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Cyborg – Wikipedia

A cyborg (short for “cybernetic organism”) is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

D. S. Halacy’s Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a “new frontier” that was “not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between ‘inner space’ to ‘outer space’ a bridge…between mind and matter.”[3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g., the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, etc.). Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will.[citation needed] Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).[citation needed]

According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are also cyborg enhancements. Some theorists[who?] cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested.[5]

The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares.[6] Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally (e.g. the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (e.g. Elysium, RoboCop). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where “Omar” is a Russian translation of the word “Lobster” (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story “The Man That Was Used Up”. In 1911, Jean de la Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero who was perhaps the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystre des XV (later translated as The Nyctalope on Mars).[8][9][10]Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, “After a Judgment Day,” to describe the “mechanical analogs” called “Charlies,” explaining that “[c]yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s…cybernetic organisms.” In the short story “No Woman Born” in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body.

The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:

Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.

The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer was published by Doubleday in 2001.[13] Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.

Cyborgs tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr, 3rd, talk number SS4.04.[14] The cyborg obtained is inexpensive, light and has unique mechanical properties. It can also be shaped in desired forms. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Likewise, dried cells still acted as a stable matrix for the MWCNT network. When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. A rather specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells was observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall (the most outer part of fungal and plant cells) may play a major active role in establishing a CNTs network and its stabilization. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from heating to sensing and has the potential to open important new avenues to be exploited in electromagnetic shielding for radio frequency electronics and aerospace technology. In particular using Candida albicans cells cyborg tissue materials with temperature sensing properties have been reported.[15]

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[17] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[18]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[19]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[20]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[21][22]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson, has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[23] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[24] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[25] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[31] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[32] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[33] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[34] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University[35] and UC Berkeley,[36] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[33] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [37] and PETA [38] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[39] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[40] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[41]Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[42] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[43] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[44]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[45]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[46]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low amount of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[47]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[48]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[49]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[50] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[51]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[52] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[53][54] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[55][56]The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[57]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[58]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[59] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[60] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[61]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[62][63] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[62]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[64]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[65]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[66] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[67]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[68]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[69] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[70] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[70]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[71]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[72]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term. Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[73] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[74] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[75] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[76] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[73]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[77] augmented reality[78] and QR codes[79] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[80][81] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[82]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[83]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[84] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[85] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[86] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[85]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[87] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[88] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[89]

Joseph Michael Valente, describes “cyborgization” as an attempt to codify “normalization” through cochlear implantation in young deaf children. Drawing from Paddy Ladd’s work on Deaf epistemology and Donna Haraway’s Cyborg ontology, Valente “use[s] the concept of the cyborg as a way of agitating constructions of cyborg perfection (for the deaf child that would be to become fully hearing)”. He claims that cochlear implant manufacturers advertise and sell cochlear implants as a mechanical device as well as an uncomplicated medical “miracle cure”. Valente criticizes cochlear implant researchers whose studies largely to date do not include cochlear implant recipients, despite cochlear implants having been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1984.[90] Pamela J. Kincheloe discusses the representation of the cochlear implant in media and popular culture as a case study for present and future responses to human alteration and enhancement.[91]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[92] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing amount of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[93] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[94] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[95] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[96]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[97]

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

Kevin Warwick | "I feel that we are all philosophers, and …

Kevin Warwick is Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) at Coventry University. Prior that he was Professor of Cybernetics at The University of Reading, England. His research areas are artificial intelligence, control, robotics and biomedical engineering. He is a Chartered Engineer (CEng.) and is a Fellow of The Institution of Engineering & Technology (FIET). He is the youngest person ever to become a Fellow of the City & Guilds of London Institute (FCGI). He is the author or co-author of more than 600 research papers and has written or edited 27 books (three for general readership), as well as numerous magazine and newspaper articles on scientific and general subjects. He has broadcast and lectured widely and holds various visiting professorships.

Kevin was born in Coventry and left school to join British Telecom, at the age of 16. At 22 he took his first degree at Aston University, followed by a PhD and a research post at Imperial College, London. He subsequently held positions at Oxford, Newcastle, Warwick and Reading universities before being offered the DVC post at Coventry.

He has been awarded higher doctorates (DScs) by Imperial College and the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague on different scientific areas. He was presented with The Future of Health Technology Award at MIT (USA), was made an Honorary Member of the Academy of Sciences, St.Petersburg, was awarded the IEE Senior Achievement Medal in 2004, the Mountbatten Medal in 2008, the Ellison-Cliffe Medal in 2011 from the Royal Society of Medicine and in 2014 was elected as a member of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts. In 2000 Kevin presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, entitled The Rise of The Robots. He has also been awarded Honorary DSc Degrees by the Universities of Aston, Coventry, Bradford, Bedfordshire, Portsmouth and Kingston and an Honorary DTech Degree by Robert Gordon University.

Kevin instigated a series of pioneering experiments involving the neuro-surgical implantation of a device (Utah Array/BrainGate) into the median nerves of his left arm in order to link his nervous system directly to a computer to assess the latest technology for use with the disabled. The development of the implant technology was carried out by a team of researchers headed by Dr Mark Gasson who, along with Kevin, used it to perform the ground-breaking research. Kevin was successful with the first extra-sensory (ultrasonic) input for a human and with the first purely electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans. His research has been discussed by the US White House Presidential Council on BioEthics, The European Commission and led to him being widely referenced and featured in academic circles as well as appearing as cover stories in several magazines e.g. Wired (USA), The Week (India).

The Institute of Physics selected Kevin as one of only 7 eminent scientists to illustrate the ethical impact their scientific work can have: the others being Galileo, Einstein, Curie, Nobel, Oppenheimer and Rotblat.

His work is used as material in several advanced Level Physics courses in the UK and in many University courses including Harvard, Stanford, MIT & Tokyo. His implants are on display in the Science Museums in London and Naples. As a result, Kevin regularly gives invited Keynote presentations.

Kevins research has involved robotics and he was responsible (with Dr Jim Wyatt) for Cybot, a robot exported around the world as part of a magazine Real Robots this resulted in royalties totalling over 1M for Reading University. Robots designed and constructed by Kevins group (Dr Ian Kelly, Dr Ben Hutt) were on permanent interactive display in the Science Museums in London, Birmingham and Linz.

Some of Kevins recent research involves a collaborative project with the Oxford neurosurgeon, Prof. Tipu Aziz, using intelligent computer methods to predict the onset of Parkinsonian tremors such that they can be stopped by means of a deep brain implant. This work was hailed in the Mail on Sunday as the most significant recent advance in biomedical engineering.

He also led an EPSRC sponsored project in which a cultured neural network (using biological neurons) was trained to control a mobile robot platform. This work, which was reported on in a New Scientist feature article, is now being used as an exercise for high school science studies in the UK. A Youtube video of this research has been downloaded/viewed 1.9 million times.

His presentations include The 1998 Robert Boyle Memorial Lecture at Oxford University, The 2000 Royal Institution Christmas Lectures, The 2001 Higginson Lecture at Durham University, The 2003 Royal Academy of Engineering/Royal Society of Edinburgh Joint lecture in Edinburgh, The 2004 Woolmer Lecture at York University, the 2005 Einstein Lecture in Potsdam, Germany and the 2006 IMechE Mechatronics Prestige Lecture in London.The Annual Science Faculty lecture at University of Leicester in 2007. In 2008 the Leslie Oliver Oration at Queens Hospital and the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, guest lecture Four weddings and a Funeral for the Microsoft Research Chair. In 2009, Cardiff University, 125th Anniversary Lecture. In 2010 he launched the new Research Institute for Innovation Design and Sustainability at Robert Gordon University and gave the Ellison-Cliffe Lecture at the Royal Society of Medicine in 2011. In 2012 he presented the IET Pinkerton Lecture in Bangalore.

Kevin was a member of the 2001 HEFCE (unit 29) panel on Electrical & Electronic Engineering, was Deputy Chairman for the same panel in the 2007/8 exercise and is a member of the EPSRC Peer College. He also received the EPSRC Millenium Award (2000) for his schools robot league project. Kevins research has featured in many TV and film documentaries, e.g. Inventions that changed the world (BBC2), Late Night with Conan OBrien (NBC), Future Scope (RAI 1) and The Making of I Robot (Twentieth Century Fox/Channel 5). He has appeared 5 times in Time magazine and was selected by Channel 4 as one of the Top 6 UK Scientists for their 2001 series Living Science. In 2002 he was chosen by the IEE as one of the top 10 UK Electrical Engineers.

Kevins research is frequently referred to by other authors recent examples being in books by Robert Winston, Peter Cochrane, Jeremy Clarkson and Susan Greenfield. Kevins implant research was selected by National Geographic International for a 1 hour documentary, entitled I,Human screened in 2007 this was broadcast in 143 countries and translated into 23 different languages. Some of his TV appearances are logged on the imdb website.

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Cyborg anthropology – Wikipedia

Cyborg anthropology is a discipline that studies the interaction between humanity and technology from an anthropological perspective. The discipline is relatively new, but offers novel insights on new technological advances and their effect on culture and society.

Donna Haraways 1985 “”A Cyborg Manifesto” was the first widely-read academic text to explore the philosophical and sociological ramifications of the cyborg.[1] A sub-focus group within the American Anthropological Association’s annual meeting in 1992 presented a paper entitled “Cyborg Anthropology”, which cites Haraway’s “Manifesto”. The group described cyborg anthropology as the study of how humans define humanness in relationship to machines, as well as the study of science and technology as activities that can shape and be shaped by culture. This includes studying the ways that all people, including those who are not scientific experts, talk about and conceptualize technology.[2] The sub-group was very closely related to STS and the Society for the Social Studies of Science.[3] More recently, Amber Case has been responsible for explicating the concept of Cyborg Anthropology to the general public.[4] She believes that a key aspect of cyborg anthropology is the study of networks of information among humans and technology.[5]

Many academics have helped develop cyborg anthropology, and many more who haven’t heard the term still conduct research that may be considered cyborg anthropology. Amber Case likes to tell people that the actual number of self-described cyborg anthropologists is “about seven”.[6]The Cyborg Anthropology Wiki, overseen by Case, aims to make the discipline as accessible as possible, even to people who do not have a background in anthropology.

Cyborg anthropology uses traditional methods of anthropological research like ethnography and participant observation, accompanied by statistics, historical research, and interviews. By nature it is a multidisciplinary study; cyborg anthropology can include aspects of Science and Technology Studies, cybernetics, feminist theory, and more.

The object of study for cyborg anthropology is the cyborg. Originally coined in a 1960 paper about space exploration, the term is short for cybernetic organism.[7] A cyborg is traditionally defined as a system with both organic and inorganic parts. In the narrowest sense of the word, cyborgs are people with machinated body parts. These cyborg parts may be restorative technologies that help a body function where the organic system has failed, like pacemakers, insulin pumps, and bionic limbs, or enhanced technologies that improve the human body beyond its natural state.[8] In the broadest sense, all human interactions with technology could qualify as a cyborg. Most cyborg anthropologists lean towards the latter view of the cyborg; some, like Amber Case, even claim that humans are already cyborgs because people’s daily life and sense of self is so intertwined with technology.[5] Haraway’s “Cyborg Manifesto” suggests that technology like virtual avatars, artificial insemination, sexual reassignment surgery, and artificial intelligence might make dichotomies of sex and gender irrelevant, even nonexistent. She goes on to say that other human distinctions (like life and death, human and machine, virtual and real) may similarly disappear in the wake of the cyborg.[1]

Digital anthropology is concerned with how digital advances are changing how people live their lives, as well as consequent changes to how anthropologists do ethnography and to a lesser extent how digital technology can be used to represent and undertake research.[9] Cyborg anthropology also looks at disciplines like genetics and nanotechnology, which are not strictly digital. Cybernetics/informatics covers the range of cyborg advances better than the label digital.

Questions of subjectivity, agency, actors, and structures have always been of interest in social and cultural anthropology. In cyborg anthropology the question of what type of cybernetic system constitutes an actor/subject becomes all the more important. Is it the actual technology that acts on humanity (the Internet), the general techno-culture (Silicon Valley), government sanctions (net neutrality), specific innovative humans (Steve Jobs), or some type of combination of these elements? Some academics believe that only humans have agency and technology is an object humans act upon, while others argue that humans have no agency and culture is entirely shaped by material and technological conditions. Actor-network theory (ANT), proposed by Bruno Latour, is a theory that helps scholars understand how these elements work together to shape techno-cultural phenomena. Latour suggests that actors and the subjects they act on are parts of larger networks of mutual interaction and feedback loops. Humans and technology both have the agency to shape one another.[10] ANT best describes the way cyborg anthropology approaches the relationship between humans and technology.[11]

Researchers like Kathleen Richardson have conducted ethnographic research on the humans who build and interact with artificial intelligence.[12] Recently, Stuart Geiger, a PhD student at University of California, Berkeley suggested that robots may be capable of creating a culture of their own, which researchers could study with ethnographic methods. Anthropologists react to Geiger with skepticism because, according to Geiger, they believe that culture is specific to living creatures and ethnography limited to human subjects.[13]

The most basic definition of anthropology is the study of humans.[14] However, cyborgs, by definition, describe something that is not entirely an organic human. Moreover, limiting a discipline to the study of humans may be difficult the more that technology allows humans to transcend the normal conditions of organic life. The prospect of a posthuman condition calls into question the nature and necessity of a field focused on studying humans.

Techno-sociologist Zeynep Tufekci argues that any symbolic expression of ourselves, even the most ancient cave painting, can be considered “posthuman” because it exists outside of our physical bodies. To her, this means that the human and the “posthuman” have always existed alongside one another, and anthropology has always concerned itself with the posthuman as well as the human.[15] Neil L. Whitehead and Michael Welsch point out that the concern that posthumanism will decenter the human in anthropology ignores the discipline’s long history of engaging with the unhuman (like spirits and demons that humans believe in) and the culturally “subhuman” (like marginalized groups within a society).[15]

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‘Cyborg’ bacteria deliver green fuel source from sunlight – BBC News – BBC News


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If these pics of champ Cyborg visiting a children’s hospital don’t … – MMAjunkie.com

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By: Blue Corner | August 21, 2017 5:45 pm

Before a trip to Anaheim, Calif., brought her the UFCs womens 145-pound title, Cris Cyborg was gifted a symbolic belt by the children of a hospital in her hometown of Curitiba, Brazil.

This Monday, delivering on a promise she made to herself, the champ returned to the hospital with a gift of her own: an actual UFC belt.

These kids are much more than champions they fight every day for their lives, Cyborg said in an official statement sent out by the UFC. And a small gesture like this one makes a huge difference in their lives.I always talk about this, about the importance of fighting for those who cant fight. Its so good to make someone happy because it makes us happy, as well. It was very gratifying to come here today.

For the visit to the hospital, which is an industry leader in cancer treatment, the champ was joined by former PRIDE champ and UFC Hall of Famer Antonio Rodrigo Nogueira. According to the official statement, the hospital will keep the belt in its pediatric area.

Cyborg (18-1 MMA, 3-0 UFC) captured the 145-pound title at last months UFC 214, with a third-round TKO over fellow former Invicta FC champion Tonya Evinger (19-6 MMA, 0-1 UFC). Shes currently in her native country for a media tour.

While Cyborg has been campaigning for a meeting with ex-champ Holly Holm, her octagon future is still uncertain.

For more on the upcoming UFC schedule, check out theUFC Rumorssection of the site.

TheBlue CornerisMMAjunkies official blog and is edited byMike Bohn.

Antonio Rodrigo Nogueira, Cris Cyborg, Blue Corner, Featured Videos, News, UFC, Videos

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If these pics of champ Cyborg visiting a children’s hospital don’t … – MMAjunkie.com

‘Terminator 2’: Arnold Schwarzenegger’s surprisingly nice cyborg is back onscreen in 3-D – USA TODAY

Arnold Schwarzenegger went good, really, in ‘Terminator 2: Judgment Day.'(Photo: Distrib Films/Studio Canal)

Arnold Schwarzenegger’s infamous murderous cyborg made a shocking transformation in his second screen appearance.

In 1991’s Terminator 2: Judgment Day, the Terminator turned good.

Schwarzeneggershotinto the Hollywood stratosphere after1984’s The Terminator, in which he starred as the cold-blooded assassin from the future. The character’s rewiring was so dramatic, even Schwarzeneggerhad to be convinced it wasn’t insanity.

