Genetic Medicine – Imagenetics

Sanford Health has genetic counselors who are trained in both genetics and counseling. They are board certified and licensed. Genetic counseling helps people to understand the medical, psychological, and familial effects of genomics in a disease process.

Genetic counseling integrates the interpretation of family history, genomics, and medical history to assess the chance of having a disease or having a disease return as well as educate about inheritance, testing, management, prevention, resources, and research. A genetic counselor provides counseling to make informed choices and adjust to the risk or condition.

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Genetic Medicine – Imagenetics

Communication in genetic medicine – TGMI

Ive noticed over the last few weeks that many TGMI blog posts address challenges that specifically related to communication in genetic medicine. I wanted to highlight some of these mentions here, to illustrate that not all issues in genetic medicine are scientific or medical challenges. Sometimes its all about the way we share information with each other.

Looking back at recent blog posts, these are some of the communication challenges the TGMI team members noticed:

These are just some things that came up on the TGMI blog in the past few months, and while they look like very distinct problems, they are all about communication.

When clinicians and researchers need to use the same information, the requirements they have for how that information is presented can be very different

Of course an important point of communication is when patients need to understand the result of their genetic test and the implications of that result to a degree that allows them to make decisions about their own health. But communication isnt always about communication to patients or to a broader audience of non-experts. Even amongst themselves, researchers encounter communication challenges, with gene names being used inconsistently or inconsistent use of terms that articulate important issues such as the mode of inheritance, the risk of associated disease occurring, inconsistent methods used for annotating variations in genes and even many different ways of describing diseases or disorders and their consequences.

When clinicians and researchers need to use the same information, such as the link between a gene and a disease, the requirements they have for how that information is presented can be very different: Do they need it to understand genetics in general, or do they need it to very specifically understand the role genetic changes can have in one particular disease?

When two people talk to each other about genetics, they make assumptions about the level of genetic literacy the other person has. As Jennifer mentioned in last weeks blog post, the general level of genetic literacy has increased over the years. More people than before now know enough about genetics to talk about it in the context of a discussion about their health and hereditary conditions.

Still, this doesnt mean that all problems surrounding communication about genetics with non-experts have now been solved. For example, various studies have looked at communities where there is less awareness about genetic testing, or where a culture or language barrier affects communication. .

Were never going to get everyone at the same level of genetics knowledge, but that isnt necessary either. Genetically literate people dont need to know everything about genetics. They just need to have access to support and tools to help them find and understand relevant information and whats relevant is different for everyone. However it is important to improve the consistency in how different resources and tools use terms to describe genetic variation and the possible links those have to disease risk.

The same is true for communication between researchers and clinicians, or between researchers in different fields. They cant all be expected to know all the details of each others expertise, but they need to have a way to look up and extract the intended meaning from the information shared through publications, databases and other resources.

Last year, the American Heart Association published a statement to highlight this issue. They pointed out that researchers are rapidly finding new information about the link between genetics and cardiovascular disease, but that the clinician specialists who work with cardiovascular and stroke patients cant keep up with all this new genetics knowledge. The Association provided recommendations on how clinicians can acquire and maintain genetics competencies, and emphasised that clinicians not only need to have access to continued education about genetics, but also to tools and resources: The eventual goal is to empower and enable the cardiovascular clinician to understand, interpret, and apply genetic information to patient care in an effective, responsible, and cost-efficient manner.

These challenges arent unique to genetic medicine. Theyre all broad problems related to many areas of communication. Because these challenges are so ubiquitous, they are themselves the subject of academic study. Even just within science, there are fields such as Science of Team Science, which looks atcollaborations and effective communication between researchers, and Science of Science Communication, which studies how scientific information is disseminated to others.

Some studies look specifically at communication related to genetics and genomics. For example, how genetic literacy is measured, or how population sciences influence translational genomics.

The list at the top of this blog post only includes a few examples of communication challenges in genetic medicine, just enough to give you an idea of some of the different areas where communication is key. Id be curious to hear whether you have come across any other instances yourself either from your own experience or something youve heard or read about.

So, to turn this into two-way communication, please leave your thoughts in the comments below, or talk to us on Twitter. (Or you can always email us.)

Photo by Nik MacMillan on Unsplash

Read more:

Communication in genetic medicine – TGMI

Genetic Counseling – School of Medicine | University of …

What does it mean to be a genetic counseling student?

At the University of South Carolina it means you become part of the team from day one: an engaged learner in our genetics center.You’ll have an experienced primary faculty who are open door mentors in your preparation for this career.

You’ll have access in the classroom and in the clinic to the geneticist and genetic counselor faculty in our clinical rotation network of nine genetic centers. The world of genetic counseling will unfold for you in two very busy years, preparing you to take on the dozens of roles open to genetic counselors today.

Rigorous coursework, community service, challenging clinical rotations and a research-based thesis will provide opportunity for tremendous professional growth.

We’ve been perfecting our curriculum formore than 30 years to connect the knowledge with the skills youll need as a genetic counselor. Our reputation for excellence is known at home and abroad. We carefully review more than 140 applications per year to select the eight students who will graduate from the School of Medicine Genetic Counseling Program. Our alumni are our proudest accomplishment and work in the best genetic centers throughout the country. They build on our foundation to achieve goals in clinical care, education, research and industry beyond what we imagined.

First in the Southeast and tenth in the nation, we are one of 39 accredited programs in the United States. We have graduatedmore than 250 genetic counselors, many of whom are leading the profession today.

During your time with us you’ll get hands-on experience through a wide range of clinical opportunities in prenatal, pediatric and adult settings as well as specialty clinics. International rotations are encouraged through our partners in the Transnational Alliance for Genetic Counseling.

Weve received highly acclaimed Commendations for Excellence from the South Carolina Commission of Higher Education. American Board of Genetic Counseling accreditation was achieved in 2000, reaccreditation in 2006 and, most recently, theAccreditation Council for Genetic Counselingreaccreditation was awarded, 2014-2022.

You’ll have the chance to form lifelong partnerships with our core and clinical rotation faculty. You can begin to build your professional network with geneticists and genetic counselors throughout the Southeast and across the nation.

