Canary Islands – Wikipedia

The Canary Islands (; Spanish: Islas Canarias [izlas kanajas], locally:[ila kanaja]), also known as the Canaries (Spanish: Canarias), are an archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located on the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres (62 miles) west of Morocco. The Canaries are among the outermost regions (OMR) of the European Union proper. It is also one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government.[3][4]

The main islands are (from largest to smallest) Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago also includes a number of islands and islets: La Graciosa, Alegranza, Isla de Lobos, Montaa Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este. In ancient times, the island chain was often referred to as “the Fortunate Isles”.[5] The Canary Islands is the most southerly region of Spain. The Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.[6]

The archipelago’s beaches, climate and important natural attractions, especially Maspalomas in Gran Canaria and Teide National Park and Mount Teide (a World Heritage Site) in Tenerife (the third tallest volcano in the world measured from its base on the ocean floor), make it a major tourist destination with over 12million visitors per year, especially Gran Canaria, Tenerife, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote.[7][8] The islands have a subtropical climate, with long warm summers and moderately warm winters.[9] The precipitation levels and the level of maritime moderation varies depending on location and elevation. Green areas as well as desert exist on the archipelago. Due to their location above the temperature inversion layer, the high mountains of these islands are ideal for astronomical observation. For this reason, two professional observatories, Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife and Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma, have been built on the islands.

The capital of the Autonomous Community is shared by the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria,[10][11] which in turn are the capitals of the provinces of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Province of Las Palmas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria has been the largest city in the Canaries since 1768, except for a brief period in the 1910s.[12] Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands. In 1927 a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains at present.[13][14] The third largest city of the Canary Islands is San Cristbal de La Laguna (a World Heritage Site) on Tenerife.[15][16][17] This city is also home to the Consejo Consultivo de Canarias, which is the supreme consultative body of the Canary Islands.[18]

During the times of the Spanish Empire the Canaries were the main stopover for Spanish galleons on their way to the Americas, who came south to catch the prevailing north east trade winds.[19][20]

The name Islas Canarias is likely derived from the Latin name Canariae Insulae, meaning “Islands of the Dogs”, a name applied originally only to Gran Canaria. According to the historian Pliny the Elder, the Mauretanian king Juba II named the island Canaria because it contained “vast multitudes of dogs of very large size”.[21]

Another speculation is that the so-called dogs were actually a species of monk seal (canis marinus or “sea dog” was a Latin term for “seal”[22]), critically endangered and no longer present in the Canary Islands.[23] The dense population of seals may have been the characteristic that most struck the few ancient Romans who established contact with these islands by sea.

Alternatively, it is said that the original inhabitants of the island, Guanches, used to worship dogs, mummified them and treated dogs generally as holy animals.[24] The ancient Greeks also knew about a people, living far to the west, who are the “dog-headed ones”, who worshipped dogs on an island.[24] Some hypothesize that the Canary Islands dog-worship and the ancient Egyptian cult of the dog-headed god, Anubis are closely connected[25] but there is no explanation given as to which one was first.

Other theories speculate that the name comes from the Nukkari Berber tribe living in the Moroccan Atlas, named in Roman sources as Canarii, though Pliny again mentions the relation of this term with dogs.[citation needed]

The connection to dogs is retained in their depiction on the islands’ coat-of-arms (shown above).

It is considered that the aborigines of Gran Canaria called themselves “Canarii”. It is possible that after being conquered, this name was used in plural in Spanish i.e. -as to refer to all of the islands as the Canarii-as

What is certain is that the name of the islands does not derive from the canary bird; rather, the birds are named after the islands.

Tenerife is the most populous island, and also the largest island of the archipelago. Gran Canaria, with 865,070 inhabitants, is both the Canary Islands’ second most populous island, and the third most populous one in Spain after Majorca. The island of Fuerteventura is the second largest in the archipelago and located 100km (62mi) from the African coast.

The islands form the Macaronesia ecoregion with the Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira, and the Savage Isles. The Canary Islands is the largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.[6] The archipelago consists of seven large and several smaller islands, all of which are volcanic in origin.[26] The Teide volcano on Tenerife is the highest mountain in Spain, and the third tallest volcano on Earth on a volcanic ocean island. All the islands except La Gomera have been active in the last million years; four of them (Lanzarote, Tenerife, La Palma and El Hierro) have historical records of eruptions since European discovery. The islands rise from Jurassic oceanic crust associated with the opening of the Atlantic. Underwater magmatism commenced during the Cretaceous, and reached the ocean’s surface during the Miocene. The islands are considered as a distinct physiographic section of the Atlas Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger African Alpine System division.

In the summer of 2011 a series of low-magnitude earthquakes occurred beneath El Hierro. These had a linear trend of northeast-southwest. In October a submarine eruption occurred about 2km (114mi) south of Restinga. This eruption produced gases and pumice, but no explosive activity was reported.

According to the position of the islands with respect to the north-east trade winds, the climate can be mild and wet or very dry. Several native species form laurisilva forests.

As a consequence, the individual islands in the Canary archipelago tend to have distinct microclimates. Those islands such as El Hierro, La Palma and La Gomera lying to the west of the archipelago have a climate which is influenced by the moist Gulf Stream. They are well vegetated even at low levels and have extensive tracts of sub-tropical laurisilva forest. As one travels east toward the African coast, the influence of the gulf stream diminishes, and the islands become increasingly arid. Fuerteventura and Lanzarote the islands which are closest to the African mainland are effectively desert or semi desert. Gran Canaria is known as a “continent in miniature” for its diverse landscapes like Maspalomas and Roque Nublo. In terms of its climate Tenerife is particularly interesting. The north of the island lies under the influence of the moist Atlantic winds and is well vegetated, while the south of the island around the tourist resorts of Playa de las Americas and Los Cristianos is arid. The island rises to almost 4,000m (13,000ft) above sea level, and at altitude, in the cool relatively wet climate, forests of the endemic pine Pinus canariensis thrive. Many of the plant species in the Canary Islands, like the Canary Island pine and the dragon tree, Dracaena draco are endemic, as noted by Sabin Berthelot and Philip Barker Webb in their epic work, L’Histoire Naturelle des les Canaries (183550).

Four of Spain’s thirteen national parks are located in the Canary Islands, more than any other autonomous community. Teide National Park is the most visited in Spain, and the oldest and largest within the Canary Islands. The parks are:

The following table shows the highest mountains in each of the islands:

The climate is subtropical and desertic, moderated by the sea and in summer by the trade winds. There are a number of microclimates and the classifications range mainly from semi-arid to desert. According to the Kppen climate classification,[27] the majority of the Canary Islands have a hot desert climate represented as BWh. There also exists a subtropical humid climate which is very influenced by the ocean in the middle of the islands of La Gomera, Tenerife and La Palma; where the laurisilva forests grow.

The seven major islands, one minor island, and several small islets were originally volcanic islands, formed by the Canary hotspot. The Canary Islands is the only place in Spain where volcanic eruptions have been recorded during the Modern Era, with some volcanoes still active (El Hierro, 2011).[35] Volcanic islands such as those in the Canary chain often have steep ocean cliffs caused by catastrophic debris avalanches and landslides.[36]

The Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands consists of two provinces, Las Palmas and Santa Cruz de Tenerife, whose capitals (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife) are capitals of the autonomous community. Each of the seven major islands is ruled by an island council named Cabildo Insular.

The international boundary of the Canaries is the subject of dispute between Spain and Morocco. Morocco’s official position is that international laws regarding territorial limits do not authorise Spain to claim seabed boundaries based on the territory of the Canaries, since the Canary Islands enjoy a high degree of autonomy. In fact, the islands do not enjoy any special degree of autonomy as each one of the Spanish regions is considered an autonomous community. Under the Law of the Sea, the only islands not granted territorial waters or an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) are those that are not fit for human habitation or do not have an economic life of their own, which is clearly not the case of the Canary Islands.[citation needed]

The boundary determines the ownership of seabed oil deposits and other ocean resources. Morocco and Spain have therefore been unable to agree on a compromise regarding the territorial boundary, since neither nation wants to cede its claimed right to the vast resources whose ownership depends upon the boundary. In 2002, for example, Morocco rejected a unilateral Spanish proposal.[37]

The Islands have 13 seats in the Spanish Senate. Of these, 11 seats are directly elected, 3 for Gran Canaria, 3 for Tenerife, 1 for each other island; 2 seats are indirectly elected by the regional Autonomous Government. The local government is presided over by Fernando Clavijo, the current President of the Canary Islands.[38]

Before the arrival of humans, the Canaries were inhabited by prehistoric animals; for example, the giant lizard (Gallotia goliath) and the Tenerife and Gran Canaria giant rats.[39]

The islands were visited by the Phoenicians, the Greeks, and the Carthaginians. According to the first century Roman author and philosopher Pliny the Elder, the archipelago was found to be uninhabited when visited by the Carthaginians under Hanno the Navigator, but that they saw ruins of great buildings.[40] This story may suggest that the islands were inhabited by other peoples prior to the Guanches. King Juba II, Augustus’s Numidian protg, is credited with discovering the islands for the Western world. He dispatched a naval contingent to re-open the dye production facility at Mogador in what is now western Morocco in the early first century Common Era.[41] That same naval force was subsequently sent on an exploration of the Canary Islands, using Mogador as their mission base.

The Romans named the islands Ninguaria or Nivaria (Tenerife), Canaria (Gran Canaria), Pluvialia or Invale (Lanzarote), Ombrion (La Palma), Planasia (Fuerteventura), Iunonia or Junonia (El Hierro) and Capraria (La Gomera).

When the Europeans began to explore the islands in the late Middle Ages, they encountered several indigenous peoples living at a Neolithic level of technology. Although the prehistory of the settlement of the Canary Islands is still unclear, linguistic and genetic analyses seem to indicate that at least some of these inhabitants shared a common origin with the Berbers of the Maghreb.[42] The pre-colonial inhabitants came to be known collectively as the Guanches, although Guanches was originally the name for only the indigenous inhabitants of Tenerife.[43] From the 14th century onward, numerous visits were made by sailors from Majorca, Portugal and Genoa. Lancelotto Malocello settled on Lanzarote in 1312. The Majorcans established a mission with a bishop in the islands that lasted from 1350 to 1400.

There may have been a Portuguese expedition that attempted to colonise the islands as early as 1336, but there is not enough hard evidence to support this. In 1402, the Castilian conquest of the islands began, with the expedition of French explorers Jean de Bthencourt and Gadifer de la Salle, nobles and vassals of Henry III of Castile, to Lanzarote. From there, they conquered Fuerteventura (1405) and El Hierro. Bthencourt received the title King of the Canary Islands, but still recognised King Henry III as his overlord.

Bthencourt also established a base on the island of La Gomera, but it would be many years before the island was truly conquered. The natives of La Gomera, and of Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and La Palma, resisted the Castilian invaders for almost a century. In 1448 Maciot de Bthencourt sold the lordship of Lanzarote to Portugal’s Prince Henry the Navigator, an action that was not accepted by the natives nor by the Castilians. Despite Pope Nicholas V ruling that the Canary Islands were under Portuguese control, a crisis swelled to a revolt which lasted until 1459 with the final expulsion of the Portuguese. In 1479, Portugal and Castile signed the Treaty of Alcovas. The treaty settled disputes between Castile and Portugal over the control of the Atlantic, in which Castilian control of the Canary Islands was recognised but which also confirmed Portuguese possession of the Azores, Madeira, the Cape Verde islands and gave them rights to lands discovered and to be discovered … and any other island which might be found and conquered from the Canary islands beyond toward Guinea.

The Castilians continued to dominate the islands, but due to the topography and the resistance of the native Guanches, complete pacification was not achieved until 1495, when Tenerife and La Palma were finally subdued by Alonso Fernndez de Lugo. After that, the Canaries were incorporated into the Kingdom of Castile.

After the conquest, the Castilians imposed a new economic model, based on single-crop cultivation: first sugarcane; then wine, an important item of trade with England. In this era, the first institutions of colonial government were founded. Both Gran Canaria, a colony of the Crown of Castile since March 6, 1480 (from 1556, of Spain), and Tenerife, a Spanish colony since 1495, had separate governors.

The cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria became a stopping point for the Spanish conquerors, traders, and missionaries on their way to the New World. This trade route brought great prosperity to some of the social sectors of the islands. The islands became quite wealthy and soon were attracting merchants and adventurers from all over Europe. Magnificent palaces and churches were built on La Palma during this busy, prosperous period. The Church of El Salvador survives as one of the island’s finest examples of the architecture of the 16th century.

