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Food Supplements

Starting a new business? Here’s how

All food business operators must be registered or approved by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. This also applies for importers of food from other EU Member States or third countries and producers/importers of food contact materials (FCM).

You will find more information about starting a new food business in Denmark here.

Marketing of food supplements in Denmark

If you change the composition of a food supplement, the product must be registered once again as if it were a new product. An exception to this rule concerns a change in the amount of technological additives. This will not need to be registered.

Fee for product safety checks

Companies that have registered one or more food supplements in Denmark and that have an annual turnover exceeding 50,000 DKK must pay an annual fee of 9,321 DKK as well as an annual fee of746 DKK per registered food supplement.

These fees are used to cover the expenses in relation to product safety checks. The payment is charged for companies and products registered as of September 1that year.

When your food supplement is no longer marketed

Unregistered supplements are not allowed to be marketed neither from the wholesale company, websites, nor retail stores.

Which products can be marketed as food supplements?

The most common food supplements consist of vitamins and/or minerals. However, they can also consist of dietary fibers, essential fatty acids, animal ingredients (e.g. fish oil), or plant ingredients (e.g. extracts of garlic). Food supplements must contain the ingredients in quantities that are able to exert an effect on the body.

Moreover, it is required that food supplements are sold in smaller quantities (e.g. as pills, fluids, or powder) and that they are labelled with information about the recommended daily dose.

Regulations on the composition of food supplements

The guidance on food supplements contains an overview of the amounts of vitamins and minerals that the DVFA recommend for food supplementsnot tosurpass.If a company wishes to exceed these levels, they must be responsible for documenting the safety of the food supplement.The DVFA typically considers a level above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level(UL) set by EFSA as a potential health risk.

General principles and requirements of food law

It is required that the labelling contains a list of ingredients, the name of the food as well as the name of the company producing it.

In addition to the general requirements mentioned above, food supplements should also be labelled with the following:

Information stating that the product is a food supplement.

Information about which vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients the product contains.

Information about the amount of vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients in the product.

The Danish and Latin name of any herbal ingredients.

The recommended daily dose.

A warning not to consume more than the recommended daily dose.

Information to the consumer stating that food supplements should not replace a healthy and varied diet.

A warning to keep the product out of reach of children.

Information about the amount of nutrients or other substances expressed as a percentage of the recommended daily dose.

The content of vitamins and minerals should be expressed as a percentage of the reference values set out in Annex XIII, Part A, Point 1 in Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers.

Nutrition and health claims on food supplements

Products claimed to be able to prevent or cure diseases are considered to be medicinal products and are therefore controlled by the Danish Medicines Agency. Follow this link to view their homepage.

If your company sells and/or produces food products, you must have a plan that shows how you regularly ensure that your business complies with the rules. This is called self-regulation and such a plan is called a self-regulation program.

The self-regulation program deals with foodstuffs as well as with cleaning, machinery, and premises.

The program must be plainly written to ensure that all employees can understand it and have no doubt as to what needs to be done.

Additional food regulations

In addition to the above-mentioned rules and regulations there are more specific rules for some types of food products:

Go here to see the original:

Food Supplements

Food Supplements | European Food Safety Authority

Food supplements are concentrated sources of nutrients or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect, whose purpose is to supplement the normal diet. Food supplements are marketed ‘in dose’ form, for example as pills, tablets, capsules or liquids in measured doses etc. Supplements may be used to correct nutritional deficiencies or maintain an adequate intake of certain nutrients. However, in some cases excessive intake of vitamins and minerals may be harmful or cause unwanted side effects; therefore, maximum levels are necessary to ensure their safe use in food supplements.

EU regulatory framework

The European Commission has established harmonised rules to help ensure that food supplements are safe and properly labelled. In the EU, food supplements are regulated as foods and the legislation focuses on vitamins and minerals used as ingredients of food supplements.

The main EU legislation is Directive 2002/46/EC related to food supplements containing vitamins and minerals.

The Directive sets out labelling requirements and requires that EU-wide maximum and minimum levels are set for each vitamin and mineral added to supplements. As excessive intake of vitamins and minerals may result in adverse effects, the Directive provides for the setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals added to food supplements. This task has been delegated to the Commission and is currently ongoing.

In addition, its Annex II contains a list of permitted vitamin or mineral substances that may be added for specific nutritional purposes in food supplements. Annex II has been amended by Regulation 1170/2009 of 30 November 2009.

Vitamin and mineral substances may be considered for inclusion in the lists following the evaluation of an appropriate scientific dossier concerning the safety and bioavailability of the individual substance by EFSA. Companies wishing to market a substance not included in the permitted list need to submit an application to the European Commission.

A guidance by the Scientific Committee on Food in 2001 gives information on the data that should be provided in the dossier supporting the application for a new substance.

EFSAs role and activities

EFSA was asked by the European Commission to evaluate the safety and bioavailability of nutrient sources proposed for addition to the list of permitted substances in Annex II of the food supplements Directive. In July 2009, EFSA completed the first comprehensive assessment of substances used as sources of vitamins and minerals in food supplements, which are currently sold in the EU.

Based on EFSAs work, the European Commission reviewed the list of permitted vitamin or mineral substances that may be added in food supplements.

Between 2005 and 2009 EFSA examined a total of 533 applications. Of these, 186 applications were withdrawn during the evaluation process, and EFSA received insufficient scientific evidence to be able to assess around half of the remaining applications. Possible safety concerns were identified in relation to 39 applications.

The evaluations were carried out by thePanel on food additives and nutrient sources added to food (ANS). The Panels evaluations involved judging the safety of a nutrient substance at the intake levels suggested by the applicant based on best scientific knowledge available. The Panel also assessed the bioavailability of the nutrient from the source, which is the effectiveness with which the mineral or vitamin is released from the source into the tissues of the body. Previously the former Panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food (former AFC) was responsible for this work.

Moreover, EFSAs NDA Panel has preformed a comprehensive evaluation of the possible adverse health effects of individual micronutrients at intakes exceeding the dietary requirements and, where possible, established Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) for different population groups. ULs represent the highest level of chronic daily intake of a nutrient that is not likely to pose a risk of adverse health effects to humans. The ULs defined by the NDA Panel and by the former Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) are used as a reference by the ANS Panel in its evaluations of the safety of nutrient substances added to food supplements. Throughout this work EFSA will provide support to the European Commission in establishing maximum limits for vitamins and minerals in food supplements and fortified foods.

Further information:DG Health and Consumers: Food SupplementsDG Health and Consumers: Addition of vitamins and mineralsDG Health and Consumers: Tolerable upper intake levels for vitamins and minerals

Read the original:

Food Supplements | European Food Safety Authority

Food Supplements

Starting a new business? Here’s how

All food business operators must be registered or approved by the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration. This also applies for importers of food from other EU Member States or third countries and producers/importers of food contact materials (FCM).

You will find more information about starting a new food business in Denmark here.

Marketing of food supplements in Denmark

If you change the composition of a food supplement, the product must be registered once again as if it were a new product. An exception to this rule concerns a change in the amount of technological additives. This will not need to be registered.

Fee for product safety checks

Companies that have registered one or more food supplements in Denmark and that have an annual turnover exceeding 50,000 DKK must pay an annual fee of 9,321 DKK as well as an annual fee of746 DKK per registered food supplement.

These fees are used to cover the expenses in relation to product safety checks. The payment is charged for companies and products registered as of September 1that year.

When your food supplement is no longer marketed

Unregistered supplements are not allowed to be marketed neither from the wholesale company, websites, nor retail stores.

Which products can be marketed as food supplements?