One of our program’s greatest assets is our alumni. This dedicated group regularly teaches and mentors our students,serves on our advisory board, raises money for our endowment and enjoys the instant connection when meeting other USC Genetic Counseling graduates. As a student, you’ll benefit from the network of connections these alumni are ready to offer you. Check out our Facebook group.

Follow this link:

Genetic Counseling – School of Medicine | University of …

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem,[1] which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases.

Predisposition is the capacity we are born with to learn things such as language and concept of self. Negative environmental influences may block the predisposition (ability) we have to do some things. Behaviors displayed by animals can be influenced by genetic predispositions. Genetic predisposition towards certain human behaviors is scientifically investigated by attempts to identify patterns of human behavior that seem to be invariant over long periods of time and in very different cultures.

For example, philosopher Daniel Dennett has proposed that humans are genetically predisposed to have a theory of mind because there has been evolutionary selection for the human ability to adopt the intentional stance.[1] The intentional stance is a useful behavioral strategy by which humans assume that others have minds like their own. This assumption allows you to predict the behavior of others based on personal knowledge of what you would do.

E. O. Wilson’s book on sociobiology and his book Consilience discuss the idea of genetic predisposition to behaviors

The field of evolutionary psychology explores the idea that certain behaviors have been selected for during the course of evolution.

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, which was signed into law by President Bush on May 21, 2008,[2] prohibits discrimination in employment and health insurance based on genetic information.

Originally posted here:

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

Genetic Medicine Sidra Medicine

The Genetic Medicine Scientific Interest Group will support a range of activities for those interested in exploring the translational interface between clinical genetics and molecular pathophysiology.

The group will develop a curated knowledge base for a variety of experimental and laboratory approaches that are widely used in this type of research, both in the genetics/genomics field and in the functional analysis of genetic mutations by cellular and molecular assays.

This will be achieved through discussion forums, student and faculty journal clubs, and workshops/seminars led by internationally recognized investigators. While the Interest group is open to any individual or lab wishing to participate, it may be most beneficial to those who are trying to use the power of genetics to answer important biological questions, ranging from basic organismal development to the treatment and stratification of patients with genetic disease.

See the original post here:

Genetic Medicine Sidra Medicine

Genetic Counseling – School of Medicine | University of …

What does it mean to be a genetic counseling student?

At the University of South Carolina it means you become part of the team from day one: an engaged learner in our genetics center.You’ll have an experienced primary faculty who are open door mentors in your preparation for this career.

You’ll have access in the classroom and in the clinic to the geneticist and genetic counselor faculty in our clinical rotation network of nine genetic centers. The world of genetic counseling will unfold for you in two very busy years, preparing you to take on the dozens of roles open to genetic counselors today.

Rigorous coursework, community service, challenging clinical rotations and a research-based thesis will provide opportunity for tremendous professional growth.

We’ve been perfecting our curriculum formore than 30 years to connect the knowledge with the skills youll need as a genetic counselor. Our reputation for excellence is known at home and abroad. We carefully review more than 140 applications per year to select the eight students who will graduate from the School of Medicine Genetic Counseling Program. Our alumni are our proudest accomplishment and work in the best genetic centers throughout the country. They build on our foundation to achieve goals in clinical care, education, research and industry beyond what we imagined.

First in the Southeast and tenth in the nation, we are one of 39 accredited programs in the United States. We have graduatedmore than 250 genetic counselors, many of whom are leading the profession today.

During your time with us you’ll get hands-on experience through a wide range of clinical opportunities in prenatal, pediatric and adult settings as well as specialty clinics. International rotations are encouraged through our partners in the Transnational Alliance for Genetic Counseling.

Weve received highly acclaimed Commendations for Excellence from the South Carolina Commission of Higher Education. American Board of Genetic Counseling accreditation was achieved in 2000, reaccreditation in 2006 and, most recently, theAccreditation Council for Genetic Counselingreaccreditation was awarded, 2014-2022.

You’ll have the chance to form lifelong partnerships with our core and clinical rotation faculty. You can begin to build your professional network with geneticists and genetic counselors throughout the Southeast and across the nation.

One of our program’s greatest assets is our alumni. This dedicated group regularly teaches and mentors our students,serves on our advisory board, raises money for our endowment and enjoys the instant connection when meeting other USC Genetic Counseling graduates. As a student, you’ll benefit from the network of connections these alumni are ready to offer you. Check out our Facebook group.

Follow this link:

Genetic Counseling – School of Medicine | University of …

Information about Genetic Testing | School of Medicine …

Even with the success of the Human Genome Project, there still isn’t a genetic test for every disease. A disease may run in a family and clearly be inherited, but the gene responsible may not be identified yet. Our team will see if there is a genetic test available for the condition running in your family.

If a test exists, we will find the best laboratory to use. Some laboratories offer clinical testing and must follow federal quality control standards. Clinical laboratories typically quote a fixed price and a standard return time for results.

Other laboratories offer research testing and are usually linked to academic centers and universities. They do testing at no cost in most cases. Often research laboratories do not provide results. If they do, it may take months or years to deliver results. Research test results should be confirmed in a clinical laboratory if medical management is based on the result.

Testing costs and turnaround times vary. Genetic test results are usually ready in three to four weeks. Though genetic testing costs are often paid for by insurance carriers, patients may be required to pay some or all of the cost when the test is ordered. When indicated we can write a letter of medical necessity explaining the benefits genetic testing might have for you. This can often increase the likelihood that your insurance company will pay for the testing.

Not everyone who has a genetic disease will have a mutation or a biochemical abnormality that shows up in testing. Because of this limitation, in a family it makes sense to first test someone who has had the disease in question.

If a genetic risk factor is found, ways of managing or preventing the disease due to that genetic risk can be discussed. Additionally, at-risk relatives can check their own status by testing for that specific risk factor. If that specific genetic risk factor is not found in an at-risk relative (i.e., they have a normal test result), he or she can be reassured. If the at-risk relative has a positive genetic test result, he or she has a greater chance of getting the condition. Relatives whose risk has been confirmed can start screening and prevention practices targeted for their genetic risk.