The Canaries’ wealth invited attacks by pirates and privateers. Ottoman Turkish admiral and privateer Kemal Reis ventured into the Canaries in 1501, while Murat Reis the Elder captured Lanzarote in 1585.

The most severe attack took place in 1599, during the Dutch Revolt. A Dutch fleet of 74 ships and 12,000 men, commanded by Pieter van der Does, attacked the capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (the city had 3,500 of Gran Canaria’s 8,545 inhabitants). The Dutch attacked the Castillo de la Luz, which guarded the harbor. The Canarians evacuated civilians from the city, and the Castillo surrendered (but not the city). The Dutch moved inland, but Canarian cavalry drove them back to Tamaraceite, near the city.

The Dutch then laid siege to the city, demanding the surrender of all its wealth. They received 12 sheep and 3 calves. Furious, the Dutch sent 4,000 soldiers to attack the Council of the Canaries, who were sheltering in the village of Santa Brgida. 300 Canarian soldiers ambushed the Dutch in the village of Monte Lentiscal, killing 150 and forcing the rest to retreat. The Dutch concentrated on Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, attempting to burn it down. The Dutch pillaged Maspalomas, on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, San Sebastin on La Gomera, and Santa Cruz on La Palma, but eventually gave up the siege of Las Palmas and withdrew.

In 1618 the Barbary pirates attacked Lanzarote and La Gomera taking 1000 captives to be sold as slaves.[44] Another noteworthy attack occurred in 1797, when Santa Cruz de Tenerife was attacked by a British fleet under Horatio Nelson on 25 July. The British were repulsed, losing almost 400 men. It was during this battle that Nelson lost his right arm.

The sugar-based economy of the islands faced stiff competition from Spain’s American colonies. Low prices in the sugar market in the 19th century caused severe recessions on the islands. A new cash crop, cochineal (cochinilla), came into cultivation during this time, saving the islands’ economy.

By the end of the 18th century, Canary Islanders had already emigrated to Spanish American territories, such as Havana, Veracruz, Santo Domingo,[45]San Antonio, Texas[46] and St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.[47][48] These economic difficulties spurred mass emigration, primarily to the Americas, during the 19th and first half of the 20th century. Between 1840 and 1890 as many as 40,000 Canary Islanders emigrated to Venezuela. Also, thousands of Canarians moved to Puerto Rico where the Spanish monarchy felt that Canarians would adapt to island life better than other immigrants from the mainland of Spain. Deeply entrenched traditions, such as the Mascaras Festival in the town of Hatillo, Puerto Rico, are an example of Canarian culture still preserved in Puerto Rico. Similarly, many thousands of Canarians emigrated to the shores of Cuba.[49] During the SpanishAmerican War of 1898, the Spanish fortified the islands against possible American attack, but an attack never came.

Sirera and Renn (2004)[50] distinguish two different types of expeditions, or voyages, during the period 17701830, which they term “the Romantic period”:

First are “expeditions financed by the States, closely related with the official scientific Institutions. characterised by having strict scientific objectives (and inspired by) the spirit of Illustration and progress”. In this type of expedition, Sirera and Renn include the following travellers:

The second type of expedition identified by Sirera and Renn is one that took place starting from more or less private initiatives. Among these, the key exponents were the following:

Sirera and Renn identify the period 17701830 as one in which “In a panorama dominated until that moment by France and England enters with strength and brio Germany of the Romantic period whose presence in the islands will increase”.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the British introduced a new cash-crop, the banana, the export of which was controlled by companies such as Fyffes.

The rivalry between the elites of the cities of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife for the capital of the islands led to the division of the archipelago into two provinces in 1927. This has not laid to rest the rivalry between the two cities, which continues to this day.

During the time of the Second Spanish Republic, Marxist and anarchist workers’ movements began to develop, led by figures such as Jose Miguel Perez and Guillermo Ascanio. However, outside of a few municipalities, these organisations were a minority and fell easily to Nationalist forces during the Spanish Civil War.

In 1936, Francisco Franco was appointed General Commandant of the Canaries. He joined the military revolt of July 17 which began the Spanish Civil War. Franco quickly took control of the archipelago, except for a few points of resistance on La Palma and in the town of Vallehermoso, on La Gomera. Though there was never a proper war in the islands, the post-war suppression of political dissent on the Canaries was most severe.[51]

During the Second World War, Winston Churchill prepared plans for the British seizure of the Canary Islands as a naval base, in the event of Gibraltar being invaded from the Spanish mainland.

Opposition to Franco’s regime did not begin to organise until the late 1950s, which experienced an upheaval of parties such as the Communist Party of Spain and the formation of various nationalist, leftist parties.

After the death of Franco, there was a pro-independence armed movement based in Algeria, the Movement for the Independence and Self-determination of the Canaries Archipelago (MAIAC). In 1968, the Organisation of African Unity recognized the MAIAC as a legitimate African independence movement, and declared the Canary Islands as an African territory still under foreign rule.[52]

Currently, there are some pro-independence political parties, like the CNC and the Popular Front of the Canary Islands, but these parties are non-violent, and their popular support is almost insignificant, with no presence in either the autonomous parliament or the cabildos insulares.

After the establishment of a democratic constitutional monarchy in Spain, autonomy was granted to the Canaries via a law passed in 1982. In 1983, the first autonomous elections were held. The Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party (PSOE) won. In the 2007 elections, the PSOE gained a plurality of seats, but the nationalist Canarian Coalition and the conservative Partido Popular (PP) formed a ruling coalition government.[53]

According to “Centro de Investigaciones Sociolgicas” (Sociological Research Center) in 2010, 43.5% of the population of the Canary Islands feels more Canarian than Spanish (37.6%), only Canarian (7.6%), compared to 5.4% that feels more Spanish than Canarian (2.4%) or only Spanish (3%). The most popular choice of those who feel equally Spanish and Canarian, with 49.9%. With these data, one of the Canary recorded levels of identification with higher autonomy from Spain.

The Canary Islands have a population of 2,117,519 inhabitants (2011), making it the eighth most populous of Spain’s autonomous communities, with a density of 282.6 inhabitants per square kilometre. The total area of the archipelago is 7,493km2 (2,893sqmi).[58]

The Canarian population includes long-tenured residents and new waves of mainland Spanish immigrants, as well as Portuguese, Italians, Flemings and Britons. Of the total Canarian population in 2009 (2,098,593) 1,799,373 were Spanish and 299,220 foreigners. Of these, the majority are Europeans (55%), including Germans (39,505), British (37,937) and Italians (24,177). There are also 86,287 inhabitants from the Americas, mainly Colombians (21,798), Venezuelans (11,958), Cubans (11,098) and Argentines (10,159). There are also 28,136 African residents, mostly Moroccans (16,240).[61]

The population of the islands according to the 2010 data are:[62]

The Roman Catholic branch of Christianity has been the majority religion in the archipelago for more than five centuries, ever since the Conquest of the Canary Islands. However, there are other religious communities.

The overwhelming majority of native Canarians are Roman Catholic with various smaller foreign-born populations of other Christian beliefs such as Protestants from northern Europe.

The appearance of the Virgin of Candelaria (Patron of Canary Islands) was credited with moving the Canary Islands toward Christianity. Two Catholic saints were born in the Canary Islands: Peter of Saint Joseph de Betancur[63] and Jos de Anchieta.[64] Both born on the island of Tenerife, they were respectively missionaries in Guatemala and Brazil.

The Canary Islands are divided into two Catholic dioceses, each governed by a bishop:

Separate from the overwhelming Christian majority are a minority of Muslims.[65] Other religious faiths represented include Jehovah Witnesses, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as well as Hinduism.[65] Minority religions are also present such as the Church of the Guanche People which is classified as a neo-pagan native religion,[65] it also highlights Buddhism,[65]Judaism,[65]Baha’i,[65]Chinese religions[65] and Afro-American religion.[65]

Among the followers of Islam, the Islamic Federation of the Canary Islands exists to represent the Islamic community in the Canary Islands as well as to provide practical support to members of the Islamic community.[66]

The distribution of beliefs in 2012 according to the CIS Barometer Autonomy was as follows:[67]

El Hierro, the westernmost island, covers 268.71km2 (103.75sqmi), making it the smallest of the major islands, and the least populous with 10,753 inhabitants. The whole island was declared Reserve of the Biosphere in 2000. Its capital is Valverde. Also known as Ferro, it was once believed to be the westernmost land in the world.

Fuerteventura, with a surface of 1,660km2 (640sqmi), is the second-most extensive island of the archipelago. It has been declared a Biosphere reserve by Unesco. It has a population of 100,929. Being also the most ancient of the islands, it is the one that is more eroded: its highest point is the Peak of the Bramble, at a height of 807 metres (2,648 feet). Its capital is Puerto del Rosario.

Gran Canaria has 845,676 inhabitants. The capital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (377,203 inhabitants), is the most populous city and shares the status of capital of the Canaries with Santa Cruz de Tenerife. Gran Canaria’s surface area is 1,560km2 (600sqmi). In center of the island lie the Roque Nublo 1,813 metres (5,948 feet) and Pico de las Nieves (“Peak of Snow”) 1,949 metres (6,394 feet). In the south of island are the Maspalomas Dunes (Gran Canaria), these are the biggest tourist attractions.

La Gomera has an area of 369.76km2 (142.77sqmi) and is the second least populous island with 22,622 inhabitants. Geologically it is one of the oldest of the archipelago. The insular capital is San Sebastian de La Gomera. Garajonay’s National Park is located on the island.

Lanzarote is the easternmost island and one of the most ancient of the archipelago, and it has shown evidence of recent volcanic activity. It has a surface of 845.94km2 (326.62sqmi), and a population of 139,506 inhabitants, including the adjacent islets of the Chinijo Archipelago. The capital is Arrecife, with 56,834 inhabitants.

The Chinijo Archipelago includes the islands La Graciosa, Alegranza, Montaa Clara, Roque del Este and Roque del Oeste. It has a surface of 40.8km2 (15.8sqmi), and a population of 658 inhabitants all of them in the la Graciosa island. With 29km2 (11sqmi), La Graciosa, is the smallest inhabited island of the Canaries, and the major island of the Chinijo Archipelago.

La Palma, with 86,528 inhabitants covering an area of 708.32km2 (273.48sqmi), is in its entirety a biosphere reserve. It shows no recent signs of volcanic activity, even though the volcano Tenegua entered into eruption last in 1971. In addition, it is the second-highest island of the Canaries, with the Roque de los Muchachos 2,423 metres (7,949 feet) as highest point. Santa Cruz de La Palma (known to those on the island as simply “Santa Cruz”) is its capital.

Tenerife is, with its area of 2,034km2 (785sqmi), the most extensive island of the Canary Islands. In addition, with 906,854 inhabitants it is the most populated island of the archipelago and Spain. Two of the islands’ principal cities are located on it: The capital, Santa Cruz de Tenerife and San Cristbal de La Laguna (a World Heritage Site). San Cristbal de La Laguna, the second city of the island is home to the oldest university in the Canary Islands, the University of La Laguna. The Teide, with its 3,718 metres (12,198 feet) is the highest peak of Spain and also a World Heritage Site. Tenerife is the site of the worst air disaster in the history of aviation, in which 583 people were killed in the collision of two Boeing 747s on March 27, 1977.

The economy is based primarily on tourism, which makes up 32% of the GDP. The Canaries receive about 12million tourists per year. Construction makes up nearly 20% of the GDP and tropical agriculture, primarily bananas and tobacco, are grown for export to Europe and the Americas. Ecologists are concerned that the resources, especially in the more arid islands, are being overexploited but there are still many agricultural resources like tomatoes, potatoes, onions, cochineal, sugarcane, grapes, vines, dates, oranges, lemons, figs, wheat, barley, maize, apricots, peaches and almonds.

The economy is 25billion (2001 GDP figures). The islands experienced continuous growth during a 20-year period, up until 2001, at a rate of approximately 5% annually. This growth was fueled mainly by huge amounts of Foreign Direct Investment, mostly to develop tourism real estate (hotels and apartments), and European Funds (near 11billion euro in the period from 2000 to 2007), since the Canary Islands are labelled Region Objective 1 (eligible for euro structural funds).[citation needed] Additionally, the EU allows the Canary Islands Government to offer special tax concessions for investors who incorporate under the Zona Especial Canaria (ZEC) regime and create more than 5 jobs.[citation needed]

Spain gave permission in August 2014 for Repsol and its partners to explore oil and gas prospects off the Canary Islands, involving an investment of 7.5 billion over four years, to commence at the end of 2016. Repsol at the time said the area could ultimately produce 100,000 barrels of oil a day, which would meet 10 percent of Spain’s energy needs.[69] However, the analysis of samples obtained showed did not show the necessary volume nor quality to consider future extraction, and the project was scrapped.[70]

The Canary Islands have great natural attractions, climate and beaches make the islands a major tourist destination, being visited each year by about 12million people (11,986,059 in 2007, noting 29% of Britons, 22% of Spanish, not residents of the Canaries, and 21% of Germans). Among the islands, Tenerife has the largest number of tourists received annually, followed by Gran Canaria and Lanzarote.[7][8] The archipelago’s principal tourist attraction is the Teide National Park (in Tenerife) where the highest mountain in Spain and third largest volcano in the world (Mount Teide), receives over 2.8million visitors annually.[71]

The combination of high mountains, proximity to Europe, and clean air has made the Roque de los Muchachos peak (on La Palma island) a leading location for telescopes like the Grantecan.