Arnold hated the idea. He tried to talk me out of it,” director James Cameron recalls of the action classic, which has been converted to 3-D for a one-week re-release in AMCtheaters nationwide starting Friday. “He said, ‘Jim, Im the Terminator. I kick in the door and shoot everybody. Its what I do. Its what everybody wants to see me do. Don’t fix something that’s not broken.’

“And I said, ‘Yeah, thats why peoplewont see this coming. This is going to work.’ He eventually said, ‘All right, I trust you.’ ”

“Terminator Genisys” star Arnold Schwarzenegger gives USA TODAY’s Bryan Alexander a lesson in walking like ‘The Terminator.’

Arnold’s begrudgingtrust was well-placed:Terminator 2becamethe highest-grossingfilm of 1991 (and of Schwarzenegger’s career) and sits at No. 77 on the American Film Institute’s list of top thrillers.

He said, ‘Jim, Im the Terminator. I kick in the door and shoot everybody. Its what I do. Its what everybody wants to see me do. Don’t fix something that’s not broken.’

“I like challenges, and the idea of making the Terminatorinto a hero seemed adelicious concept,” Cameron says. “I set myself a goal of having the audience cry for a machine that had beenthe ultimate killer.”

It was hard not to fall for Schwarzenegger as the emotionally clumsy cyborg who bonds with 10-year-old John Connor (Edward Furlong), the future rebel leader whose very existence the Terminatorhad tried to wipe out.

Sent back in time to protect John and his mother Sarah(Linda Hamilton), the machineutteredclassic Terminator lines, in Schwarzenegger’s thick Austrianaccent, like “Hasta la vista, baby.”

“I was searching for that signatureline, the equivalent of ‘Ill be back’ from (the first)Terminator,”says Cameron. “I waswatching MTV and the Tone Loc Wild Thing video came on. He sings, ‘Hasta la Vista, baby.’ I thought, ‘That works.’ ”

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Audiences were captivated by the movie’s cutting-edge special effects, andtouched by theemotion and pathos. (Spoiler alert, 26 years after the fact: The Terminator is lowered into molten steel to destroy his lethal technology.) The cyborgnever sheds a tear, but he could have.

“In the first movie, we showed that the Terminatorcan sweat and hadbad breath,hes indistinguishable from living beings. Theoretically, he could’ve cried,” Cameron says. “But I felt it was a step too far in his humanization. Itwas more poignant asthatline he couldnt cross.”

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The success of Terminator 2kicked the franchise fully into gear, with three additional films and a TV series. Schwarzenegger returned fora fifth film installment, 2015’s Terminator Genisys,to again protect Sarah Connor (now played by Emilia Clarke).

Thoughthe Genisys reboot flopped critically and at the box office, the director, who hasn’t been involved since T2,isin talks to “reinvent a franchise thats sort of run its course.”

Schwarzenegger would likely figure intoany sequels, Cameronsays. But the actor, now 70,would pass the torch to new Terminators.

Director James Cameron (right) looks on as John Connor (Edward Furlong, left) says “Hasta la vista” to the Terminator (Arnold Schwarzenegger) in ‘Terminator 2: Judgment Day.'(Photo: Lightstorm Entertainment)

“We have to create something new and fresh that stands on its own,” Cameron says. “I would like to think that Arnold would be a part of it. But I think it would a mistake to make him as central as he has been.”

The director has long forgivenSchwarzenegger’sinitial doubts.

“He’s a smart man. We live in a Hollywood world withmany unpredictable variables and an audience that’sfickle. So you try to play by a certain logical set of rules,” says Cameron. “But sometimes, you just have to throw that logic out.”

Edward Furlong and Arnold Schwarzenegger make their escape in ‘Terminator 2: Judgment Day.'(Photo: Distrib Films/Studio Canal)

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‘Terminator 2’: Arnold Schwarzenegger’s surprisingly nice cyborg is back onscreen in 3-D – USA TODAY

Unblocked: Cris ‘Cyborg’ Justino Basking In Glow Of UFC Gold … – FloCombat

Photo: Gary A. Vasquez-USA TODAY Sports

Unblocked: Cris ‘Cyborg’ Justino Basking In Glow Of UFC Gold

Cris “Cyborg” Justino reached the pinnacle of any MMA career onJuly 29 at UFC 214, when she finally became a UFC world champion by finishing Tonya Evinger to claim the promotion’s featherweight belt.

The triumph was also a statement for the many critics Justino amassed over the years — two of whomwere inside the cage when she received the belt last month: UFC PresidentDana White and commentatorJoe Rogan.

While White has publicly talked about Justino’s alleged doping in the past and criticized her for business decisions,Rogan received heat when he joked about Cyborg having testicles on his podcast. Ironically, the first of the two put the belt around Justino at UFC 214, and the latter interviewed the Brazilian after she was declared the winner.

“At that moment, I really thought about talking [about the controversy],” Justino said. “But this was my moment, and I think [Rogan] interviewing me there and Dana White putting the belt around my waist was already an answer. He didn’t have to say anything else. I think they reflected and didn’t need to spoil the moment that was so special to me. It was a normal [post-fight] interview and I don’t say that we’ll be friends, but he’ll do his job and I’ll do mine.”

Cyborg’s relationship with White hasn’t been the best for some time. But while White even said in the past that he blocked Justino on his social media accounts so he wouldn’t have to deal with the fighter, it seems that the two are slowly making peace.

“He already unblocked me, yes,” Justino laughed. “I think a lot has happened between Dana and me. He even admitted that he made a mistake with Cris Cyborg. Only the person who says he or she has made a mistake can open the door for improvement. I think it touched me and that’s fine. Let’s work together and we’ll both be happy.”

Having won her third fight in the UFC, again by way of technical knockout, Justino has plenty of reasons to be happy. But despite her impressive streak and the dominance that has fans wondering who might be able to stop her, Justino still thinks she hasmore to show inside the cage.

“I showed my work a little more to my fans,” Justino said of her third-round finish of Evinger, the first time since 2013 that she needed more than two rounds to end a fight. “Of course, I wanted to finish her as soon as possible, but she was a tough athlete []. Everybody thinks I have no ground game, but I’m a brown belt [in Brazilian jiu-jitsu]. Who knows, next time, [maybe] I can show my skills on the floor and my complete game.”

So, where does Cyborg go from here, atop a new division that has only featured a small handful of fighters, most of whom usually compete one weight class below at bantamweight?

That’s a question Justino herself can’t answer definitively right now.

“We have not talked about [renewing the contract] yet,” she said. “I believe that after my next fight, we’ll sit down and talk.”

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Unblocked: Cris ‘Cyborg’ Justino Basking In Glow Of UFC Gold … – FloCombat

Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Best Cyborg Performance Wasn’t In The Terminator – The New Yorker

This month, Richard Brody reviews classic action movies from the nineteen-eighties that hes never seen before.

Another slight cheat: I had seen The Terminator, from 1984, but I hadnt really watched it. My recent viewingwith undivided attention, in a single sittingproved revelatory, if in a sidelong way. The experience of watching a movie is a total experience that includes everything that the movie brings to mind, and The Terminator showed me why I havent, in the intervening years, rushed to fill in the blanks on the eighties action films that I missed the first time around: theres something accursed in the action-film genre itself. Unlike other genres, its determined not by its subject matter, not by its setting or historical period, nor by its mode of emotional expressionits determined by a certain kind of scene.

The Terminator is a science-fiction film, and Die Hard is a police movie, but both are known as action films because the filmmakers take a particular approach to their disparate subjects and film their subjects in a particular waywith many large-scale, fast-moving, camera-jarring, quick-cutting, gun-firing, stunt-centered scenes of violence. That kind of scene isnt intrinsically any worse than any other kind (though I think that scenes of gun violence have a special trouble of built-in incoherence that takes an especially imaginative and daring director to overcome), but, in action movies, such scenes are compulsory routines and the entire film must be retrofitted to make room for them. Action scenes, in action films, are the tails that wag the cinematic dogand watching The Terminator made clear the kind of synthetic beast that this obligatory approach brings to the screen.

But, first, a public-service announcement regarding one of the cinematic events of the year: David Lynchs Twin Peaks: The Return. The show is a mixed bag of only intermittent sublimity, but one of its most sublime inventions is the character and attributes of the reprocessed, hermetic, mimetic, and grace-spangled insurance executive Dougie Jones (played by Kyle MacLachlan)and I think that the seedling of Dougies mannerisms is found in Arnold Schwarzeneggers first dramatic scene in The Terminator. A garbage-truck driver is surprised by streaks of blue lightning; from a quick explosion, the Michelangelo-esque nude from the future turns up on the tarmac, unfolding the unnatural perfection of his form. Moments later, the Terminator, still birthday-naked, strides toward a trio of teen punks who mock himNice night for a walk, eh? The Terminator responds robotically: Nice night for a walk. They mock him again: Wash day tomorrow, nothing clean, right? He answers, without inflection, Nothing clean right. That affectless repetition of the last words in a long sentencethats what Dougie does, too. Lynch has taken this tiny nugget of behavioral peculiarity and turned it into a cosmic visiona vision that is embodied as fully in MacLachlans performance as in the majestically laconic manner with which Lynch films MacLachlan, and the series over all (or at least whats best in it).

Some of the most striking elements of The Terminator are purely dramaticnot least, the gradual or even retentive way that the basic elements of the story are dosed out, thanks to the script, written by the films producer, Gale Anne Hurd, and James Cameron, the director. It takes a half hour to find out whos planning to kill whomthat Kyle Reese (Michael Biehn), the smaller and less buff naked visitor from the future, has arrived not to kill Sarah J. Connor (Linda Hamilton) but to save her. It takes even longer to find out that he has also arrived to impregnate her. Also, the Terminators mechanical powers arent revealed for half an hourhis data vision, the computer screen in his mind that registers and analyzes information from his camera-eyes, isnt seen until the story arcs are already well established.

Its unfortunate, because theres nothing of any greater interest to watch in all of The Terminator than the inner life of a cyborgand theres nothing more engaging to think about in the whole film than the consciousness of a human from the future who goes back to a past that he knows he has to inflect in several very specific ways. As science fiction with a time-travel and alternate-worlds premise, The Terminator is the start of something interesting that it never engages or developsand thats because the movie is conceived and realized not as a science-fiction film but as an action film. The Terminator blows itself up to distorted proportions, leaving its basic, central, crucial, and finest inspirations far behind.

Cameron and Hurd inscribe political frenzies of the time into the plot, which involves the aftermath, in the year 2029, of nuclear war. That war was caused not by human intention or even human error but by the government computers that have been deployed to insure national defense. In 1983, a year before the movie was filmed, President Ronald Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative, soon derided as Star Wars, involving a vast and computer-centralized network of weaponry, some placed in outer space, that would defend against missile attacks. The Terminator, with its story of a resistance movement, led by members of the U.S. armed forces, against a postwar computer-run regime, is a post-Vietnam movie that pits the valorand, most importantly, the judgmentof American military personnel against the machinery that they increasingly were seen to serve and the officials who valued that machinery above their manpower.

That sort of manpower (and, in later iterations of the genre, womanpower as well) is the heart of action films such as The Terminator. The genre, rooted in its bombastic and numbing set pieces of grand-scale violence, is a sort of Stakhanovite cinema of conspicuous exertion in which any conventions of socialist realism are voided in favor of capitalist unrealisman element of fantasy that frames the superheroic efforts and triumphs of Homo americanus as both supercolossal and unexceptional. The brilliance of The Terminator is to make the monster alluring, fascinating, piquantby contrast with Kyle, a regular guy with good training and, above all, good principles, but no charisma. The murderous cyborg with the weird accent is funnier than Kyle, but Kyle has a sense of purpose, and that sense is doubled by Sarah, whose sense of self-preservation and patriotic intention is amplified decisively by love.

For all its earnestly determined virtue, the charm of The Terminator is the charm of Schwarzenegger, whose aura as the taciturn cyborg flowers altogether more volubly and spontaneously in George Butler and Robert Fiores 1977 documentary Pumping Iron, which screens tonight at Film Society of Lincoln Center. (Butler will be on hand to introduce the film.) Its about bodybuilders who are training for a pair of competitions, Mr. Universe (for amateurs) and Mr. Olympia (for professionals), held on successive days in 1975 in Pretoria, South Africa. Schwarzenegger, who was twenty-eight at the time, had won the five Mr. Olympia contests from 1970 through 1974, and the movie shows him preparing to compete for his sixth victory (following which, he retires, on-camera, from the sport).

Pumping Iron is, of course, a documentary, but Schwarzenegger isnt merely its subjecthes its star, and his beaming, witty, charismatic presence in the film is among the most ingratiating performances of the time, one thats resoundingly predictive of the acting career that he had long aspired to and that he would, of course, soon achieve. (His first big role was in Bob Rafelsons Stay Hungry, from 1976, alongside Jeff Bridges and Sally Field.) Hes a figure of paradox; he clearly delights in his sport, his training, and his very life. He breezes through the gym with a regal good humor. He talks about the thrill of his muscle-pumping as orgasmic , saying, Its as satisfying to me as coming is, you know? As having sex with a woman and coming. . . . So Im coming day and night; its terrific, right? So, you know, Im in heaven. He delights in the eye of the camera upon him, and that delight is mutual: he beams at it as it radiates his energy.

The movie focusses on other contestants as well, including his closest competitors, Lou Ferrigno and Franco Columbu, and shows Schwarzenegger bad-mouthing both of them, explaining the methods by which he psychs them out prior to competitions. (With Ferrigno, Schwarzenegger says that he will talk him into losing. He calls Columbu a child and explains that Columbu comes to him for advices and that he gives Columbu wrong advices.) Schwarzenegger speaks plainly of the pain period of workouts, explaining that the difference between himself and lesser bodybuilders is his guts, his willingness to endure the pain that bodybuilding requires. Yet, when he talks about his training, he has the self-awareness of an artist, and discusses the sense of proportion and balance with which he builds his musclesa process that he likens to the creation of a sculpture. He says, I trained myself to be cold, and explains that he admits of no distractions, lets no emotional life interfere with his trainingand that, after his father died, he didnt attend the funeral because the timing was bad with respect to his training. Schwarzenegger also talks freely of his lifelong ambitions to move to the United States, to be the greatest, and being different from everybody else. He says, I was always dreaming about very powerful peopledictators and things like that. I was just always impressed by people who could be remembered for hundreds of years, or even, like Jesus, for thousands of years being remembered.

Pumping Iron presents a fascinating, complex, willful, wild, strange person who was turning himself into exactly that sort of a character, a public figure. Its exactly that element of subjectivity, of inner strangeness, that Camerons creations in The Terminator, human and synthetic alike, filter out. Cameron is into the exertion; hes into the single-mindedness of purpose; hes into the breezy charisma. What hes not into is complexity, paradox, unresolved inner differences. This sense of pure and focussed exertion, magnified to a marmoreal simplicity, may be the exemplary trait of Camerons entire career, the secret to his success, and the catnip of the genre that he helped to found and that has come to dominate the industry, even the market, but hardly the art of movies.

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Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Best Cyborg Performance Wasn’t In The Terminator – The New Yorker

AI Killer robot fears – ISIS could use cyborg terrorists, campaigners … – Express.co.uk

The Campaign to Stop Killer Robots officially demanded the international organisation create a ban on the production ofweaponisableartificial intelligence tech.

The group brings together 116 enterprise leaders headed by business magnate Elon Musk.

Mary Wareham, the founder of the campaign, discussed the reasons for the move withChannel 4 NewsKrishnan Guru-Murthy.

She said: “The letter issued by the companies’ directors has highlighted that they worry not only about responsible countries who might use these things responsibly.

CHANNEL 4/ GETTY

“What about despots and dictators? What about non-state armed groups such as the IslamicState?”

Ms Wareham explained the group recognised the benefits of artificial technology development but worried about the long-term implications for active combat.

She said: “Over the short term these weapons systems could be more useful and faster and more powerful than human soldiers.

“We need to look at the long term concerns and the protection of civilians.”

In the letter sent to the UN, the group stated that robots represent a dangerous development for the weapon industry.

The companies’ directors write: “Lethal autonomous weapons threaten to become the thirdrevolution in warfare.

“Once developed, they will permit armed conflict to be foughtata scale greater than ever, and at timescales faster than humans can comprehend.

“We do not have long to act. Once this Pandoras box is opened, it will be hard to close.”