Sometimes testing a family member who has the disease isn’t possible. (The person may be dead, unavailable or unwilling to be tested.) Then, an unaffected person can take the test. Finding a genetic risk factor will certainly give useful information. But a normal test result doesn’t always mean there’s no risk. Many genes responsible for an inherited susceptibility are not yet known. In other words, a normal test result can exclude the genetic risk factors that have been tested but not the possibility of an inherited susceptibility. It may be valuable to test other family members.

If you were to have genetic testing it would be important to interpret your test results in light of your personal and family medical history. We will also identify family members who might benefit from genetic consultation and genetic testing. If necessary, we can provide referrals for relatives outside the Denver area.

If you test positive for a genetic condition, you can better understand how this condition arose in you and your relatives. If you do not yet have symptoms, you can start to plan for the future, such as planning for a family, career, and retirement. You might want to start seeing specialists to help manage the condition. Preventive actions may be useful as well. Drugs, diet and lifestyle changes may help prevent the disease improve treatment.

Close relatives might value having this information. They can go through testing themselves to determine their disease risks and the best treatment approach.

If you test negative for a genetic risk factor that is known to run in your family you may be relieved that a major risk factor has been excluded.

Diagnosing a genetic condition does not tell us how or when the disease will develop. Although DNA-based genetic testing is very accurate, there is a chance that an inherited mutation will be missed. If a mutation is not found, the test results cannot exclude the possibility of an inherited risk since there may be a mutation in another gene for which testing was not done. If you still have symptoms of a genetic condition, a normal test result might not get you ‘off the hook’. An inherited disease risk can only be excluded if a known mutation in the family has been excluded.

Family relationships may be affected by this information. If you have a genetic condition, other family members might benefit by also knowing. In the process of sharing your genetic risk information, family members may learn things about you that you do not want known. In addition, you may learn things about relatives that you did not want to know. For example, it may be revealed that a family member is adopted.

Some people find it hard to learn that they carry a gene that makes their risk of developing a disease greater. They may feel many emotions, including anger, fear about the future, anxiety about their health or guilt about passing a mutation on to their children. They may be shocked by the news. They may go through denial or a change in their self-esteem.

Knowing that you have a higher risk of getting a particular disease (when you don’t currently show symptoms) may affect your ability to be insured (health, life and disability). Several state and federal laws prohibit use of genetic information by health insurance companies. In general, health insurers cannot use this information as a pre-existing condition that could disqualify you when applying for new insurance. Genetic information cannot be used to raise premium payments or to deny coverage. However, these laws are not fully comprehensive and may not entirely prevent discrimination. You may want to contact your insurance company to see what effect, if any, genetic testing may have on your coverage.

Sometimes genetic test results are uninformative or ambiguous, making it difficult or impossible to say if a person has a higher risk. These ambiguous results can be the most difficult as they don’t provide a clear-cut answer.

For people with normal test results, where the genetic risk in the family has been excluded, a variety of emotions might occur. Most people feel tremendous relief. Others may feel survivor guilt, wondering why they were spared the risk. This can sometimes lead to changes in relationships between family members.

In some cases, an inherited risk for disease seems likely but the gene responsible has not yet been identified. The Adult Medical Genetics Program can help link families with researchers studying that disease. We can contact researchers for you and help you become part of the gene discovery studies. Although being part of research studies doesn’t always give you answers, it does allow you to contribute to science.

Excerpt from:

Information about Genetic Testing | School of Medicine …

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem,[1] which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases.

Predisposition is the capacity we are born with to learn things such as language and concept of self. Negative environmental influences may block the predisposition (ability) we have to do some things. Behaviors displayed by animals can be influenced by genetic predispositions. Genetic predisposition towards certain human behaviors is scientifically investigated by attempts to identify patterns of human behavior that seem to be invariant over long periods of time and in very different cultures.

For example, philosopher Daniel Dennett has proposed that humans are genetically predisposed to have a theory of mind because there has been evolutionary selection for the human ability to adopt the intentional stance.[1] The intentional stance is a useful behavioral strategy by which humans assume that others have minds like their own. This assumption allows you to predict the behavior of others based on personal knowledge of what you would do.

E. O. Wilson’s book on sociobiology and his book Consilience discuss the idea of genetic predisposition to behaviors

The field of evolutionary psychology explores the idea that certain behaviors have been selected for during the course of evolution.

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, which was signed into law by President Bush on May 21, 2008,[2] prohibits discrimination in employment and health insurance based on genetic information.

Excerpt from:

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

Genetic Counseling Program – University of South Carolina …

What does it mean to be a genetic counseling student?

At the University of South Carolina it means you become part of the team from day one: an engaged learner in our genetics center.You’ll have an experienced primary faculty who are open door mentors in your preparation for this career.

You’ll have access in the classroom and in the clinic to the geneticist and genetic counselor faculty in our clinical rotation network of nine genetic centers. The world of genetic counseling will unfold for you in two very busy years, preparing you to take on the dozens of roles open to genetic counselors today.

Rigorous coursework, community service, challenging clinical rotations and a research-based thesis will provide opportunity for tremendous professional growth.

We’ve been perfecting our curriculum formore than 30 years to connect the knowledge with the skills youll need as a genetic counselor. Our reputation for excellence is known at home and abroad. We carefully review more than 140 applications per year to select the eight students who will graduate from the School of Medicine Genetic Counseling Program. Our alumni are our proudest accomplishment and work in the best genetic centers throughout the country. They build on our foundation to achieve goals in clinical care, education, research and industry beyond what we imagined.

First in the Southeast and tenth in the nation, we are one of 39 accredited programs in the United States. We have graduatedmore than 250 genetic counselors, many of whom are leading the profession today.

During your time with us you’ll get hands-on experience through a wide range of clinical opportunities in prenatal, pediatric and adult settings as well as specialty clinics. International rotations are encouraged through our partners in the Transnational Alliance for Genetic Counseling.

Weve received highly acclaimed Commendations for Excellence from the South Carolina Commission of Higher Education. American Board of Genetic Counseling accreditation was achieved in 2000, reaccreditation in 2006 and, most recently, theAccreditation Council for Genetic Counselingreaccreditation was awarded, 2014-2022.