The islands are outside the European Union customs territory and VAT area, though politically within the EU. Instead of VAT there is a local Sales Tax (IGIC) which has a general rate of 7%, an increased tax rate of 13.5%, a reduced tax rate of 3% and a zero tax rate for certain basic need products and services. Consequently, some products are subject to import tax and VAT if being exported from the islands into mainland Spain or the rest of the EU.

Canarian time is Western European Time (WET) (or GMT; in summer one hour ahead of GMT). So Canarian time is one hour behind that of mainland Spain and the same as that of the UK, Ireland and Portugal all year round.

The Canary Islands have eight airports altogether, two of the main ports of Spain, and an extensive network of autopistas (highways) and other roads. For a road map see multimap.[72]

There are large ferry boats that link islands as well as fast ferries linking most of the islands. Both types can transport large numbers of passengers and cargo (including vehicles). Fast ferries are made of aluminium and powered by modern and efficient diesel engines, while conventional ferries have a steel hull and are powered by heavy oil. Fast ferries travel relatively quickly (in excess of 30 knots) and are a faster method of transportation than the conventional ferry (some 20 knots). A typical ferry ride between La Palma and Tenerife may take up to eight hours or more while a fast ferry takes about 2 and a half hours and between Tenerife and Gran Canaria can be about one hour.

The largest airport is the Gran Canaria airport. It is also the 5th largest airport in Spain. The biggest port is in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. It is an important port for commerce with Europe, Africa and the Americas. It is the 4th biggest commercial port in Spain with more than 1,400,000 TEU’s. The largest commercial companies of the world, including MSC and Maersk, operate here. In this port there is an international post of the Red Cross, one of only four points like this all around the world. Tenerife has two airports, Tenerife North Airport and Tenerife South Airport.[73]

The two main islands (Tenerife and Gran Canaria) receive the greatest number of passengers.[74]

The port of Las Palmas is first in freight traffic in the islands,[75] while the port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is the first fishing port with approximately 7,500 tons of fish caught, according to the Spanish government publication Statistical Yearbook of State Ports. Similarly, it is the second port in Spain as regards ship traffic, only surpassed by the Port of Algeciras Bay.[76] The port’s facilities include a border inspection post (BIP) approved by the European Union, which is responsible for inspecting all types of imports from third countries or exports to countries outside the European Economic Area. The port of Los Cristianos (Tenerife) has the greatest number of passengers recorded in the Canary Islands, followed by the port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife.[77] The Port of Las Palmas is the third port in the islands in passengers and first in number of vehicles transported.[77]

The SS America was beached at the Canary islands, in the nineties. However, the ocean liner fell apart after some years and parts of ship washed away.

The Tenerife Tram opened in 2007 and the only one in the Canary Islands, travelling between the cities of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and San Cristbal de La Laguna. It is currently planned to have three lines in the Canary Islands (two in Tenerife and one in Gran Canaria). The planned Gran Canaria tram route will be from Las Palmas de Gran Canaria to Maspalomas (south).[78]

The official symbols from nature associated with Canary Islands are the bird Serinus canaria (canary) and the Phoenix canariensis palm.[80]

Before the arrival of the Aborigines, the Canary Islands was inhabited by endemic animals, such as some extinct; giant lizards (Gallotia goliath), giant rats (Canariomys bravoi and Canariomys tamarani)[81] and giant tortoises (Geochelone burchardi and Geochelone vulcanica),[82] among others.

With a range of habitats, the Canary Islands exhibit diverse plant species. The bird life includes European and African species, such as the black-bellied sandgrouse; and a rich variety of endemic (local) taxa including the:

Terrestrial fauna includes geckos, wall lizards, and three endemic species of recently rediscovered and critically endangered giant lizard: the El Hierro giant lizard (or Roque Chico de Salmor giant lizard), La Gomera giant lizard, and La Palma giant lizard. Mammals include the Canarian shrew, Canary big-eared bat, the Algerian hedgehog (which may have been introduced) and the more recently introduced mouflon. Some endemic mammals, the lava mouse, Tenerife giant rat and Gran Canaria giant rat, are extinct, as are the Canary Islands quail, long-legged bunting, and the eastern Canary Islands chiffchaff.

The marine life found in the Canary Islands is also varied, being a combination of North Atlantic, Mediterranean and endemic species. In recent years, the increasing popularity of both scuba diving and underwater photography have provided biologists with much new information on the marine life of the islands.

Fish species found in the islands include many species of shark, ray, moray eel, bream, jack, grunt, scorpionfish, triggerfish, grouper, goby, and blenny. In addition, there are many invertebrate species, including sponge, jellyfish, anemone, crab, mollusc, sea urchin, starfish, sea cucumber and coral.

There are a total of 5 different species of marine turtle that are sighted periodically in the islands, the most common of these being the endangered loggerhead sea turtle.[83] The other four are the green sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, leatherback sea turtle and Kemp’s ridley sea turtle. Currently, there are no signs that any of these species breed in the islands, and so those seen in the water are usually migrating. However, it is believed that some of these species may have bred in the islands in the past, and there are records of several sightings of leatherback sea turtle on beaches in Fuerteventura, adding credibility to the theory.

Marine mammals include the large varieties of cetaceans including rare and not well-known species (see more details in the Marine life of the Canary Islands). Hooded seals[84] have also been known to be vagrant in the Canary Islands every now and then. The Canary Islands were also formerly home to a population of the rarest pinniped in the world, the Mediterranean monk seal.

The Canary Islands officially has four national parks, of which two have been declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO, and the other two declared a World Biosphere Reserve, these national parks are:[85]

A unique form of wrestling known as Canarian wrestling (lucha canaria) has opponents stand in a special area called a “terrero” and try to throw each other to the ground using strength and quick movements.[87]

Another sport is the “game of the sticks” where opponents fence with long sticks. This may have come about from the shepherds of the islands who would challenge each other using their long walking sticks.[87]

Another sport is called the shepherd’s jump (salto del pastor). This involves using a long stick to vault over an open area. This sport possibly evolved from the shepherd’s need to occasionally get over an open area in the hills as they were tending their sheep.[87]

The two main football teams in the archipelago are: the CD Tenerife (founded in 1912) and UD Las Palmas (founded in 1949). Now Tenerife play in Liga Adelante and Las Palmas in La Liga.

The Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife and Carnival of Las Palmas are one of the most famous Carnivals in Spain. It is celebrated on the streets between the months of February and March.

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Canary Islands – Wikipedia

Rock Hill, South Carolina – Wikipedia

Pre-colonizationEdit

Succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples lived in the Piedmont for thousands of years. The historic Catawba Indian Nation, a traditionally Siouan-speaking tribe, was here at the time of European encounter. Currently the only tribe in South Carolina that is federally recognized, its members live near Rock Hill.

Although some European settlers had already arrived in the Rock Hill area in the 1830s and 1840s, Rock Hill did not become an actual town until the Charlotte and South Carolina Railroad Company made the decision to send a rail line through the area. Originally, the railroad had hoped to build a station in the nearby village of Ebenezerville which was squarely between Charlotte, North Carolina and Columbia, South Carolina. When approached, however, the locals in Ebenezerville refused to have the railroad run through their village since they considered it dirty and noisy. Instead, engineers and surveyors decided to run the line two miles away by a local landmark. According to some accounts, the engineers marked the spot on the map and named it “rocky hill.”[6](p26)

Some of Rock Hill’s early founding familiesthe White family, the Black family, and the Mooresbelieved that having a rail depot so close to them would be advantageous, so they decided to give the Columbia and Charlotte Railroad the right of way through their properties. As the three largest landowners in the area, this settled the matter. George Pendleton White contracted with the railroad to build a section of the line. Construction began in 1848. The first passenger train arrived on March 23, 1852. A few weeks later, on April 17, 1852, the first Rock Hill Post Office opened.[6](pp2628)

Now that Rock Hill had a name, a railroad station, and a post office, it began to draw more settlers to the area. Captain J. H. McGinnis built a small general store near the station in 1849 or 1850 to provide supplies for the construction and railroad workers.[6](pp2728) Templeton Black, who had leased the land to McGinnis, decided to devote some of his other adjacent land to building a larger town. He hired a local surveyor, Squire John Roddey, to organize a main street. Black sold his first plot of land along that street to Ira Ferguson for $125 a few weeks before the post office opened; other businessmen bought plots quickly after that.[6](p28)

Rock Hill Academy, the first school in Rock Hill, opened in September 1854. Despite its official name, most residents referred to it as the Pine Grove Academy after the pine grove it was located in. Ann Hutchinson White, wife of George White, donated the land to the school after her husband’s death. The school had 60 male pupils in 1856; a school for girls was later opened in the same place.[6](p28)

Shortly before the American Civil War began a census had been taken of the population in York County, where Rock Hill is located. Half of the district’s 21,800 residents were slaves, integral to local cotton production. The 4,379 white males in the county formed fourteen infantry companies; some of the men joined cavalry or artillery units instead. By the end of the war, 805 of these men were dead, and hundreds more were wounded. Men from Rock Hill and York County were involved in many of the major Civil War battles.[6](p35)

Due to its position on the railroad, Rock Hill became a transfer point for Confederate soldiers and supplies moving to and from the front. Since there was no local hospital, townspeople nursed sick and wounded soldiers in their homes. Refugees fleeing the coastal blockade or General Sherman’s troops also came to Rock Hill.[6](p39)

Beginning in the spring of 1862, local area farmers switched from cotton to corn in order to produce more food.[6](p39) Records show that prices in Rock Hill changed frequently during the war, reflecting both shortages and the inflation of the Confederate paper money.[6](p41)

Confederate General P. G. T. Beauregard set up a temporary headquarters in Rock Hill on February 21, 1865.[6](p41) He ordered the roads to Charlotte blocked to try to prevent General Sherman from reaching the city; Sherman ultimately went in a different direction.

When General Lee surrendered at the Appomattox Court House, it was actually a future Rock Hill resident who was responsible for waving the white flag. Captain Robert Moorman Sims, a farmer from Lancaster County, was sent by General James Longstreet to inform Union troops that the Confederate troops wanted a truce.[6](p42)

The Civil War changed the social, economic, and political situation in Rock Hill tremendously, as it did elsewhere in the South. Rock Hill grew as a town, taking in war refugees, widows and their families, and the return of the men who had left to fight the war.[6](p58) The formerly wealthy elite sold off their land to stay afloat financially. Town life began to become more important than rural life.

Most of the merchants in Rock Hill around 1870 were former Confederate soldiers; many were entrepreneurs who were new to town, trying to start over.[6](p59) In 1870, even the largest stores in Rock Hill were only one story tall, and there were no sidewalks on the roads. The first drug store in Rock Hill opened in the 1870s.[6](p61) A locally contentious bordello was built in 1881 and introduced the town’s first paved sidewalk.[6](p61)

The town was not officially incorporated until 1870, on the third try.

The first attempt to get Rock Hill incorporated was made in 1855. A petition, signed by major landholders and businessmen from the Rock Hill area, was presented to the General Assembly on October 19, 1855.[6](p29) No action on the matter was taken by the General Assembly.

The second attempt was in 1868. In their petition, the townspeople claimed that Rock Hill had over 300 residents, “eleven stores, two churches, two bars, two hotels, two carriage shops, three blacksmith shops, three shoe shops, one tannery, one cabinet shop, and elementary schools for white girls and boys.” The petition was signed by 48 men, most relative newcomers to Rock Hill, with only a few members of the old, established, landed families. The larger landholders opposed incorporation because of the taxes it would bring. They filed a counter-proposal which claimed that there were only 100 residents, many of them temporary.[6](p63) The situation was a strong indication of the changes Rock Hill experienced as it transitioned from mostly farms to a business community. Ultimately, the state legislature did not act on either petition and Rock Hill was still not incorporated.