See the article here:

AI Killer robot fears – ISIS could use cyborg terrorists, campaigners … – Express.co.uk

A Master in Three Fights: Analyzing the progression of Cris Cyborg … – Bloody Elbow

Cris Cyborgs development as a fighter can be difficult to appreciate. The UFC featherweight champion has been so dominant that every conceivable challenger seems hopelessly outmatched. To the point where the discussion becomes less about her individual displays of skill, and more about the ease and ferocity with which she dispatches opponents.

This is a shame, because the narrative behind her in-cage development is, in stark contrast, one of subtlety. With an overwhelming gap in talent separating her from her contemporaries, it would be easy for Justino to coast, but there is no complacency in her game. With each fight, she shows the gradual growth of a veteran craftswoman. It can be difficult to track this progression on a fight to fight basis, but becomes much more apparent when considering what her identity was, as a technician, during various stages of her career. As such, here are three pivotal bouts, representing the Cyborg who broke onto the scene, the champion who established her dominance, and the more refined force weve come to know today.

The fight that introduced Cyborg to the mainstream showcased three of her most recognizable traits: aggression, brutality, and overwhelming physicality.

Storming forward, she was intent on imposing offense above all else. Trading jabs, she flurried on a defensive Carano; as the American covered up, Cyborg clinched, and immediately attempted an ill-fated lateral drop. Carano, close to attaining mount, found herself threatened with a heel hook, from which Justino was able to secure a ride. Constant strikes followed as Carano returned to her feet, only to be met with another ferocious flurry of hooks. Another attempted throw found Cyborg on bottom, but this time, she was mounted.

One of the key differences in approach between a then-inexperienced Justino and her modern day counterpart was a sense of recklessness. This recklessness was highly exploitable and while this fight is often remembered as a blowout it serves as a great example of the weaknesses previously present in her style.

Carano returned to her feet soon after and, for a fleeting moment, she found respite from the continuous onslaught of offense. Justino seemed somewhat discouraged. This did not last long.

Frantically pushing forward, Cyborg struck, and struck, and struck. Her inexperience was obvious, but her aggression was magnetic. At range, Carano was met with hooks and low kicks. If she stopped circling or found herself pinned to the fence, she was handily controlled and thrown to the ground from the clinch. She wilted. Quickly.

With a minute left, Cyborg muscled her to the mat and after giving up on an Americana stood over Carano, landing vicious power punches with her foes head pinned against the fence. Carano covered up and, a split second before the bell sounded, Cristiane Justino was the inaugural Strikeforce Womens Featherweight champion.

Cyborgs clinch game has always been devastating, but it was in this fight a rematch of their 2010 bout that ended in a third-round TKO for the Brazilian that she established it as arguably her strongest skill set.

In stark contrast to the Carano fight, Coenen was the one to initiate the in-fight early, attacking with slashing elbows. The Dutch native, a ground specialist, was quickly taken down from the clinch. But, these takedowns were unlike the domineering ones executed by the former Strikeforce featherweight champion four years earlier. Rather than overwhelm, Cyborg was content to displace; the throw came as much from manipulation of balance as from physical strength. On the outside, Coenen never really had trouble landing strikes, but ate sharp return fire much of it in the form of counters and exchanges never favored her.

There has been (and continues to be) a narrative of trade-off regarding Cyborg. The sustainability of her explosive offense is often questioned, and the path of attrition is often prescribed as the most viable (or only) route to victory for her opponents. Survive long enough, and fatigue is inevitable. This bout serves as, to date, her longest, but it is far from providing proof of any presumed stamina issues.

Methodical scrambles littered the first three rounds. Coenens repeated clinches resulted only in high-amplitude throws from the Brazilian, easy control from top position, posturing power strikes, and disengagement when the submission specialist came close to anything even resembling a submission attempt.

Coenen was surviving and, on some level, she may have even felt as if things were going according to plan. Cyborg was being forced to work. Each throw, each scramble, each battle for posture was another presumed mark against the Brazilians gas tank. But in the beginning of the third round, any illusion of success was shattered.

Another clinch, another easy takedown. Coenen reached for a leg and Justino swiftly stood, backing off. As referee John McCarthy called for Coenen to stand, the narrative was inverted. Visibly winded, she struggled to stay on her feet as Cyborg walked her down. A knee to the body, and she was flung to the mat like a sandbag. Cyborg didnt even take top position. Again, she stood. Again, her foe struggled to stand.

It was almost as if she had a point to prove. Sustained top position is a more energy-efficient alternative to the takedown, strike in transition, stand, repeat formula of fighters such as Cain Velasquez. Certainly, it seemed an odd choice for a fighter who could easily maintain control or just as easily never hit the mat and instead leverage a substantial ranged striking advantage. Far from taxing, it seemed like easy work for the woman who would come to be regarded as arguably the greatest woman ever to step into a cage.

Process was interwoven with bursts of ferocity; flurries came, but they were timed more deliberately than those of the woman who bludgeoned Gina Carano years prior.

Cyborg managed to catch a front kick in the fourth round, and an overhand right seemed to stop Coenen in her tracks, before another landed solidly to the temple, leaving her off balanced and stumbling to the floor. Side control, knee on belly, mount, and the Dutchwoman had neither the energy nor the technique to defend herself for much longer.

Punches rained down with the same power and precision as they had almost 20 minutes prior. And the woman whose fights seemed to produce more questions than answers closed out her featherweight championship bout with the sense that there was nothing left to ask.

In 19 minutes and 10 seconds, she never once seemed threatened. She barely even seemed human.

A fighters identity as a technician tends to spend a lot of time in flux during their formative years. Her most recent bout over twelve years into her professional career saw Cyborg at her most realized.

The activity of her footwork was unmistakable. The minute adjustments with which she maneuvered around a circling Evinger in the early goings were a far cry from what had been relatively stationary performances against both Carano and Coenen. Cris Cyborg, in her current iteration, dominates angles with a control that, though subtle, bears a ferocity befitting the raw talent who broke onto the scene eight years ago.

As she retreated out of range of a low kick and evaded a left hook, the fighter who absorbed several head strikes from Marloes Coenen seemed a distant memory.

Evinger, a career opportunist, managed to lock her hands around her larger opponents hips in the first round, briefly bringing her to the mat on two occasions. But, Justino effortlessly returned to her feet, and offered Evinger an authoritative knee to the gut for her troubles.

While defensive adjustments are more subtle, the differences in Cyborgs present-day offense are obvious. The fighter who was more talent than skill is long since gone, but so too is the fighter who alternated between the two in bursts. As she walked Evinger down throwing punches, kicks, and knees to the body at a hellacious clip the synergy between physicality and technique was remarkable. Never before had technical proficiency served as such a fluid avatar for her violence. And as the divide between mastery and savagery crumbled, both properties were highlighted to the fullest.

When Evinger worked behind a jab, Cyborg countered with precise overhand strikes. When her arms came down to dig for underhooks in the clinch, Cyborg disengaged, and kicked high. Jabs were slipped with Cyborgs tightest head movement to date, and Evingers commitment of her weight was punished with kicks to the lead leg.

Towards the end of the second round, Cyborg keyed in on the fact that Evinger was leaning out far too wide in response to her lead power punches. Throwing an overhand right, she baited the reaction and started following up with round kicks, which crossed through the path of Evingers head.

The third round saw more low kicks both inside and outside and some hand-fighting, before an overhand right sailed towards Evingers chin. She did not dip her head, and visibly wobbled as the blow crashed into the side of her skull. In the very next moment, she chose to slip her head, but she again chose wrong and was met with a glancing high kick. Another overhand right dropped her, but grit brought her back to her feet.

Closing the distance between them with a superman punch, Cyborg dug for an underhook, controlled the head with her free hand, and teed off with knees as Evinger was left defenseless. With those final blows the fight was mercifully halted in the third round.

Cris Cyborg was playing the game at far too high of a level for the less polished woman to keep up. Far higher of a level than was even necessary. And in a world where none seem prepared for even the Justino of old, it stands to wonder exactly how large the gulf between the Brazilian master and her contemporaries has become.

Read more here:

A Master in Three Fights: Analyzing the progression of Cris Cyborg … – Bloody Elbow

Top 25 finishes in Invicta FC history (Nos. 20-16): A Cris Cyborg destruction – MMAjunkie.com

More than five years have passed since Invicta FC hosted its first event. During that time, the all-female organization has gone through a number of different incarnations.

Despite having roster members consistently plucked up by the UFC, Invicta FC frequently hosts solid fight cards to help further the growth of womens MMA. The fighters do their part by delivering inside the cage, and with the 25th event in company history set to go down later this month, Invicta FC has decided to highlight its young history.

Invicta FC 25 takes place Aug. 31 at Tachi Palace Hotel & Casino in Lemoore, Calif. Ahead of the event, Invicta FCs social media team is rolling out a countdown of the 25 best finishes in its history.

Check out the first portion of the list here, and the second installment below counting down No. 20 to No. 16.

* * * *

Womens MMA pioneer Roxanna Modafferi punched her ticket to Season 26 of The Ultimate Fighter reality series and a chance at the inaugural UFC womens flyweight title when she put away Sarah DAlelio with a third-round TKO at Invicta FC 23.

Katja Kankaanpaa won the vacant Invicta FC strawweight title when she rallied from a huge deficit on the scorecards to submit Stephanie Eggink with a fifth-round rear-naked choke for a stunning come-from-behind win at Invicta FC 8.

After losing a unanimous decision to Shayna Baszler at a regional event in 2010, former UFC title challenger Alexis Davis got revenge in the rematch when she choked Baszler out cold with a rear-naked choke at Invicta FC 4.

Mexican standout Irene Aldana began her run toward a bantamweight title shot when she made quick work of The Ultimate Fighter 18 cast member Peggy Morgan courtesy of a first-round rear-naked choke.

Cris Cyborgs dominant 5-0 run through the Invicta FC organization included a lot of dominant performances. Her 45-second destruction of Faith Van Duin at Invicta FC 13 was the quickest of all. In trademark fashion, the Brazilian charged her foe and ended the fight with strikes for a TKO.

Check out the Blue Corner on Wednesday for the next installment of Invicta FCs top 25 finishes countdown.

And for more on the Invicta FC schedule, check out the MMA Rumors section of the site.

The Blue Corner is MMAjunkies official blog and is edited by Mike Bohn.

Originally posted here:

Top 25 finishes in Invicta FC history (Nos. 20-16): A Cris Cyborg destruction – MMAjunkie.com

Cyborg – Wikipedia

A cyborg (short for “cybernetic organism”) is a being with both organic and biomechatronic body parts. The term was coined in 1960 by Manfred Clynes and Nathan S. Kline.[1]

The term cyborg is not the same thing as bionic, biorobot or android; it applies to an organism that has restored function or enhanced abilities due to the integration of some artificial component or technology that relies on some sort of feedback.[2] While cyborgs are commonly thought of as mammals, including humans, they might also conceivably be any kind of organism.

D. S. Halacy’s Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman in 1965 featured an introduction which spoke of a “new frontier” that was “not merely space, but more profoundly the relationship between ‘inner space’ to ‘outer space’ a bridge…between mind and matter.”[3]

In popular culture, some cyborgs may be represented as visibly mechanical (e.g., Cyborg from DC Comics, the Cybermen in the Doctor Who franchise or The Borg from Star Trek or Darth Vader from Star Wars) or as almost indistinguishable from humans (e.g., the “Human” Cylons from the re-imagining of Battlestar Galactica, etc.). Cyborgs in fiction often play up a human contempt for over-dependence on technology, particularly when used for war, and when used in ways that seem to threaten free will.[citation needed] Cyborgs are also often portrayed with physical or mental abilities far exceeding a human counterpart (military forms may have inbuilt weapons, among other things).[citation needed]

According to some definitions of the term, the physical attachments humanity has with even the most basic technologies have already made them cyborgs.[4] In a typical example, a human with an artificial cardiac pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator would be considered a cyborg, since these devices measure voltage potentials in the body, perform signal processing, and can deliver electrical stimuli, using this synthetic feedback mechanism to keep that person alive. Implants, especially cochlear implants, that combine mechanical modification with any kind of feedback response are also cyborg enhancements. Some theorists[who?] cite such modifications as contact lenses, hearing aids, or intraocular lenses as examples of fitting humans with technology to enhance their biological capabilities. As cyborgs currently are on the rise some theorists argue there is a need to develop new definitions of aging and for instance a bio-techno-social definition of aging has been suggested.[5]

The term is also used to address human-technology mixtures in the abstract. This includes not only commonly used pieces of technology such as phones, computers, the Internet, etc. but also artifacts that may not popularly be considered technology; for example, pen and paper, and speech and language. When augmented with these technologies and connected in communication with people in other times and places, a person becomes capable of much more than they were before. An example is a computer, which gains power by using Internet protocols to connect with other computers. Another example, which is becoming more and more relevant is a bot-assisted human or human-assisted-bot, used to target social media with likes and shares.[6] Cybernetic technologies include highways, pipes, electrical wiring, buildings, electrical plants, libraries, and other infrastructure that we hardly notice, but which are critical parts of the cybernetics that we work within.

Bruce Sterling in his universe of Shaper/Mechanist suggested an idea of alternative cyborg called Lobster, which is made not by using internal implants, but by using an external shell (e.g. a Powered Exoskeleton).[7] Unlike human cyborgs that appear human externally while being synthetic internally (e.g. the Bishop type in the Alien franchise), Lobster looks inhuman externally but contains a human internally (e.g. Elysium, RoboCop). The computer game Deus Ex: Invisible War prominently featured cyborgs called Omar, where “Omar” is a Russian translation of the word “Lobster” (since the Omar are of Russian origin in the game).

The concept of a man-machine mixture was widespread in science fiction before World War II. As early as 1843, Edgar Allan Poe described a man with extensive prostheses in the short story “The Man That Was Used Up”. In 1911, Jean de la Hire introduced the Nyctalope, a science fiction hero who was perhaps the first literary cyborg, in Le Mystre des XV (later translated as The Nyctalope on Mars).[8][9][10]Edmond Hamilton presented space explorers with a mixture of organic and machine parts in his novel The Comet Doom in 1928. He later featured the talking, living brain of an old scientist, Simon Wright, floating around in a transparent case, in all the adventures of his famous hero, Captain Future. He uses the term explicitly in the 1962 short story, “After a Judgment Day,” to describe the “mechanical analogs” called “Charlies,” explaining that “[c]yborgs, they had been called from the first one in the 1960s…cybernetic organisms.” In the short story “No Woman Born” in 1944, C. L. Moore wrote of Deirdre, a dancer, whose body was burned completely and whose brain was placed in a faceless but beautiful and supple mechanical body.

The term was coined by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in 1960 to refer to their conception of an enhanced human being who could survive in extraterrestrial environments:

Their concept was the outcome of thinking about the need for an intimate relationship between human and machine as the new frontier of space exploration was beginning to open up. A designer of physiological instrumentation and electronic data-processing systems, Clynes was the chief research scientist in the Dynamic Simulation Laboratory at Rockland State Hospital in New York.

The term first appears in print five months earlier when The New York Times reported on the Psychophysiological Aspects of Space Flight Symposium where Clynes and Kline first presented their paper.

A book titled Cyborg: Digital Destiny and Human Possibility in the Age of the Wearable Computer was published by Doubleday in 2001.[13] Some of the ideas in the book were incorporated into the 35mm motion picture film Cyberman.