You’ll have the chance to form lifelong partnerships with our core and clinical rotation faculty. You can begin to build your professional network with geneticists and genetic counselors throughout the Southeast and across the nation.

One of our program’s greatest assets is our alumni. This dedicated group regularly teaches and mentors our students,serves on our advisory board, raises money for our endowment and enjoys the instant connection when meeting other USC Genetic Counseling graduates. As a student, you’ll benefit from the network of connections these alumni are ready to offer you. Check out our Facebook group.

Continue reading here:

Genetic Counseling Program – University of South Carolina …

Genetic Medicine Sidra Medicine

The Genetic Medicine Scientific Interest Group will support a range of activities for those interested in exploring the translational interface between clinical genetics and molecular pathophysiology.

The group will develop a curated knowledge base for a variety of experimental and laboratory approaches that are widely used in this type of research, both in the genetics/genomics field and in the functional analysis of genetic mutations by cellular and molecular assays.

This will be achieved through discussion forums, student and faculty journal clubs, and workshops/seminars led by internationally recognized investigators. While the Interest group is open to any individual or lab wishing to participate, it may be most beneficial to those who are trying to use the power of genetics to answer important biological questions, ranging from basic organismal development to the treatment and stratification of patients with genetic disease.

See original here:

Genetic Medicine Sidra Medicine

Information about Genetic Testing | School of Medicine …

Even with the success of the Human Genome Project, there still isn’t a genetic test for every disease. A disease may run in a family and clearly be inherited, but the gene responsible may not be identified yet. Our team will see if there is a genetic test available for the condition running in your family.

If a test exists, we will find the best laboratory to use. Some laboratories offer clinical testing and must follow federal quality control standards. Clinical laboratories typically quote a fixed price and a standard return time for results.

Other laboratories offer research testing and are usually linked to academic centers and universities. They do testing at no cost in most cases. Often research laboratories do not provide results. If they do, it may take months or years to deliver results. Research test results should be confirmed in a clinical laboratory if medical management is based on the result.

Testing costs and turnaround times vary. Genetic test results are usually ready in three to four weeks. Though genetic testing costs are often paid for by insurance carriers, patients may be required to pay some or all of the cost when the test is ordered. When indicated we can write a letter of medical necessity explaining the benefits genetic testing might have for you. This can often increase the likelihood that your insurance company will pay for the testing.

Not everyone who has a genetic disease will have a mutation or a biochemical abnormality that shows up in testing. Because of this limitation, in a family it makes sense to first test someone who has had the disease in question.

If a genetic risk factor is found, ways of managing or preventing the disease due to that genetic risk can be discussed. Additionally, at-risk relatives can check their own status by testing for that specific risk factor. If that specific genetic risk factor is not found in an at-risk relative (i.e., they have a normal test result), he or she can be reassured. If the at-risk relative has a positive genetic test result, he or she has a greater chance of getting the condition. Relatives whose risk has been confirmed can start screening and prevention practices targeted for their genetic risk.

Sometimes testing a family member who has the disease isn’t possible. (The person may be dead, unavailable or unwilling to be tested.) Then, an unaffected person can take the test. Finding a genetic risk factor will certainly give useful information. But a normal test result doesn’t always mean there’s no risk. Many genes responsible for an inherited susceptibility are not yet known. In other words, a normal test result can exclude the genetic risk factors that have been tested but not the possibility of an inherited susceptibility. It may be valuable to test other family members.

If you were to have genetic testing it would be important to interpret your test results in light of your personal and family medical history. We will also identify family members who might benefit from genetic consultation and genetic testing. If necessary, we can provide referrals for relatives outside the Denver area.

If you test positive for a genetic condition, you can better understand how this condition arose in you and your relatives. If you do not yet have symptoms, you can start to plan for the future, such as planning for a family, career, and retirement. You might want to start seeing specialists to help manage the condition. Preventive actions may be useful as well. Drugs, diet and lifestyle changes may help prevent the disease improve treatment.

Close relatives might value having this information. They can go through testing themselves to determine their disease risks and the best treatment approach.

If you test negative for a genetic risk factor that is known to run in your family you may be relieved that a major risk factor has been excluded.

Diagnosing a genetic condition does not tell us how or when the disease will develop. Although DNA-based genetic testing is very accurate, there is a chance that an inherited mutation will be missed. If a mutation is not found, the test results cannot exclude the possibility of an inherited risk since there may be a mutation in another gene for which testing was not done. If you still have symptoms of a genetic condition, a normal test result might not get you ‘off the hook’. An inherited disease risk can only be excluded if a known mutation in the family has been excluded.

Family relationships may be affected by this information. If you have a genetic condition, other family members might benefit by also knowing. In the process of sharing your genetic risk information, family members may learn things about you that you do not want known. In addition, you may learn things about relatives that you did not want to know. For example, it may be revealed that a family member is adopted.

Some people find it hard to learn that they carry a gene that makes their risk of developing a disease greater. They may feel many emotions, including anger, fear about the future, anxiety about their health or guilt about passing a mutation on to their children. They may be shocked by the news. They may go through denial or a change in their self-esteem.

Knowing that you have a higher risk of getting a particular disease (when you don’t currently show symptoms) may affect your ability to be insured (health, life and disability). Several state and federal laws prohibit use of genetic information by health insurance companies. In general, health insurers cannot use this information as a pre-existing condition that could disqualify you when applying for new insurance. Genetic information cannot be used to raise premium payments or to deny coverage. However, these laws are not fully comprehensive and may not entirely prevent discrimination. You may want to contact your insurance company to see what effect, if any, genetic testing may have on your coverage.

Sometimes genetic test results are uninformative or ambiguous, making it difficult or impossible to say if a person has a higher risk. These ambiguous results can be the most difficult as they don’t provide a clear-cut answer.

For people with normal test results, where the genetic risk in the family has been excluded, a variety of emotions might occur. Most people feel tremendous relief. Others may feel survivor guilt, wondering why they were spared the risk. This can sometimes lead to changes in relationships between family members.