The third, successful petition was made in 1869, only one year after 1868’s failed petition. This time there were 57 signers in favor of incorporation, with only seven opponents. The opponents collectively owned 80% of the land that would be incorporated into Rock Hill if the petition was successful. They were unsuccessful at preventing incorporation this time; Rock Hill was officially incorporated on February 26, 1870.[6](p64)

Rock Hill celebrated its centennial in 1952 and its sesquicentennial in 2002.

Four unincorporated communities of York County have been annexed to the city: Boyd Hill in the late 1940s, Ebenezer and Mexico in the 1960s, and Oakdale in the 1980s.

Rock Hill was the setting for two significant events in the civil rights movement. In February 1961, nine African-American men went to jail at the York County prison farm after staging a sit-in at a segregated McCrory’s lunch counter in downtown Rock Hill. Their offense was reported to be “refusing to stop singing hymns during their morning devotions.” The event gained nationwide attention as the men followed an untried strategy called “jail, no bail.”[7] Rejecting bail was a way to lessen the huge financial burden which civil rights groups were facing as the sit-in movement spread across the South.[7] As their actions gained widespread national news coverage, the tactic was adopted by other civil rights groups. The men became known as the Friendship Nine because eight of the nine men were students at Rock Hill’s Friendship Junior College.[8]

Later in 1961, Rock Hill was the first stop in the Deep South for a group of 13 Freedom Riders, who boarded buses in Washington, DC, and headed South to test the 1960 ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court outlawing racial segregation in all interstate public facilities. When the civil rights leader John Lewis and another black man stepped off the bus at Rock Hill, they were beaten by a white mob that was uncontrolled by police. The event drew national attention.

In 2002, Lewis, by then a US Congressman from Georgia, returned to Rock Hill, where he had been invited as a speaker at Winthrop University and was given the key to the city. On January 21, 2008, Rep. Lewis returned to Rock Hill again and spoke at the city’s Martin Luther King, Jr. holiday observance. Mayor Doug Echols officially apologized to him on the city’s behalf for the Freedom Riders’ treatment in the city.[9]

Rock Hill has had repeated conflict with its neighbors. In 2007 a lawsuit was filed against the city by its county seat to stop a rural landfill.[10] In 2011[11] and 2012[12] the city waste proxy contracted with Synagro[13] to spread treated human sewage sludge in rural areas and different counties were met with resistance and complaints. Some residents have questioned the city’s ethics and threatened lawsuits over the practice of being a “dumping ground” for Rock Hill’s waste. The city has expressed interest in Keck and Woods “waste to energy” plant in Cabarrus County, North Carolina to safely dispose of sludge.[14]

The symbols of the city are the four Civitas (pl. civitates) statues, installed in 1991 at the Gateway corridor on Dave Lyle Boulevard.[citation needed]

Each holds a disc that symbolizes the four drivers of the city’s economy – Gears of Industry, Flames of Knowledge, Stars of Inspiration, and Bolts of Energy. The ribbons in the Civitates’ clothing and hair transform into wings, inferring the textile industry as the foundation of the city’s growth.[citation needed]

The 22-foot-tall (6.7m) Civitas statues were made of bronze by the New York sculptor Audrey Flack. Originally they were to be installed in Uptown Charlotte, but were offered to the city of Rock Hill.

In 1992, a fifth Civitas statue by Flack was placed at the City Hall in downtown Rock Hill.

The 60-foot-tall (18m) columns that form the Gateway came from the old (1914-87) Egyptian Revival Masonic Temple in Charlotte, North Carolina. They were gifted to the city by the First Union Corporation, and are regarded among the areas most treasured historical artefacts.[citation needed]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 43.16 square miles (111.8km2), of which, 43.0 square miles (111km2) of it is land and 0.16 square miles (0.41km2) of it (0.4%) is water.

Rock Hill is located along the Catawba River in the north-central section of the Piedmont of South Carolina near Charlotte. The city sits at an elevation of around 676 feet (206m) above sea level. It is located approximately 150 miles (240km) from the Atlantic Ocean and 75 miles (121km) from the Blue Ridge Mountains.

Rock Hill has a humid subtropical climate, characterized by humid summers and cool dry winters. Precipitation does not vary greatly between seasons. July is the hottest month, with an average high temperature of 91F (33C) and an average low temperature of 71F (22C).[15] The coldest month of the year is January, when the average high temperature is 51F (11C) and the average low temperature is 31F (1C).[15] The warmest temperature ever recorded in the city was 106F (41C) in 1983 and tied in 2007.[15] The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was 4F (20C) in 1985.[15]

As of the 2010 census,[5] there were 66,154 people and 16,059 families residing in the city. The population density was 619.2 people per square kilometre (2,983.5/sq mi). There were 29,159 housing units at an average density of 252.4 per square kilometre (653.8/sq mi). The racial makeup of the city was 54.6% White, 38.3% Black, 1.7% Asian, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.7% of the population.

There were 25,966 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% were married couples living together, 18.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.2% were non-families. 30.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.04.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 14.7% from 18 to 24, 28.5% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.9 years. For every 100 females there were 85.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.3 males.

Rock Hill’s economy was once dominated by the textile industry, and the restructuring of that industry in moving jobs overseas caused a decline in the local economy. The median income for a household in the city was $37,336, and the median income for a family was $45,697. Males had a median income of $32,156 versus $24,181 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,929. About 9.7% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.2% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over. The unemployment rate of the city was 8.7 percent and 11,874 of the 71,459 residents lived and worked in the city with a daytime population change of +5,208 as of March 2011.[19] The city is transitioning to a retail and manufacturing economy, and has been working to attract national and global companies.

Three major natural disasters have struck the city.

On November 26, 1926 a destructive tornado struck downtown Rock Hill. It was the day after Thanksgiving, late in the season for such a violent storm. The “black as ink twister” took less than 10 minutes to change the face of the business section. The storm touched down in western York County, and entered Rock Hill from the west. Once in the town, the twister cut a path about three blocks wide, leaving 60 homes heavily damaged, the hospital roof removed, and cars flipped or crushed. By the end, the total damage for the whole town was $150,000. The tornado was responsible for one death and 12 injuries within Rock Hill.

Hurricane Hugo struck the city on the morning of September 22, 1989. The storm ripped through the city with sustained winds over 90 MPH, toppling massive oak and pine trees. Schools were closed for weeks because of widespread damage to roads and facilities. The total damage cost for the entire state of South Carolina was around $4.2 billion. The storm was a category 3 when it entered the county and was a category 2 as it left the county.

A complex series of low pressure systems moved across South Carolina from February 2527 of 2004. Starting as a mix of snow and sleet, the storm became all snow as the low pulled off the Carolina coast. Cold arctic air settled over the Carolinas and dumped 22inches of snow, with lightning, gusty winds, and some areas getting up to 28inches.[20] Sustained winds over 40 MPH across Rock Hill knocked out power, resulting in schools’ closing for a week. It was the worst overall blizzard to hit the area.[citation needed]

Rock Hill is served by York County School District 3, which has twenty-seven schools in the city, including seventeen elementary schools, five middle schools, and three high schools. The public high schools in Rock Hill are Rock Hill High School (first built high school in the city), Northwestern, and South Pointe, the newest high school in the city. Public middle schools in Rock Hill are Saluda Trail Middle School, Castle Heights Middle School, Sullivan Middle School, Rawlinson Road Middle School, and (the newest) Dutchman Creek Middle School. The district has a student enrollment of around 25,000.[21][22] A variety of religious schools also serve the city of Rock Hill, including St. Anne’s Catholic School and Westminster Catawba. The city is also home to York County’s only Charter school, York Preparatory Academy.

There are three colleges in Rock Hill. The most prominent institution is Winthrop University, founded in 1886 as a women’s college. It is a thriving, public, co-ed four-year liberal arts college with an annual enrollment of over 7,000 students. Clinton Junior College is a historically black, two-year institution founded by the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in 1894. It is now a community college for the city of Rock Hill and York County.[23]York Technical College opened in Rock Hill in 1964. This two-year community college offers associate degrees and provides continuing education for approximately 9,000 area residents annually and is growing each year.[24]

Rock Hill is home to a daily newspaper, The Herald, which covers the area. Magazines include Rock Hill Magazine and YC (York County) Magazine (which covers the entire county).

OTS Media Group owns and operates WRHI (News/Sports, 1340 AM and 94.3 FM), WRHM-FM Country/Sports and WRHM-FM HD2/W281BE (Contemporary Christian, 104.1 FM). There are also WAVO (Standards, 1150 AM), NPR affiliate WNSC-FM (88.9 FM), and the Southside Baptist Church of Rock Hill Christian broadcast station, WRHJ-LP 93.1.

Rock Hill has several television stations: PBS affiliate WNSC-TV (Channel 30), CN2, a daily cable news program produced by Comporium Communications for York, Chester, and Lancaster counties; Fox-owned MyNetworkTV station WMYT-TV Channel 55, is licensed to Rock Hill, but serves the entire Charlotte market, while their studios are shared with sister station WJZY-TV in unincorporated Mecklenburg County, NC.

Rock Hill has two local airports. The Rock Hill/York County Airport is a municipal airport for the city of Rock Hill and serves non-commercial flights. The airport is located minutes from Rock Hill’s Central business district. Also called Bryant Field, it was named for Robert E. Bryant, an aviator with two international records and an inductee in the South Carolina Aviation Hall of Fame (The name is no longer used for the airport because of confusion with Bryant Field (airport)). It is owned and operated by the City of Rock Hill, but York County is also represented on the Airport Commission. The other local airport, the Charlotte-Douglas International Airport, is one of the busiest airports in the United States and is located 20 miles from Rock Hill in Charlotte, North Carolina.

Rock Hill has one regional transit system, The Charlotte Area Transit System that offers express bus service from Rock Hill to Charlotte.

Rock Hill has its own fire and police departments.

Piedmont Medical Center is an acute care hospital with a Level III trauma center, located in Rock Hill.

Rock Hill hosts several seasonal events. Each spring there is a festival called Come-See-Me which brings more than 125,000 people to the city each year from across the country. Come-See-Me was voted as the number one South Carolina Festival and has been featured in Southern Living magazine. On Independence Day, Rock Hill hosts its annual Red, White, and Boom Festival. Over the first weekend of each October, the Arts Council of York County hosts the Blues & Jazz Festival, which includes a restaurant crawl through Old Town Rock Hill, and a day of blues & jazz events for children. In November, the Arts Council hosts the Underexposed Film Festival YC, bringing independently-created short films from across the world to Rock Hill. A winter festival is held annually in the first week of December and is called ChristmasVille Rock Hill; it has been voted one of South Carolina’s most visited attractions.

Five museums are located in the city, and many more in the area.

Museums outside Rock Hill include Historic Brattonsville, the Catawba Cultural Center at the Catawba Indian reservation, and several museums located in the Charlotte area.

The city operates under a Council-Manager form of government. The governing body is composed of a mayor and six members. The mayor is determined through a nonpartisan, at-large election for a four-year term of office while council members are chosen through nonpartisan, single-member district elections. Council members are elected to staggered four-year terms of office.

The city council is a legislative body, establishing policies with recommendations from the city administrator. The city manager acts as the chief administrator of the council’s policies implemented through the administrative control of city departments given to him by ordinance.

Rock Hill is a four-time winner of America’s Promise Alliance “100 Best Communities for Young People”,[31] and a two-time winner of “All-American City”.[citation needed]

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Rock Hill, South Carolina – Wikipedia

Pirateland Family Camping Resort

PIRATELAND FAMILY CAMPING RESORT Celebrating 50 Years of Treasured Memories!

Tucked away on the south end of Myrtle Beach, SC, PirateLand Family Camping Resort will provide you with a camping experience to treasure for years to come! We are conveniently located along the oceanfront just outside of the Myrtle Beach city limit and we offer lodging options for every family vacationer – Full hook up RV campsites, shaded campsites great for tents, fully furnished vacation rentals, and yearly leased sites! All with easy access to 1/2 mile of beachfront along the Atlantic ocean.

Our summer recreation program and on site amenities offer something for everyone. The on site water park, Pirate’s Oasis, includes a lazy river, Olympic size pool, and the NEW 5,000 square-foot Pirate Ship Splash Pool! Fall through spring we’re a great destination for snow-birds and we offer huge savings with monthly and extended stay rates!

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Pirateland Family Camping Resort

Galpagos Islands – Wikipedia

The Galpagos Islands (official name: Archipilago de Coln, other Spanish name: Islas Galpagos, Spanish pronunciation:[izlaz alapaos]) are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed on either side of the Equator in the Pacific Ocean surrounding the centre of the Western Hemisphere, 906km (563mi) west of continental Ecuador, of which they are a part. The islands are known for their vast number of endemic species and were studied by Charles Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle, as his observations and collections contributed to the inception of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection.