Cyborgs tissues structured with carbon nanotubes and plant or fungal cells have been used in artificial tissue engineering to produce new materials for mechanical and electrical uses. The work was presented by Di Giacomo and Maresca at MRS 2013 Spring conference on Apr, 3rd, talk number SS4.04.[14] The cyborg obtained is inexpensive, light and has unique mechanical properties. It can also be shaped in desired forms. Cells combined with MWCNTs co-precipitated as a specific aggregate of cells and nanotubes that formed a viscous material. Likewise, dried cells still acted as a stable matrix for the MWCNT network. When observed by optical microscopy the material resembled an artificial “tissue” composed of highly packed cells. The effect of cell drying is manifested by their “ghost cell” appearance. A rather specific physical interaction between MWCNTs and cells was observed by electron microscopy suggesting that the cell wall (the most outer part of fungal and plant cells) may play a major active role in establishing a CNTs network and its stabilization. This novel material can be used in a wide range of electronic applications from heating to sensing and has the potential to open important new avenues to be exploited in electromagnetic shielding for radio frequency electronics and aerospace technology. In particular using Candida albicans cells cyborg tissue materials with temperature sensing properties have been reported.[15]

In current prosthetic applications, the C-Leg system developed by Otto Bock HealthCare is used to replace a human leg that has been amputated because of injury or illness. The use of sensors in the artificial C-Leg aids in walking significantly by attempting to replicate the user’s natural gait, as it would be prior to amputation.[17] Prostheses like the C-Leg and the more advanced iLimb are considered by some to be the first real steps towards the next generation of real-world cyborg applications.[citation needed] Additionally cochlear implants and magnetic implants which provide people with a sense that they would not otherwise have had can additionally be thought of as creating cyborgs.[citation needed]

In vision science, direct brain implants have been used to treat non-congenital (acquired) blindness. One of the first scientists to come up with a working brain interface to restore sight was private researcher William Dobelle. Dobelle’s first prototype was implanted into “Jerry”, a man blinded in adulthood, in 1978. A single-array BCI containing 68 electrodes was implanted onto Jerry’s visual cortex and succeeded in producing phosphenes, the sensation of seeing light. The system included cameras mounted on glasses to send signals to the implant. Initially, the implant allowed Jerry to see shades of grey in a limited field of vision at a low frame-rate. This also required him to be hooked up to a two-ton mainframe, but shrinking electronics and faster computers made his artificial eye more portable and now enable him to perform simple tasks unassisted.[18]

In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician, created the world’s first human cyborg from Johnny Ray, a Vietnam veteran who suffered a stroke. Ray’s body, as doctors called it, was “locked in”. Ray wanted his old life back so he agreed to Kennedy’s experiment. Kennedy embedded an implant he designed (and named “neurotrophic electrode”) near the part of Ray’s brain so that Ray would be able to have some movement back in his body. The surgery went successfully, but in 2002, Johnny Ray died.[19]

In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle’s second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. The second generation device used a more sophisticated implant enabling better mapping of phosphenes into coherent vision. Phosphenes are spread out across the visual field in what researchers call the starry-night effect. Immediately after his implant, Naumann was able to use his imperfectly restored vision to drive slowly around the parking area of the research institute.[20]

In contrast to replacement technologies, in 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the internet to investigate enhancement possibilities. With this in place Warwick successfully carried out a series of experiments including extending his nervous system over the internet to control a robotic hand, also receiving feedback from the fingertips in order to control the hand’s grip. This was a form of extended sensory input. Subsequently, he investigated ultrasonic input in order to remotely detect the distance to objects. Finally, with electrodes also implanted into his wife’s nervous system, they conducted the first direct electronic communication experiment between the nervous systems of two humans.[21][22]

Since 2004, British artist Neil Harbisson, has had a cyborg antenna implanted in his head that allows him to extend his perception of colors beyond the human visual spectrum through vibrations in his skull.[23] His antenna was included within his 2004 passport photograph which has been claimed to confirm his cyborg status.[24] In 2012 at TEDGlobal,[25] Harbisson explained that he started to feel cyborg when he noticed that the software and his brain had united and given him an extra sense.[25]

Furthermore many cyborgs with multifunctional microchips injected into their hand are known to exist. With the chips they are able swipe cards, open or unlock doors, operate devices such as printers or, with some using a cryptocurrency, buy products, such as drinks, with a wave of the hand.[26][27][28][29][30]

The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as “The world’s first commercially available cyborg” called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010[31] and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011.[32] The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference,[33] and via the crowdsourcing website Kickstarter in 2013,[34] the kit allows students to use microstimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a bluetooth-enabled smartphone as the controller. Other groups have developed cyborg insects, including researchers at North Carolina State University[35] and UC Berkeley,[36] but the RoboRoach was the first kit available to the general public and was funded by the National Institute of Mental Health as a device to serve as a teaching aid to promote an interest in neuroscience.[33] Several animal welfare organizations including the RSPCA [37] and PETA [38] have expressed concerns about the ethics and welfare of animals in this project.

In medicine, there are two important and different types of cyborgs: the restorative and the enhanced. Restorative technologies “restore lost function, organs, and limbs”.[39] The key aspect of restorative cyborgization is the repair of broken or missing processes to revert to a healthy or average level of function. There is no enhancement to the original faculties and processes that were lost.

On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg “follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximising output (the information or modifications obtained) and minimising input (the energy expended in the process)”.[40] Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present.

Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely. Michael Chorost wrote a memoir of his experience with cochlear implants, or bionic ear, titled “Rebuilt: How Becoming Part Computer Made Me More Human.”[41]Jesse Sullivan became one of the first people to operate a fully robotic limb through a nerve-muscle graft, enabling him a complex range of motions beyond that of previous prosthetics.[42] By 2004, a fully functioning artificial heart was developed.[43] The continued technological development of bionic and nanotechnologies begins to raise the question of enhancement, and of the future possibilities for cyborgs which surpass the original functionality of the biological model. The ethics and desirability of “enhancement prosthetics” have been debated; their proponents include the transhumanist movement, with its belief that new technologies can assist the human race in developing beyond its present, normative limitations such as aging and disease, as well as other, more general incapacities, such as limitations on speed, strength, endurance, and intelligence. Opponents of the concept describe what they believe to be biases which propel the development and acceptance of such technologies; namely, a bias towards functionality and efficiency that may compel assent to a view of human people which de-emphasizes as defining characteristics actual manifestations of humanity and personhood, in favor of definition in terms of upgrades, versions, and utility.[44]

A brain-computer interface, or BCI, provides a direct path of communication from the brain to an external device, effectively creating a cyborg. Research of Invasive BCIs, which utilize electrodes implanted directly into the grey matter of the brain, has focused on restoring damaged eyesight in the blind and providing functionality to paralyzed people, most notably those with severe cases, such as Locked-In syndrome. This technology could enable people who are missing a limb or are in a wheelchair the power to control the devices that aide them through neural signals sent from the brain implants directly to computers or the devices. It is possible that this technology will also eventually be used with healthy people.[45]

Deep brain stimulation is a neurological surgical procedure used for therapeutic purposes. This process has aided in treating patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Tourette syndrome, epilepsy, chronic headaches, and mental disorders. After the patient is unconscious, through anesthesia, brain pacemakers or electrodes, are implanted into the region of the brain where the cause of the disease is present. The region of the brain is then stimulated by bursts of electric current to disrupt the oncoming surge of seizures. Like all invasive procedures, deep brain stimulation may put the patient at a higher risk. However, there have been more improvements in recent years with deep brain stimulation than any available drug treatment.[46]

Retinal implants are another form of cyborgization in medicine. The theory behind retinal stimulation to restore vision to people suffering from retinitis pigmentosa and vision loss due to aging (conditions in which people have an abnormally low amount of ganglion cells) is that the retinal implant and electrical stimulation would act as a substitute for the missing ganglion cells (cells which connect the eye to the brain.)

While work to perfect this technology is still being done, there have already been major advances in the use of electronic stimulation of the retina to allow the eye to sense patterns of light. A specialized camera is worn by the subject, such as on the frames of their glasses, which converts the image into a pattern of electrical stimulation. A chip located in the user’s eye would then electrically stimulate the retina with this pattern by exciting certain nerve endings which transmit the image to the optic centers of the brain and the image would then appear to the user. If technological advances proceed as planned this technology may be used by thousands of blind people and restore vision to most of them.

A similar process has been created to aide people who have lost their vocal cords. This experimental device would do away with previously used robotic sounding voice simulators. The transmission of sound would start with a surgery to redirect the nerve that controls the voice and sound production to a muscle in the neck, where a nearby sensor would be able to pick up its electrical signals. The signals would then move to a processor which would control the timing and pitch of a voice simulator. That simulator would then vibrate producing a multitonal sound which could be shaped into words by the mouth.[47]

An article published in Nature Materials in 2012 reported a research on “cyborg tissues” (engineered human tissues with embedded three-dimensional mesh of nanoscale wires), with possible medical implications.[48]

In 2014, researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Washington University in St. Louis had developed a device that could keep a heart beating endlessly. By using 3D printing and computer modeling these scientist developed an electronic membrane that could successfully replace pacemakers. The device utilizes a “spider-web like network of sensors and electrodes” to monitor and maintain a normal heart-rate with electrical stimuli. Unlike traditional pacemakers that are similar from patient to patient, the elastic heart glove is made custom by using high-resolution imaging technology. The first prototype was created to fit a rabbit’s heart, operating the organ in an oxygen and nutrient-rich solution. The stretchable material and circuits of the apparatus were first constructed by Professor John A. Rogers in which the electrodes are arranged in a s-shape design to allow them to expand and bend without breaking. Although the device is only currently used as a research tool to study changes in heart rate, in the future the membrane may serve as a safeguard from heart attacks.[49]

Military organizations’ research has recently focused on the utilization of cyborg animals for the purposes of a supposed tactical advantage. DARPA has announced its interest in developing “cyborg insects” to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect’s motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.[50] Similarly, DARPA is developing a neural implant to remotely control the movement of sharks. The shark’s unique senses would then be exploited to provide data feedback in relation to enemy ship movement or underwater explosives.[51]

In 2006, researchers at Cornell University invented[52] a new surgical procedure to implant artificial structures into insects during their metamorphic development.[53][54] The first insect cyborgs, moths with integrated electronics in their thorax, were demonstrated by the same researchers.[55][56]The initial success of the techniques has resulted in increased research and the creation of a program called Hybrid-Insect-MEMS, HI-MEMS. Its goal, according to DARPA’s Microsystems Technology Office, is to develop “tightly coupled machine-insect interfaces by placing micro-mechanical systems inside the insects during the early stages of metamorphosis”.[57]

The use of neural implants has recently been attempted, with success, on cockroaches. Surgically applied electrodes were put on the insect, which were remotely controlled by a human. The results, although sometimes different, basically showed that the cockroach could be controlled by the impulses it received through the electrodes. DARPA is now funding this research because of its obvious beneficial applications to the military and other areas[58]

In 2009 at the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Micro-electronic mechanical systems (MEMS) conference in Italy, researchers demonstrated the first “wireless” flying-beetle cyborg.[59] Engineers at the University of California at Berkeley have pioneered the design of a “remote controlled beetle”, funded by the DARPA HI-MEMS Program. Filmed evidence of this can be viewed here.[60] This was followed later that year by the demonstration of wireless control of a “lift-assisted” moth-cyborg.[61]

Eventually researchers plan to develop HI-MEMS for dragonflies, bees, rats and pigeons.[62][63] For the HI-MEMS cybernetic bug to be considered a success, it must fly 100 metres (330ft) from a starting point, guided via computer into a controlled landing within 5 metres (16ft) of a specific end point. Once landed, the cybernetic bug must remain in place.[62]

In 2016 the first cyborg Olympics were celebrated in Zurich Switzerland. Cybathlon 2016 were the first Olympics for cyborgs and the first worldwide and official celebration of cyborg sports. In this event, 16 teams of people with disabilities used technological developments to turn themselves into cyborg athletes. There were six different events and its competitors used and controlled advanced technologies such as powered prosthetic legs and arms, robotic exoskeletons, bikes and motorized wheelchairs.[64]

If on one hand this was already a remarkable improvement, as it allowed disabled people to compete and showed the several technological enhancements that are already making a difference, on the other hand it showed that there is still a long way to go. For instance, the exoskeleton race still required its participants to stand up from a chair and sit down, navigate a slalom and other simple activities such as walk over stepping stones and climb up and down stairs. Despite the simplicity of these activities, 8 of the 16 teams that participated in the event drop of before the start.[65]

Nonetheless, one of the main goals of this event and such simple activities is to show how technological enhancements and advanced prosthetic can make a difference in peoples’ lives. The next Cybathlon is expected to occur in 2020

The concept of the cyborg is often associated with science fiction. However, many artists have tried to create public awareness of cybernetic organisms; these can range from paintings to installations. Some artists who create such works are Neil Harbisson, Moon Ribas, Patricia Piccinini, Steve Mann, Orlan, H. R. Giger, Lee Bul, Wafaa Bilal, Tim Hawkinson and Stelarc.

Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body. He uses medical instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems, the Internet and biotechnology to explore alternate, intimate and involuntary interfaces with the body. He has made three films of the inside of his body and has performed with a third hand and a virtual arm. Between 19761988 he completed 25 body suspension performances with hooks into the skin. For ‘Third Ear’ he surgically constructed an extra ear within his arm that was internet enabled, making it a publicly accessible acoustical organ for people in other places.[66] He is presently performing as his avatar from his second life site.[67]

Tim Hawkinson promotes the idea that bodies and machines are coming together as one, where human features are combined with technology to create the Cyborg. Hawkinson’s piece Emoter presented how society is now dependent on technology.[68]

Wafaa Bilal is an Iraqi-American performance artist who had a small 10 megapixel digital camera surgically implanted into the back of his head, part of a project entitled 3rd I.[69] For one year, beginning 15 December 2010, an image is captured once per minute 24 hours a day and streamed live to http://www.3rdi.me and the Mathaf: Arab Museum of Modern Art. The site also displays Bilal’s location via GPS. Bilal says that the reason why he put the camera in the back of the head was to make an “allegorical statement about the things we don’t see and leave behind.”[70] As a professor at NYU, this project has raised privacy issues, and so Bilal has been asked to ensure that his camera does not take photographs in NYU buildings.[70]

Machines are becoming more ubiquitous in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Composers such as Brian Eno have developed and utilized software which can build entire musical scores from a few basic mathematical parameters.[71]

Scott Draves is a generative artist whose work is explicitly described as a “cyborg mind”. His Electric Sheep project generates abstract art by combining the work of many computers and people over the internet.[72]

Artists have explored the term cyborg from a perspective involving imagination. Some work to make an abstract idea of technological and human-bodily union apparent to reality in an art form utilizing varying mediums, from sculptures and drawings to digital renderings. Artists that seek to make cyborg-based fantasies a reality often call themselves cyborg artists, or may consider their artwork “cyborg”. How an artist or their work may be considered cyborg will vary depending upon the interpreter’s flexibility with the term. Scholars that rely upon a strict, technical description of cyborg, often going by Norbert Wiener’s cybernetic theory and Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline’s first use of the term, would likely argue that most cyborg artists do not qualify to be considered cyborgs.[73] Scholars considering a more flexible description of cyborgs may argue it incorporates more than cybernetics.[74] Others may speak of defining subcategories, or specialized cyborg types, that qualify different levels of cyborg at which technology influences an individual. This may range from technological instruments being external, temporary, and removable to being fully integrated and permanent.[75] Nonetheless, cyborg artists are artists. Being so, it can be expected for them to incorporate the cyborg idea rather than a strict, technical representation of the term,[76] seeing how their work will sometimes revolve around other purposes outside of cyborgism.[73]

As medical technology becomes more advanced, some techniques and innovations are adopted by the body modification community. While not yet cyborgs in the strict definition of Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline, technological developments like implantable silicon silk electronics,[77] augmented reality[78] and QR codes[79] are bridging the disconnect between technology and the body. Hypothetical technologies such as digital tattoo interfaces[80][81] would blend body modification aesthetics with interactivity and functionality, bringing a transhumanist way of life into present day reality.

In addition, it is quite plausible for anxiety expression to manifest. Individuals may experience pre-implantation feelings of fear and nervousness. To this end, individuals may also embody feelings of uneasiness, particularly in a socialized setting, due to their post-operative, technologically augmented bodies, and mutual unfamiliarity with the mechanical insertion. Anxieties may be linked to notions of otherness or a cyborged identity.[82]

Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as cyborgs. Well-known examples from film and television include RoboCop, The Terminator, Evangelion, United States Air Force Colonel Steve Austin in both Cyborg and, as acted out by Lee Majors, The Six Million Dollar Man, Replicants from Blade Runner, Daleks and Cybermen from Doctor Who, the Borg from Star Trek, Darth Vader and General Grievous from Star Wars, Inspector Gadget, and Cylons from the 2004 Battlestar Galactica series. From comics, manga and anime are characters such as 8 Man (the inspiration for RoboCop), Kamen Rider, Ghost in the Shell’s Motoko Kusanagi, as well as characters from western comic books like Tony Stark (after his Extremis and Bleeding Edge armor) and Victor “Cyborg” Stone. The Deus Ex videogame series deals extensively with the near-future rise of cyborgs and their corporate ownership, as does the Syndicate series. William Gibson’s Neuromancer features one of the first female cyborgs, a “Razorgirl” named Molly Millions, who has extensive cybernetic modifications and is one of the most prolific cyberpunk characters in the science fiction canon.[83]

Sending humans to space is a dangerous task in which the implementation of various cyborg technologies could be used in the future for risk mitigation.[84] Stephen Hawking, a renowned physicist, stated “Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster such as sudden global warming, nuclear war… I think the human race has no future if it doesn’t go into space.” The difficulties associated with space travel could mean it might be centuries before humans ever become a multi-planet species.[citation needed] There are many effect of spaceflight on the human body. One major issue of space exploration is the biological need for oxygen. If this necessity was taken out of the equation, space exploration would be revolutionized. A theory proposed by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline is aimed at tackling this problem. The two scientists theorized that the use of an inverse fuel cell that is “capable of reducing CO2 to its components with removal of the carbon and re-circulation of the oxygen…”[85] could make breathing unnecessary. Another prominent issue is radiation exposure. Yearly, the average human on earth is exposed to approximately 0.30 rem of radiation, while an astronaut aboard the International Space Station for 90 days is exposed to 9 rem.[86] To tackle the issue, Clynes and Kline theorized a cyborg containing a sensor that would detect radiation levels and a Rose osmotic pump “which would automatically inject protective pharmaceuticals in appropriate doses.” Experiments injecting these protective pharmaceuticals into monkeys have shown positive results in increasing radiation resistance.[85]

Although the effects of spaceflight on our body is an important issue, the advancement of propulsion technology is just as important. With our current technology, it would take us about 260 days to get to Mars.[87] A study backed by NASA proposes an interesting way to tackle this issue through deep sleep, or torpor. With this technique, it would “reduce astronauts’ metabolic functions with existing medical procedures”.[88] So far experiments have only resulted in patients being in torpor state for one week. Advancements to allow for longer states of deep sleep would lower the cost of the trip to mars as a result of reduced astronaut resource consumption.