The most common food supplements consist of vitamins and/or minerals. However, they can also consist of dietary fibers, essential fatty acids, animal ingredients (e.g. fish oil), or plant ingredients (e.g. extracts of garlic). Food supplements must contain the ingredients in quantities that are able to exert an effect on the body.

Moreover, it is required that food supplements are sold in smaller quantities (e.g. as pills, fluids, or powder) and that they are labelled with information about the recommended daily dose.

Regulations on the composition of food supplements

The guidance on food supplements contains an overview of the amounts of vitamins and minerals that the DVFA recommend for food supplementsnot tosurpass.If a company wishes to exceed these levels, they must be responsible for documenting the safety of the food supplement.The DVFA typically considers a level above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level(UL) set by EFSA as a potential health risk.

General principles and requirements of food law

It is required that the labelling contains a list of ingredients, the name of the food as well as the name of the company producing it.

In addition to the general requirements mentioned above, food supplements should also be labelled with the following:

Information stating that the product is a food supplement.

Information about which vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients the product contains.

Information about the amount of vitamins, minerals, or other ingredients in the product.

The Danish and Latin name of any herbal ingredients.

The recommended daily dose.

A warning not to consume more than the recommended daily dose.

Information to the consumer stating that food supplements should not replace a healthy and varied diet.

A warning to keep the product out of reach of children.

Information about the amount of nutrients or other substances expressed as a percentage of the recommended daily dose.

The content of vitamins and minerals should be expressed as a percentage of the reference values set out in Annex XIII, Part A, Point 1 in Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers.

Nutrition and health claims on food supplements

Products claimed to be able to prevent or cure diseases are considered to be medicinal products and are therefore controlled by the Danish Medicines Agency. Follow this link to view their homepage.

If your company sells and/or produces food products, you must have a plan that shows how you regularly ensure that your business complies with the rules. This is called self-regulation and such a plan is called a self-regulation program.

The self-regulation program deals with foodstuffs as well as with cleaning, machinery, and premises.

The program must be plainly written to ensure that all employees can understand it and have no doubt as to what needs to be done.

Additional food regulations

In addition to the above-mentioned rules and regulations there are more specific rules for some types of food products:

Go here to see the original:

Food Supplements

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

See the article here:

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

The aim of this document is to produce guidelines which address the specific needs of the food supplement industry in relation to good manufacturing practice, with special attention paid to the requirements of EU food legislation. It covers the complete cycle of production and quality control of a food supplement, from the acquisition of all materials through all stages of subsequent processing, packaging and storage to the distribution or release of the finished product. As such, relevant sections of the document apply also to food supplement companies whose products are contract manufactured and also to those who aresolelydistributors of products.

Download the publication

A questionnaire is also available to assist companies with assessing their current GMP status and to highlight any areas where further efforts to raise the GMP standard may be required. If no external GMP assessment is undertaken, annual self-assessment of GMP is recommended, as a minimum.

Download the self-assessment questionnaire PDF

See the original post here:

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

Dietary supplement – Wikipedia

“Food supplement” redirects here. For food additions that alter the flavor, color or longevity of food, see Food additive.

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.[1] A supplement can provide nutrients either extracted from food sources or synthetic, individually or in combination, in order to increase the quantity of their consumption. The class of nutrient compounds includes vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids and amino acids. Dietary supplements can also contain substances that have not been confirmed as being essential to life, but are marketed as having a beneficial biological effect, such as plant pigments or polyphenols. Animals can also be a source of supplement ingredients, as for example collagen from chickens or fish. These are also sold individually and in combination, and may be combined with nutrient ingredients. In the United States and Canada, dietary supplements are considered a subset of foods, and are regulated accordingly. The European Commission has also established harmonized rules to help insure that food supplements are safe and properly labeled.[2] Among other countries, the definition of dietary supplements may vary as drugs or other classes of ingredients used in supplement products.

Creating an industry estimated to have a 2015 value of $37 billion,[3] there are more than 50,000 dietary supplement products marketed just in the United States,[4] where about 50% of the American adult population consumes dietary supplements. Multivitamins are the most commonly used product.[5] For those who fail to consume a balanced diet, the United States National Institutes of Health states that certain supplements “may have value.”[6]

In the United States, it is against federal regulations for supplement manufacturers to claim that these products prevent or treat any disease. Companies are allowed to use what is referred to as “Structure/Function” wording if there is substantiation of scientific evidence for a supplement providing a potential health effect.[7] An example would be “_____ helps maintain healthy joints”, but the label must bear a disclaimer that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) “has not evaluated the claim and that the dietary supplement product is not intended to “diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease,” because only a drug can legally make such a claim.[7] The FDA enforces these regulations, and also prohibits the sale of supplements and supplement ingredients that are dangerous, or supplements not made according to standardized good manufacturing practices (GMPs).

In the United States, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 provides this description: “The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA) defines the term dietary supplement to mean a product (other than tobacco) intended to supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total dietary intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combination of any of the aforementioned ingredients. Furthermore, a dietary supplement must be labeled as a dietary supplement and be intended for ingestion and must not be represented for use as conventional food or as a sole item of a meal or of the diet. In addition, a dietary supplement cannot be approved or authorized for investigation as a new drug, antibiotic, or biologic, unless it was marketed as a food or a dietary supplement before such approval or authorization. Under DSHEA, dietary supplements are deemed to be food, except for purposes of the drug definition.”[8]

Per DSHEA, dietary supplements are consumed orally, and are mainly defined by what they are not: conventional foods (including meal replacements), medical foods,[9] preservatives or pharmaceutical drugs. Products intended for use as a nasal spray, or topically, as a lotion applied to the skin, do not qualify. FDA-approved drugs cannot be ingredients in dietary supplements. Supplement products are or contain vitamins, nutritionally essential minerals, amino acids, essential fatty acids and non-nutrient substances extracted from plants or animals or fungi or bacteria, or in the instance of probiotics, are live bacteria. Dietary supplement ingredients may also be synthetic copies of naturally occurring substances (example: melatonin). All products with these ingredients are required to be labeled as dietary supplements.[10] Like foods and unlike drugs, no government approval is required to make or sell dietary supplements; the manufacturer confirms the safety of dietary supplements but the government does not; and rather than requiring riskbenefit analysis to prove that the product can be sold like a drug, such assessment is only used by the FDA to decide that a dietary supplement is unsafe and should be removed from market.[10]

A vitamin is an organic compound required by an organism as a vital nutrient in limited amounts.[11] An organic chemical compound (or related set of compounds) is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. The term is conditional both on the circumstances and on the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is a vitamin for anthropoid primates, humans, guinea pigs and bats, but not for other mammals. Vitamin D is not an essential nutrient for people who get sufficient exposure to ultraviolet light, either from the sun or an artificial source, as then they synthesize vitamin D in skin.[12] Humans require thirteen vitamins in their diet, most of which are actually groups of related molecules, “vitamers”, (e.g. vitamin E includes tocopherols and tocotrienols, vitamin K includes vitamin K1 and K2). The list: vitamins A, C, D, E, K, Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin (B3), Pantothenic Acid (B5), Vitamin B6, Biotin (B7), Folate (B9) and Vitamin B12. Vitamin intake below recommended amounts can result in signs and symptoms associated with vitamin deficiency. There is little evidence of benefit when consumed as a dietary supplement by those who are healthy and consuming a nutritionally adequate diet.[13]

The U.S. Institute of Medicine sets Tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) for vitamins. This does not prevent dietary supplement companies from selling products with content per serving higher than the ULs. For example, the UL for vitamin D is 100g (4,000 IU),[14] but products are available without prescription at 10,000 IU.

