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Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

Excerpt from:

Food Supplements Europe

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

Excerpt from:

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

Original post:

Food Supplements Europe

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

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Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Whole Food vs. Synthetic Supplements | Melissa Wood, ND

Ive already discussed the importance of taking natural supplements to support your body and immune system. But which supplements do you take, and how do you know which supplements are the best ones? Americans spend billions of dollars every year on supplements, and its very important to understand that not all supplements are created equal. Sometimes, there are vast differences between products.

So lets talk about the difference between whole food supplements and synthetic supplements a.k.a. isolated or fractionated supplements.

A great example would be just to simply look at almost any multivitamin. When you scan the nutritional content fact and ingredientlabel, youll see quite an assortment of vitamins (Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, etc.).Here is a portion of a label for a common multivitamin:

There are a lot more vitamins listed on this label than I had room for, but I think you get the idea. Look at the items listed under Ingredients.Those are what we call Isolated vitamins and other chemicals.There are no foods or herbal ingredients listed, only partial vitamins and other chemicals.

Nature intended for us to consume food in its WHOLE form because all the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and enzymes are bound together in one package and work synergistically to deliver the nutrition your body needs.

Synthetic supplements give you isolated or fractionated pieces of the whole. It is simply not the same youre not getting the full benefit nature intended. The other problem is, by taking isolated vitamins, sometimes we are getting massive doses of some vitamins, but not enough of others.This imbalance this can cause health problems too. Arent we trying to get healthier rather than cause more problems?

Whole-Food based supplements are different, as those will, typically, list the foods the supplement was made from. What follows is a partial example of what to look for when searching for a Whole-Food based product.Notice that under the supplemental facts, you still see all the vitamins listed, but theres a huge difference in the ingredients.

What a difference this second product will make in your body vs. the first product!Youll actually be gaining benefits from the WHOLE food and all of the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and enzymes that occur naturally in the food or plant.

Another way that might make sense is to look at the source.When Vitamin C is listed on a multivitamin label, look for any natural sources, like citrus fruits, papaya or bell peppers.If you see a listing for Ascorbic Acid, that means it is an Isolated product, so you must keep searching for ones that list whole foods.

In summary, be sure you read your labels!It is important to educate yourself about what youll be putting into your body and supplements are no different than anything else.

Its important to read food labels so you know what youre eating. But its just as important, if not moreso, to be sure youre reading all of your supplement labels too!You want to be consuming supplements that have actual whole foods, plants or herbs listed on the label. That way you know it is as close to natural as possible!

And lastly,understand that no supplement alone will help you achieve the level of health you desire. You will have to make lifestyle and behavior changes as well as taking supplements to achieve ultimate health.

Read more:

Whole Food vs. Synthetic Supplements | Melissa Wood, ND

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

See the original post:

Food Supplements Europe

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

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Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

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Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

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Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

Excerpt from:

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

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Food Supplements Europe

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

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Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Food supplements – European Commission

As an addition to a normal diet, food business operators market food supplements, which are concentrated sources of nutrients (or other substances) with a nutritional or physiological effect. Such food supplements can be marketed in dose form, such as pills, tablets, capsules, liquids in measured doses, etc.

The objective of the harmonised rules on those products in Directive 2002/46/EC is to protect consumers against potential health risks from those products and to ensure that they are not provided with misleading information.

With respect to the safety of food supplements, the Directive lays down a harmonised list of vitamins and minerals that may be added for nutritional purposes in food supplements (in Annex I to the Directive). Annex II of the Directive contains a list of permitted sources (vitamin and mineral substances) from which those vitamins and minerals may be manufactured.

This list has been amended by the following Regulations and Directive to include additional substances:

The trade of products containing vitamins and minerals not listed in Annex II has been prohibited from the 1st of August 2005.

Directive 2002/46/EC has been aligned with the new Regulatory Procedure with scrutiny by Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008.

Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements envisages the setting of maximum and minimum amounts of vitamins and minerals in supplements via the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed ( PAFF Committee) procedure.

The Commission has issued a Discussion Paper on the setting of maximum and minimum amounts for vitamins and minerals in foodstuffs , which identified the main issues to be considered in this exercise and originated a set of Responses.

Although the Commission has consulted extensively with Member States and interested stakeholders on the issue, no proposal has not yet been presented due to the complex nature of the issue and the divergent views that were expressed. All the available data on the potential effects on economic operators and consumers of the setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals in foods, including food supplements, will be taken into account. Every effort will be made to ensure that the maximum amounts set will take into account the concerns expressed by all interested parties.

The EC commissioned a study on the use of substances with nutritional or physiological effects other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

Taking into account this study and other available information, the Commission – in accordance with the requirement set out in Article 4(8) of Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements – has prepared a report to the Council and the European Parliament on the use of substances other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

The report is accompanied by two Commission staff working documents.

Member States may, for monitoring purposes, request notification to their competent authority of the placing on the market in their territory of a food supplement product in accordance with Article 10 of the Directive. The list of competent authorities may be found here:

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Food supplements – European Commission

Food supplements | Food Standards Agency

~~The FSAs main role regarding food supplements is enforcement (setting enforcement policy, co-ordination and advice) with specific responsibility for:General food law, food safety legislation and food controls.Novel foodsChemical risk assessmentsLabelling requirements under the EU Food Information to Consumers Regulation (EU FIC) in Wales and Northern Ireland (Defra in England)Enforcement, Incidents and National Food Crime Unit (NFCU).

Local authorities are responsible for the enforcement of food supplements legislation in addition to general food law and food safety legislation. Trading standards officers generally undertake this role. Local authorities do not enforce legislation relating to medicinal products MHRA is responsible for enforcement in this area .