Theorists such as Andy Clark suggest that interactions between humans and technology result in the creation of a cyborg system. In this model “cyborg” is defined as a part biological, part mechanical system which results in the augmentation of the biological component and the creation of a more complex whole. Clark argues that this broadened definition is necessary to an understanding of human cognition. He suggests that any tool which is used to offload part of a cognitive process may be considered the mechanical component of a cyborg system. Examples of this human and technology cyborg system can be very low tech and simplistic, such as using a calculator to perform basic mathematical operations or pen and paper to make notes, or as high tech as using a personal computer or phone. According to Clark, these interactions between a person and a form of technology integrate that technology into the cognitive process in a way which is analogous to the way that a technology which would fit the traditional concept a cyborg augmentation becomes integrated with its biological host. Because all humans in some way use technology to augment their cognitive processes, Clark comes to the conclusion that we are “natural-born cyborgs”.[89]

Joseph Michael Valente, describes “cyborgization” as an attempt to codify “normalization” through cochlear implantation in young deaf children. Drawing from Paddy Ladd’s work on Deaf epistemology and Donna Haraway’s Cyborg ontology, Valente “use[s] the concept of the cyborg as a way of agitating constructions of cyborg perfection (for the deaf child that would be to become fully hearing)”. He claims that cochlear implant manufacturers advertise and sell cochlear implants as a mechanical device as well as an uncomplicated medical “miracle cure”. Valente criticizes cochlear implant researchers whose studies largely to date do not include cochlear implant recipients, despite cochlear implants having been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 1984.[90] Pamela J. Kincheloe discusses the representation of the cochlear implant in media and popular culture as a case study for present and future responses to human alteration and enhancement.[91]

In 2010, the Cyborg Foundation became the world’s first international organization dedicated to help humans become cyborgs.[92] The foundation was created by cyborg Neil Harbisson and Moon Ribas as a response to the growing amount of letters and emails received from people around the world interested in becoming a cyborg.[93] The foundation’s main aims are to extend human senses and abilities by creating and applying cybernetic extensions to the body,[94] to promote the use of cybernetics in cultural events and to defend cyborg rights.[95] In 2010, the foundation, based in Matar (Barcelona), was the overall winner of the Cre@tic Awards, organized by Tecnocampus Matar.[96]

In 2012, Spanish film director Rafel Duran Torrent, created a short film about the Cyborg Foundation. In 2013, the film won the Grand Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival’s Focus Forward Filmmakers Competition and was awarded with $100,000 USD.[97]

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Cyborg – Wikipedia

Cyborg | DC

Nowadays, everyones juggling an offline and online persona. But only one hero is a literal marriage of technology and man. Half human, half machine, Victor Stone is Cyborg, a digital and physical tankand a true superhero for the modern age.

Although a star athlete, Vic Stone only yearned for his fathers approval. But Dad was too focused on his scientific career to notice until the day Vic became his greatest experiment. After Vic suffered a grave injury, his father saved him by replacing over half his body with cybernetic parts.

Now Cyborg is plugged into every computer on Earth, and no firewallor brick wallcan keep him out. While his cybernetic enhancements provide superhuman strength, speed, and endurance, that same technology destroys his chances to live as a professional athlete. Now flourishing in the digital realm, Vic is desperately alone in the physical worldand still longs for his fathers affection. Hungry to find purpose again, he fights alongside the Worlds Greatest Super Heroes.

Continued here:

Cyborg | DC

Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

This article is about the Teen Titans character. For the character “The Batman” or “Cyborg Superman”, see Hank Henshaw.

Cyborg (Victor “Vic” Stone) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Prez and first appears in a special insert in DC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980). Cyborg is best known as a member of the Teen Titans.[1] However, in September 2011, Cyborg was established as a founding member of the Justice League as part of DC’s 2011 reboot of its continuity.

Cyborg appears in the DC Extended Universe, where he is played by actor Ray Fisher. This adaptation of the character had a cameo appearance in the 2016 film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice and is set to appear in a standalone Cyborg film in 2020, as well as the upcoming Justice League film.

Victor “Vic” Stone is the son of Silas Stone and Elinore Stone, scientists who use him as a test subject for various intelligence enhancement projects. While these treatments are ultimately successful, and Victor’s IQ subsequently grows to genius levels, he grows to resent his treatment. He strikes up a friendship with Ron Evers, a young miscreant who leads him into trouble with the law. This is the beginning of a struggle in which Victor strives for independence, engaging in pursuits of which his parents disapprove, such as athletics, and abandoning his scholastic studies. Victor’s association with underage criminals leads him down a dark path in which he is often injured, but he still lives a “normal” life in which he is able to make his own decisions. He occasionally refuses to participate in Evers’ grandiose plans of racially motivated terrorism.

When he visits his parents at work at S.T.A.R. Labs, an experiment with an inter-dimensional portal goes horribly wrong and a massive gelatinous monster kills Elinore. The creature turns on Victor and severely mutilates him before Silas forces the creature back through the portal.[1]

To save his son, Silas outfits him with experimental prosthetics of his own design. The equipment can not be worn inconspicuously, and Victor is horrified upon discovering that most of his body and part of his face have been replaced with metallic implants. Victor initially wants to die, but he eventually adjusts to the changes and learns to control his implants.[1]

Victor finds that reintegration into society is very difficult, due to the fearful reactions by others to his jarring appearance. Even his girlfriend, Marcy Reynolds, rejects him. He is disallowed further participation in athletics, both for the unfair advantage provided by his cybernetics and because of his poor scholastic record. When Evers attempts to manipulate Victor into participating in a terrorist attack on the United Nations, Victor finds new purpose as he equips his weapons attachments and stops his former friend in a pitched battle on top of United Nations Headquarters.

Vic joins the Teen Titans, initially for the benefit of a support group of kindred spirits and freaks and has remained with that group ever since.[1] His teammates are like a group of juveniles who are adjusting to their own prosthetics for they idolize him because of his fancy parts and his exciting adventures. It also turns out that their beautiful teacher Sarah Simms, who has often assisted Cyborg and the Titans, admires him as well. Cyborg and Sarah have a deep relationship that is considered by some fans to be Cyborg’s one true love, although writer Marv Wolfman insists it is a deep and caring friendship.[citation needed]

Another person who sees past the cybernetic shell is Dr. Sarah Charles, a S.T.A.R. Labs scientist who helps him to recuperate after having his cybernetic parts replaced. Cyborg and Dr. Charles date for some time and she, along with Changeling, keeps trying to reach him when he is seemingly mindless following the severe injuries he incurs during the “Titans Hunt” storyline.[citation needed]

Although Cyborg’s body was repaired by a team of Russian scientists after the missile crash he had been in, albeit with more mechanical parts than previously, his mind was not. Eventually, his mind was restored by an alien race of computer intelligences called the Technis, created from the sexual union of Swamp Thing and a machine-planet when Swamp Thing was travelling through space. Cyborg, however, had to remain with the Technis both to maintain his mind and because, in return for restoring him, he had to teach them about humanity. He took the name Cyberion, and gradually started becoming less human in outlook, connecting entirely to the Technis planet.

Eventually, Cyberion returned to Earth, establishing a Technis construct on the moon and a smaller base on Earth. With Vic’s consciousness dormant, but his desire for companionship controlling the actions of the Technis’ planet, it began kidnapping former Titans members, his conscious mind so suppressed that he was not only searching for deceased Titans, but even sent one probe looking for himself as Cyborg. He ended up plugging them into virtual reality scenarios, representing what he believed to be their “perfect worlds”; for example, Beast Boy was back with the Doom Patrol, Damage was spending time being congratulated by the Justice Society as a true hero, and Nightwing was confronted by a Batman who actually smiled and offered to talk about their relationship. Although the Titans were freed, there was a strong disagreement between them and the Justice League over what action to take; the League believed that there was nothing left of Victor to save, whereas the Titans were willing to try, culminating in a brief battle, where the Atom and Catwoman (who had followed the Justice League to investigate) sided with the League while the Flash fought with the Titans. While Vic was distracted trying to aid his friends, a Titans team consisting of Changeling and the original five Titans were sent by Raven to try making contact with Vic’s human side, while Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, the Martian Manhunter, Power Girl, Captain Marvel, and Mary Marvel moved the moon back to its proper place. Eventually, thanks primarily to Changeling’s encouragement, and Omen and Raven holding Vic together long enough to come up with a plan, Vic’s consciousness was restored, and “downloaded” into the Omegadrome, a morphing war-suit belonging to former Titan Minion. In the wake of this event, the Titans reformed and Vic was part of the new group.[1] However, he felt less human than ever before.

Shortly after this, Nightwing revealed he had cloned Vic’s body, and by flowing the Omegadrome through the clone, Vic regained his human form, but still had the abilities of the Omegadrome. He often used the Omegadrome to recreate his original look in battle. With his newfound humanity, Vic took a leave of absence, moving first to L.A. with Beast Boy and then to Central City. While in Central City, Vic was involved in one of the Thinker’s schemes, helping Wally hack the Thinker’s attempt to plug himself into the minds of Central City’s population so that Wally could outthink his opponent, though Vic lost the abilities of the Omegadrome in the process.

Vic mentored the new incarnation of the Teen Titans, consisting mainly of sidekicks, most of whom have taken over the identities of former members (i.e. Tim Drake, the third Robin, instead of Dick Grayson, the original Robin and Titans leader), as well as stalwarts such as Starfire, Raven, and Beast Boy, where they have fought enemies such as Deathstroke, Brother Blood, Doctor Light, The Titans Tomorrow, and a brainwashed Superboy and Indigo during a team up with the Outsiders in the Insiders storyline. In the end, Cyborg was the only one capable of standing up to Dr. Light, thanks to his solar shields, although he makes it clear that he only won the fight because the rest of the Titans had softened Light up first.

During the 20052006 storyline “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg joined Donna’s New Cronus team that went to investigate a hole in the universe that was found during the Rann-Thanagar War. He left Beast Boy in charge of the Titans while he was gone. They arrived at the reset center of the universe and with the help of assorted heroes aided in the defeat of Alexander Luthor, who was attempting to recreate the multiverse and build a perfect Earth from it.

According to 52 Week 5, Cyborg was fused together with Firestorm after returning to Earth. This was caused by the energy ripples caused by Alexander Luthor Jr. which altered the Zeta Ray Beams the heroes were going to use to return home.

After being severely damaged during the events of “Infinite Crisis”, Cyborg was rebuilt over time in thanks to Tower caretakers Wendy and Marvin. He awoke a year later to find a wholly different Teen Titans being led by Robin, the only member from the team he formed prior to going into space. He is still a member of the team, but feels that Kid Devil and Ravager are hardly worthy Titans, and thus is attempting to find a way to reform “the real Titans”.

After the team along with the Doom Patrol defeated the Brotherhood of Evil, Cyborg asked Beast Boy to rejoin the Titans, but Gar refused, saying that his skills were needed with the Doom Patrol. After returning to Titans Tower, Cyborg began reviewing the security tapes during the last year, in which it appears that he was looked to by all the Titans of the past year for a shoulder to lean on, despite being in a coma-like state.

It appears that although Cyborg has returned to the team, the role of leader is now in the hands of Robin. He does however retain the position of statesman amongst the team and occasionally plays second-in-command.

In Justice League of America (vol. 2) #3, Batman, Wonder Woman, and Superman agree that Cyborg should be offered membership in the new Justice League. However, following a battle against Amazo, Green Lantern and Black Canary take over the formation of the JLA, and Cyborg is not amongst the roster.

In the Teen Titans East one-shot, Cyborg gathered together a new team of Titans. During a training exercise, the group was attacked by Trigon, and Cyborg was blasted by a giant energy beam. He was last seen in a crater, with only his head and torso remaining.

In the aftermath of Trigon’s assault in the Titans East one shot, Cyborg has been placed into a special hoverchair while he recuperates. Cyborg’s body is completely repaired in Titans #5. Soon after, the resurrected and unbalanced Jericho enters Cyborg’s body, using him to manipulate the defenses at Titans Tower to kill the Teen Titans. Jericho’s plans are foiled when Static, the newest Teen Titan, uses his electrical powers to overload the Tower’s systems, causing feedback that knocks Jericho out of Cyborg.[2] After recovering, Cyborg pretends to still have Jericho inside of him, in order to draw out Vigilante, who was currently targeting Jericho. The plot works too well when Vigilante appears and shoots Cyborg in the head.[3]

In an unspecified time during the Teen Titans comics, a man with enhancements similar to Cyborg’s attacks Dr. Sarah Charles on the day of her wedding to Deshaun, a young scientist. Cyborg rushes in for the save, discovering how Deshaun, connected to Project M, has sold the technology used to turn Stone into Cyborg to the military. He also finds that the enhanced man was Ron Evers, once Vic’s best friend now turned terrorist, who was seeking vengeance for the soldiers used as test subjects. After Cyborg manages to calm down his friend and discovers the truth: Mr. Orr, revealed as the mastermind behind Project M’s cyborg research, brings his Stone-derived best subjects: the current Equus, an armored form of the Wildebeest, and a cyberized man sporting enhancements even more powerful than Stone’s current ones called Cyborg 2.0.

Cyborg 2.0 turns out to be the Titans Tomorrow Cyborg 2.0, snatched from his proper timeline and cajoled by Orr into fighting his younger self for the possession of their shared technology and Orr’s permission to use it in the battlefield. Cyborg is soon forced to fight simultaneously against the Phantom Limbs, an elite force of soldiers crippled in the Middle East and restored by his tech, and the Cyborg Revenge Squad, a broader formation composed of the Fearsome Five, Magenta, Girder, the Thinker, and Cyborgirl. Although the Cyborg Revenge Squad soon gains the upper hand, with the help of his fellow Titans Cyborg is able to hold his own in combat, reverse engineer on the fly some of the future technology used by Cyborg 2.0, and enhance his own body enough to win against Mr. Orr. He later decides to get a new lease in life, forgiving Deshaun and Sarah Charles on their wedding day for abusing his technology, resuming dating Sarah Simms and having the Phantom Limbs fitted with new, non-military, prosthetics. It is however implied the Phantom Limbs, unwilling to see Stone’s offer as a sign of good will, are trying to get back their weaponized prosthetics and wait for a rematch.

During the events of Blackest Night, Cyborg joins with Starfire, Beast Boy, and several other heroes to form an emergency team to fight off the army of dead Titans who have been reanimated as Black Lanterns. He later joins in the final battle at Coast City.