Minerals are the exogenous chemical elements indispensable for life. Four minerals: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, are essential for life but are so ubiquitous in food and drink that these are not considered nutrients and there are no recommended intakes for these as minerals. The need for nitrogen is addressed by requirements set for protein, which is composed of nitrogen-containing amino acids. Sulfur is essential, but for humans, not identified as having a recommended intake per se. Instead, recommended intakes are identified for the sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine. There are dietary supplements which provide sulfur, such as taurine and methylsulfonylmethane.

The essential nutrient minerals for humans, listed in order by weight needed to be at the Recommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake are potassium, chlorine, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine, chromium, molybdenum, selenium and cobalt (the last as a component of vitamin B12). There are other minerals which are essential for some plants and animals, but may or may not be essential for humans, such as boron and silicon. Essential and purportedly essential minerals are marketed as dietary supplements, individually and in combination with vitamins and other minerals.

Although as a general rule, dietary supplement labeling and marketing are not allowed to make disease prevention or treatment claims, the U.S. FDA has for some foods and dietary supplements reviewed the science, concluded that there is significant scientific agreement, and published specifically worded allowed health claims. An initial ruling allowing a health claim for calcium dietary supplements and osteoporosis was later amended to include calcium supplements with or without vitamin D, effective January 1, 2010. Examples of allowed wording are shown below. In order to qualify for the calcium health claim, a dietary supplement much contain at least 20% of the Reference Dietary Intake, which for calcium means at least 260mg/serving.[15]

In the same year, the European Food Safety Authority also approved a dietary supplement health claim for calcium and vitamin D and the reduction of the risk of osteoporotic fractures by reducing bone loss.[16] The U.S. FDA also approved Qualified Health Claims (QHCs) for various health conditions for calcium, selenium and chromium picolinate.[17] QHCs are supported by scientific evidence, but do not meet the more rigorous significant scientific agreement standard required for an authorized health claim. If dietary supplement companies choose to make such a claim then the FDA stipulates the exact wording of the QHC to be used on labels and in marketing materials. The wording can be onerous: “One study suggests that selenium intake may reduce the risk of bladder cancer in women. However, one smaller study showed no reduction in risk. Based on these studies, FDA concludes that it is highly uncertain that selenium supplements reduce the risk of bladder cancer in women.”[18]

Protein-containing supplements, either ready-to-drink or as powders to be mixed into water, are marketed as aids to people recovering from illness or injury, those hoping to thwart the sarcopenia of old age,[19][20] to athletes who believe that strenuous physical activity increases protein requirements,[21] to people hoping to lose weight while minimizing muscle loss, i.e., conducting a protein-sparing modified fast,[22] and to people who want to increase muscle size for performance and appearance. Whey protein is a popular ingredient,[20][23][24] but products may also incorporate casein, soy, pea, hemp or rice protein. The results are not necessarily consistent. Reviews can conclude that a high protein diet, when combined with exercise, will increase muscle mass and strength,[25][26] or conclude the opposite.[27] The International Olympic Committee recommends protein intake targets for both strength and endurance athletes at about 1.2-1.8 g/kg body mass per day.[21]

The same protein ingredients can be incorporated into meal replacement and medical food products, but those are regulated and labeled differently from supplements. In the United States, “meal replacement” products are foods and are labeled as such. These typically contain protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals. There may be content claims such as “good source of protein”, “low fat” or “lactose free.”[28] Medical foods, also nutritionally complete, are designed to be used while a person is under the care of a physician or other licensed healthcare professional.[29][30] Liquid medical food products – example Ensure – are available in regular and high protein versions.

Fish oil is a commonly used fatty acid supplement because it is a source of omega-3 fatty acids.[31] Fatty acids are strings of carbon atoms, having a range of lengths. If links are all single (C-C), then the fatty acid is called saturated; with one double bond (C=C), it is called monounsaturated; if there are two or more double bonds (C=C=C), it is called polyunsaturated. Only two fatty acids, both polyunsaturated, are considered essential to be obtained from the diet, as the others are synthesized in the body. The “essential” fatty acids are alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid, and linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 fatty acid.[31][32] ALA can be elongated in the body to create other omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

Plant oils, particularly seed and nut oils, contain ALA.[31] Food sources of EPA and DHA are oceanic fish, whereas dietary supplement sources include fish oil, krill oil and marine algae extracts. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) identifies 250 mg/day for a combined total of EPA and DHA as Adequate Intake, with a recommendation that women pregnant or lactating consume an additional 100 to 200 mg/day of DHA.[33] In the United States and Canada are Adequate Intakes for ALA and LA over various stages of life, but there are no intake levels specified for EPA and/or DHA.[34]

Supplementation with EPA and/or DHA does not appear to affect the risk of death, cancer or heart disease.[35][36] Furthermore, studies of fish oil supplements have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes.[37] In 2017, the American Heart Association issued a science advisory stating that it could not recommend use of omega-3 fish oil supplements for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease or stroke, although it reaffirmed supplementation for people who have a history of coronary heart disease.[38]

Dietary supplements referred to as natural products, botanicals, or herbals are manufactured using intact sources or extracts from plants, algae, fungi or lichens, including such examples as ginkgo biloba, turmeric, cranberry, garlic, St. Johns wort, herbal teas, and ginseng.[39][40][41] Such products typically labeled as “natural” and bearing promotional claims of health benefits are sold over the counter in pharmacies, supermarkets, specialist shops, military commissaries, buyers clubs, dollar stores, convenience stores, direct selling organizations, and the internet.[40] While most of these products have a long history of use in herbalism, concerns exist about their actual efficacy, safety and consistency of quality.[42][43][44] Canada has published a manufacturer and consumer guide describing quality, licensing, standards, identities, and common contaminants of natural products.[45] In 2016, sales of herbal supplements just in the United States were $7.5 billion, with the market growing at about 8% per year.[40] Italy, Germany and Eastern European countries were leading consumers of botanical supplements in 2016, with European Union market growth forecast to be $8.7 billion by 2020.[46]

In humans, the large intestine is host to more than 1,000 species of microorganisms, mostly bacteria, numbering in the tens of trillions.[47] “Probiotic” in the context of dietary supplements is the theory that by orally consuming live bacteria, it is possible to influence the large intestine microbiota, with consequent health benefits. Although there are numerous claimed benefits of using probiotic supplements, such as reducing gastrointestinal discomfort, improving immune health, relieving constipation, or avoiding the common cold, such claims remain unsupported by clinical evidence[48][49] and are prevented as deceptive advertisements in the United States by the Federal Trade Commission[50] and in Europe by the European Food Safety Authority.[51] Probiotic supplements are generally regarded as safe, but may cause bacteria-host interactions and unwanted side effects.[52][53]

Bodybuilding supplements are dietary supplements commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding, weightlifting, mixed martial arts, and athletics for the purpose of facilitating an increase in lean body mass. The intent is to increase muscle, increase body weight, improve athletic performance, and for some sports, to simultaneously decrease percent body fat so as to create better muscle definition. Among the most widely used are high protein drinks, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), glutamine, arginine, essential fatty acids, creatine, HMB,[54] and weight loss products.[citation needed] Supplements are sold either as single ingredient preparations or in the form of “stacks” proprietary blends of various supplements marketed as offering synergistic advantages. While many bodybuilding supplements are also consumed by the general public the frequency of use will differ when used specifically by bodybuilders. One meta-analysis concluded that for athletes participating in resistance exercise training and consuming protein supplements for an average of 13weeks, total protein intake up to 1.6g/kg of body weight per day would result in an increase in strength and fat-free mass, i.e. muscle, but that higher intakes would not further contribute.[25] The muscle mass increase was statistically significant but modest – averaging 0.3kg for all trials and 1.02.0kg, for protein intake 1.6g/kg/day.[25]