In some cases, an inherited risk for disease seems likely but the gene responsible has not yet been identified. The Adult Medical Genetics Program can help link families with researchers studying that disease. We can contact researchers for you and help you become part of the gene discovery studies. Although being part of research studies doesn’t always give you answers, it does allow you to contribute to science.

Read this article:

Information about Genetic Testing | School of Medicine …

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem,[1] which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases.

Predisposition is the capacity we are born with to learn things such as language and concept of self. Negative environmental influences may block the predisposition (ability) we have to do some things. Behaviors displayed by animals can be influenced by genetic predispositions. Genetic predisposition towards certain human behaviors is scientifically investigated by attempts to identify patterns of human behavior that seem to be invariant over long periods of time and in very different cultures.

For example, philosopher Daniel Dennett has proposed that humans are genetically predisposed to have a theory of mind because there has been evolutionary selection for the human ability to adopt the intentional stance.[1] The intentional stance is a useful behavioral strategy by which humans assume that others have minds like their own. This assumption allows you to predict the behavior of others based on personal knowledge of what you would do.

E. O. Wilson’s book on sociobiology and his book Consilience discuss the idea of genetic predisposition to behaviors

The field of evolutionary psychology explores the idea that certain behaviors have been selected for during the course of evolution.

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, which was signed into law by President Bush on May 21, 2008,[2] prohibits discrimination in employment and health insurance based on genetic information.

Read more from the original source:

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

Medical genetics – Wikipedia

Medical genetics is the branch of medicine that involves the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders. Medical genetics differs from human genetics in that human genetics is a field of scientific research that may or may not apply to medicine, while medical genetics refers to the application of genetics to medical care. For example, research on the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders would be considered within both human genetics and medical genetics, while the diagnosis, management, and counselling people with genetic disorders would be considered part of medical genetics.

In contrast, the study of typically non-medical phenotypes such as the genetics of eye color would be considered part of human genetics, but not necessarily relevant to medical genetics (except in situations such as albinism). Genetic medicine is a newer term for medical genetics and incorporates areas such as gene therapy, personalized medicine, and the rapidly emerging new medical specialty, predictive medicine.

Medical genetics encompasses many different areas, including clinical practice of physicians, genetic counselors, and nutritionists, clinical diagnostic laboratory activities, and research into the causes and inheritance of genetic disorders. Examples of conditions that fall within the scope of medical genetics include birth defects and dysmorphology, mental retardation, autism, mitochondrial disorders, skeletal dysplasia, connective tissue disorders, cancer genetics, teratogens, and prenatal diagnosis. Medical genetics is increasingly becoming relevant to many common diseases. Overlaps with other medical specialties are beginning to emerge, as recent advances in genetics are revealing etiologies for neurologic, endocrine, cardiovascular, pulmonary, ophthalmologic, renal, psychiatric, and dermatologic conditions.

In some ways, many of the individual fields within medical genetics are hybrids between clinical care and research. This is due in part to recent advances in science and technology (for example, see the Human genome project) that have enabled an unprecedented understanding of genetic disorders.

Clinical genetics is the practice of clinical medicine with particular attention to hereditary disorders. Referrals are made to genetics clinics for a variety of reasons, including birth defects, developmental delay, autism, epilepsy, short stature, and many others. Examples of genetic syndromes that are commonly seen in the genetics clinic include chromosomal rearrangements, Down syndrome, DiGeorge syndrome (22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome), Fragile X syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis, Turner syndrome, and Williams syndrome.

In the United States, physicians who practice clinical genetics are accredited by the American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ABMGG).[1] In order to become a board-certified practitioner of Clinical Genetics, a physician must complete a minimum of 24 months of training in a program accredited by the ABMGG. Individuals seeking acceptance into clinical genetics training programs must hold an M.D. or D.O. degree (or their equivalent) and have completed a minimum of 24 months of training in an ACGME-accredited residency program in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, or other medical specialty.[2]

Metabolic (or biochemical) genetics involves the diagnosis and management of inborn errors of metabolism in which patients have enzymatic deficiencies that perturb biochemical pathways involved in metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and lipids. Examples of metabolic disorders include galactosemia, glycogen storage disease, lysosomal storage disorders, metabolic acidosis, peroxisomal disorders, phenylketonuria, and urea cycle disorders.

Cytogenetics is the study of chromosomes and chromosome abnormalities. While cytogenetics historically relied on microscopy to analyze chromosomes, new molecular technologies such as array comparative genomic hybridization are now becoming widely used. Examples of chromosome abnormalities include aneuploidy, chromosomal rearrangements, and genomic deletion/duplication disorders.

Molecular genetics involves the discovery of and laboratory testing for DNA mutations that underlie many single gene disorders. Examples of single gene disorders include achondroplasia, cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, hereditary breast cancer (BRCA1/2), Huntington disease, Marfan syndrome, Noonan syndrome, and Rett syndrome. Molecular tests are also used in the diagnosis of syndromes involving epigenetic abnormalities, such as Angelman syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Prader-willi syndrome, and uniparental disomy.

Mitochondrial genetics concerns the diagnosis and management of mitochondrial disorders, which have a molecular basis but often result in biochemical abnormalities due to deficient energy production.

There exists some overlap between medical genetic diagnostic laboratories and molecular pathology.

Genetic counseling is the process of providing information about genetic conditions, diagnostic testing, and risks in other family members, within the framework of nondirective counseling. Genetic counselors are non-physician members of the medical genetics team who specialize in family risk assessment and counseling of patients regarding genetic disorders. The precise role of the genetic counselor varies somewhat depending on the disorder.

Although genetics has its roots back in the 19th century with the work of the Bohemian monk Gregor Mendel and other pioneering scientists, human genetics emerged later. It started to develop, albeit slowly, during the first half of the 20th century. Mendelian (single-gene) inheritance was studied in a number of important disorders such as albinism, brachydactyly (short fingers and toes), and hemophilia. Mathematical approaches were also devised and applied to human genetics. Population genetics was created.