The Galpagos Islands and their surrounding waters form the Galpagos Province of Ecuador, the Galpagos National Park, and the Galpagos Marine Reserve. The principal language on the islands is Spanish. The islands have a population of slightly over 25,000.[1]

The first recorded visit to the islands happened by chance in 1535, when Fray Toms de Berlanga, the Bishop of Panam, was blown off course during a voyage to Peru to arbitrate in a dispute between Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro. De Berlanga eventually returned to the Spanish Empire and described the conditions of the islands and the animals that inhabited them. The group of islands was shown and named in Abraham Ortelius’s atlas published in 1570. The first crude map of the islands was made in 1684 by the buccaneer Ambrose Cowley, who named the individual islands after some of his fellow pirates or after British royalty and noblemen. These names were used in the authoritative navigation charts of the islands prepared during the Beagle survey under captain Robert Fitzroy, and in Darwin’s popular book The Voyage of the Beagle. The new Republic of Ecuador took the islands from Spanish ownership in 1832, and subsequently gave them official Spanish names.[2] The older names remained in use in English language publications, including Herman Melville’s The Encantadas of 1854.

The islands are located in the eastern Pacific Ocean, 973km (605mi) off the west coast of South America. The closest land mass is that of mainland Ecuador, the country to which they belong, 926km/500nmi to the east.

The islands are found at the coordinates 140’N136’S, 8916’9201’W. Straddling the equator, islands in the chain are located in both the northern and southern hemispheres, with Volcn Wolf and Volcn Ecuador on Isla Isabela being directly on the equator. Espaola Island, the southernmost islet of the archipelago, and Darwin Island, the northernmost one, are spread out over a distance of 220km (137mi). The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) considers them wholly within the South Pacific Ocean, however.[3] The Galpagos Archipelago consists of 7,880km2 (3,040sqmi) of land spread over 45,000km2 (17,000sqmi) of ocean. The largest of the islands, Isabela, measures 2,250 sq mi/5,827km2[4] and makes up close to three-quarters of the total land area of the Galpagos. Volcn Wolf on Isabela is the highest point, with an elevation of 1,707m (5,600ft) above sea level.

The group consists of 18 main islands, 3 smaller islands, and 107 rocks and islets. The islands are located at the Galapagos Triple Junction. The archipelago is located on the Nazca Plate (a tectonic plate), which is moving east/southeast, diving under the South American Plate at a rate of about 2.5 inches (6.4cm) per year.[5] It is also atop the Galpagos hotspot, a place where the Earth’s crust is being melted from below by a mantle plume, creating volcanoes. The first islands formed here at least 8million and possibly up to 90million years ago.[6]

While the older islands have disappeared below the sea as they moved away from the mantle plume, the youngest islands, Isabela and Fernandina, are still being formed, with the most recent volcanic eruption in April 2009 where lava from the volcanic island Fernandina started flowing both towards the island’s shoreline and into the center caldera.

The 18[7] main islands (each having a land area at least 1km2) of the archipelago (with their English names) shown alphabetically:

Although located on the Equator, the Humboldt Current brings cold water to the islands, causing frequent drizzles during most of the year. The weather is periodically influenced by the El Nio events, which occur about every 37 years and are characterized by warm sea surface temperatures, a rise in sea level, greater wave action, and a depletion of nutrients in the water.[9]

During the season known as the gara (June to November), the temperature by the sea is 22C (72F), a steady and cold wind blows from south and southeast, frequent drizzles (garas) last most of the day, and dense fog conceals the islands. During the warm season (December to May), the average sea and air temperature rises to 25C (77F), there is no wind at all, there are sporadic, though strong, rains and the sun shines.

Weather changes as altitude increases in the large islands. Temperature decreases gradually with altitude, while precipitation increases due to the condensation of moisture in clouds on the slopes. There is a large range in precipitation from one place to another, not only with altitude, but also depending on the location of the islands, and also with the seasons.

The following table corresponding to the wet 1969 shows the variation of precipitation in different places of Santa Cruz Island:

The precipitation also depends on the geographical location. During March 1969, the precipitation over Charles Darwin Station, on the southern coast of Santa Cruz was 249.0mm (9.80in), while on Baltra Island, the precipitation during the same month was only 137.6mm (5.42in). This is because Baltra is located behind Santa Cruz with respect to the prevailing southerly winds, so most of the moisture gets precipitated in the Santa Cruz highlands.

There are significant changes in precipitation from one year to another, too. At Charles Darwin Station, the precipitation during March 1969 was 249.0mm (9.80in), but during March 1970, it was only 1.2mm (0.05in).

On the larger islands, the pattern of generally wet highlands and drier lowlands impacts the flora. The vegetation in the highlands tends to be green and lush, with tropical woodland in places. The lowland areas tend to have arid and semi-arid vegetation, with many thorny shrubs and cacti, and almost bare volcanic rock elsewhere.

According to a 1952 study by Thor Heyerdahl and Arne Skjlsvold, remains of potsherds and other artifacts from several sites on the islands suggest visitation by South American peoples in pre-Columbian era.[10] The group located an Inca flute and shards from more than 130 pieces of ceramics, which were later identified as pre-Incan. However, no remains of graves, ceremonial vessels and constructions have ever been found, suggesting no permanent settlement occurred prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century.[11] It is not clear who the first visitors to the islands were, but they were probably sailors blown off course or people on hapless fishing boats blown out to sea. Most of them were likely unimpressed by the lack of fresh water on the islands. Whether the Incas ever made it here is disputed; in 1572, Spanish chronicler Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa claimed that Topa Inca Yupanqui, the second Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire had visited the archipelago, but there is little evidence for this, and many experts consider it a far-fetched legend, especially since the Incas were not seafaring people.[12]

European discovery of the Galpagos Islands occurred when Spaniard Fray Toms de Berlanga, the fourth Bishop of Panama, sailed to Peru to settle a dispute between Francisco Pizarro and his lieutenants. De Berlanga’s vessel drifted off course when the winds diminished, and his party reached the islands on 10 March 1535.

The Galpagos Islands first appeared on the maps of Gerardus Mercator and Abraham Ortelius, in about 1570.[13] The islands were named “Insulae de los Galopegos” (Islands of the Tortoises) in reference to the giant tortoises found there.[14]

The first English captain to visit the Galpagos Islands was Richard Hawkins, in 1593. Until the early 19th century, the archipelago was often used as a hideout by mostly English pirates who pilfered Spanish galleons carrying gold and silver from South America to Spain.

In 1793, James Colnett described the flora and fauna of Galpagos, and suggested the islands could be used as base for the whalers operating in the Pacific Ocean. He drew the first accurate navigation charts of the islands. Whalers and maritime fur traders killed and captured thousands of the Galpagos tortoises to extract their fat. The tortoises could be kept on board ship as a means of providing of fresh protein, as these animals could survive for several months on board without any food or water. The hunting of the tortoises was responsible for greatly diminishing, and in some cases eliminating, certain species. Along with whalers came the fur-seal hunters, who brought the population of this animal close to extinction.

The first known permanent human resident on Galpagos was Patrick Watkins, an Irish sailor who was marooned on the Island Floreana from 1807 to 1809. According to later accounts,[15][16] Watkins managed to survive by hunting, growing vegetables and trading with visiting whalers, before finally stealing an open boat and navigating to Guayaquil.

In 1818 the Nantucket whaleship Globe, under Captain George Washington Gardner, discovered a “mother lode” of sperm whales some thousand miles west of the South American coast approximately at the equator. He returned to Nantucket in 1820 with more than 2000 barrels of sperm whale oil and the news of his discovery. This led to an influx of whaleships to exploit the new whaling ground and the Galpagos Islands became a frequent stop for the whalers both before and after visiting what came to be known as the Offshore Grounds. This led to the establishment in the Galpagos Islands of a kind of unofficial “post office” where whaleships stopped to pick up and drop off letters as well as for purposes of provisioning and repairs.[17]

In October 1820, the whaleship Essex, out of Nantucket, stopped at the Galpagos for these purposes on its way to the Offshore Grounds. On what was then known as Charles Island, while most of the crew were hunting tortoises one crewmember, English boatsteerer Thomas Chappel, for reasons still unclear, lit a fire which quickly burned out of control. Some of the tortoise hunters had a narrow escape and had to run a gauntlet of fire to get back to the ship. Soon almost the entire island was in flames. Crewmembers reported that after a day of sailing away they could still see the flames against the horizon. One crewmember who returned to the Galpagos several years afterward described the entire island as still a blackened wasteland.[18]

Ecuador annexed the Galpagos Islands on 12 February 1832, naming them the Archipelago of Ecuador. This new name added to several names that had been, and are still, used to refer to the archipelago. The first governor of Galpagos, General Jos de Villamil, brought a group of convicts to populate the island of Floreana, and in October 1832, some artisans and farmers joined them.

The voyage of the Beagle brought the survey ship HMS Beagle, under captain Robert FitzRoy, to the Galpagos on 15 September 1835 to survey approaches to harbours. The captain and others on board, including his companion, the young naturalist Charles Darwin, made observations on the geology and biology on Chatham, Charles, Albemarle and James islands before they left on 20 October to continue on their round-the-world expedition. Primarily a geologist at the time, Darwin was impressed by the quantity of volcanic craters they saw, later referring to the archipelago as “that land of craters.” His study of several volcanic formations over the 5 weeks he stayed in the islands, led to several important geological discoveries, including the first, correct explanation for how volcanic tuff is formed.[19] Darwin noticed the mockingbirds differed between islands, though he thought the birds now known as Darwin’s finches were unrelated to each other, and did not bother labelling them by island.[20]Nicholas Lawson, acting Governor of Galpagos for the Republic of the Equator, met them on Charles Island, and as they walked to the prison colony, Lawson told Darwin the tortoises differed from island to island.[21] Towards the end of the voyage, Darwin speculated that the distribution of the mockingbirds and the tortoises might “undermine the stability of Species”.[22] When specimens of birds were analysed on his return to England, it was found that many apparently different kinds of birds were species of finches, which were unique to islands. These facts were crucial in Darwin’s development of his theory of natural selection explaining evolution, which was presented in The Origin of Species.[20]

Jos Valdizn and Manuel Julin Cobos tried a new colonization, beginning the exploitation of a type of lichen found in the islands (Roccella portentosa) used as a coloring agent. After the assassination of Valdizn by some of his workers, Cobos brought from the continent a group of more than a hundred workers to San Cristbal Island, and tried his luck at planting sugar cane. He ruled his plantation with an iron hand, which led to his assassination in 1904. In 1897, Antonio Gil began another plantation on Isabela Island.

Over the course of a whole year, from September 1904, an expedition of the Academy of Sciences of California, led by Rollo Beck, stayed in the Galpagos collecting scientific material on geology, entomology, ornithology, botany, zoology and herpetology. Another expedition from that Academy was done in 1932 (Templeton Crocker Expedition) to collect insects, fish, shells, fossils, birds and plants.

For a long time during the early 1900s and at least through 1929, a cash strapped Ecuador had reached out for potential buyers of the islands to alleviate financial troubles at home. The US had repeatedly expressed its interest in buying the islands for military use as they were positioned strategically guarding the Panama Canal.[23]

In 1920s and 1930s, a small wave of European settlers arrived in the islands. There occurred a series of unsolved disappearances on the island of Floreana in the 1930s among the largely European expatriate residents at the time. The Galpagos Affair: Satan Came to Eden is a 2013 feature-length documentary film about the same. Ecuadorian laws provided all colonists with the possibility of receiving twenty hectares each of free land, the right to maintain their citizenship, freedom from taxation for the first ten years in Galpagos, and the right to hunt and fish freely on all uninhabited islands where they might settle.[24] The first European colonists to arrive were Norwegians who settled briefly on Floreana, before moving on to San Cristobal and Santa Cruz. A few years later, other colonists from Europe, America and Ecuador started arriving on the islands, seeking a simpler life.[25] Descendants of the Norwegian Kastdalen family and the German Angermeyer still live on the islands.

During World War II, Ecuador authorized the United States to establish a naval base in Baltra Island, and radar stations in other strategic locations. Baltra was established as a United States Army Air Force base. Baltra was given the name of “Beta Base” along with “Alpha Base” in Nicaragua and “Gamma Base” in Salinas (continental Ecuador). The Crews stationed at Baltra and the aforementioned locations established a geographic triangle of protection in charge of patrolling the Pacific for enemy submarines, and also provided protection for the Panama Canal. After the war, the facilities were given to the government of Ecuador. Today, the island continues as an official Ecuadorian military base. The foundations and other remains of the US base can still be seen as one crosses the island. In 1946, a penal colony was established in Isabela Island, but it was suspended in 1959.