As of 2010,[update] annual sales of sport nutrition products in the United States was over US$2.7billion according to a publication by Consumer Reports.[55]

In 2015, the American market for dietary supplements was valued at $37 billion,[3] with the economic impact in the United States for 2016 estimated at $122 billion, including employment wages and taxes.[56] One 2016 analysis estimated the total market for dietary supplements could reach $278 billion worldwide by 2024.[57]

Over the period 2008 to 2011, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) of the United States received 6,307 reports of health problems (identified as adverse events) from use of dietary supplements containing a combination of ingredients in manufactured vitamins, minerals or other supplement products,[58] with 92% of tested herbal supplements containing lead and 80% containing other chemical contaminants.[59] Using undercover staff, the GAO also found that supplement retailers intentionally engaged in “unequivocal deception” to sell products advertised with baseless health claims, particularly to elderly consumers.[59] Consumer Reports also reported unsafe levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury in several protein powder products.[60] The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) reported that protein spiking, i.e., the addition of amino acids to manipulate protein content analysis, was common.[61] Many of the companies involved challenged CBC’s claim.[62]

A 2013 study on herbal supplements found that many products were of low quality, one third did not contain the active ingredient(s) claimed, and one third contained unlisted substances.[63] In a genetic analysis of herbal supplements, 78% of samples contained animal DNA that was not identified as an ingredient on the product labels.[43] In some botanical products, undeclared ingredients were used to increase the bulk of the product and reduce its cost of manufacturing, while potentially violating certain religious and/or cultural limitations on consuming animal ingredients, such as cow, buffalo or deer.[43] In 2015, the New York Attorney General identified four major retailers with dietary supplement products that contained fraudulent and potentially dangerous ingredients, requiring the companies to remove the products from retail stores.[64]

According to a food safety professor, more than 90% of dietary supplement health claims are incorrect.[65] The United States Food and Drug Administration, Office of Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, monitors supplement products for accuracy in advertising and labeling, and when finding violations, warns manufacturers of impending enforcement action, including search and seizure, injunction, and/or financial penalties, such as for a Maine supplement company in 2017.[66] The United States Federal Trade Commission, which litigates against deceptive advertising,[50] established a consumer center to assist reports of false health claims in product advertising for dietary supplements,[67] and, in 2017, successfully sued nine manufacturers for deceptive advertising of dietary supplements.[68]

By definition, the term probiotic implies live microorganisms are added by intake of food or dietary supplements to promote gastrointestinal health,[69] but advertising or labeling of probiotic supplements and foods as health products is prevented in the European Union and United States.[48][50][51][69] Over the period 2015 and through 2021, probiotic supplements are considered to be the fastest growing segment of the dietary supplement market worldwide.[51][70] However, despite considerable investment in product development, numerous applications for labeling approval, and extensive debate over the early 21st century, especially in Europe, manufacturers of probiotic supplements have not obtained permission to advertise their products with health claims.[51][69] This status occurred mainly because rigorous clinical studies of the human digestive system cannot establish a cause and effect relationship between supplemental intake of probiotics and improvement of health, except in emergency clinical conditions.[48]

In the United States, manufacturers of dietary supplements are required to demonstrate safety of their products before approval is granted for commerce.[71] Despite this caution, numerous adverse effects have been reported,[58] including muscle cramps, hair loss, joint pain, liver disease, and allergic reactions, with 29% of the adverse effects resulting in hospitalization, and 20% in serious injuries or illnesses.[72] By more than five-fold, the highest incidence of health problems derived from “combination products”, whereas supplements for vitamins and minerals, lipid products, and herbal products were less likely to cause adverse effects.[72]

Among general reasons for the possible harmful effects of dietary supplements are: a) absorption in a short time, b) manufacturing quality and contamination, and c) enhancing both positive and negative effects at the same time.[44] The number of incidents of liver damage from dietary supplements has increased significantly,[72] particularly from weight loss and bodybuilding supplements, which in some cases, required liver transplants.[73][unreliable medical source] Weight loss supplements have had adverse psychiatric effects.[74]

Work done by scientists in the early 20th century on identifying individual nutrients in food and developing ways to manufacture them raised hopes that optimal health could be achieved and diseases prevented by adding them to food and providing people with dietary supplements; while there were successes in preventing vitamin deficiencies, and preventing conditions like neural tube defects by supplementation and food fortification with folic acid, no targeted supplementation or fortification strategies to prevent major diseases like cancer or cardiovascular diseases have proved successful.[75]

For example, while increased consumption of fruits and vegetables are related to decreases in mortality, cardiovascular diseases and cancers, supplementation with key factors found in fruits and vegetable, like antioxidants, vitamins, or minerals, do not help and some have been found to be harmful in some cases.[76][77] In general as of 2016, robust clinical data is lacking, that shows that any kind of dietary supplementation does more good than harm for people who are healthy and eating a reasonable diet but there is clear data showing that dietary pattern and lifestyle choices are associated with health outcomes.[78][79]

As a result of the lack of good data for supplementation and the strong data for dietary pattern, public health recommendations for healthy eating urge people to eat a plant-based diet of whole foods, minimizing processed food, salt and sugar and to get exercise daily, and to abandon Western pattern diets and a sedentary lifestyle.[80][81]:10

The regulation of food and dietary supplements by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is governed by various statutes enacted by the United States Congress and interpreted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). Pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (“the Act”) and accompanying legislation, the FDA has authority to oversee the quality of substances sold as food in the United States, and to monitor claims made in the labeling about both the composition and the health benefits of foods.

Substances which the FDA regulates as food are subdivided into various categories, including foods, food additives, added substances (man-made substances which are not intentionally introduced into food, but nevertheless end up in it), and dietary supplements. The specific standards which the FDA exercises differ from one category to the next. Furthermore, the FDA has been granted a variety of means by which it can address violations of the standards for a given category of substances.

Dietary supplement manufacture is required to comply with the good manufacturing practices established in 2007. The FDA can visit manufacturing facilities, send Warning Letters[66] if not in compliance with GMPs, stop production, and if there is a health risk, require that the company conduct a recall.[82]

The European Union’s (EU) Food Supplements Directive of 2002 requires that supplements be demonstrated to be safe, both in dosages and in purity.[83] Only those supplements that have been proven to be safe may be sold in the EU without prescription. As a category of food, food supplements cannot be labeled with drug claims but can bear health claims and nutrition claims.[84]

The dietary supplements industry in the United Kingdom (UK), one of the 28 countries in the bloc, strongly opposed the Directive. In addition, a large number of consumers throughout Europe, including over one million in the UK, and various doctors and scientists, had signed petitions by 2005 against what are viewed by the petitioners as unjustified restrictions of consumer choice.[85]

In 2004, along with two British trade associations, the Alliance for Natural Health (ANH) had a legal challenge to the Food Supplements Directive[86] referred to the European Court of Justice by the High Court in London.[87]

Although the European Court of Justice’s Advocate General subsequently said that the bloc’s plan to tighten rules on the sale of vitamins and food supplements should be scrapped,[88] he was eventually overruled by the European Court, which decided that the measures in question were necessary and appropriate for the purpose of protecting public health. ANH, however, interpreted the ban as applying only to synthetically produced supplements, and not to vitamins and minerals normally found in or consumed as part of the diet.[89]

Nevertheless, the European judges acknowledged the Advocate General’s concerns, stating that there must be clear procedures to allow substances to be added to the permitted list based on scientific evidence. They also said that any refusal to add the product to the list must be open to challenge in the courts.[90]