Following the dissolution of the current JLA after Justice League: Cry for Justice, Cyborg is invited by Donna to join Kimiyo Hoshi’s new Justice League.[4] He befriends Red Tornado, and claims that he has come up with a plan to make him indestructible.[5]

After a battle with Doctor Impossible’s gang, Cyborg is forced to take a leave of absence from the team in order to not only help rebuild Red Tornado, but also help Roy Harper, who had his arm severed by Prometheus.[6] During this time, Victor leads Superboy and Kid Flash to the city of Dakota to rescue the Teen Titans, who had been defeated and captured by Holocaust.[7] The Titans emerge victorious from the battle after Kid Flash uses his powers to send Holocaust plummeting into the Earth’s inner core.[8]

Despite apparently being written off the team, writer James Robinson explained that Cyborg will continue to have a presence on the JLA, and will even be given a co-feature in the back of the book for Justice League of America #4850.[9] In the co-feature, Cyborg battles Red Tornado after he has been driven insane by the power of the Starheart. In the midst of the battle, a flashback reveals that Victor had rebuilt Red Tornado using self-replicating nanites similar to the ones that Prometheus infected Roy with after cutting off his arm, thus making the android indestructible.[10] Cyborg manages to free Red Tornado his power matrix.[11]

Cyborg briefly appears in Justice League: Generation Lost, where he is shown helping Wonder Woman and Starfire search for Maxwell Lord after his resurrection.[12]

Following an adventure in another dimension, Static is left powerless, and Miss Martian is rendered comatose. Cyborg stops the powerless Static from returning to Dakota, and instead tells him that he and a scientist named Rochelle Barnes will be taking him to Cadmus Labs to find a way to get his powers back and awaken Miss Martian. As Static packs up his belongings, Cyborg and Rochelle have a conversation which reveals that they are lying to Static, and have an ulterior motive for taking the two Titans to Cadmus.[13]

He later appears in the final two issues of The Return of Bruce Wayne, where he helps his former teammate Red Robin in his attempt to stop Bruce Wayne from inadvertently unleashing an apocalyptic explosion of Omega Energy.

Cyborg and Red Tornado later travel to the moon alongside Doctor Light, Animal Man, Congorilla, Zauriel, Tasmanian Devil and Bulleteer as part of an emergency group of heroes gathered to assist the Justice League in their battle against Eclipso. Shortly into the battle, Cyborg and the others are taken over by Eclipso and are turned against their JLA comrades.[14] The reserve JLA members are all freed after Eclipso is defeated.[15]

As of August 2011, Cyborg is featured as one of the main characters in a new Justice League ongoing series written by Geoff Johns and drawn by Jim Lee as part of DC’s The New 52 relaunch. Johns has said of Cyborg, “He represents all of us in a lot of ways. If we have a cellphone and we’re texting on it, we are a cyborgthat’s what a cyborg is, using technology as an extension of ourselves.”[16]

The first storyline takes place five years in the past and details the revised origin of the original Justice League. Victor Stone appears as a high school football star who is heavily sought after by a number of college scouts, but apparently has a distant relationship with his father, Silas. After winning a big game, Victor is shown calling his father and angrily telling him that he broke his promise and missed yet another one of his son’s games.[17] Later Victor appears at S.T.A.R. Labs where his father works. The scientists appear to be working on the Mother Box that Superman came in contact with from the Parademon. Victor engages in another argument with his father and tells him that the scouts were there to give him full scholarships to college. When asking if his father will ever appear at any of his games, his father replies “No.” Just then the Mother Box explodes, killing the other scientists and destroying most of Victor’s body while Victor’s father looks on in horror.[18] Silas does everything he can for Victor’s survival. He along with Sarah Charles, and T. O. Morrow go in “The Red Room” in S.T.A.R. labs which contains every piece of technology from around the world. Silas attempts to treat Victor with something that has never been attempted before and he is seen injecting Victor with some type of nanites and having Dr. Morrow put the robotic pieces on Victor (devices such as: a Promethean skin graft, Doctor William Magnus’ responsometer, Anthony Ivo’s A-maze operating system, The classified and prototypical B-maze operating system and Ryan Choi’s White Dwarf Stabilizer). Vic’s life is saved and the energies from the motherbox are incorporated into his new form as Cyborg. This allows Victor to access the vast New Gods data library and discover Darkseid’s true invasion plans.[19]

In the following issue we see Victor as Cyborg. As the issue opens Victor cannot feel his hands or legs. He sees himself for the first time with his robotic parts and is panicked by his new body. Suddenly, Parademons burst into the red room and leap toward Sarah Charles. However, Cyborg’s defense system’s reacts automatically weaponizing his arm into a sound cannon from which he fires his powerful white noise cannon, disintegrating the two Parademons and blasting a gigantic hole in the Star Labs building. After saving Sarah’s life Victor asks his father what has happened to him, his father tells him that he couldn’t let him die. Cyborg obviously distraught exclaims, “You did this to me.” and flees, despite Silas’ plea for him to wait. Later in the street Cyborg sees a woman being set upon by a group of Parademons. He leaps to the woman’s aid, punching the parademon. However, in ensuing scuffle Cyborg inadvertently absorbs some of the Parademon’s components giving him access to Boom Tube technology. This new ability automatically transports or teleports Victor to where Superman, Batman, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern, and Aquaman are fighting the Parademons, moments before Darkseid arrives. Cyborg fights alongside the other heroes against Darkseid and his Parademons, but despite their best efforts Darkseid proves to be too strong. Fortunately, Cyborg is able to reverse engineer the alien boom tube technology and with a considerable amount of stress on his systems he is able to teleport all the invading aliens including Darkseid off the planet, saving the Earth. After sending Darkseid back where he came from, Cyborg helps to found the Justice League.

Victor has not begun any process of reconciliation with his father, who is primarily concerned with Victor’s mechanics rather than his humanity. Cyborg primarily focuses on his super-heroics, aiding Batman and others when he can and monitoring crime through his cybernetics. After the villain David Graves makes an attack against the Justice League, Cyborg and his teammates travel to the Valley of Souls. There he learns that he walks the line between life and death. He sees a false apparition of his human self that tries to convince him that Victor Stone is dead and Cyborg is just an imitation. Victor quickly sees past this ruse, and he and the rest of the Justice League defeat Graves. We learn through a conversation with Flash, that Cyborg questions his humanity now that he is part machine and that he lives on the Watch Tower, the Justice League’s headquarters.[20] Flash cracks a joke in an attempt to lighten the mood and assure Cyborg he is still human. During the Throne of Atlantis storyline, Cyborg at first rejects an upgrade his father has that would allow him to operate underwater at the price of his remaining lung which to him would mean sacrificing more of his humanity.[21] However following the capture of the rest of the Justice League by Ohm who sentenced then to the bottom of the ocean, Cyborg as he calls in reserves to hold off Ohm’s forces reluctantly accepted the upgrade.[22] This allows him and Mera to rescue the others.[23]

During the “Trinity War” storyline, Cyborg gets a visual of Shazam heading to Kahndaq, to which Batman assembles the Justice League with the help from Zatanna to meet in Kahndaq to stop Shazam.[24] Following the supposed death of Doctor Light in Kahndaq, Batman tells Superman that Cyborg and Martian Manhunter are doing an autopsy to prove his death was not Superman’s fault.[25] As Wonder Woman leads the Justice League Dark to go look for Pandora, Cyborg is among the superheroes that remain at A.R.G.U.S. while Batman, Flash, Aquaman, Shazam, Steve Trevor, the Justice League of America, Zatanna, and Phantom Stranger go to stop Wonder Woman.[26] Cyborg was present when Atom tells him, Superman, Element Woman and Firestorm the true purpose of the creation of the Justice League of America and that she was spying on the Justice League which is how the Justice League of America ended up in Kahndaq.[27] When the Crime Syndicate arrives on Prime Earth, Cyborg’s old prosthetic parts combine to form a robot called Grid (who is operated by a sentient computer virus).[28] During the Forever Evil event, after Batman and Catwoman drop Cyborg off to his father in Detroit,[29] he makes the choice to willingly receive a new cybernetic body and helps his father and Dr. Morrow create one that is slimmer in appearance so Cyborg could look more human.[30] Working together with the Metal Men created by Doc Magus, Cyborg succeeds in shutting down Grid.[31]

Afterwards Cyborg helped newcomer to the group Shazam fit in with the league as the rest set out to find Power ring’s missing accessory which flew off after the death of the former wearer.[32] While on monitor duty he and Shazam experiment with some of his magical powers to aid in finding the ring after joking of having an Xbox in his left shoulder; only for the young ward to conjure up a ping pong table, which they play while having spare time on their hands.[33] Eventually the call goes out and everyone in the league mobilizes to secure the new rampaging Power Ring before the Doom Patrol does.[34] After coaxing Billy into action against Jessica Cruis, Victor moves in to interface with the ring itself finding out a great about the ring of Volthoom and his current host only to be forcefully thrown out after the ring entity rejects him causing his systems to short circuit taking him out of the battle.[35]

He is last seen recovering at S.T.A.R. Labs after Shazam rushed him too the med bay after the power ring crisis was handled. While Superman and Lex Luthor battled Gorilla Grodd Cyborg gave Billy the okay to head out and see if they needed help as the former wondered what he saw within the ring after his dad warned him interfacing with it again could trap him in it forever.[36]

Afterwards, Lex Luthor and Captain Cold were accepted onto the team. An incident involving Batman’s son, Damian Wayne, during the “Robin Rises Alpha & Omega” story arc in Batman led up to most of the justice League battling against Glorious Godfrey and a Parademon horde from Apokolips when they captured the chaos shard and the sarcophagus of Damian and later fled back home.[37] All the league members present, Cyborg included, state to an adamant Bruce Wayne that running headlong into unmarked X-factor territory for a suicide mission was less than ideal considering the consequences that could befall earth. This all boils over, eventually culminating with Batman hijacking Cyborg’s teleportation systems to zip up to the Watchtower in an attempt to retrieve an experimental and highly dangerous combat suit in order to mete out his agenda; But Cyborg manages to block his administrative access so that he, Shazam, Aquaman, Wonder Woman, Lex and Cold could physically restrain him, causing Batman to begrudgingly give up and retire to the batcave.[38]

After the Bat left, the rest of the Bat Family turned up asking Victor for help with some digitized doppelgangers of baddies that Bruce initially set up in order to distract the League, destabilize watchtower security to secure the Hellbat, and eventually use a personal Mother Box (secured from a Parademon kept in cold storage) to vacate to Apokolips.[39] After making his way to the Batcave to meet with them, he’s directed over to a console which enabled him to directly access the Batcomputer’s more sophisticated systems. However, it was all a ruse utilizing a preemptive countermeasure devised by Batman tailored to Cyborg’s specific weaknesses. Cyborg was temporarily incapacitated and was set into a VR simulation where he relived his more peaceful days in college, while Batgirl went to work on his Motherbox in order to secure a path towards Apokolips and chase after their father. But Victor eventually snapped out of his dream haze and followed them through, angered that they used him in such a way.[39] Cyborg traveled along with Titus, who hitched a ride on his leg, to catch up with the rest of the Batman Family. They all then have a run in with the scavengers of Armegeddo who quickly vacate after some Apokoliptian Hunger Dogs make their way onto the scene. They eventually catch up with the armor-clad Dark Knight ripping his way through a sizable chunk of Apokolips’s forces singlehandedly. Jason Tim and Barbara show Batman the Robin Medals Alfred gave them in order to remind him of his purpose, causing him to snap out of his berserker rage and note that Cyborg had reluctantly accompanied them to Hell itself. Having made their way into Darkseid’s citadel where Kalibak was readying his Chaos Cannon to fire again, the caped crusaders kept Darkseid’s forces occupied while Cyborg made short work of the massive war engine, literally tearing it in half. But when he went to set a timed self-destruct sequence within the Apokoliptian computers, Vic suffered a catastrophic feedback that fried most of his internal systems leaving him inoperable just as Darkseid himself made his appearance.[40]

While Batman fought and held Darkseid off, Cyborg ran Batgirl through a crash course on how to hot wire his own Motherbox. Since Darkseid smashed Batman’s Boom Tube generator, Cyborg was their only chance off Apokolips. After successfully jury-rigging his internal systems, Cyborg and the rest of the Bat rogues made a hasty exit stage left as Bruce powered his recovered fragment of the Chaos Shard with Darkseid’s Omega Effect, blasting Darkseid against a wall to cover their escape.[41] In the aftermath, Cyborg, who is still unable to facilitate himself, wonders what is going on as Damian Wayne is successfully revived, however a second anomaly cranks out of the Boom Tube that was opened and Kalibak comes charging through it. With Kalibak occupied by the rest of the gang, Vic tries his best to reestablish his downed systems. He is successful and gains control over the still-open tube as Batman readies the Batplane. As Batman rams his jet into the evil New God sending him careening back to Apokolips, Cyborg closes the portal banishing Darksied’s first born for good. With the threat over, Cyborg heads back topside to inform the rest of the league of what all transpired and stating he has JL business to attend to.[42]

An eponymous ongoing series, by writer David F. Walker and artist Ivan Reis, debuted in July 2015.[43]

Large portions of Victor Stone’s body have been replaced by advanced mechanical parts (hence the name Cyborg), granting him superhuman strength, speed, stamina, and flight. His mechanically-enhanced body, much of which is metallic, is far more durable than a normal human body. Cyborg’s internal computer system can interface with external computers. Other features include an electronic ‘eye’ which replicates vision, but at a superhuman level. His mechanical parts contain a wide variety of tools and weapons, such as a grappling hook/line and a finger-mounted laser. Perhaps his most frequently-used weapon is his sound amplifier (often referred to as his “white sound blaster” in the comic books; the Teen Titans animated series calls it a “sonic cannon”), which can be employed at various settings either to stun the ears of his foes or to deliver concentrated blasts of sound potent enough to shatter rock or deform steel.[44]

In addition to his mechanical enhancements, Stone possesses an “exceptionally gifted” level of intelligence; his IQ has been measured at 170.[45]

Cyborg has tinkered over time with his cybernetic parts, enhancing his functions and abilities to levels beyond those set by his father. One feature that sets him apart from the “mass production” version built by Project M is a self-repair system, able to flawlessly repair the mechanical parts of his body, no matter how worn out they are, and even improve the health of the still biological parts to an unknown degree.

Cyborg’s New 52 (DCnU) functions

Cyborg possesses cybernetic enhancements that provide superhuman strength, endurance and durability. Cyborg can also interface with computers. Built into his body-armor are an infrared eye with HUD, a bionic ear that allows him to hear sounds from long distance, computer generator, sound amplifier (similar to a sonic cannon), and special programming adapters that allow him to interface with other body extensions. This enhances his durability, strength, speed, and endurance. He also has multiple sensors, and can fly via rocket boosters. While he can use Boom Tubes, he usually use Jump Jets to help him leap great distances. His body can also absorb technology at will, as well as control technology and shift his body. He can also emit an EMP blast to disable any electrical devices within a fifty meter radius, codenamed the “Heart Attack”. His body uses the Grid, a program Vic and Batman created to help him better manage the constant flow of uploading and downloading data he receives on a constant basis; it acts as his solipisistic engram into the Cyberverse/Digitalverse where he can better prioritize and interface with the worldwide networking system, focusing on high-priority items and filter out other received data. As part of the events of the Throne of Atlantis Aquaman crossover, Cyborg’s lungs were replaced by cybernetic lungs that allow him to breathe underwater. His body can also regenerate from damage, and he can enhance his strength.