The Galpagos became a national park in 1959,[26] and tourism started in the 1960s, imposing several restrictions upon the human population already living on the island. However, opportunities in the tourism, fishing, and farming industries attracted a mass of poor fishermen and farmers from mainland Ecuador. In the 1990s and 2000s, violent confrontations between parts of the local population and the Galpagos National Park Service occurred, including capturing and killing giant tortoises and holding staff of the Galpagos National Park Service hostage to obtain higher annual sea cucumber quotas.[27]

The islands are administered by a provincial government. It was made a province by presidential decree by President Guillermo Rodrguez Lara on 18 February 1973. The province is divided into cantons, each covering certain islands. The capital is Puerto Baquerizo Moreno.

The largest ethnic group is composed of Ecuadorian Mestizos, the mixed descendants of Spanish colonists and indigenous Native Americans, who arrived mainly in the last century from the continental part of Ecuador. There is also a large number of whites, mostly of Spanish descent. Some descendants of the early European and American colonists on the islands also still remain on the islands.

In 1959, approximately 1,000 to 2,000 people called the islands their home. In 1972 a census in the archipelago recorded a population of 3,488. By the 1980s, this number had risen to more than 15,000 people, and in 2010 there were 25,124 people in the Galpagos.

Five of the islands are inhabited: Baltra, Floreana, Isabela, San Cristobal and Santa Cruz.

Options for flying into the Galpagos are limited to two islands: San Cristobal (San Cristbal Airport) and Baltra (Seymour Airport). Private aircraft must use Baltra as it is the airport equipped with overnight plane accommodations. Seymour Airport on Baltra was recently renovated (20122013) to accommodate larger planes.

Until 1969 the only way to visit was on a private or chartered vessel. There was no regular air service until Forrest Nelson’s Hotel Galpagos began the first organized tours in April 1969. Soon other travel companies brought in tour ships and yachts, and local fishermen began converting their wooden boats for rudimentary cruising with guests. These vessels were the main source of overnight accommodations in the Galpagos. Today there are about 85 yachts and ships equipped for overnight guests. In 2006 the Baltra military governed island, was opened up to limited overnight camping. Baltra also requires permits by the military government for overnight stays on the beach. Other inhabited islands also allow camping on the beaches designated as “recreational” use to the locals. All of these camping permits are limited to number of people and nights, with most nights not to exceed three.

Land based hotels are opening on the inhabited islands of San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Floreana and Isabela. By 2012, more than half the visitors to Galpagos made their tours using day boats and these small hotels. Restaurants, easy access and economy make this an attractive travel option. The cruise tours are still the best way to see all the complex environment and wildlife of the islands.

There are only 116 visitor sites in the Galpagos: 54 land sites and 62 scuba-diving or snorkeling sites. Small groups are allowed to visit in 2- to 4-hour shifts only, to limit impact on the area. All groups are accompanied by licensed guides.

Though the first protective legislation for the Galpagos was enacted in 1930 and supplemented in 1936, it was not until the late 1950s that positive action was taken to control what was happening to the native flora and fauna. In 1955, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature organized a fact-finding mission to the Galpagos. Two years later, in 1957, UNESCO, in cooperation with the government of Ecuador, sent another expedition to study the conservation situation and choose a site for a research station.

In 1959, the centenary year of Charles Darwin’s publication of The Origin of Species, the Ecuadorian government declared 97.5% of the archipelago’s land area a national park, excepting areas already colonised. The Charles Darwin Foundation (CDF) was founded the same year. The core responsibility of CDF, an international nongovernmental organization (NGO) constituted in Belgium, is to conduct research and provide the research findings to the government for effective management of Galpagos. CDF’s research efforts began with the establishment of the Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island in 1964. During the early years, conservation programs, such as eradication of introduced species and protection of native species, were carried out by research station personnel. Now much of that work is accomplished by the Galpagos National Park Service using the research findings and methodologies developed by CDF.

In 1986, the 70,000 square kilometers (27,000 sq mi.) of ocean surrounding the islands was declared a marine reserve, second in size only to Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. In 1990, the archipelago became a whale sanctuary. UNESCO recognised the islands in 1978 as a World Heritage Site[28] and in 1985, as a biosphere reserve. This was later extended in December 2001 to include the marine reserve. In July 2010, the World Heritage Committee agreed to remove the Galpagos Islands from its list of precious sites endangered by environmental threats or overuse.[29]

Noteworthy species include:

Introduced plants and animals, such as feral goats, cats, and cattle, brought accidentally or willingly to the islands by humans, represent the main threat to Galpagos. Quick to reproduce and with no natural predators, these alien species decimated the habitats of native species. The native animals, lacking natural predators on the islands, are defenseless to introduced predators.

There are over 700 introduced plant species today. There are only 500 native and endemic species. This difference is creating a major problem for the islands and the natural species that inhabit them. These plants have invaded large areas and eliminated endemic species in the humid zones of San Cristobal, Floreana, Isabela and Santa Cruz. Some of the most harmful introduced plants are the guayaba or guava (Psidium guajava), avocado (Persea americana), cascarilla (Cinchona pubescens), balsa (Ochroma pyramidale), hill raspberry (Rubus niveus), various citrus (orange, grapefruit, lemon), floripondio, higuerilla (Ricinus communis) trees and the elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum.

Many species were introduced to the Galpagos by pirates. Thor Heyerdahl quoted documents that mention the Viceroy of Peru, knowing that British pirates ate the goats that they themselves had released in the islands, ordered dogs to be freed there to eliminate the goats.[10] Also, when colonization of Floreana by Jos de Villamil failed, he ordered the goats, donkeys, cattle and other animals from the farms in Floreana be transferred to other islands for the purpose of later colonization.

Non-native goats, pigs, dogs, rats, cats, mice, sheep, horses, donkeys, cows, poultry, ants, cockroaches, and some parasites inhabit the islands today. Dogs and cats attack the tame birds and destroy the nests of birds, land tortoises, and marine turtles. They sometimes kill small Galpagos tortoises and iguanas.[30] Pigs are even more harmful, covering larger areas and destroying the nests of tortoises, turtles and iguanas, as well as eating the animals’ native food. Pigs also knock down vegetation in their search for roots and insects. This problem abounds in Cerro Azul volcano and Isabela, and in Santiago, pigs may be the cause of the disappearance of the land iguanas that were so abundant when Darwin visited. The black rat (Rattus rattus) attacks small Galpagos tortoises when they leave the nest, so in Pinzn they stopped the reproduction for a period of more than 50years; only adults were found on that island.[31] Also, where the black rat is found, the endemic rat has disappeared. Cattle and donkeys eat all the available vegetation and compete with native species for the scarce water. In 1959, fishermen introduced one male and two female goats to Pinta island; by 1973, the National Park service estimated the population of goats to be over 30,000 individuals. Goats were also introduced to Marchena in 1967 and to Rabida in 1971. A goat eradication program, however, cleared the goats from Pinta and Santiago and most of the goat population from Isabela.[32] In fact, by 2006 all feral pigs, donkeys and non-sterile goats had been eliminated from Santiago and Isabela, the largest islands with the worst problems due to non-native mammals.[33][34]

The fast-growing poultry industry on the inhabited islands has been cause for concern from local conservationists, who fear domestic birds could introduce disease into the endemic wild bird populations.

The Galpagos marine sanctuary is under threat from a host of illegal fishing activities, in addition to other problems of development.[35] The most pressing threat to the Marine Reserve comes from local, mainland and foreign fishing targeting marine life illegally within the Reserve, such as sharks (hammerheads and other species) for their fins,[35] and the harvest of sea cucumbers out of season. Development threatens both land and sea species. The growth of both the tourism industry and local populations fuelled by high birth rates and illegal immigration threaten the wildlife of the Archipelago. The grounding of the oil tanker Jessica in 2001 and the subsequent oil spill brought this threat to world attention.

In 2007, UNESCO put the Galpagos Islands on their List of World Heritage in Danger because of threats posed by invasive species, unbridled tourism and overfishing.[36] On 29 July 2010, the World Heritage Committee decided to remove the Galpagos Islands from the list because the Committee found significant progress had been made by Ecuador in addressing these problems.[37]

On 28 January 2008, Galpagos National Park official Victor Carrion announced 53 sea lions (13 pups, 25 youngsters, 9 males and 6 females) were killed at the Galpagos Islands nature reserve on Pinta, with their heads caved in. In 2001, poachers killed 35 male sea lions.[38]

The Galpagos Islands were short-listed as a candidate to be one of the New7Wonders of Nature by the New7Wonders of Nature Foundation. As of February 2009, the archipelago was ranked first in Group B, the category for islands.[39]

The islands’ biodiversity is under threat from several sources. The human population is growing at an unsustainable rate of 8% per year (1995). Introduced species have caused damage, and in 1996 a US$5 million, five-year eradication plan commenced in an attempt to rid the islands of introduced species such as goats, rats, deer, and donkeys. Except for the rats, the project was essentially completed in 2006.[33][34] Rats have only been eliminated from the smaller Galapagos Islands of Rbida and Pinzn.[40]

El Nio has adversely affected the marine ecosystem. In January 2001, an oil slick from a stranded tanker threatened the islands, but winds and shifting ocean currents helped disperse the oil before much damage was done. The 199798 El Nio adversely affected wildlife in the waters surrounding the islands, as the waters were 5C (9F) warmer than normal. Corals and barnacles suffered, hammerhead sharks were driven away, and most of the island’s seabirds failed to breed in 199798. The mortality rate of marine iguanas rose as the green algae they feed on was replaced by inedible red algae. During the 198283 El Nio, 70% of the marine iguanas starved to death because of this.[41]

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Galpagos Islands – Wikipedia

Beauty Island in Douglasville, Georgia with Reviews – YP.com

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YP – The Real Yellow PagesSM – helps you find the right local businesses to meet your specific needs. Search results are sorted by a combination of factors to give you a set of choices in response to your search criteria. These factors are similar to those you might use to determine which business to select from a local Yellow Pages directory, including proximity to where you are searching, expertise in the specific services or products you need, and comprehensive business information to help evaluate a business’s suitability for you. Preferred listings, or those with featured website buttons, indicate YP advertisers who directly provide information about their businesses to help consumers make more informed buying decisions. YP advertisers receive higher placement in the default ordering of search results and may appear in sponsored listings on the top, side, or bottom of the search results page.

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Beauty Island in Douglasville, Georgia with Reviews – YP.com

The Island in Douglasville, Georgia with Reviews – YP.com

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The Island in Douglasville, Georgia with Reviews – YP.com

Islands Restaurant – 308 Photos & 501 Reviews – Burgers …

501

I find myself returning to Island’s time and time again. I’ve never had bad service and all the waiters are super kind. As for the good, be adventurous. I enjoy the Kilauea burger with a side of sweet potato fries. I have noticed that they have shrunk down their portion sizes when it comes to fries. Overall, not a bad place if you’re looking for a burger fix.

Someone gave me a gift card to Islands Restaurant so I was happy to try it. It’s in a tight strip mall and looks like a Denny’s kind of place. They have a bar and lots of booths or 4-top tables. It’s mostly burgers, salads, fries, etc. I got a veggie patter Maui burger and substituted the fries for steamed broccoli & carrots. The veggie patty is mushy and tastless. I didn’t taste much of the guacamole but it was there, tomato not flavor, raw onions took it out. Steamed broccoli was edible, carrots I didn’t touch. B. got quesadilla and added chicken which was so-so. At least it was edible, chicken was decent, not dry. small tortilla soup B. wanted was meh. Not much flavor, but he liked it. Extra chips on the side. Huge water in tall glasses was fine. 3 things and was over $30? We won’t be back ever.

I was surprised to find this chain is still around. Sadly, it has changed a bit from the 90’s – And they’ve tried to update the menu with almost too many choices. Minus a couple stars for prices, and the silly add-ons. It shouldn’t be more for sweet potato fries – at least give us a slightly larger portion! I might go back – they still do have a decent variety of burgers, even if they’re smaller and less tasty than they used to be.

Islands is not my favorite Their burgers are overpriced and the unlimited fries are greasy and make you feel sick. Would prefer Red Robin any day.

