatis.com

View original post here:

The Ethics of Nanotechnology – Santa Clara University

Nanotechnology News Conferences and Careers

Nanotechnology

is the manipulation of matter one atom or molecule at a time to make tiny structures or tools with one or more dimensions between one and 100 nanometers (a billionth of a meter). Many nanotech devices are made of new materials and some self-assemble. Some use conventional (Newtonian) physics and quantum mechanics, where physical properties can change in unexpected ways. Nanotech applications include biology and medicine, electronics, mechanics, photonics, and ion transport.

Read the original post:

Nanotechnology News Conferences and Careers

Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

King maleparan a kabaldugan, ing nanotechnology tutunggen ne ing metung a larangan ning siyensiyang magagamit (applied science) ampong teknolohiyang, a makaparikil king pamagkontrol o pamanagin king pekasangkap (matter) king degulan o lebel ning atom ampong molecule, keraklan manibat metung (1) anggang dinalan (100) a nanometer, ampo i ing pamangawa kareng gamit a makanyan la dagul deng pekamaulaga dang parti/dake.

Iti metung yang larangan a tutung multidisciplinary (tatagkil kareng miyayaliwang larangan): mandam ya king pisikang megamit, siensia da reng panyangkap (materials science), w:interface and colloid science, device physics w:supramolecular chemistry (ing dake ning kimikang manigaral king pamiugnayan dang noncovalent deng molecule, w:self-replicating machine at saka w:robotics, w:chemical engineering, w:mechanical engineering, w:biological engineering, ampong w:electrical engineering. Maragul ing dibati nung nanu ing lualan ning pamamanyaliksik kareng karinan a reti. Maliari yang lon ing nanotechnology antimong pamaglub o pamituglung da reng siensia king nanoscale o lebel a misnang latiktik, o antimong pamaniamasan king kabaldugan da reng siensiang atku na ba yang mas bayu at bage king salukuyan.

Adua la reng manimunang magagamit a paralan (approaches) king nanotechnology. Ketang paralan a “bottom-up” (manibatan lalam), mititikdo la reng sangkap (materials) ampong gamit (devices) ibat kareng dakeng (component) gawa kareng molecule, at miyugne-ugne la reti at mititikdo kapamilatan da reng prinsipiu ning pamangilala kareng molecule. Keta namang paralan a “top-down” (manibatan babo), mititikdo la reng nano-objects o bageng misnang latiktik ibat kareng gamit a mas maragul a e la matatagin deti king lebel a pang-atom. Linto ing nanotechnology uli ning mibayung interes king interface and colloid science, kayabe ing bayung dai o henerasiun da reng kasangkapan king pamagaral antimo ing atomic force microscope (AFM), ampo ing scanning tunneling microscope (STM). Kayagum la reng prosesu antimo ing w:electron beam lithography ampo ing molecular beam epitaxy, gewa rang posibling deng gamit a reti ing sasarian a pamanagin kareng misnang latiktik a bage (nanostructures), at uli na niti, dakal a bayung kapaliarian (novel phenomena) a mesuri.

Kayabe la kareng alimbawa ning nanotechnology deng pamangawa da reng polymer basi king pangabalangkas a molecular, ampo ing pamagdiseniu king planu o layout da reng computer chip basi king surface science. LIpat ning maragul a pangaku da reng dakal a uri ning nanotechnology, kayabe no reng quantum dot ampong nanotube, keraklan, den pamung komersial a gamit ning teknolohiyang iti keta pamung pamangamit da reng colloidal o marayuput a nanoparticle a tsarakal, antimo king suntan lotion, cosmetics (pakasanting itsura), balut a pangambil, panatad panulu,[1] ampong imalan a e mimamantsan.

Read the original:

Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

Nanotechnology – University of Nevada, Reno

Understanding systems and processes that occur at the nanoscale requires specialized knowledge.Objects that can be measured in nanometers are far too small for the human eye to see, and even a typical microscope isn’t powerful enough. For example, a human fingernail grows at the rate of about one nanometer per second. At this tiny scale, objects may have different physical properties than their larger-scale counterparts. These new properties present new opportunities for researchers, but understanding them requires specialized coursework.