After he lost his original cybernetic enhancements which became Grid at the end of the Trinity War arc,[46] during the Forever Evil event, he has his father Silas Stone and Dr. Morrow help create a new cybernetic body. As explained in that issue, by cutting down on strength, speed, and stamina, Cyborg’s new cybernetic body looks slimmer in appearance as Victor describes looking more human compared to looking like a tank. It is unknown whether or not Cyborg had re-integrated the technology stripped from him after Grid’s defeat. After a run in with alternate universe invaders calling themselves the “Techbreakers,” Cyborg’s systems had undergone a complete systems overhaul causing a new operating system to come online restoring him to life and healing his damaged circuitry as well as reintegrating his ruined flesh into it, turning him into a full on Techno-Organic being.[47]

In the Flashpoint event, the timeline is greatly altered. In this alternate version of events, Cyborg is America’s greatest superhero (occupying the role held by Superman in DC’s standard timeline). He attempts to put together a group to stop the war between Aquaman and Wonder Woman’s forces. However, the heroes he approaches all refuse, after Batman declines.[48] Cyborg connects the resistance member Lois Lane to spy on the Amazons for any information.[49] Cyborg rescues people in the subway station from arsonist Heat Wave.[50]Abin Sur crashes on Earth; he is subsequently taken into custody by Cyborg and the US government to be questioned about his reasons for being on Earth. When Abin Sur is recovering, he is on a mission to retrieve the Entity, however Cyborg convinces him to join with Earth’s heroes.[51] Afterwards, Cyborg is seen talking with the President in his headquarters in Detroit. The President states that Steve Trevor sent a signal to the resistance but was intercepted by a traitor among the heroes that Cyborg tried to recruit and suspicion leads to the Outsider. For Cyborg’s failure, he is relieved of duty as the Element Woman sneaks into the headquarters. Later, Cyborg is called by Batman and the Flash for help in tracking down “Project: Superman”, the government branch responsible for ‘raising’ Kal-El after his rocket destroyed Metropolis upon its arrival. Cyborg and them agree to join the cause to stop Wonder Woman and Aquaman, but only if Batman gets to choose who to recruit, and Cyborg agrees as long as he comes with them. The three sneak into the government underground bunkers, and the group comes across a giant vault door bearing the Superman logo. Cyborg opens the door and sees a weakened Kal-El, with the arrival of guards. Forced to escape, Kal-El’s powers begin to manifest and flies off leaving them at the hands of the guards.[52] While they are fending off the guards, they are rescued by Element Woman. Later, Cyborg and other heroes arrive at the Marvel Family’s place helping the Flash from drastically forgetting his memories. After the Flash is recovering, he asked to stop the Atlantean/Amazon war from casualty, although Cyborg and the heroes are not willing unless Batman wants to join them, because Cyborg explains to him that they believe Batman was invincible. However, the Flash convinces him that no one is invincible and the group of heroes are agreeing to join the Flash. The heroes arrive at New Themyscira to stop the Atlantean/Amazon war, and the Flash tells Cyborg to find Aquaman’s ultimate bomb to dispose of it.[53]

In the Titans Tomorrow storyline, a future version of Victor Stone called Cyborg 2.0 is a member of Titans East. He is shown having similar plating as the animated Cyborg from the Teen Titans cartoon.[54]

An alternate version of Cyborg appears as part of the Justice League of Earth-23 in the DC Multiverse.[55]

Cyborg appears as the third Robotman as part of Superman’s Justice League. Robotman is now completely liquid metal. He is petrified by the nuclear blast.

Cyborg appears as a character in the prequel comic to the game, where he joins Superman’s Regime to force peace on the world. He serves as Superman’s eyes and ears over the world, offering insight on any activity deemed disruptive. At the end of Year Two he discovers someone is trying to hack into the Regime’s system during a war with the Green Lantern Corps (Oracle) and goes to the Watchtower to locate her. Jim Gordon follows and corners him, managing to rip Cyborg’s metallic face plate off and knock him unconscious, stopping the locating sequence. Cyborg spends most of the next year a prisoner of the Insurgency until he is released when the two groups collide in a battle that nearly destroys them when Trigon and Mr. Mxyzptlk get involved. In Year Four he and the Regime are confronted by the Greek Gods, who want Superman to step down as ruler. While the Regime is forced to go underground, they come together to defeat the gods once and for all. During Year Five tension grows among the Regime because of Superman’s growing hostility and controversial decisions, such as enlisting the aid of villains to help the Regime. Cyborg is especially disgusted when he discovers that during a rally with supporters of the Joker who reject Superman, the Man of Steel killed over two hundred defenseless protesters in anger. Batman and Batwoman later go to the Hall of Justice to kidnap Cyborg because he is the only one aware of this and has the information stored in his data. He is incapacitated and taken underground to the ruins of Metropolis where Batgirl works to find the data and reveal to the world. While they succeed in finding it, Raven casts a massive black out over the world to prevent the video from being seen, and the Insurgency is forced to retreat before Flash comes to get Cyborg. Superman has Cyborg erase any data containing information on his killings so the incident will not repeat itself.

Cyborg appears in a prequel comic to the sequel game. He remained in prison with Superman, even after the League of Assassins and impostor Batman’s Suicide Squad raid the Ryker’s Island to free only Damian Wayne/the current Nightwing.

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Cyborg (comics) – Wikipedia

If these pics of champ Cyborg visiting a children’s hospital don’t warm your heart, nothing else will – MMAjunkie.com

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By: Blue Corner | August 21, 2017 5:45 pm

Before a trip to Anaheim, Calif., brought her the UFCs womens 145-pound title, Cris Cyborg was gifted a symbolic belt by the children of a hospital in her hometown of Curitiba, Brazil.

This Monday, delivering on a promise she made to herself, the champ returned to the hospital with a gift of her own: an actual UFC belt.

These kids are much more than champions they fight every day for their lives, Cyborg said in an official statement sent out by the UFC. And a small gesture like this one makes a huge difference in their lives.I always talk about this, about the importance of fighting for those who cant fight. Its so good to make someone happy because it makes us happy, as well. It was very gratifying to come here today.

For the visit to the hospital, which is an industry leader in cancer treatment, the champ was joined by former PRIDE champ and UFC Hall of Famer Antonio Rodrigo Nogueira. According to the official statement, the hospital will keep the belt in its pediatric area.

Cyborg (18-1 MMA, 3-0 UFC) captured the 145-pound title at last months UFC 214, with a third-round TKO over fellow former Invicta FC champion Tonya Evinger (19-6 MMA, 0-1 UFC). Shes currently in her native country for a media tour.

While Cyborg has been campaigning for a meeting with ex-champ Holly Holm, her octagon future is still uncertain.

For more on the upcoming UFC schedule, check out theUFC Rumorssection of the site.

TheBlue CornerisMMAjunkies official blog and is edited byMike Bohn.

Antonio Rodrigo Nogueira, Cris Cyborg, Blue Corner, Featured Videos, News, UFC, Videos

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UFC August 21, 2017 6:30 pm Blue Corner

Dana Whites Contender Series 7 goes down on Tuesday from The Ultimate Fighter Gym in Las Vegas. Watch the weigh-in face-offs.

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UFC August 21, 2017 5:00 pm MMAjunkie Staff

Although its not a UFC event, Saturdays Floyd Mayweather vs. Conor McGregor boxing match is getting the fight week Embedded treatment.

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When youre worth $2 billion and just sold the UFC for $4 billion, dropping $70 million on a New York City penthouse may not be a big deal.

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Check out the official event poster for UFC Fight Night 119 in Brazil, featuring Lyoto Machida vs. Derek Brunson in the main event.

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Were days away from boxing going on trial. Saturday in Las Vegas, UFC lightweight champ Conor McGregor will present the prosecutions case.

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The response to Brian Stanns announcement that hes leaving his UFC commentary role showed the 11-time octagon veteran will be missed.

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The UFC and FOX Sports lost a key member of its broadcast crew today when Brian Stann announced his departure from his commentary position.

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Count Bellator moneyweight contender Muhammed Lawal among those who believes Conor McGregor has absolutely no chance against Floyd Mayweather.

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Saturdays megafight between Floyd Mayweather and Conor McGregor in Las Vegas may make a case for most celebrity-populated fight ever, too.

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If these pics of champ Cyborg visiting a children’s hospital don’t warm your heart, nothing else will – MMAjunkie.com

Top 25 finishes in Invicta FC history (Nos. 20-16): A Cris Cyborg destruction – MMAjunkie.com

More than five years have passed since Invicta FC hosted its first event. During that time, the all-female organization has gone through a number of different incarnations.

Despite having roster members consistently plucked up by the UFC, Invicta FC frequently hosts solid fight cards to help further the growth of womens MMA. The fighters do their part by delivering inside the cage, and with the 25th event in company history set to go down later this month, Invicta FC has decided to highlight its young history.

Invicta FC 25 takes place Aug. 31 at Tachi Palace Hotel & Casino in Lemoore, Calif. Ahead of the event, Invicta FCs social media team is rolling out a countdown of the 25 best finishes in its history.

Check out the first portion of the list here, and the second installment below counting down No. 20 to No. 16.

* * * *

Womens MMA pioneer Roxanna Modafferi punched her ticket to Season 26 of The Ultimate Fighter reality series and a chance at the inaugural UFC womens flyweight title when she put away Sarah DAlelio with a third-round TKO at Invicta FC 23.

Katja Kankaanpaa won the vacant Invicta FC strawweight title when she rallied from a huge deficit on the scorecards to submit Stephanie Eggink with a fifth-round rear-naked choke for a stunning come-from-behind win at Invicta FC 8.

After losing a unanimous decision to Shayna Baszler at a regional event in 2010, former UFC title challenger Alexis Davis got revenge in the rematch when she choked Baszler out cold with a rear-naked choke at Invicta FC 4.

Mexican standout Irene Aldana began her run toward a bantamweight title shot when she made quick work of The Ultimate Fighter 18 cast member Peggy Morgan courtesy of a first-round rear-naked choke.

Cris Cyborgs dominant 5-0 run through the Invicta FC organization included a lot of dominant performances. Her 45-second destruction of Faith Van Duin at Invicta FC 13 was the quickest of all. In trademark fashion, the Brazilian charged her foe and ended the fight with strikes for a TKO.

Check out the Blue Corner on Wednesday for the next installment of Invicta FCs top 25 finishes countdown.

And for more on the Invicta FC schedule, check out the MMA Rumors section of the site.

The Blue Corner is MMAjunkies official blog and is edited by Mike Bohn.

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Top 25 finishes in Invicta FC history (Nos. 20-16): A Cris Cyborg destruction – MMAjunkie.com

‘Terminator 2’: Arnold Schwarzenegger’s surprisingly nice cyborg is back onscreen in 3-D – USA TODAY

Arnold Schwarzenegger went good, really, in ‘Terminator 2: Judgment Day.'(Photo: Distrib Films/Studio Canal)

Arnold Schwarzenegger’s infamous murderous cyborg made a shocking transformation in his second screen appearance.

In 1991’s Terminator 2: Judgment Day, the Terminator turned good.

Schwarzeneggershotinto the Hollywood stratosphere after1984’s The Terminator, in which he starred as the cold-blooded assassin from the future. The character’s rewiring was so dramatic, even Schwarzeneggerhad to be convinced it wasn’t insanity.

Arnold hated the idea. He tried to talk me out of it,” director James Cameron recalls of the action classic, which has been converted to 3-D for a one-week re-release in AMCtheaters nationwide starting Friday. “He said, ‘Jim, Im the Terminator. I kick in the door and shoot everybody. Its what I do. Its what everybody wants to see me do. Don’t fix something that’s not broken.’

“And I said, ‘Yeah, thats why peoplewont see this coming. This is going to work.’ He eventually said, ‘All right, I trust you.’ ”

“Terminator Genisys” star Arnold Schwarzenegger gives USA TODAY’s Bryan Alexander a lesson in walking like ‘The Terminator.’

Arnold’s begrudgingtrust was well-placed:Terminator 2becamethe highest-grossingfilm of 1991 (and of Schwarzenegger’s career) and sits at No. 77 on the American Film Institute’s list of top thrillers.

He said, ‘Jim, Im the Terminator. I kick in the door and shoot everybody. Its what I do. Its what everybody wants to see me do. Don’t fix something that’s not broken.’

“I like challenges, and the idea of making the Terminatorinto a hero seemed adelicious concept,” Cameron says. “I set myself a goal of having the audience cry for a machine that had beenthe ultimate killer.”

It was hard not to fall for Schwarzenegger as the emotionally clumsy cyborg who bonds with 10-year-old John Connor (Edward Furlong), the future rebel leader whose very existence the Terminatorhad tried to wipe out.

Sent back in time to protect John and his mother Sarah(Linda Hamilton), the machineutteredclassic Terminator lines, in Schwarzenegger’s thick Austrianaccent, like “Hasta la vista, baby.”

“I was searching for that signatureline, the equivalent of ‘Ill be back’ from (the first)Terminator,”says Cameron. “I waswatching MTV and the Tone Loc Wild Thing video came on. He sings, ‘Hasta la Vista, baby.’ I thought, ‘That works.’ ”

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Audiences were captivated by the movie’s cutting-edge special effects, andtouched by theemotion and pathos. (Spoiler alert, 26 years after the fact: The Terminator is lowered into molten steel to destroy his lethal technology.) The cyborgnever sheds a tear, but he could have.

“In the first movie, we showed that the Terminatorcan sweat and hadbad breath,hes indistinguishable from living beings. Theoretically, he could’ve cried,” Cameron says. “But I felt it was a step too far in his humanization. Itwas more poignant asthatline he couldnt cross.”

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The success of Terminator 2kicked the franchise fully into gear, with three additional films and a TV series. Schwarzenegger returned fora fifth film installment, 2015’s Terminator Genisys,to again protect Sarah Connor (now played by Emilia Clarke).

Thoughthe Genisys reboot flopped critically and at the box office, the director, who hasn’t been involved since T2,isin talks to “reinvent a franchise thats sort of run its course.”

Schwarzenegger would likely figure intoany sequels, Cameronsays. But the actor, now 70,would pass the torch to new Terminators.

Director James Cameron (right) looks on as John Connor (Edward Furlong, left) says “Hasta la vista” to the Terminator (Arnold Schwarzenegger) in ‘Terminator 2: Judgment Day.'(Photo: Lightstorm Entertainment)

“We have to create something new and fresh that stands on its own,” Cameron says. “I would like to think that Arnold would be a part of it. But I think it would a mistake to make him as central as he has been.”

The director has long forgivenSchwarzenegger’sinitial doubts.

“He’s a smart man. We live in a Hollywood world withmany unpredictable variables and an audience that’sfickle. So you try to play by a certain logical set of rules,” says Cameron. “But sometimes, you just have to throw that logic out.”

Edward Furlong and Arnold Schwarzenegger make their escape in ‘Terminator 2: Judgment Day.'(Photo: Distrib Films/Studio Canal)

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‘Terminator 2’: Arnold Schwarzenegger’s surprisingly nice cyborg is back onscreen in 3-D – USA TODAY

Unblocked: Cris ‘Cyborg’ Justino Basking In Glow Of UFC Gold … – FloCombat

Photo: Gary A. Vasquez-USA TODAY Sports

Unblocked: Cris ‘Cyborg’ Justino Basking In Glow Of UFC Gold

Cris “Cyborg” Justino reached the pinnacle of any MMA career onJuly 29 at UFC 214, when she finally became a UFC world champion by finishing Tonya Evinger to claim the promotion’s featherweight belt.

The triumph was also a statement for the many critics Justino amassed over the years — two of whomwere inside the cage when she received the belt last month: UFC PresidentDana White and commentatorJoe Rogan.

While White has publicly talked about Justino’s alleged doping in the past and criticized her for business decisions,Rogan received heat when he joked about Cyborg having testicles on his podcast. Ironically, the first of the two put the belt around Justino at UFC 214, and the latter interviewed the Brazilian after she was declared the winner.

“At that moment, I really thought about talking [about the controversy],” Justino said. “But this was my moment, and I think [Rogan] interviewing me there and Dana White putting the belt around my waist was already an answer. He didn’t have to say anything else. I think they reflected and didn’t need to spoil the moment that was so special to me. It was a normal [post-fight] interview and I don’t say that we’ll be friends, but he’ll do his job and I’ll do mine.”

Cyborg’s relationship with White hasn’t been the best for some time. But while White even said in the past that he blocked Justino on his social media accounts so he wouldn’t have to deal with the fighter, it seems that the two are slowly making peace.

“He already unblocked me, yes,” Justino laughed. “I think a lot has happened between Dana and me. He even admitted that he made a mistake with Cris Cyborg. Only the person who says he or she has made a mistake can open the door for improvement. I think it touched me and that’s fine. Let’s work together and we’ll both be happy.”

Having won her third fight in the UFC, again by way of technical knockout, Justino has plenty of reasons to be happy. But despite her impressive streak and the dominance that has fans wondering who might be able to stop her, Justino still thinks she hasmore to show inside the cage.

“I showed my work a little more to my fans,” Justino said of her third-round finish of Evinger, the first time since 2013 that she needed more than two rounds to end a fight. “Of course, I wanted to finish her as soon as possible, but she was a tough athlete []. Everybody thinks I have no ground game, but I’m a brown belt [in Brazilian jiu-jitsu]. Who knows, next time, [maybe] I can show my skills on the floor and my complete game.”

So, where does Cyborg go from here, atop a new division that has only featured a small handful of fighters, most of whom usually compete one weight class below at bantamweight?

That’s a question Justino herself can’t answer definitively right now.

“We have not talked about [renewing the contract] yet,” she said. “I believe that after my next fight, we’ll sit down and talk.”