Medical genetics was a late developer, emerging largely after the close of World War II (1945) when the eugenics movement had fallen into disrepute. The Nazi misuse of eugenics sounded its death knell. Shorn of eugenics, a scientific approach could be used and was applied to human and medical genetics. Medical genetics saw an increasingly rapid rise in the second half of the 20th century and continues in the 21st century.

The clinical setting in which patients are evaluated determines the scope of practice, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions. For the purposes of general discussion, the typical encounters between patients and genetic practitioners may involve:

Each patient will undergo a diagnostic evaluation tailored to their own particular presenting signs and symptoms. The geneticist will establish a differential diagnosis and recommend appropriate testing. These tests might evaluate for chromosomal disorders, inborn errors of metabolism, or single gene disorders.

Chromosome studies are used in the general genetics clinic to determine a cause for developmental delay/mental retardation, birth defects, dysmorphic features, and/or autism. Chromosome analysis is also performed in the prenatal setting to determine whether a fetus is affected with aneuploidy or other chromosome rearrangements. Finally, chromosome abnormalities are often detected in cancer samples. A large number of different methods have been developed for chromosome analysis:

Biochemical studies are performed to screen for imbalances of metabolites in the bodily fluid, usually the blood (plasma/serum) or urine, but also in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Specific tests of enzyme function (either in leukocytes, skin fibroblasts, liver, or muscle) are also employed under certain circumstances. In the US, the newborn screen incorporates biochemical tests to screen for treatable conditions such as galactosemia and phenylketonuria (PKU). Patients suspected to have a metabolic condition might undergo the following tests:

Each cell of the body contains the hereditary information (DNA) wrapped up in structures called chromosomes. Since genetic syndromes are typically the result of alterations of the chromosomes or genes, there is no treatment currently available that can correct the genetic alterations in every cell of the body. Therefore, there is currently no “cure” for genetic disorders. However, for many genetic syndromes there is treatment available to manage the symptoms. In some cases, particularly inborn errors of metabolism, the mechanism of disease is well understood and offers the potential for dietary and medical management to prevent or reduce the long-term complications. In other cases, infusion therapy is used to replace the missing enzyme. Current research is actively seeking to use gene therapy or other new medications to treat specific genetic disorders.

In general, metabolic disorders arise from enzyme deficiencies that disrupt normal metabolic pathways. For instance, in the hypothetical example:

Compound “A” is metabolized to “B” by enzyme “X”, compound “B” is metabolized to “C” by enzyme “Y”, and compound “C” is metabolized to “D” by enzyme “Z”. If enzyme “Z” is missing, compound “D” will be missing, while compounds “A”, “B”, and “C” will build up. The pathogenesis of this particular condition could result from lack of compound “D”, if it is critical for some cellular function, or from toxicity due to excess “A”, “B”, and/or “C”. Treatment of the metabolic disorder could be achieved through dietary supplementation of compound “D” and dietary restriction of compounds “A”, “B”, and/or “C” or by treatment with a medication that promoted disposal of excess “A”, “B”, or “C”. Another approach that can be taken is enzyme replacement therapy, in which a patient is given an infusion of the missing enzyme.

Dietary restriction and supplementation are key measures taken in several well-known metabolic disorders, including galactosemia, phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease, organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders. Such restrictive diets can be difficult for the patient and family to maintain, and require close consultation with a nutritionist who has special experience in metabolic disorders. The composition of the diet will change depending on the caloric needs of the growing child and special attention is needed during a pregnancy if a woman is affected with one of these disorders.

Medical approaches include enhancement of residual enzyme activity (in cases where the enzyme is made but is not functioning properly), inhibition of other enzymes in the biochemical pathway to prevent buildup of a toxic compound, or diversion of a toxic compound to another form that can be excreted. Examples include the use of high doses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) in some patients with homocystinuria to boost the activity of the residual cystathione synthase enzyme, administration of biotin to restore activity of several enzymes affected by deficiency of biotinidase, treatment with NTBC in Tyrosinemia to inhibit the production of succinylacetone which causes liver toxicity, and the use of sodium benzoate to decrease ammonia build-up in urea cycle disorders.

Certain lysosomal storage diseases are treated with infusions of a recombinant enzyme (produced in a laboratory), which can reduce the accumulation of the compounds in various tissues. Examples include Gaucher disease, Fabry disease, Mucopolysaccharidoses and Glycogen storage disease type II. Such treatments are limited by the ability of the enzyme to reach the affected areas (the blood brain barrier prevents enzyme from reaching the brain, for example), and can sometimes be associated with allergic reactions. The long-term clinical effectiveness of enzyme replacement therapies vary widely among different disorders.

There are a variety of career paths within the field of medical genetics, and naturally the training required for each area differs considerably. The information included in this section applies to the typical pathways in the United States and there may be differences in other countries. US practitioners in clinical, counseling, or diagnostic subspecialties generally obtain board certification through the American Board of Medical Genetics.

Genetic information provides a unique type of knowledge about an individual and his/her family, fundamentally different from a typically laboratory test that provides a “snapshot” of an individual’s health status. The unique status of genetic information and inherited disease has a number of ramifications with regard to ethical, legal, and societal concerns.

On 19 March 2015, scientists urged a worldwide ban on clinical use of methods, particularly the use of CRISPR and zinc finger, to edit the human genome in a way that can be inherited.[3][4][5][6] In April 2015 and April 2016, Chinese researchers reported results of basic research to edit the DNA of non-viable human embryos using CRISPR.[7][8][9] In February 2016, British scientists were given permission by regulators to genetically modify human embryos by using CRISPR and related techniques on condition that the embryos were destroyed within seven days.[10] In June 2016 the Dutch government was reported to be planning to follow suit with similar regulations which would specify a 14-day limit.[11]

The more empirical approach to human and medical genetics was formalized by the founding in 1948 of the American Society of Human Genetics. The Society first began annual meetings that year (1948) and its international counterpart, the International Congress of Human Genetics, has met every 5 years since its inception in 1956. The Society publishes the American Journal of Human Genetics on a monthly basis.