This is an awesome Islands location! Anyone who knows me or has followed my reviews knows that I’m a frequent customer of the Islands chain of restaurants as I adore their delicious and quality-made burgers, drinks, nachos, and fries. This location is no exception! The layout of the restaurant is large and welcoming, and has the typical beach-side decor of all their locations. Their employees are so friendly and I recently found out that one of their wait staff used to work at a location I used to visit in West Los Angeles! What’s even more awesome about this location is that for some reason, their burgers are somehow juicier and taste even better than the ones I’ve had at other locations. Everything just tastes great and the meats, vegetables, and sauces really mesh together for delicious goodness. On my last visit here I had the Hula burger (mushroom swiss), the root beer float, and nachos. Everything was amazing and even when the waitstaff forgot to bring out our salsa for our nachos, they happily and quickly remedied the issue. Their new electronic system consisting of tablets for waitstaff means that food comes to your table quicker than ever, and an even more satisfactory experience. At the end of the day, if you love burgers and classic American food with great service, you can’t ever go wrong with Islands.

I thought Islands was solely a San Diego / SoCal thing, so I was happy to stumble upon this Islands location while searching for food on the way back from Big Basin. Islands was a special treat for me when I was in college in SD. The burgers were tasty but expensive so I only went once in a blue moon. Fast forward to this past weekend… My friend and I were making the drive back to the Peninsula from Big Basin and we wanted some grub. It was about 2PM when we got into Islands and there were only a couple of tables. We sat at the bar (open seating) and the bartender promptly asked if we wanted to get started with some drinks. I got a Sculpin and my friend a Blue Moon. For my meal I ordered the Nalu Nalu with a veggie patty and my friend ordered the Maui, also with a veggie patty. Oftentimes, I don’t feel like eating meat and have been trying to cut back anyway. Islands’ veggie patty option was pretty good! The patty actually stayed together, unlike many other restaurants with poorly put together veggie patties. I usually get the Hawaiian burger but wanted to try something new. I think the Nalu Nalu may be my new favorite! Slightly spicy at the end but loved the onions and peppers! My burgers always look smaller than the pictures though ๐Ÿ™ . Never would have expected a great veggie patty from Islands – good to know! Loved the bits of corn built into it. Fries were good as always – I didn’t get a refill as I finished my burger first and was already full by the time I got to my fries. My burger + beer came out to about $20. Not toooo bad but I obviously would love and prefer a cheap AND good burger. A chain restaurant, but a decent one at that.

Another burger place I love to go to and my favorites are Malibu and the Bluenami, you gotta try it! Customer service is usual and always attentive and it can get a little busy and delay when they bring your food. Other than that its great!

Great food! Classic American style restaurant, I ordered the mavericks burger cooked medium…. but came cooked well. Other then that there was great flavors within!

Meh… Our waiter(s) were horrible and forgot stuff like ranch, messed up drink orders.. My sliders were way over done but I was starving so I just drowned them in ketchup and ranch… But– the cheese fries were yummy! Not my favorite location of islands (I usually go to the one in Monterey)

I would give 2.5 stars for being just “average”. I came here once a while back but was unimpressed with the experience. We started off the visit by being ignored by the hostess, who started asking people standing BEHIND us in line for names to put on the waitlist (like what?), and when I mentioned this to the hostess, she didn’t seem very apologetic about it either. After we were seated, I ordered the Maui burger, which turned out to be a bit disappointing. I didn’t expect the onions to be so raw, which took away from the taste of the overall burger. The swiss cheese was nice, but there could have a been a bit more guacamole (you couldn’t even see it without lifting up the bun of the burger) given the price of the burger. However, it was nice that I could order a wheat bun instead of a white bun for no extra charge, and that there were endless fries, but when I asked for more fries midway through my meal, I didn’t get a refill until I was signing the check and about to leave… which kind of defeats the purpose of endless fries. Also, the fries weren’t too spectacular either, so maybe the sweet potato fries for an extra $1.49 would be a better side (but I doubt these are endless). Overall, it’s a decent restaurant as they seem to have quite a selection of food beyond burgers, as well as a selection of beers/drinks, but the prices are a bit steep and I wasn’t impressed with the service (or lack thereof). Most likely, I would only return here with friends, as they have a pretty big storefront and can probably handle group meals decently. Just be prepared to wait as it was really busy during regular meal hours.

This is a good place to get a good burger in a short period of time. They offer a variety of signature combinations that are sure to please almost everyone. The staff is friendly and very attentive to your needs. Note that they won’t go any lower than medium in regards to the temperature of the meat. I guess that’s okay since we aren’t talking about a 1/2lb gourmet patty!

I’ve been to Islands several times in the past, but on my latest trip I was quite disappointed. Upon entering the restaurant, the host offered us the option to sit in the bar area so we could take advantage of their happy hour deals. This was really nice, as we had not known happy hour was going on, and we ended up sitting in the bar area. Overall, no complaints about the service here. We ended up ordering a spinach and artichoke dip to start us off. It was just okay, but I’ve definitely had better. The dip was definitely heavy on the spinach, while I tend to like my dip a little smoother and cheesier. That really comes down to preference. I do think the portions were great, since we finished off all the dip with all the chips we were given. It also came with a small side of salsa, giving you options. I would normally order the Hawaiian burger, but I wanted to try something a little different. I ended up ordering the Yaki tacos, which are basically the chicken/taco version of the Hawaiian burger (so different, I know). I ended up being really disappointed though. The tacos were pretty much drowning in the teriyaki sauce, making it so that I couldn’t taste any other flavors, and it also got a little sickening halfway through. My brother did get a burger, but we noticed the fact that the fries are no longer bottomless. Islands is pretty pricey already, but it used to be justified by the fact that I could eat as many fries as I wanted. Now it just doesn’t really feel worth it, and I was so disappointed with my food.

I love Islands and go here probably once a month. The service is always great, the burgers are delicious (especially the Hawaiian burger – probably the best Hawaiian burger I’ve had), and the fries and sweet potato fries are amazing! One recommendation – they should have the seasonal Heat Wave burger year round – my boyfriend LOVED this burger and they stopped serving it after the summer! We’d come more often if that was still around ๐Ÿ™‚

This place is awsome! My first time there, Never had heard of it , It’s like a sport bar. Loved it , best hamburgers I have ever had. Place clean. People are very nice. Definitely recommend this resturant to any one , that wants a good big hamburger. The place is great

Food, service, and interior were all “Meh,” so when I saw Yelp defined a two-star rating as a “Meh,” I was all like “well, I don’t really have strong feelings about this, but that seems like a sensible rating.” My general rule of thumb is that American food places in Cupertino are overrated because there aren’t any affordable options that blow the others out of the water. Personally, I’d rather eat here than Lazy Dog (because the food here is serviceable) or The Counter (because this place’s aesthetic doesn’t make me feel like I live in Stanley Kubrick’s image of “the future”), but it’s kind of just another chain American restaurant in a town full of them.

Food was mediocre at best but the service was terrible. Waited way too long for refills and to get my check waited 25 minutes after we ate for someone to come by and we had to ask for our check

This place can be very hit or miss. At times when I have gone, the food and service are amazing. But this has no bearing unless it is consistent. Yesterday I went with my family and the server spilled the beer, I had ordered, on my father. It was not a big deal as it was clearly an accident. But the problem was clear after we has gotten the check. Although the server and hostess apologized profusely, they did not compensate my father for his damaged clothing. Normal protocol would dictate that the beer at least would be free, but that was not the case. In terms of the food I ordered the Kilauea burger. Normally this is my favorite burger but it was riddled with too much pepper this time. As I said it is a very hit or miss type of joint. Maybe they’ll be better next time, but really it’s a coin toss.

Service was excellent the waiter was on point food was really really good tasty fresh vegetables the ambience was perfect I love the island atmosphere along with the surfing images on the TVs thank you.

Over the past couple of months we’ve become regulars at this restaurant out of convenience and proximity. We visited last night and sat at the bar. I don’t expect outstanding service from this place, but last night was just flat out unacceptable and I think tipping them was a mistake. First, I asked for a coke and if you knew “other customers have been telling us it’s flat” at the time of, you, as the server should have notified me, instead of trying to sell another soft-drink. The server should not have sighed heavily when I nicely asked for a water instead. Sorry, I’m not giving you $2.65 (or whatever it is), but it wouldn’t have been your money in the end anyways. I’m sorry your soda machine isn’t working, you should ask someone to fix it. If you don’t want to be working on a Saturday night and you’d rather be at the mall, take that up with your manager. Don’t take it out on us and give us attitude. Second, I flagged down one of the gals in pink and made eye-contact with her to ask for more napkins and she just walked away. Even if it’s not your table, you still work there. There’s no need to be mean about this. You don’t want to be here on a Saturday night either? Go find a new job that’s more flexible about when you can/can’t work. Third, the food was luke-warm. I’m not asking for a teppanyaki grill show, but the food should at least be hot. The cheese on the nachos already congealed to this plastic-like consistency and the sliders weren’t hot either. Get the food out on time, or don’t give it to us at all. Yuck. Fourth, when we ask for the check, don’t say you’ll grab it ASAP then go clean the counter and pour some beer for another customer and watch the baseball game then grab food for other patrons and then print out the check. You see us, We see you. I’m assuming that the guy in the Hawaiian shirt last night was the owner/franchisee of this restaurant. I was a hostess for 7 years, I managed a restaurant for 3 years, and I would never have let that behavior slide. My college degree is in hospitality with a concentration in food and beverage, yours may not be, but there’s no need for you to bend over the counter and chat up your pseudo-bartender about the foam in the float/milkshake machine. For the number of people in the restaurant, you were WAY overstaffed and still couldn’t provide good service. Everyone is all over the place not doing their job. Pay attention to the food and the service your people are providing and take some pride in the product you are presenting. Clearly, everyone needs to pay attention because no one is “getting it”.

It’s a good place, warm and friendly. Burgers are good, American style of a restaurant… We were there at the end of the day, the waitress was very tired but she was still charming and friendly and made a good time for us…

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Islands Restaurant – 308 Photos & 501 Reviews – Burgers …

Spotlight: Channel Islands National Park | Visit California

This region, in Californias northeast corner, is known for mountains, forests, waterfalls, and amazing, safe-to-visit volcanoes. The region, a 3-hour drive north of Sacramento, gets its name from the rugged Cascade Mountains and their signature peak in state, 14,180-foot/4,322-meter Mount Shastayes, a volcano.

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Spotlight: Channel Islands National Park | Visit California

Abington, Massachusetts – Wikipedia

Before the Europeans made their claim to the area, the local Native Americans referred to the area as Manamooskeagin, meaning “great green place of shaking grass.” Two streams in the area were named for the large beaver population: Schumacastacut or “upper beaver brook” and Schumacastuscacant or “lower beaver brook.”[3]

Abington was first settled by European settlers in 1668. The lands included the current towns of Bridgewater, Rockland, Whitman, and parts of Hanover. The town was officially incorporated in 1712,[1] having been named six years earlier by Governor Joseph Dudley as a tribute to Anne Venables-Bertie, Countess of Abingdon, wife of the second Earl of Abingdon, who helped him secure the governorship of the colony from Queen Anne. The Earl of Abingdon is named from Abingdon-on-Thames in Oxfordshire (then Berkshire), UK. Indeed the original petition from Governer Dudley ordered that “the Town be named Abingdon”. A marginal note on the document gave the spelling as “Abington” as it has been known ever since.[3]

In 1769, an iron foundry was established within the town. In 1815, Jesse Reed invented a machine that mass-produced tacks, which in turn led to the shoe industry becoming established in the town.[1] During the nineteenth and early twentieth century, the manufacture of boots and shoes was its primary industry, with nearly half of the footwear provided for the Union Army during the Civil War being provided by Abington factories.[1] From 1846 to 1865, Abington was a center of the abolitionist movement.[1] In 1874 and 1875, the towns of Rockland and Whitman, respectively, separated and incorporated as towns.

In 1893, the town was the site of a riot between town constables and workers from the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, over the town’s rights to build a streetcar line that crossed the railroad’s tracks. The town eventually built the line, and as a “peace offering”, the railroad built the North Abington Depot building, which was built in the style of H. H. Richardson.[4]

Abington has evolved into a predominantly residential community with some light manufacturing including printing and machine-tool.[1]

Abington is located at 42710N 705652W / 42.11944N 70.94778W / 42.11944; -70.94778 (42.119534, -70.947876).[5]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 9.9 square miles (25.6km2), of which 9.7 square miles (25.0km2) is land and 0.23 square miles (0.6km2), or 2.41%, is water.[6]

Abington ranks 308th of 351 communities in the Commonwealth, and is the fourth-smallest town (behind Hull, Whitman and Rockland) in Plymouth County. Abington is bordered by Holbrook to the northwest, Weymouth to the northeast, Rockland to the east, Whitman to the south, and Brockton to the west. Abington is considered to be an inland town of the South Shore, and is located approximately 20 miles (32km) south of Boston.

