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Astrophysics – Wikipedia

This article is about the use of physics and chemistry to determine the nature of astronomical objects. For the use of physics to determine their positions and motions, see Celestial mechanics. For the physical study of the largest-scale structures of the universe, see Physical cosmology.

Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry “to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies, rather than their positions or motions in space.”[1][2] Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background.[3][4] Their emissions are examined across all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, and the properties examined include luminosity, density, temperature, and chemical composition. Because astrophysics is a very broad subject, astrophysicists typically apply many disciplines of physics, including mechanics, electromagnetism, statistical mechanics, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, nuclear and particle physics, and atomic and molecular physics.

In practice, modern astronomical research often involves a substantial amount of work in the realms of theoretical and observational physics. Some areas of study for astrophysicists include their attempts to determine: the properties of dark matter, dark energy, and black holes; whether or not time travel is possible, wormholes can form, or the multiverse exists; and the origin and ultimate fate of the universe.[3] Topics also studied by theoretical astrophysicists include: Solar System formation and evolution; stellar dynamics and evolution; galaxy formation and evolution; magnetohydrodynamics; large-scale structure of matter in the universe; origin of cosmic rays; general relativity and physical cosmology, including string cosmology and astroparticle physics.

Although astronomy is as ancient as recorded history itself, it was long separated from the study of terrestrial physics. In the Aristotelian worldview, bodies in the sky appeared to be unchanging spheres whose only motion was uniform motion in a circle, while the earthly world was the realm which underwent growth and decay and in which natural motion was in a straight line and ended when the moving object reached its goal. Consequently, it was held that the celestial region was made of a fundamentally different kind of matter from that found in the terrestrial sphere; either Fire as maintained by Plato, or Aether as maintained by Aristotle.[5][6] During the 17th century, natural philosophers such as Galileo,[7]Descartes,[8] and Newton[9] began to maintain that the celestial and terrestrial regions were made of similar kinds of material and were subject to the same natural laws.[10] Their challenge was that the tools had not yet been invented with which to prove these assertions.[11]

For much of the nineteenth century, astronomical research was focused on the routine work of measuring the positions and computing the motions of astronomical objects.[12][13] A new astronomy, soon to be called astrophysics, began to emerge when William Hyde Wollaston and Joseph von Fraunhofer independently discovered that, when decomposing the light from the Sun, a multitude of dark lines (regions where there was less or no light) were observed in the spectrum.[14] By 1860 the physicist, Gustav Kirchhoff, and the chemist, Robert Bunsen, had demonstrated that the dark lines in the solar spectrum corresponded to bright lines in the spectra of known gases, specific lines corresponding to unique chemical elements.[15] Kirchhoff deduced that the dark lines in the solar spectrum are caused by absorption by chemical elements in the Solar atmosphere.[16] In this way it was proved that the chemical elements found in the Sun and stars were also found on Earth.

Among those who extended the study of solar and stellar spectra was Norman Lockyer, who in 1868 detected bright, as well as dark, lines in solar spectra. Working with the chemist, Edward Frankland, to investigate the spectra of elements at various temperatures and pressures, he could not associate a yellow line in the solar spectrum with any known elements. He thus claimed the line represented a new element, which was called helium, after the Greek Helios, the Sun personified.[17][18]

In 1885, Edward C. Pickering undertook an ambitious program of stellar spectral classification at Harvard College Observatory, in which a team of woman computers, notably Williamina Fleming, Antonia Maury, and Annie Jump Cannon, classified the spectra recorded on photographic plates. By 1890, a catalog of over 10,000 stars had been prepared that grouped them into thirteen spectral types. Following Pickering’s vision, by 1924 Cannon expanded the catalog to nine volumes and over a quarter of a million stars, developing the Harvard Classification Scheme which was accepted for worldwide use in 1922.[19]

In 1895, George Ellery Hale and James E. Keeler, along with a group of ten associate editors from Europe and the United States,[20] established The Astrophysical Journal: An International Review of Spectroscopy and Astronomical Physics.[21] It was intended that the journal would fill the gap between journals in astronomy and physics, providing a venue for publication of articles on astronomical applications of the spectroscope; on laboratory research closely allied to astronomical physics, including wavelength determinations of metallic and gaseous spectra and experiments on radiation and absorption; on theories of the Sun, Moon, planets, comets, meteors, and nebulae; and on instrumentation for telescopes and laboratories.[20]

In 1925 Cecilia Helena Payne (later Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin) wrote an influential doctoral dissertation at Radcliffe College, in which she applied ionization theory to stellar atmospheres to relate the spectral classes to the temperature of stars.[22] Most significantly, she discovered that hydrogen and helium were the principal components of stars. This discovery was so unexpected that her dissertation readers convinced her to modify the conclusion before publication. However, later research confirmed her discovery.[23]

By the end of the 20th century, further study of stellar and experimental spectra advanced, particularly as a result of the advent of quantum physics.[24]

Observational astronomy is a division of the astronomical science that is concerned with recording data, in contrast with theoretical astrophysics, which is mainly concerned with finding out the measurable implications of physical models. It is the practice of observing celestial objects by using telescopes and other astronomical apparatus.