Examples of ongoing government research organizations to better understand the potential health properties and safety of dietary supplements are the European Food Safety Authority,[2] the Office of Dietary Supplements of the United States National Institutes of Health,[6][91] the Natural and Non-prescription Health Products Directorate of Canada,[92] and the Therapeutic Goods Administration of Australia.[93] Together with public and private research groups, these agencies construct databases on supplement properties, perform research on quality, safety, and population trends of supplement use, and evaluate the potential clinical efficacy of supplements for maintaining health or lowering disease risk.[91]

As continual research on the properties of supplements accumulates, databases or fact sheets for various supplements are updated regularly, including the Dietary Supplement Label Database,[4] Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database,[94] and Dietary Supplement Facts Sheets of the United States.[95] In Canada where a license is issued when a supplement product has been proven by the manufacturer and government to be safe, effective and of sufficient quality for its recommended use, an eight-digit Natural Product Number is assigned and recorded in a Licensed Natural Health Products Database.[96] The European Food Safety Authority maintains a compendium of botanical ingredients used in manufacturing of dietary supplements.[97]

In 2015, the Australian Government’s Department of Health published the results of a review of herbal supplements to determine if any were suitable for coverage by health insurance.[98] Establishing guidelines to assess safety and efficacy of botanical supplement products, the European Medicines Agency provided criteria for evaluating and grading the quality of clinical research in preparing monographs about herbal supplements.[99] In the United States, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of the National Institutes of Health provides fact sheets evaluating the safety, potential effectiveness and side effects of many botanical products.[100]

To assure supplements have sufficient quality, standardization, and safety for public consumption, research efforts have focused on development of reference materials for supplement manufacturing and monitoring.[101][97] High-dose products have received research attention,[91][102] especially for emergency situations such as vitamin A deficiency in malnutrition of children,[103] and for women taking folate supplements to reduce the risk of breast cancer.[104]

In the United States, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) has investigated habits of using dietary supplements in context of total nutrient intakes from the diet in adults and children.[91] Over the period of 1999 to 2012, use of multivitamins decreased, and there was wide variability in the use of individual supplements among subgroups by age, sex, race/ethnicity, and educational status.[105] Particular attention has been given to use of folate supplements by young women to reduce the risk of fetal neural tube defects.[106][107]

Research initiatives to improve knowledge of the possible health benefits of supplementing with essential nutrients to lower disease risk have been extensive. As examples, just in 2017 were reviews on

A 2017 review indicated a rising incidence of liver injury from use of herbal and dietary supplements, particularly those with steroids, green tea extract, or multiple ingredients.[112]

Improving public information about use of dietary supplements involves investments in professional training programs, further studies of population and nutrient needs, expanding the database information, enhancing collaborations between governments and universities, and translating dietary supplement research into useful information for consumers, health professionals, scientists, and policymakers.[113] Future demonstration of efficacy from use of dietary supplements requires high-quality clinical research using rigorously-qualified products and compliance with established guidelines for reporting of clinical trial results (e.g., CONSORT guidelines).[91]

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Dietary supplement – Wikipedia

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

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Food Supplements Europe

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

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Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

The aim of this document is to produce guidelines which address the specific needs of the food supplement industry in relation to good manufacturing practice, with special attention paid to the requirements of EU food legislation. It covers the complete cycle of production and quality control of a food supplement, from the acquisition of all materials through all stages of subsequent processing, packaging and storage to the distribution or release of the finished product. As such, relevant sections of the document apply also to food supplement companies whose products are contract manufactured and also to those who aresolelydistributors of products.

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A questionnaire is also available to assist companies with assessing their current GMP status and to highlight any areas where further efforts to raise the GMP standard may be required. If no external GMP assessment is undertaken, annual self-assessment of GMP is recommended, as a minimum.

Download the self-assessment questionnaire PDF

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Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