The interdisciplinary program in nanotechnology is open to all students, although it is geared towards students in engineering and science fields who seek specialization in the science and technology of processes, systems, and phenomena that occur at the nanometer size scale. The significant disciplinary overlap of these topics and issues makes it important for students studying these specialized areas to gain an interdisciplinary perspective, which can be used to complement their knowledge and skills in their major field of study.

Visit link:

Nanotechnology – University of Nevada, Reno

About Nanotechnology – An Introduction to Nanotech from The …

Nanotechnology has enormous potential to change society. An estimated global research and development investment of nearly $9 billion per year is anticipated to lead to new medical treatments and tools; more efficient energy production, storage and transmission; better access to clean water; more effective pollution reduction and prevention; and stronger, lighter materials. And these are just a few of the more significant ways in which people are discussing using the technology. Learn more about nanotechnology with our introduction, or click on one of the articles below to begin exploring the subject in detail.

The rest is here:

About Nanotechnology – An Introduction to Nanotech from The …

Nanotechnology | definition of nanotechnology by Medical …

.

[-teknolj]

technology at the level of atoms, molecules, and molecular fragments, including manipulating them and creating new structures.

The scientific study and engineering of chemical or biological objects measuring between 1 and 1000 nanometers. Objects this small are about the size of atoms or small molecules. Wet nanotechnology is the manipulation of organic or biological compounds in solution. Dry nanotechnology is the engineering of objects on silicon or carbon surfaces, such as those used in computing.

Link to this page: nanotechnology

Read more here:

Nanotechnology | definition of nanotechnology by Medical …

Contrib – Submit your Framework and Build your next …

Contrib is the new way to contribute and get equity building the world’s biggest brands and startups. Contribute and earn cash and equity. We have our own Developers platform, simple api stuff that’s a-b-c to you, which we use to build quick platforms for our verticals. Learn More

Get more out of your application by submitting it to us and integrate it into any of our premium brands instantly.

If you’re a developer and you believe that you can contribute good code, then do join our initiative.

Browse our initial frameworks set and learn how easy it is to create and implement.

Link:

Contrib – Submit your Framework and Build your next …

Nanotechnology News – Nanoscience, Nanotechnolgy, Nanotech …

13 hours ago feature

(Phys.org)A new study shows that a swarm of hundreds of thousands of tiny microbots, each smaller than the width of a human hair, can be deployed into industrial wastewater to absorb and remove toxic heavy metals. The …

13 hours ago

A team of scientists from the University of Exeter have created a new type of device that could be used to develop cost-effective gas sensors.

13 hours ago

In order for touchscreens on smartphones and tablets to function, microscopically fine conductor paths are required on their surfaces. When the users’ fingers tip on or wipe over them, electrical circuits open and close, …

16 hours ago

By using innovative magnetic materials, an international collaborative of researchers has made a breakthrough in the development of microwave detectors devices that can sense weak microwave signals used for mobile communications, …

Apr 08, 2016

For more than a decade, biomedical researchers have been looking for better ways to deliver cancer-killing medication directly to tumors in the body. Tiny capsules, called nanoparticles, are now being used to transport chemotherapy …

Apr 08, 2016

Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal …

Apr 08, 2016

Our current understanding of how the brain works is very poor. The electrical signals travel around the brain and throughout the body, and the electrical properties of the biological tissues are studied using electrophysiology. …

Apr 08, 2016

A spy. A teacher. A bodyguard. That, in a nutshell, describes the different functions of a nanoparticle invented at the University at Buffalo that can improve therapies for autoimmune diseases, genetic disorders and other …

Apr 07, 2016

The transistor is the most fundamental building block of electronics, used to build circuits capable of amplifying electrical signals or switching them between the 0s and 1s at the heart of digital computation. Transistor …

Apr 07, 2016

Nanoparticles designed to block a cell-surface molecule that plays a key role in inflammation could be a safe treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to researchers in the Institute for Biomedical Sciences …

Read the original here:

Nanotechnology News – Nanoscience, Nanotechnolgy, Nanotech …


12345...102030...