Medical genetics is now recognized as a distinct medical specialty in the U.S. with its own approved board (the American Board of Medical Genetics) and clinical specialty college (the American College of Medical Genetics). The College holds an annual scientific meeting, publishes a monthly journal, Genetics in Medicine, and issues position papers and clinical practice guidelines on a variety of topics relevant to human genetics.

The broad range of research in medical genetics reflects the overall scope of this field, including basic research on genetic inheritance and the human genome, mechanisms of genetic and metabolic disorders, translational research on new treatment modalities, and the impact of genetic testing

Basic research geneticists usually undertake research in universities, biotechnology firms and research institutes.

Sometimes the link between a disease and an unusual gene variant is more subtle. The genetic architecture of common diseases is an important factor in determining the extent to which patterns of genetic variation influence group differences in health outcomes.[12][13][14] According to the common disease/common variant hypothesis, common variants present in the ancestral population before the dispersal of modern humans from Africa play an important role in human diseases.[15] Genetic variants associated with Alzheimer disease, deep venous thrombosis, Crohn disease, and type 2 diabetes appear to adhere to this model.[16] However, the generality of the model has not yet been established and, in some cases, is in doubt.[13][17][18] Some diseases, such as many common cancers, appear not to be well described by the common disease/common variant model.[19]

Another possibility is that common diseases arise in part through the action of combinations of variants that are individually rare.[20][21] Most of the disease-associated alleles discovered to date have been rare, and rare variants are more likely than common variants to be differentially distributed among groups distinguished by ancestry.[19][22] However, groups could harbor different, though perhaps overlapping, sets of rare variants, which would reduce contrasts between groups in the incidence of the disease.

The number of variants contributing to a disease and the interactions among those variants also could influence the distribution of diseases among groups. The difficulty that has been encountered in finding contributory alleles for complex diseases and in replicating positive associations suggests that many complex diseases involve numerous variants rather than a moderate number of alleles, and the influence of any given variant may depend in critical ways on the genetic and environmental background.[17][23][24][25] If many alleles are required to increase susceptibility to a disease, the odds are low that the necessary combination of alleles would become concentrated in a particular group purely through drift.[26]

One area in which population categories can be important considerations in genetics research is in controlling for confounding between population substructure, environmental exposures, and health outcomes. Association studies can produce spurious results if cases and controls have differing allele frequencies for genes that are not related to the disease being studied,[27] although the magnitude of this problem in genetic association studies is subject to debate.[28][29] Various methods have been developed to detect and account for population substructure,[30][31] but these methods can be difficult to apply in practice.[32]

Population substructure also can be used to advantage in genetic association studies. For example, populations that represent recent mixtures of geographically separated ancestral groups can exhibit longer-range linkage disequilibrium between susceptibility alleles and genetic markers than is the case for other populations.[33][34][35][36] Genetic studies can use this admixture linkage disequilibrium to search for disease alleles with fewer markers than would be needed otherwise. Association studies also can take advantage of the contrasting experiences of racial or ethnic groups, including migrant groups, to search for interactions between particular alleles and environmental factors that might influence health.[37][38]

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Medical genetics – Wikipedia

Genetic Medicine Sidra Medicine

The Genetic Medicine Scientific Interest Group will support a range of activities for those interested in exploring the translational interface between clinical genetics and molecular pathophysiology.

The group will develop a curated knowledge base for a variety of experimental and laboratory approaches that are widely used in this type of research, both in the genetics/genomics field and in the functional analysis of genetic mutations by cellular and molecular assays.

This will be achieved through discussion forums, student and faculty journal clubs, and workshops/seminars led by internationally recognized investigators. While the Interest group is open to any individual or lab wishing to participate, it may be most beneficial to those who are trying to use the power of genetics to answer important biological questions, ranging from basic organismal development to the treatment and stratification of patients with genetic disease.

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Genetic Medicine Sidra Medicine

List of Genetic Diseases – Types, Symptoms, Causes …

What is a genetic disease? How is it defined?

A genetic disease is any disease that is caused by an abnormality in an individual’s genome, the person’s entire genetic makeup. The abnormality can range from minuscule to major — from a discrete mutation in a single base in the DNA of a single gene to a gross chromosome abnormality involving the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Some genetic disorders are inherited from the parents, while other genetic diseases are caused by acquired changes or mutations in a preexisting gene or group of genes. Mutations can occur either randomly or due to some environmental exposure.

What are the types of genetic inheritance?

There are a number of different types of genetic inheritance including:

Single gene genetic inheritance

Single gene inheritance, also called Mendelian or monogenetic inheritance. This type of inheritance is caused by changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of a single gene. There are more than 6,000 known single-gene disorders, which occur in about 1 out of every 200 births. These disorders are known as monogenetic disorders (disorders of a single gene).

Some examples of monogenetic disorders include:

Single-gene disorders are inherited in recognizable patterns: autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and X-linked.

Multifactorial genetic inheritance

Multifactorial inheritance, which is also called complex or polygenic inheritance. Multifactorial inheritance disorders are caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. For example, different genes that influence breast cancer susceptibility have been found on chromosomes 6, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, and 22. Some common chronic diseases are multifactorial disorders.

Examples of multifactorial inheritance include:

Multifactorial inheritance also is associated with heritable traits such as fingerprint patterns, height, eye color, and skin color.

Chromosome abnormalities

Chromosomes, distinct structures made up of DNA and protein, are located in the nucleus of each cell. Because chromosomes are the carriers of the genetic material, abnormalities in chromosome number or structure can result in disease. Abnormalities in chromosomes typically occur due to a problem with cell division.

For example, Down syndrome (sometimes referred to as “Down’s syndrome”) or trisomy 21 is a common disorder that occurs when a person has three copies of chromosome 21. There are many other chromosome abnormalities including:

Diseases may also occur because of chromosomal translocation in which portions of two chromosomes are exchanged.

Mitochondrial genetic inheritance

This type of genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the non-nuclear DNA of mitochondria. Mitochondria are small round or rod-like organelles that are involved in cellular respiration and found in the cytoplasm of plant and animal cells. Each mitochondrion may contain 5 to 10 circular pieces of DNA. Since egg cells, but not sperm cells, keep their mitochondria during fertilization, mitochondrial DNA is always inherited from the female parent.