Health & Food Supplements Information Service

gMicrogram a measurement of weight equal to one millionth of a gram (or one thousandth of a milligram). Microgram (g or mcg) is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.Amino AcidThe building blocks of protein, there are eight essential amino acids which cannot be synthesised within the body and therefore must come from the diet. These are: isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. In addition arginine and histidine are amino acids required by infants and young children which supports their rapid growth.AntioxidantA substance or nutrient which helps to protect our cells from damage caused by free radicals, damaging molecules which are found in pollution and tobacco smoke. Our bodies also produce free radicals as part of the normal biochemistry of living.DeficiencyA lack of essential macronutrients or micronutrients which results in malnutrition and or disease. This may be the result of inadequate intakes or absorption issues associated with gastrointestinal disease. There are a number of recognised deficiency diseases including (but not exclusively): scurvy (vitamin C deficiency); rickets (vitamin D deficiency); anaemia (iron deficiency, but also deficiencies in B12 and folic acid) and Kwashiorkor (protein deficiency).DHThe Department of Health is a UK Government department. It has responsibility for nutrition legislation and sets health policy for nutrition.DHADocosahexaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefitsDietitianAn individual qualified in nutrition and dietetics who can assess, diagnose and treat health issues associated with nutrition and diet. Dietitians are governed by law with a statutory code of practice; they often work within the health service although increasing numbers are also working in a freelance capacity.EFAEssential fatty acids (omega 3 and omega 6) cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. EFAs do not provide fuel for energy production and are required for vital biological processes which support growth, development and health.EFSAEuropean Food Safety Authority; the European Union food risk management agency which scientifically evaluates safety across all areas of food.EPAEicosapentaenoic acid; one of the key omega-3 fats that provides health benefits.Fat soluble vitaminThe fat soluble vitamins are vitamins A, D, E and K. Because they are fat soluble these substances can accumulate in the body, often being stored in fat cells, or in the liver. This can create health issues, particularly if intakes have been high for a prolonged period of time. For example, long term high intakes of vitamin D may lead to the laying down of calcium in tissues such as liver and kidneys which can cause nausea and vomiting.Food supplementA food supplement is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect which is sold in small, measured unit doses.FSAThe Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial UK Government department responsible for food safety and food hygiene.GLAGamma-linoleic acid is an omega-6 fatty acid (an essential fatty acid considered to be necessary for human health which must be derived from the diet). GLA is most commonly found in evening primrose oil (EPO), borage or starflower oil and blackcurrant seed oil.Health claimA health claim is any claim which states, or implies, that consumption of a specific food will have a beneficial effect on health. Claims may be written, verbal or pictorial.Herbal medicine (herbal remedy)A product is considered to be a herbal medicine if the main active ingredient/s are only herbal substances or preparations. Not all herbal products are medicines, some may be food supplements and some may be cosmetics. What determines if a product is, or is not a medicine is complex but generally rests with how the product is presented (i.e. does it make medicinal claims to treat, prevent or cure any disease) and what it does (i.e. does it have a physiological impact on, or alter, any body functions).MacronutrientDietary constituents which are needed in significant amounts, generally protein, fat, carbohydrate, fibre and water.MalnutritionMalnutrition is a state in which the deficiency of nutrients such as energy, protein, vitamins or minerals results in measurable adverse effects on the body. Malnutrition may refer to insufficient intake of protein, carbohydrate and fats (macronutrients) which can result in overly low BMI. It may also be insufficient intake of vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients, which can impact on overall health and could include obese individuals with poor diets.MgMilligram is a measurement of weight equal to one thousandth of a gram. Mg is used for a number of nutrients found in food supplements.MicronutrientA substance derived from food which is needed in extremely small amounts for the normal growth and development of living beings. Micronutrients are vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids (omega-3 fats)MineralInorganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Minerals are absorbed from soil by plants which are in turn eaten by animals or humans. Minerals may be split into minerals which are needed in relatively high amounts (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, chloride and potassium) and trace elements (iron, zinc, cobalt, copper, chromium, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, boron and selenium) which are needed in very small quantities.MultivitaminA product which contains more than one vitamin, often multivitamins will contain all 13 vitamins although some may contain only the eight B vitamins, or a combination of some of the vitamins and some additional minerals.NDNSThe UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey is a continuous rolling survey of the dietary habits and nutritional status of adults and children in the UK. The results are used to assess whether intakes of food and nutrients are adequate across different ages and population groups.NRVNutrient Reference Value is the amount set by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population requires to maintain health. Previously known as RDANutrientA substance derived from food which provides nourishment to the body and is essential for the maintenance of life and for growth and development.NutritionistNutritionists generally work for public bodies or governments, although some do work with private clients. They tend to look at large populations to determine risk factors and make dietary recommendations that are applied at population levels. For example, evidence on the incidence of type II Diabetes led public health nutritionists to determine that some populations are more at risk of developing this disease, and to make recommendations for dietary changes to either reduce the risk or manage the disease. However, public health nutritionists do not practice with individual patients.Omega-3 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-3 fats are oily fish and fish oil supplements with some also coming from enriched eggs and fortified foods. There are a number of scientifically proven health benefits for omega-3 fats including supporting the health of the eyes, brain and heart, maintaining an appropriate balance of triglycerides in the blood and reducing blood pressure.Omega-6 fatsEssential fatty acids which cannot be synthesised by the body and must be derived from the diet. Primary sources for omega-6 are vegetable oils such as sunflower and corn oils as well as nuts and seeds. There are a number of health benefits associated with omega-6 fatty acids; they are thought to be beneficial in the management of premenstrual syndrome and in some skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis.PAGBProprietary Association of Great Britain (PAGB) is the UK trade association which represents the manufacturers of branded over-the-counter medicines, self care medical devices and food supplements.PrebioticsFoods which promote the growth of probiotics, the beneficial bacteria that inhabit our gut. Prebiotics are generally fibres such as inulin, which our bodies cannot digest and absorb but which provide a food source for probiotics.ProbioticsLive bacteria (and some yeasts) which inhabit the digestive tract which are viewed as being beneficial to human health. There are thousands of different bacterial strains; some are resident in specific areas of the digestive tract whilst others are transient, simply passing through.Public Health England (PHE)Public Health England is an agency of the Department of Health responsible for improving public health. They work with local government, the NHS and non-governmental organisations as well as communicating public health messages to the general public.PUFAPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are found in nuts, seeds, fish (and fish oil), krill and some algae, small amounts are also found in leafy greens. The omega-3 and omega 6 fats are PUFAs, which are generally associated with health.RDARecommended Daily Amount; previously used terminology for the amount set, primarily to support food labelling, which the majority of the population require to maintain health. Now described using nutrient reference value (NRV)SULSafe Upper Levels of vitamins and minerals were established by the Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals who published a report in 2003 (https://cot.food.gov.uk/sites/default/files/cot/vitmin2003.pdf). The UK food supplements industry works to the levels set in this report.VitaminOrganic micronutrient essential to health and wellbeing. Vitamins cannot be synthesised in sufficient amounts by the animal or human body and must therefore be obtained from the diet. Plants manufacture vitamins which move up the food chain as the plants are consumed by animals or humans. Vitamins can be divided into fat soluble (vitamins A, D, E and K) and water soluble (vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid and vitamin C).Water soluble vitaminThe B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble. They are not stored in any significant quantities within the body and are generally either utilised or excreted in the urine. As they are not stored in the body, they tend to have low toxicity and are needed on a daily basis.

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Health & Food Supplements Information Service

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

The aim of this document is to produce guidelines which address the specific needs of the food supplement industry in relation to good manufacturing practice, with special attention paid to the requirements of EU food legislation. It covers the complete cycle of production and quality control of a food supplement, from the acquisition of all materials through all stages of subsequent processing, packaging and storage to the distribution or release of the finished product. As such, relevant sections of the document apply also to food supplement companies whose products are contract manufactured and also to those who aresolelydistributors of products.

Download the publication

A questionnaire is also available to assist companies with assessing their current GMP status and to highlight any areas where further efforts to raise the GMP standard may be required. If no external GMP assessment is undertaken, annual self-assessment of GMP is recommended, as a minimum.

Download the self-assessment questionnaire PDF

See more here:

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

Food supplements – European Commission

As an addition to a normal diet, food business operators market food supplements, which are concentrated sources of nutrients (or other substances) with a nutritional or physiological effect. Such food supplements can be marketed in dose form, such as pills, tablets, capsules, liquids in measured doses, etc.

The objective of the harmonised rules on those products in Directive 2002/46/EC is to protect consumers against potential health risks from those products and to ensure that they are not provided with misleading information.

With respect to the safety of food supplements, the Directive lays down a harmonised list of vitamins and minerals that may be added for nutritional purposes in food supplements (in Annex I to the Directive). Annex II of the Directive contains a list of permitted sources (vitamin and mineral substances) from which those vitamins and minerals may be manufactured.

This list has been amended by the following Regulations and Directive to include additional substances:

The trade of products containing vitamins and minerals not listed in Annex II has been prohibited from the 1st of August 2005.

Directive 2002/46/EC has been aligned with the new Regulatory Procedure with scrutiny by Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008.

Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements envisages the setting of maximum and minimum amounts of vitamins and minerals in supplements via the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed ( PAFF Committee) procedure.

The Commission has issued a Discussion Paper on the setting of maximum and minimum amounts for vitamins and minerals in foodstuffs , which identified the main issues to be considered in this exercise and originated a set of Responses.

Although the Commission has consulted extensively with Member States and interested stakeholders on the issue, no proposal has not yet been presented due to the complex nature of the issue and the divergent views that were expressed. All the available data on the potential effects on economic operators and consumers of the setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals in foods, including food supplements, will be taken into account. Every effort will be made to ensure that the maximum amounts set will take into account the concerns expressed by all interested parties.

The EC commissioned a study on the use of substances with nutritional or physiological effects other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

Taking into account this study and other available information, the Commission – in accordance with the requirement set out in Article 4(8) of Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements – has prepared a report to the Council and the European Parliament on the use of substances other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

The report is accompanied by two Commission staff working documents.

Member States may, for monitoring purposes, request notification to their competent authority of the placing on the market in their territory of a food supplement product in accordance with Article 10 of the Directive. The list of competent authorities may be found here:

See the original post here:

Food supplements – European Commission

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

See the article here:

Food Supplements Europe

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

The aim of this document is to produce guidelines which address the specific needs of the food supplement industry in relation to good manufacturing practice, with special attention paid to the requirements of EU food legislation. It covers the complete cycle of production and quality control of a food supplement, from the acquisition of all materials through all stages of subsequent processing, packaging and storage to the distribution or release of the finished product. As such, relevant sections of the document apply also to food supplement companies whose products are contract manufactured and also to those who aresolelydistributors of products.

Download the publication

A questionnaire is also available to assist companies with assessing their current GMP status and to highlight any areas where further efforts to raise the GMP standard may be required. If no external GMP assessment is undertaken, annual self-assessment of GMP is recommended, as a minimum.

Download the self-assessment questionnaire PDF

Original post:

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

Food supplements – European Commission

As an addition to a normal diet, food business operators market food supplements, which are concentrated sources of nutrients (or other substances) with a nutritional or physiological effect. Such food supplements can be marketed in dose form, such as pills, tablets, capsules, liquids in measured doses, etc.