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Unblocked: Cris ‘Cyborg’ Justino Basking In Glow Of UFC Gold … – FloCombat

A Master in Three Fights: Analyzing the progression of Cris Cyborg … – Bloody Elbow

Cris Cyborgs development as a fighter can be difficult to appreciate. The UFC featherweight champion has been so dominant that every conceivable challenger seems hopelessly outmatched. To the point where the discussion becomes less about her individual displays of skill, and more about the ease and ferocity with which she dispatches opponents.

This is a shame, because the narrative behind her in-cage development is, in stark contrast, one of subtlety. With an overwhelming gap in talent separating her from her contemporaries, it would be easy for Justino to coast, but there is no complacency in her game. With each fight, she shows the gradual growth of a veteran craftswoman. It can be difficult to track this progression on a fight to fight basis, but becomes much more apparent when considering what her identity was, as a technician, during various stages of her career. As such, here are three pivotal bouts, representing the Cyborg who broke onto the scene, the champion who established her dominance, and the more refined force weve come to know today.

The fight that introduced Cyborg to the mainstream showcased three of her most recognizable traits: aggression, brutality, and overwhelming physicality.

Storming forward, she was intent on imposing offense above all else. Trading jabs, she flurried on a defensive Carano; as the American covered up, Cyborg clinched, and immediately attempted an ill-fated lateral drop. Carano, close to attaining mount, found herself threatened with a heel hook, from which Justino was able to secure a ride. Constant strikes followed as Carano returned to her feet, only to be met with another ferocious flurry of hooks. Another attempted throw found Cyborg on bottom, but this time, she was mounted.

One of the key differences in approach between a then-inexperienced Justino and her modern day counterpart was a sense of recklessness. This recklessness was highly exploitable and while this fight is often remembered as a blowout it serves as a great example of the weaknesses previously present in her style.

Carano returned to her feet soon after and, for a fleeting moment, she found respite from the continuous onslaught of offense. Justino seemed somewhat discouraged. This did not last long.

Frantically pushing forward, Cyborg struck, and struck, and struck. Her inexperience was obvious, but her aggression was magnetic. At range, Carano was met with hooks and low kicks. If she stopped circling or found herself pinned to the fence, she was handily controlled and thrown to the ground from the clinch. She wilted. Quickly.

With a minute left, Cyborg muscled her to the mat and after giving up on an Americana stood over Carano, landing vicious power punches with her foes head pinned against the fence. Carano covered up and, a split second before the bell sounded, Cristiane Justino was the inaugural Strikeforce Womens Featherweight champion.

Cyborgs clinch game has always been devastating, but it was in this fight a rematch of their 2010 bout that ended in a third-round TKO for the Brazilian that she established it as arguably her strongest skill set.

In stark contrast to the Carano fight, Coenen was the one to initiate the in-fight early, attacking with slashing elbows. The Dutch native, a ground specialist, was quickly taken down from the clinch. But, these takedowns were unlike the domineering ones executed by the former Strikeforce featherweight champion four years earlier. Rather than overwhelm, Cyborg was content to displace; the throw came as much from manipulation of balance as from physical strength. On the outside, Coenen never really had trouble landing strikes, but ate sharp return fire much of it in the form of counters and exchanges never favored her.

There has been (and continues to be) a narrative of trade-off regarding Cyborg. The sustainability of her explosive offense is often questioned, and the path of attrition is often prescribed as the most viable (or only) route to victory for her opponents. Survive long enough, and fatigue is inevitable. This bout serves as, to date, her longest, but it is far from providing proof of any presumed stamina issues.

Methodical scrambles littered the first three rounds. Coenens repeated clinches resulted only in high-amplitude throws from the Brazilian, easy control from top position, posturing power strikes, and disengagement when the submission specialist came close to anything even resembling a submission attempt.

Coenen was surviving and, on some level, she may have even felt as if things were going according to plan. Cyborg was being forced to work. Each throw, each scramble, each battle for posture was another presumed mark against the Brazilians gas tank. But in the beginning of the third round, any illusion of success was shattered.

Another clinch, another easy takedown. Coenen reached for a leg and Justino swiftly stood, backing off. As referee John McCarthy called for Coenen to stand, the narrative was inverted. Visibly winded, she struggled to stay on her feet as Cyborg walked her down. A knee to the body, and she was flung to the mat like a sandbag. Cyborg didnt even take top position. Again, she stood. Again, her foe struggled to stand.

It was almost as if she had a point to prove. Sustained top position is a more energy-efficient alternative to the takedown, strike in transition, stand, repeat formula of fighters such as Cain Velasquez. Certainly, it seemed an odd choice for a fighter who could easily maintain control or just as easily never hit the mat and instead leverage a substantial ranged striking advantage. Far from taxing, it seemed like easy work for the woman who would come to be regarded as arguably the greatest woman ever to step into a cage.

Process was interwoven with bursts of ferocity; flurries came, but they were timed more deliberately than those of the woman who bludgeoned Gina Carano years prior.

Cyborg managed to catch a front kick in the fourth round, and an overhand right seemed to stop Coenen in her tracks, before another landed solidly to the temple, leaving her off balanced and stumbling to the floor. Side control, knee on belly, mount, and the Dutchwoman had neither the energy nor the technique to defend herself for much longer.

Punches rained down with the same power and precision as they had almost 20 minutes prior. And the woman whose fights seemed to produce more questions than answers closed out her featherweight championship bout with the sense that there was nothing left to ask.

In 19 minutes and 10 seconds, she never once seemed threatened. She barely even seemed human.

A fighters identity as a technician tends to spend a lot of time in flux during their formative years. Her most recent bout over twelve years into her professional career saw Cyborg at her most realized.

The activity of her footwork was unmistakable. The minute adjustments with which she maneuvered around a circling Evinger in the early goings were a far cry from what had been relatively stationary performances against both Carano and Coenen. Cris Cyborg, in her current iteration, dominates angles with a control that, though subtle, bears a ferocity befitting the raw talent who broke onto the scene eight years ago.

As she retreated out of range of a low kick and evaded a left hook, the fighter who absorbed several head strikes from Marloes Coenen seemed a distant memory.

Evinger, a career opportunist, managed to lock her hands around her larger opponents hips in the first round, briefly bringing her to the mat on two occasions. But, Justino effortlessly returned to her feet, and offered Evinger an authoritative knee to the gut for her troubles.

While defensive adjustments are more subtle, the differences in Cyborgs present-day offense are obvious. The fighter who was more talent than skill is long since gone, but so too is the fighter who alternated between the two in bursts. As she walked Evinger down throwing punches, kicks, and knees to the body at a hellacious clip the synergy between physicality and technique was remarkable. Never before had technical proficiency served as such a fluid avatar for her violence. And as the divide between mastery and savagery crumbled, both properties were highlighted to the fullest.

When Evinger worked behind a jab, Cyborg countered with precise overhand strikes. When her arms came down to dig for underhooks in the clinch, Cyborg disengaged, and kicked high. Jabs were slipped with Cyborgs tightest head movement to date, and Evingers commitment of her weight was punished with kicks to the lead leg.

Towards the end of the second round, Cyborg keyed in on the fact that Evinger was leaning out far too wide in response to her lead power punches. Throwing an overhand right, she baited the reaction and started following up with round kicks, which crossed through the path of Evingers head.

The third round saw more low kicks both inside and outside and some hand-fighting, before an overhand right sailed towards Evingers chin. She did not dip her head, and visibly wobbled as the blow crashed into the side of her skull. In the very next moment, she chose to slip her head, but she again chose wrong and was met with a glancing high kick. Another overhand right dropped her, but grit brought her back to her feet.

Closing the distance between them with a superman punch, Cyborg dug for an underhook, controlled the head with her free hand, and teed off with knees as Evinger was left defenseless. With those final blows the fight was mercifully halted in the third round.

Cris Cyborg was playing the game at far too high of a level for the less polished woman to keep up. Far higher of a level than was even necessary. And in a world where none seem prepared for even the Justino of old, it stands to wonder exactly how large the gulf between the Brazilian master and her contemporaries has become.

Go here to see the original:

A Master in Three Fights: Analyzing the progression of Cris Cyborg … – Bloody Elbow

Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Best Cyborg Performance Wasn’t In The Terminator – The New Yorker

This month, Richard Brody reviews classic action movies from the nineteen-eighties that hes never seen before.

Another slight cheat: I had seen The Terminator, from 1984, but I hadnt really watched it. My recent viewingwith undivided attention, in a single sittingproved revelatory, if in a sidelong way. The experience of watching a movie is a total experience that includes everything that the movie brings to mind, and The Terminator showed me why I havent, in the intervening years, rushed to fill in the blanks on the eighties action films that I missed the first time around: theres something accursed in the action-film genre itself. Unlike other genres, its determined not by its subject matter, not by its setting or historical period, nor by its mode of emotional expressionits determined by a certain kind of scene.

The Terminator is a science-fiction film, and Die Hard is a police movie, but both are known as action films because the filmmakers take a particular approach to their disparate subjects and film their subjects in a particular waywith many large-scale, fast-moving, camera-jarring, quick-cutting, gun-firing, stunt-centered scenes of violence. That kind of scene isnt intrinsically any worse than any other kind (though I think that scenes of gun violence have a special trouble of built-in incoherence that takes an especially imaginative and daring director to overcome), but, in action movies, such scenes are compulsory routines and the entire film must be retrofitted to make room for them. Action scenes, in action films, are the tails that wag the cinematic dogand watching The Terminator made clear the kind of synthetic beast that this obligatory approach brings to the screen.

But, first, a public-service announcement regarding one of the cinematic events of the year: David Lynchs Twin Peaks: The Return. The show is a mixed bag of only intermittent sublimity, but one of its most sublime inventions is the character and attributes of the reprocessed, hermetic, mimetic, and grace-spangled insurance executive Dougie Jones (played by Kyle MacLachlan)and I think that the seedling of Dougies mannerisms is found in Arnold Schwarzeneggers first dramatic scene in The Terminator. A garbage-truck driver is surprised by streaks of blue lightning; from a quick explosion, the Michelangelo-esque nude from the future turns up on the tarmac, unfolding the unnatural perfection of his form. Moments later, the Terminator, still birthday-naked, strides toward a trio of teen punks who mock himNice night for a walk, eh? The Terminator responds robotically: Nice night for a walk. They mock him again: Wash day tomorrow, nothing clean, right? He answers, without inflection, Nothing clean right. That affectless repetition of the last words in a long sentencethats what Dougie does, too. Lynch has taken this tiny nugget of behavioral peculiarity and turned it into a cosmic visiona vision that is embodied as fully in MacLachlans performance as in the majestically laconic manner with which Lynch films MacLachlan, and the series over all (or at least whats best in it).

Some of the most striking elements of The Terminator are purely dramaticnot least, the gradual or even retentive way that the basic elements of the story are dosed out, thanks to the script, written by the films producer, Gale Anne Hurd, and James Cameron, the director. It takes a half hour to find out whos planning to kill whomthat Kyle Reese (Michael Biehn), the smaller and less buff naked visitor from the future, has arrived not to kill Sarah J. Connor (Linda Hamilton) but to save her. It takes even longer to find out that he has also arrived to impregnate her. Also, the Terminators mechanical powers arent revealed for half an hourhis data vision, the computer screen in his mind that registers and analyzes information from his camera-eyes, isnt seen until the story arcs are already well established.

Its unfortunate, because theres nothing of any greater interest to watch in all of The Terminator than the inner life of a cyborgand theres nothing more engaging to think about in the whole film than the consciousness of a human from the future who goes back to a past that he knows he has to inflect in several very specific ways. As science fiction with a time-travel and alternate-worlds premise, The Terminator is the start of something interesting that it never engages or developsand thats because the movie is conceived and realized not as a science-fiction film but as an action film. The Terminator blows itself up to distorted proportions, leaving its basic, central, crucial, and finest inspirations far behind.

Cameron and Hurd inscribe political frenzies of the time into the plot, which involves the aftermath, in the year 2029, of nuclear war. That war was caused not by human intention or even human error but by the government computers that have been deployed to insure national defense. In 1983, a year before the movie was filmed, President Ronald Reagan announced the Strategic Defense Initiative, soon derided as Star Wars, involving a vast and computer-centralized network of weaponry, some placed in outer space, that would defend against missile attacks. The Terminator, with its story of a resistance movement, led by members of the U.S. armed forces, against a postwar computer-run regime, is a post-Vietnam movie that pits the valorand, most importantly, the judgmentof American military personnel against the machinery that they increasingly were seen to serve and the officials who valued that machinery above their manpower.

That sort of manpower (and, in later iterations of the genre, womanpower as well) is the heart of action films such as The Terminator. The genre, rooted in its bombastic and numbing set pieces of grand-scale violence, is a sort of Stakhanovite cinema of conspicuous exertion in which any conventions of socialist realism are voided in favor of capitalist unrealisman element of fantasy that frames the superheroic efforts and triumphs of Homo americanus as both supercolossal and unexceptional. The brilliance of The Terminator is to make the monster alluring, fascinating, piquantby contrast with Kyle, a regular guy with good training and, above all, good principles, but no charisma. The murderous cyborg with the weird accent is funnier than Kyle, but Kyle has a sense of purpose, and that sense is doubled by Sarah, whose sense of self-preservation and patriotic intention is amplified decisively by love.

For all its earnestly determined virtue, the charm of The Terminator is the charm of Schwarzenegger, whose aura as the taciturn cyborg flowers altogether more volubly and spontaneously in George Butler and Robert Fiores 1977 documentary Pumping Iron, which screens tonight at Film Society of Lincoln Center. (Butler will be on hand to introduce the film.) Its about bodybuilders who are training for a pair of competitions, Mr. Universe (for amateurs) and Mr. Olympia (for professionals), held on successive days in 1975 in Pretoria, South Africa. Schwarzenegger, who was twenty-eight at the time, had won the five Mr. Olympia contests from 1970 through 1974, and the movie shows him preparing to compete for his sixth victory (following which, he retires, on-camera, from the sport).

Pumping Iron is, of course, a documentary, but Schwarzenegger isnt merely its subjecthes its star, and his beaming, witty, charismatic presence in the film is among the most ingratiating performances of the time, one thats resoundingly predictive of the acting career that he had long aspired to and that he would, of course, soon achieve. (His first big role was in Bob Rafelsons Stay Hungry, from 1976, alongside Jeff Bridges and Sally Field.) Hes a figure of paradox; he clearly delights in his sport, his training, and his very life. He breezes through the gym with a regal good humor. He talks about the thrill of his muscle-pumping as orgasmic , saying, Its as satisfying to me as coming is, you know? As having sex with a woman and coming. . . . So Im coming day and night; its terrific, right? So, you know, Im in heaven. He delights in the eye of the camera upon him, and that delight is mutual: he beams at it as it radiates his energy.

The movie focusses on other contestants as well, including his closest competitors, Lou Ferrigno and Franco Columbu, and shows Schwarzenegger bad-mouthing both of them, explaining the methods by which he psychs them out prior to competitions. (With Ferrigno, Schwarzenegger says that he will talk him into losing. He calls Columbu a child and explains that Columbu comes to him for advices and that he gives Columbu wrong advices.) Schwarzenegger speaks plainly of the pain period of workouts, explaining that the difference between himself and lesser bodybuilders is his guts, his willingness to endure the pain that bodybuilding requires. Yet, when he talks about his training, he has the self-awareness of an artist, and discusses the sense of proportion and balance with which he builds his musclesa process that he likens to the creation of a sculpture. He says, I trained myself to be cold, and explains that he admits of no distractions, lets no emotional life interfere with his trainingand that, after his father died, he didnt attend the funeral because the timing was bad with respect to his training. Schwarzenegger also talks freely of his lifelong ambitions to move to the United States, to be the greatest, and being different from everybody else. He says, I was always dreaming about very powerful peopledictators and things like that. I was just always impressed by people who could be remembered for hundreds of years, or even, like Jesus, for thousands of years being remembered.

Pumping Iron presents a fascinating, complex, willful, wild, strange person who was turning himself into exactly that sort of a character, a public figure. Its exactly that element of subjectivity, of inner strangeness, that Camerons creations in The Terminator, human and synthetic alike, filter out. Cameron is into the exertion; hes into the single-mindedness of purpose; hes into the breezy charisma. What hes not into is complexity, paradox, unresolved inner differences. This sense of pure and focussed exertion, magnified to a marmoreal simplicity, may be the exemplary trait of Camerons entire career, the secret to his success, and the catnip of the genre that he helped to found and that has come to dominate the industry, even the market, but hardly the art of movies.

Read more from the original source:

Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Best Cyborg Performance Wasn’t In The Terminator – The New Yorker


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