Abington has two major waterways; the Shumatuscacant River to the west provides the town’s border with Brockton, and Beaver Brook runs through the eastern part of town; it was the source of much of the water power used by the shoe factories. In the northwestern corner of town lies Ames Nowell State Park, a large forested area around Cleveland Pond. Island Grove Pond was created in the 1700s, when a dam was built on the Shumatuscacant River. Much of the town’s population is centered on the eastern side of town, closer to the former town geographic center. The northeast corner of town is also the site of portions of the runways of the South Weymouth Naval Air Station, which was closed in 1997 as a part of the fourth round of BRAC base closures.

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Kppen climate classification system, Abington has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated “Cfa” on climate maps.[7]

As of the census of 2010, there were 15,985 people, 6,080 households, and 4,111 families residing in the town with 6,377 total housing units. The racial makeup of the town was 92.5% White, 2.1% Black or African American, 0.3% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.8% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, and 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population.

There were 6,080 households out of which 33.6% had individuals under the age of 18 living with them, 51.8% were married couples living together, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.4% were non-families. 25.1% of all households consisted of someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.18.

In the town the age distribution of the population shows 25.2% under the age of 19, 5.6% from 20 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.5 years. Males made up 48.9% of the population, while females made up 51.1%.[18]

The median income for a household in the town, based on a 20062010 projection, was $74,589.[19] In 2000, the median income for a family was $68,826. Males had a median income of $44,151 versus $30,923 for females. The per capita income for the town was $23,380. About 2.1% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.1% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.

Statistically speaking, Abington is the 125th largest community by population in the Commonwealth, and ranks 71st by population density. Its population is lower than the population average but above the median; the population density is above the average.

On the national level, Abington is a part of Massachusetts’s 8th congressional district, and is represented by Stephen Lynch. The state’s senior (Class II) member of the United States Senate, elected in 2012, is Elizabeth Warren. The junior (Class I) senator, elected in 2013, is Edward Markey.

On the state level, Abington is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as a part of the Seventh Plymouth district, which includes the towns of East Bridgewater and Whitman. The Seventh Plymouth district is represented by Geoff Diehl. The town is represented in the Massachusetts Senate by John Keenan, as a part of the Norfolk and Plymouth District, which includes Holbrook, Quincy, Rockland and part of Braintree.[20] The town is patrolled by the First (Norwell) Barracks of Troop D of the Massachusetts State Police.[21]

Abington is governed by the open town meeting form of government, and is led by a town manager and a board of selectmen. The town operates its own police and fire department, with firehouses located in the north and south of town along Route 18. There are two post offices in town, on Route 123 east of Route 18 and on Route 58 north of Route Route 139. The Abington Public Library, a member of the Old Colony Library Network, is located adjacent to the town hall, both of which opened in 1997 across from the high school. The town operates a park, Island Grove Park, located in the southeast of town. Current Board of Selectmen (April 2016): Maureen Jansen (Chairman); Kenneth Coyle (Vice-Chairman); R. Andrew Burbine; Bob Manning; Alex Bezanson; [22]

There are two main north-south routes through town, Route 18 and Route 58, the latter terminating at the former just a 0.5 miles (800m) north of the town line. Route 123 and Route 139 run east to west through the town, with Route 139 being the more northern route. There is no freeway access to town; the town is located between Route 24 and Route 3.

The former Old Colony Railroad line runs through the eastern part of town, and is currently used as a part of the Plymouth-Kingston route of the MBTA’s commuter rail line. There is a stop in Abington, just southwest of the intersection of Routes 123 and 58. A spur off the line formerly went into the town of Rockland; that spur is now abandoned. There is no air service in the town; the nearest national and international air service can be found at Logan International Airport in Boston.

On June 10, 2012, Abington celebrated the 300th anniversary of its incorporation.[23]

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Abington, Massachusetts – Wikipedia

Best Small Islands of Coastal North Carolina To Live

For those of you interested in finding your Coastal North Carolina best places to live on the ocean, the barrier islands are some of the most beautiful places youll ever experience.

Unlike their cousins to the south, Coastal North Carolina barrier islands, commonly referred to as the Outer Banks, are long, thin stretches of land just off the coast. For the past few weeks we have been talking about the best small island living along the coast of South Carolina.

Weve looked at the popular best small islands of:

Weve also looked at other CoastalSouth Carolina best places to live small cities and towns:

This week were heading north up the Carolina eastern coastline. To look at the best small islands of Coastal North Carolina to live.

One author referredto the Outer Banks of North Carolina as a thin arm of sand nudging its way into the Atlantic.

Think remote white sandy beaches where small towns and villages are few and far between.

Imagine beaches coexisting with wildlife preserves and all manner of natural beauty.

Only then can you have an idea of why these small islands off Coastal North Carolina are so popular.

Life on the best small island of Coastal North Carolina is laid back. And this attracts people looking to get away from the daily grind. Those wanting to slow down and reconnect with themselves and their surroundings.

Needless to say the Coastal North Carolina Outer Banks are a big tourist attraction. And these small islands are inundated with visitors for part of the year.

Local residents typically find work in the tourism industry, real estate, fishing, education and government agencies like the National Park Service.

All you beach lovers .Wow the Coastal North Carolina beaches are amazing!!!

Its not uncommon for people to have a variety of jobs to tide them over until the tourists come back.

Although there are restaurants and shops, residents often have to go to the mainland for various services and amenities.

And more than the tourism, perhaps one of the biggest downsides to living in Coastal North Carolina is you have to evacuate the islands in the event of a really strong storm.

Nevertheless, the Coastal North Carolina Outer Banks remain popular.

And the people that have settled down here wouldnt live anywhere else.

So what do the best small islands of Coastal North Carolina have to offer you?

Bald Head Island NC sits south of another Coastal North Carolina best place to live. Wilmington NC just a few miles off coast near the mouth of the Cape Fear River.

Bald Head Island NC is a private resort community of a little less than 165 people and is only accessible via ferry.

Mostly a wildlife reserve. The island has golf courses, historic lighthouses, creeks and maritime forests.

Oh and forget about cars because the only thing with four wheels you can travel in are golf carts.

Housing is more expensive with a median home sales price of around $850,344.

Youll find a fully stocked grocery store as well as police and fire departments. But Bald Head Island NC residents must go to the mainland for most medical services.

Ocracoke Island NC, population almost 948, is one of the more remote barrier islands on Coastal North Carolina. Accessible only by a 45 minute ferry ride or plane.

Once mostly dominated by fishing, the village of Okracoke NC is mostly all about tourism.

And is a prime destination for summer vacationers because of its award winning beaches.

Tourism has brought development including hotels and restaurants but services like hospitals you can expect to go to the mainland.

The median home value is around $364,673.

You can get to another popular island location, Hatteras Island NC by car, boat or plane.

People generally think of historic lighthouses, amazing beaches and tourism when they think of Hatteras.

Surprisingly, it is home to roughly 4000 people spread out among several quaint village communities like Rodanth, Salvo, Avon, Buxton, Frisco and Hatteras.

The median home value for Hatteras Island North Carolina is about $400,000.

Stay tuned next week as we explore more about North Carolina Coastal living.

Have a good one and well see you again next week!

Discover More North Carolina and South Carolina Best Places To Live

Robert Bencivenga is a professional site locator and location analyst for major corporations. Robert researches the growth of NC and SC to find the Best Places to Retire or Relocate that are still affordable.

Robert Does Not Sell Real Estate! 2005-2014 Places of Value Inc. All Rights Reserved. Reproduction without permission prohibited.

Join Us In The North Carolina And South Carolina Best Places To Live Conversation

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Best Small Islands of Coastal North Carolina To Live

Visit Sandbridge Beach – Virginia Beach CVB

Municipal parking lots are located near Sandbridge Market at the corner of Sandbridge Road and Sandfiddler Road. The lots charge a fee between Memorial Day and Labor Day. The maximum fee is $5 per day. Parking is also available at Little Island Park.

Little Island Park:

This large public beach area at the southend of Sandbridge (south of 3600 block) provides a great place to spend your fun-filled vacation days. The park features lifeguards, covered picnic areas with grills, bath houses/showers, lighted tennis courts, basketball court, childrens playground, and even a fishing pier. Pier open 5:30 a.m. 11 p.m.

(757) 426-7200

Little Island Parking Fees (Friday before Memorial Day to Labor Day):

$3 per day residents

$5 per day for non-residents

$10 for buses and RVs

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Visit Sandbridge Beach – Virginia Beach CVB

The 10 Best Hotels in Secaucus, NJ (with Pictures)

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The 10 Best Hotels in Secaucus, NJ (with Pictures)

Touring the Islands of Maryland | Visit Maryland

Want to get away to the islands? Maryland is home to hundreds of islands just waiting to be explored! Some are uninhabited or strictly nature preserves, while others are bustling with shops, restaurants and museums. Here some local favorites to get you started.

This charming island town was named one of Americas Happiest Seaside Towns by Coastal Living, and its no wonder. Waterfront restaurants and shops dot Solomons Island Road, while the Calvert Marine Museum has exhibits on ancient fossils and a lighthouse you can climb inside. More info….

This tiny island in southern St. Marys County is the site of the first battle on Maryland soil during the Revolutionary War, and was later occupied by the British in the War of 1812. Today, its a popular bird watching and kayaking spot. More info…

The 45-minute ferry ride to this island from the mainland is truly worth it for foodies: Smith Island is renowned for its crab cakes as well as Marylands official state dessert, the eight-layer Smith Island Cake.

Life moves slowly on this Eastern Shore Island, although things ramp up each June for the legendary Seafood Festival held by the Tilghman Volunteer Fire Co. More info…

More about Tilghman Island Seafood Fest 2016

Type: Events

Location: 5979 Tilghman Island Rd. Tilghman, MD 21671 410-886-2677

Located just 45 miles south of Washington, D.C., in the Potomac River in Charles County, Cobb Island is a vacation home paradise. Nature abounds here where swans, ospreys, herons and crabs outnumber residents. The small island boasts great seafood, including the famed crabs at Capt. John’s Crabhouse. More info…

More about Captain John’s Crab House

Type: Seafood

Location: 16215 Cobb Island Road Newburg, MD 20664 301-259-2315

This quiet island on the Tangier Sound in Somerset County provides a wonderful opportunity to slow down. There are just a few hundred residents here, and the island is famed for bird watching, sailing, canoeing and the annual Labor Day Skipjack Race.

More about Deal Island Skipjack Races & Island Fest

Type: Events

Location: Deal Island Harbor Deal Island, MD 21821 410-784-2785

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Touring the Islands of Maryland | Visit Maryland

List of islands of Maryland – Wikipedia

Maryland has 281 named islands within its many waters and waterways, including the Atlantic ocean; the Chesapeake bay and its many tributary tidal rivers, creeks and bays; as well as within larger whitewater rivers like the upper Potomac.

These Islands are relatively permanent, although some are disappearing on the scale of a few centuries, like Smith Island in the Chesapeake Bay.

There are also a number of unnamed islands in Maryland, many of which are very temporary in nature, lasting only a few years or decades, both in the tidal environment and also in Maryland’s larger whitewater rivers. These come and go due to the effect of storms.

This is a list of named islands of Maryland.

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List of islands of Maryland – Wikipedia

List of islands of Massachusetts – Wikipedia

The islands of Massachusetts range from barren, almost completely submerged rocks in Massachusetts Bay (e.g. Abbott Rock, first on the list below) to the large, famous and heavily visited Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket.

Although most of the islands are in or near the Atlantic Ocean, several islands in western Massachusetts are found in the Connecticut River and a few others are surrounded by natural or man made lakes, ponds and wetlands.

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List of islands of Massachusetts – Wikipedia

Careers | Islands Restaurants

Careers At Islands

It all starts with our people. We hire only the hardest working and most ambitious to serve under the Islands banner. Our commitment to you is to make your career goals a reality. In short, we are looking for people with a passion for the restaurant industry and dedication to providing outstanding guest service.

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Careers | Islands Restaurants

Long Beach Island New Jersey – VisitNJ.org

In the north part of the island is Barnegat Light, which encompasses Barnegat Lighthouse State Park and the commercial fishing port of Viking Village.

Also in the north are the relaxed towns of Surf City,Loveladies, North Beachand Harvey Cedar.

Head south to find bustling Ship Bottom, Holgate, Brant Beach and Beach Haven, the islands main action center.

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Long Beach Island New Jersey – VisitNJ.org