The objective of the harmonised rules on those products in Directive 2002/46/EC is to protect consumers against potential health risks from those products and to ensure that they are not provided with misleading information.

With respect to the safety of food supplements, the Directive lays down a harmonised list of vitamins and minerals that may be added for nutritional purposes in food supplements (in Annex I to the Directive). Annex II of the Directive contains a list of permitted sources (vitamin and mineral substances) from which those vitamins and minerals may be manufactured.

This list has been amended by the following Regulations and Directive to include additional substances:

The trade of products containing vitamins and minerals not listed in Annex II has been prohibited from the 1st of August 2005.

Directive 2002/46/EC has been aligned with the new Regulatory Procedure with scrutiny by Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008.

Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements envisages the setting of maximum and minimum amounts of vitamins and minerals in supplements via the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed ( PAFF Committee) procedure.

The Commission has issued a Discussion Paper on the setting of maximum and minimum amounts for vitamins and minerals in foodstuffs , which identified the main issues to be considered in this exercise and originated a set of Responses.

Although the Commission has consulted extensively with Member States and interested stakeholders on the issue, no proposal has not yet been presented due to the complex nature of the issue and the divergent views that were expressed. All the available data on the potential effects on economic operators and consumers of the setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals in foods, including food supplements, will be taken into account. Every effort will be made to ensure that the maximum amounts set will take into account the concerns expressed by all interested parties.

The EC commissioned a study on the use of substances with nutritional or physiological effects other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

Taking into account this study and other available information, the Commission – in accordance with the requirement set out in Article 4(8) of Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements – has prepared a report to the Council and the European Parliament on the use of substances other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

The report is accompanied by two Commission staff working documents.

Member States may, for monitoring purposes, request notification to their competent authority of the placing on the market in their territory of a food supplement product in accordance with Article 10 of the Directive. The list of competent authorities may be found here:

Go here to read the rest:

Food supplements – European Commission

Food Supplements Europe

Food Supplements Europe has been created to represent the interests of the European food supplement sector. Its membership includes national associations and companies committed to ensuring that future EU legislation and policy reflects the important role that this sector plays in the health of consumers.

Read the original:

Food Supplements Europe

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

The aim of this document is to produce guidelines which address the specific needs of the food supplement industry in relation to good manufacturing practice, with special attention paid to the requirements of EU food legislation. It covers the complete cycle of production and quality control of a food supplement, from the acquisition of all materials through all stages of subsequent processing, packaging and storage to the distribution or release of the finished product. As such, relevant sections of the document apply also to food supplement companies whose products are contract manufactured and also to those who aresolelydistributors of products.

Download the publication

A questionnaire is also available to assist companies with assessing their current GMP status and to highlight any areas where further efforts to raise the GMP standard may be required. If no external GMP assessment is undertaken, annual self-assessment of GMP is recommended, as a minimum.

Download the self-assessment questionnaire PDF

Follow this link:

Publications and Guidelines | Food Supplements Europe

Shop for FOOD SUPPLEMENTS supplements – National Nutrition

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Shop for FOOD SUPPLEMENTS supplements – National Nutrition

MyNutriKids Healthy And Energizing Food And Supplements

Eating healthy foods and exercising regularly is something many aspire to do, but the challenge for most people is getting the time and motivation to formulate a regular workout routine and stick to a healthy diet. Though the physical and mental benefits of following a healthy path are well known, many people are still struggling to start and maintain a healthy lifestyle that can lead to a longer life.

In most cases, the choice of eating unhealthy and not exercising is often the easy one evenwhen you are well aware the risk of lifestyle diseases. Illnesses like type 2 of diabetes, stroke, high blood pressure, some types of cancer and osteoporosis are some of the risks brought about due to ones failure to follow a healthy diet and maintain proper physical fitness. These diseases are not only expensive to maintain, but they are also life threatening.

Sometimes, even those who are devoted to a regular workout routine may experience energy drains. These are those days when you feel exhausted and find that you cannot motivate yourself to get up and do even one simple workout activity that you love.

While all-out energy drains are easy to recognize, the same cannot be said for low-energy drains. They are not easily recognizable as you do not experience signs of exhaustion like feeling very tired or muscle aches. In such situations, you will start experiencing the loss of will to carry on with your workout activities that you used to enjoy, and when you start your workout routine, you lose focus and find it hard to concentrate on simple tasks. In the end, you become frustrated and finally abandon the task.

But all is not lost, while your own energy is not enough to keep up with the demands of society such as work, school and staying fit, there are many energy supplements available that can provide you with energy. In a world that is always busy and gets more hectic by the day, natural supplements are a good source of extra energy to boost to your own energy. They can help you make it through the day feeling energetic and psyched.

There are many superfoods and natural energy supplements in the market today. Some are better for the body than others, but most of these supplements can help you increase your level of energy and alertness. Here are some you can try to try when you feel like your energy is drained:

Bee pollen is a highly nutritious natural energy supplement collected from the stamen part of flowering plants by honeybees and stored in honeycomb hives. People who consume bee pollen as part of their daily diet are known to generate more energy, physical stamina and vigor.

Its benefits are many including prevention of growth of cancer cells, making it to be termed as a super food. It contains over 40% of proteins, 22 amino acids, 21 minerals, 18 enzymes, fiber, carbohydrates and other minerals. It can be taken in liquid form, as powder mixed in food or drinks, chewable tablets or capsules.

Read more about where to buy bee pollen below where weve listed the best quality online stores.

Where To Buy Bee Pollen?

Mucuna pruriens or KIpikacchu or Cowhage is a creeping vine that is grows in the tropicsof India as well as the tropical regions of the Caribbean and Africa. This plant has been used for many years as traditional medicines and the seeds, both white and black, have therapeutic value.

It has a balancing and restorative effect on the nervous system. It can strengthen the weakened areas of the body as well as enhance ones the intellect. Its seeds have been found to contain nutritive tonic which energizes, nourishes and revitalizes the nervous system and the entire body.

Where To Buy Mucuna Pruriens?

Many people consider Chia seeds as the pinnacle super food. They are natural energy supplements that can give high sustainable energy in a tasty and inexpensive way. They contain high levels of fiber, about 20% proteins, which help in tissue and muscle regeneration. They are also rich in omega 5 and 6 oils as well as other beneficial nutrients.

People who include Chia seeds in their eating habits are reported to notice higher energy levels and regular health benefits right away. They also exhibit other health benefits like muscle generation, cardiovascular health and weight loss in the long run.

Where To Buy Chia Seeds?

Being one of the oldest plants, Ginkgo Biloba has been in use in herbal and natural medicine for thousands of years. Its widely recognized as a supplement to enhance both mental and memory alertness as well as many other health benefits

Todays busy and hectic lifestyle tends to take a toll on many people affecting their physical and mental functions which in most cases leads to memory and focus loss. In such cases, a dose of Gikgo Biloba can come in handy since it helps to increase blood circulation and oxygen levels in the brain, improving concentration and the brain power.

Where To Buy Ginkgo Biloba?

Ginseng is a herb that is used as a natural energy booster and for other medicinal benefits. Oriental and American are the main species of Ginseng. Both these species have been found to boost the immune system and improve vitality.

It contains active ingredients like ginsenocides, which helps to regulate mechanism of nerves and control hormone activity. This helps to influence insulin production, regulate blood pressure and increase metabolism. You can use Ginseng regularly to boost your energy levels, reduce mental fatigue and stress, and improve performance. Ginseng has no toxicity and is thus harmless with no known side effects.

Where To Buy Ginseng?