Department of Health acts as the Competent Authority for the EU legislation on Food Supplements and coordinates policy across the devolved authorities and with other relevant government departments. FSA is responsible for the enforcement of these regulations with local authorities.

MHRA has responsibility for medicinal products (including enforcement) which includes traditional herbal medicines. Herbal substances can be used in both medicines and foods, but where the use is for a medical purpose (either by virtue of the mode of action or the claims that are made) then the MHRA may regard the product, (not the substance), to be medicine. The MHRA has a separate registration scheme, based on traditional use, for certain herbal medicines.Herbal substances are referred to as botanicals under food law. Products may be considered by the MHRA Borderline Section on a case by case basis to determine whether if the product should be classified as a medicine. The MHRAs Borderline Section only become involved where there may be doubt regarding a products regulatory status, either over the botanical itself, the entire formulation, or the presentation of the product. If a product is not considered medicinal product they typically default to being a food supplement.

The regulatory landscape for food supplements is complex. The current legislative framework creates overlapping areas of responsibility between several different bodies:

Food Standards Agency (FSA), Food Standards Agency Wales (FSAW) and Food Standards Agency Northern Ireland (FSANI)Food Standards Scotland (FSS)Department of Health (DH)Home Office (HO)Medicine and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)Local authorities (LA)Welsh Government (WG)

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Food supplements | Food Standards Agency

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

Original post:

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Food supplements – European Commission

As an addition to a normal diet, food business operators market food supplements, which are concentrated sources of nutrients (or other substances) with a nutritional or physiological effect. Such food supplements can be marketed in dose form, such as pills, tablets, capsules, liquids in measured doses, etc.

The objective of the harmonised rules on those products in Directive 2002/46/EC is to protect consumers against potential health risks from those products and to ensure that they are not provided with misleading information.

With respect to the safety of food supplements, the Directive lays down a harmonised list of vitamins and minerals that may be added for nutritional purposes in food supplements (in Annex I to the Directive). Annex II of the Directive contains a list of permitted sources (vitamin and mineral substances) from which those vitamins and minerals may be manufactured.

This list has been amended by the following Regulations and Directive to include additional substances:

The trade of products containing vitamins and minerals not listed in Annex II has been prohibited from the 1st of August 2005.

Directive 2002/46/EC has been aligned with the new Regulatory Procedure with scrutiny by Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008.

Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements envisages the setting of maximum and minimum amounts of vitamins and minerals in supplements via the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed ( PAFF Committee) procedure.

The Commission has issued a Discussion Paper on the setting of maximum and minimum amounts for vitamins and minerals in foodstuffs , which identified the main issues to be considered in this exercise and originated a set of Responses.

Although the Commission has consulted extensively with Member States and interested stakeholders on the issue, no proposal has not yet been presented due to the complex nature of the issue and the divergent views that were expressed. All the available data on the potential effects on economic operators and consumers of the setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals in foods, including food supplements, will be taken into account. Every effort will be made to ensure that the maximum amounts set will take into account the concerns expressed by all interested parties.

The EC commissioned a study on the use of substances with nutritional or physiological effects other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

Taking into account this study and other available information, the Commission – in accordance with the requirement set out in Article 4(8) of Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements – has prepared a report to the Council and the European Parliament on the use of substances other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

The report is accompanied by two Commission staff working documents.

Member States may, for monitoring purposes, request notification to their competent authority of the placing on the market in their territory of a food supplement product in accordance with Article 10 of the Directive. The list of competent authorities may be found here:

View post:

Food supplements – European Commission

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

Continued here:

Food Supplements Europe

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

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Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Food supplements | Food Standards Agency

~~The FSAs main role regarding food supplements is enforcement (setting enforcement policy, co-ordination and advice) with specific responsibility for:General food law, food safety legislation and food controls.Novel foodsChemical risk assessmentsLabelling requirements under the EU Food Information to Consumers Regulation (EU FIC) in Wales and Northern Ireland (Defra in England)Enforcement, Incidents and National Food Crime Unit (NFCU).

Local authorities are responsible for the enforcement of food supplements legislation in addition to general food law and food safety legislation. Trading standards officers generally undertake this role. Local authorities do not enforce legislation relating to medicinal products MHRA is responsible for enforcement in this area .

Department of Health acts as the Competent Authority for the EU legislation on Food Supplements and coordinates policy across the devolved authorities and with other relevant government departments. FSA is responsible for the enforcement of these regulations with local authorities.

MHRA has responsibility for medicinal products (including enforcement) which includes traditional herbal medicines. Herbal substances can be used in both medicines and foods, but where the use is for a medical purpose (either by virtue of the mode of action or the claims that are made) then the MHRA may regard the product, (not the substance), to be medicine. The MHRA has a separate registration scheme, based on traditional use, for certain herbal medicines.Herbal substances are referred to as botanicals under food law. Products may be considered by the MHRA Borderline Section on a case by case basis to determine whether if the product should be classified as a medicine. The MHRAs Borderline Section only become involved where there may be doubt regarding a products regulatory status, either over the botanical itself, the entire formulation, or the presentation of the product. If a product is not considered medicinal product they typically default to being a food supplement.

The regulatory landscape for food supplements is complex. The current legislative framework creates overlapping areas of responsibility between several different bodies:

Food Standards Agency (FSA), Food Standards Agency Wales (FSAW) and Food Standards Agency Northern Ireland (FSANI)Food Standards Scotland (FSS)Department of Health (DH)Home Office (HO)Medicine and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA)Local authorities (LA)Welsh Government (WG)

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Food supplements | Food Standards Agency

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

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Food Supplements Europe


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