Examples of mitochondrial disease include:

What is the human genome?

The human genome is the entire “treasury of human inheritance.” The sequence of the human genome obtained by the Human Genome Project, completed in April 2003, provides the first holistic view of our genetic heritage. The 46 human chromosomes (22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes and 2 sex chromosomes) between them house almost 3 billion base pairs of DNA that contains about 20,500 protein-coding genes. The coding regions make up less than 5% of the genome (the function of all the remaining DNA is not clear) and some chromosomes have a higher density of genes than others.

Most genetic diseases are the direct result of a mutation in one gene. However, one of the most difficult problems ahead is to further elucidate how genes contribute to diseases that have a complex pattern of inheritance, such as in the cases of diabetes, asthma, cancer, and mental illness. In all these cases, no one gene has the yes/no power to say whether a person will develop the disease or not. It is likely that more than one mutation is required before the disease is manifest, and a number of genes may each make a subtle contribution to a person’s susceptibility to a disease; genes may also affect how a person reacts to environmental factors.

Medically Reviewed on 3/23/2018

References

National Human Genome Research Institute.

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List of Genetic Diseases – Types, Symptoms, Causes …

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem,[1] which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases.

Predisposition is the capacity we are born with to learn things such as language and concept of self. Negative environmental influences may block the predisposition (ability) we have to do some things. Behaviors displayed by animals can be influenced by genetic predispositions. Genetic predisposition towards certain human behaviors is scientifically investigated by attempts to identify patterns of human behavior that seem to be invariant over long periods of time and in very different cultures.

For example, philosopher Daniel Dennett has proposed that humans are genetically predisposed to have a theory of mind because there has been evolutionary selection for the human ability to adopt the intentional stance.[1] The intentional stance is a useful behavioral strategy by which humans assume that others have minds like their own. This assumption allows you to predict the behavior of others based on personal knowledge of what you would do.

E. O. Wilson’s book on sociobiology and his book Consilience discuss the idea of genetic predisposition to behaviors

The field of evolutionary psychology explores the idea that certain behaviors have been selected for during the course of evolution.

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, which was signed into law by President Bush on May 21, 2008,[2] prohibits discrimination in employment and health insurance based on genetic information.

Continue reading here:

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

Genetic Medicine Sidra Medicine

The Genetic Medicine Scientific Interest Group will support a range of activities for those interested in exploring the translational interface between clinical genetics and molecular pathophysiology.

The group will develop a curated knowledge base for a variety of experimental and laboratory approaches that are widely used in this type of research, both in the genetics/genomics field and in the functional analysis of genetic mutations by cellular and molecular assays.

This will be achieved through discussion forums, student and faculty journal clubs, and workshops/seminars led by internationally recognized investigators. While the Interest group is open to any individual or lab wishing to participate, it may be most beneficial to those who are trying to use the power of genetics to answer important biological questions, ranging from basic organismal development to the treatment and stratification of patients with genetic disease.

Excerpt from:

Genetic Medicine Sidra Medicine

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem,[1] which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases.

Predisposition is the capacity we are born with to learn things such as language and concept of self. Negative environmental influences may block the predisposition (ability) we have to do some things. Behaviors displayed by animals can be influenced by genetic predispositions. Genetic predisposition towards certain human behaviors is scientifically investigated by attempts to identify patterns of human behavior that seem to be invariant over long periods of time and in very different cultures.

For example, philosopher Daniel Dennett has proposed that humans are genetically predisposed to have a theory of mind because there has been evolutionary selection for the human ability to adopt the intentional stance.[1] The intentional stance is a useful behavioral strategy by which humans assume that others have minds like their own. This assumption allows you to predict the behavior of others based on personal knowledge of what you would do.

E. O. Wilson’s book on sociobiology and his book Consilience discuss the idea of genetic predisposition to behaviors

The field of evolutionary psychology explores the idea that certain behaviors have been selected for during the course of evolution.

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, which was signed into law by President Bush on May 21, 2008,[2] prohibits discrimination in employment and health insurance based on genetic information.

See more here:

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

A genetic predisposition is a genetic characteristic which influences the possible phenotypic development of an individual organism within a species or population under the influence of environmental conditions. In medicine, genetic susceptibility to a disease refers to a genetic predisposition to a health problem,[1] which may eventually be triggered by particular environmental or lifestyle factors, such as tobacco smoking or diet. Genetic testing is able to identify individuals who are genetically predisposed to certain diseases.

Predisposition is the capacity we are born with to learn things such as language and concept of self. Negative environmental influences may block the predisposition (ability) we have to do some things. Behaviors displayed by animals can be influenced by genetic predispositions. Genetic predisposition towards certain human behaviors is scientifically investigated by attempts to identify patterns of human behavior that seem to be invariant over long periods of time and in very different cultures.

For example, philosopher Daniel Dennett has proposed that humans are genetically predisposed to have a theory of mind because there has been evolutionary selection for the human ability to adopt the intentional stance.[1] The intentional stance is a useful behavioral strategy by which humans assume that others have minds like their own. This assumption allows you to predict the behavior of others based on personal knowledge of what you would do.

E. O. Wilson’s book on sociobiology and his book Consilience discuss the idea of genetic predisposition to behaviors

The field of evolutionary psychology explores the idea that certain behaviors have been selected for during the course of evolution.

The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, which was signed into law by President Bush on May 21, 2008,[2] prohibits discrimination in employment and health insurance based on genetic information.

Read the original here:

Genetic predisposition – Wikipedia

Genetic Medicine – Imagenetics

Sanford Health has genetic counselors who are trained in both genetics and counseling. They are board certified and licensed. Genetic counseling helps people to understand the medical, psychological, and familial effects of genomics in a disease process.

Genetic counseling integrates the interpretation of family history, genomics, and medical history to assess the chance of having a disease or having a disease return as well as educate about inheritance, testing, management, prevention, resources, and research. A genetic counselor provides counseling to make informed choices and adjust to the risk or condition.

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Genetic Medicine – Imagenetics