Pine pollen is a natural testosterone booster, produced by pine trees as a yellow dust during spring. The level of Testosterone in your body will affect your energy levels, sleeping habits and other health issues like libido.

Pine pollen supplements can give your body the extra energy you need to start your workout and can also help you endure energy demanding activities for long. Other health benefits include improved immune systems, hormonal balancing, among others. Take pine pollen with sweeteners before your work out as it doesnt have a good taste.

Where To Buy Pine Pollen?

Caffeine

Caffeine is arguably the most known and widely consumed stimulant in all corners of the world. Caffeine is a chemical found in products like tea, coffee, guarana, and cola. These products are used as energy boosters and help to improve ones mental alertness and brain functions.

Consider taking a beverage with caffeine before your work out to boost performance, lower perceived exertion as well as increase stamina and physical endurance. However, caffeine should be taken in moderation as its habit forming and high doses of caffeine can cause health problems. Its advisable to not take more than 300 mg per day.

Royal Jelly

Royal jelly is a nutritious natural supplement produced by worker bees when they combine honey and pollen in the hive. Produced for the queen and royal family, it is rich in vitamins including vitamin-B complex, amino acids, fatty acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, natural anti-bacterial, antibiotics, calories, and useful minerals.

Royal jelly is said to have rejuvenating powers that can revive your body and lift your mood. It is used as a supplement to restore strength, energy, improve concentration, and boost the immune system. It is also said to promote longevity, although this claim has not yet been fully substantiated.

Gotu Kola

Gotu Kola is one of the best brain tonic supplements used to improve brain performance. In fact some refer to Gotu Kola as food for the brain. It is considered as one of the most spiritual and rejuvenating herbs and is commonly used by people who do Yoga to improve meditation.

If you are experiencing energy drains and you are losing concentration in your work out or daily activity, Gotu Kola can help to improve your mental function. Include Gotu Kola in your daily diet and improve your concentration and memory loss. It is also recommended for people suffering from nervous disorders.

Spirulina

Spirulina is yet another natural energy booster. It is a single celled algae, cyanbacteri, that is made of essential amino acids and proteins. It is also a good source of antioxidants, omega 3, 6 and 9, vitamins B and over 100 nutrients, higher than any other plant.

It contains high levels of Chlorophyll which removes toxins from the blood stream and thus improves your immune system. Chlorophyll is also responsible for creating carbohydrates which will go a long way in boosting your energy. It is also recommended for vegetarians as it contains vitamins and amino acids found in animal products.

These natural supplements are only a means but not the end to a healthy leaving. The importance of a balanced diet and exercise cannot be overstated for a healthy and longer life. Natural healthy supplements can boost your energy when your own energy has failed you. A healthy mind in a healthy body will not only make you feel good but also improve your social life.

The importance of exercising is as important as a healthy diet. Even the most basic exercise activities help in burning of calories. Regular workouts and a healthy diet play a crucial role in achieving a healthy lifestyle. You may not lose weight even if you are on a diet if you dont exercise nor will you maintain a healthy weight with exercise alone without a balanced diet.

Your muscles will work best, build up and become stronger by implementing both aspects. Engaging in activities that raise your heart rate for an extended time will help in making your heart strong and healthier.

The human body works best when engaged in regular activities. Through exercise, you achieve physical fitness by improving muscular strength, cardio-respiratory, flexibility, and endurance. Those who engage in a routine workout activity are healthier and at a lower risk of some health problems like, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol, among others.

Physical activity helps in blood circulation making your cardiovascular system more efficient when oxygen nutrients are delivered to your body tissue.

People who exercise and eat healthy foods with low fats have flexible and strong bones than those who dont. When you have healthy bones, you reduce the risk of injuries and bone loss associated with aging.

A healthy and antioxidant rich diet and regular exercise is a natural safeguard against cancer. The power to live a longer and healthy life is in your hands. Engage in physical activities and extend the length of your life.

Proper exercise and a healthy diet offer a variety of mental benefits. Mild physical activities can help reduce stress just like some healthy eating habits do. When you engage in physical activities, a chemical in the brain known to make people happy is stimulated. Healthy lifestyle choices which include a healthy diet and regular exercise improve brain performance and reduce the risk of depression.

When you are unhealthy, your self-esteem if affected negatively as you may be worrying about your physical public appearance. This is the case when you are overweight. Being in good shape makes you feel better about yourself improving your self-esteem and reduces anxiety, stress or depression.

Physical activity can be a fun way of interacting with people and making new friends as you prevent excess weight gain by burning calories. You dont need to spend money for a gym membership to keep fit, start with simple activities like taking a walk or using the stairs.

Both eating healthy and physical activities are important in maintaining a healthy social life. When you maintain a healthy weight and improve your posture, you can face the world with more confident.

Start your journey to a healthy lifestyle path today. Eat healthy and start with a simple and fun physical activity. You can make a choice of healthy living, your age or race notwithstanding. Make notable adjustments in your current lifestyle by making small changes that are directed in healthy living. Go for the changes that are not only attainable and achievable, but also fun to encourage you to keep going.

Natural supplements that have minimal or no side effects can help you boost your energy when you feel like giving up. Consult with your physician before taking any supplement.

With all the above information, you cannot go wrong with natural energy supplements. In todays modern society, they have become a must have for people who are constantly on the go.

See the article here:

MyNutriKids Healthy And Energizing Food And Supplements

Food supplements – European Commission

As an addition to a normal diet, food business operators market food supplements, which are concentrated sources of nutrients (or other substances) with a nutritional or physiological effect. Such food supplements can be marketed in dose form, such as pills, tablets, capsules, liquids in measured doses, etc.

The objective of the harmonised rules on those products in Directive 2002/46/EC is to protect consumers against potential health risks from those products and to ensure that they are not provided with misleading information.

With respect to the safety of food supplements, the Directive lays down a harmonised list of vitamins and minerals that may be added for nutritional purposes in food supplements (in Annex I to the Directive). Annex II of the Directive contains a list of permitted sources (vitamin and mineral substances) from which those vitamins and minerals may be manufactured.

This list has been amended by the following Regulations and Directive to include additional substances:

The trade of products containing vitamins and minerals not listed in Annex II has been prohibited from the 1st of August 2005.

Directive 2002/46/EC has been aligned with the new Regulatory Procedure with scrutiny by Regulation (EC) No 1137/2008.

Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements envisages the setting of maximum and minimum amounts of vitamins and minerals in supplements via the Standing Committee on Plants, Animals, Food and Feed ( PAFF Committee) procedure.

The Commission has issued a Discussion Paper on the setting of maximum and minimum amounts for vitamins and minerals in foodstuffs , which identified the main issues to be considered in this exercise and originated a set of Responses.

Although the Commission has consulted extensively with Member States and interested stakeholders on the issue, no proposal has not yet been presented due to the complex nature of the issue and the divergent views that were expressed. All the available data on the potential effects on economic operators and consumers of the setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals in foods, including food supplements, will be taken into account. Every effort will be made to ensure that the maximum amounts set will take into account the concerns expressed by all interested parties.

The EC commissioned a study on the use of substances with nutritional or physiological effects other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

Taking into account this study and other available information, the Commission – in accordance with the requirement set out in Article 4(8) of Directive 2002/46/EC on food supplements – has prepared a report to the Council and the European Parliament on the use of substances other than vitamins and minerals in food supplements.

The report is accompanied by two Commission staff working documents.

Member States may, for monitoring purposes, request notification to their competent authority of the placing on the market in their territory of a food supplement product in accordance with Article 10 of the Directive. The list of competent authorities may be found here:

The rest is here:

Food supplements – European Commission


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