The majority of astrophysical observations are made using the electromagnetic spectrum.

Other than electromagnetic radiation, few things may be observed from the Earth that originate from great distances. A few gravitational wave observatories have been constructed, but gravitational waves are extremely difficult to detect. Neutrino observatories have also been built, primarily to study our Sun. Cosmic rays consisting of very high energy particles can be observed hitting the Earth’s atmosphere.

Observations can also vary in their time scale. Most optical observations take minutes to hours, so phenomena that change faster than this cannot readily be observed. However, historical data on some objects is available, spanning centuries or millennia. On the other hand, radio observations may look at events on a millisecond timescale (millisecond pulsars) or combine years of data (pulsar deceleration studies). The information obtained from these different timescales is very different.

The study of our very own Sun has a special place in observational astrophysics. Due to the tremendous distance of all other stars, the Sun can be observed in a kind of detail unparalleled by any other star. Our understanding of our own Sun serves as a guide to our understanding of other stars.

The topic of how stars change, or stellar evolution, is often modeled by placing the varieties of star types in their respective positions on the HertzsprungRussell diagram, which can be viewed as representing the state of a stellar object, from birth to destruction.

Theoretical astrophysicists use a wide variety of tools which include analytical models (for example, polytropes to approximate the behaviors of a star) and computational numerical simulations. Each has some advantages. Analytical models of a process are generally better for giving insight into the heart of what is going on. Numerical models can reveal the existence of phenomena and effects that would otherwise not be seen.[25][26]

Theorists in astrophysics endeavor to create theoretical models and figure out the observational consequences of those models. This helps allow observers to look for data that can refute a model or help in choosing between several alternate or conflicting models.

Theorists also try to generate or modify models to take into account new data. In the case of an inconsistency, the general tendency is to try to make minimal modifications to the model to fit the data. In some cases, a large amount of inconsistent data over time may lead to total abandonment of a model.

Topics studied by theoretical astrophysicists include: stellar dynamics and evolution; galaxy formation and evolution; magnetohydrodynamics; large-scale structure of matter in the universe; origin of cosmic rays; general relativity and physical cosmology, including string cosmology and astroparticle physics. Astrophysical relativity serves as a tool to gauge the properties of large scale structures for which gravitation plays a significant role in physical phenomena investigated and as the basis for black hole (astro)physics and the study of gravitational waves.

Some widely accepted and studied theories and models in astrophysics, now included in the Lambda-CDM model, are the Big Bang, cosmic inflation, dark matter, dark energy and fundamental theories of physics. Wormholes are examples of hypotheses which are yet to be proven (or disproven).

The roots of astrophysics can be found in the seventeenth century emergence of a unified physics, in which the same laws applied to the celestial and terrestrial realms.[10] There were scientists who were qualified in both physics and astronomy who laid the firm foundation for the current science of astrophysics. In modern times, students continue to be drawn to astrophysics due to its popularization by the Royal Astronomical Society and notable educators such as prominent professors Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Stephen Hawking, Hubert Reeves, Carl Sagan and Neil deGrasse Tyson. The efforts of the early, late, and present scientists continue to attract young people to study the history and science of astrophysics.[27][28][29]

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Astrophysics – Wikipedia

Home | UCLA Division of Astronomy & Astrophysics

Exploring the Frontiers of the Universe

Groundbreaking research, cutting-edge technology, award-winning faculty UCLAs Division of Astronomy & Astrophysics offers a rewarding environment to pursue higher education and topical research. All members of the Division carry out active research programs that garner widespread international recognition. Doctoral students can participate in a variety of research projects, which frequently incorporate observations with the worlds largest ground-based telescopes, orbiting observatories, and other astronomical facilities.

Our PhD recipients go on to highly productive careers in academia, government, industry and business. Many have obtained prestigious postdoctoral fellowships from entities such as the National Research Council, Hubble, NSF, Caltech Millikan, and Princeton Russell. UCLA faculty have access to numerous observational facilities, including the 10-m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii, and the Division has strong bonds with Physics, and with Earth, Planetary and Space Science.

Learn About Our Faculty

Capitalizing on our dynamic location, intellectual capital and the inextinguishable desire to effect real change, UCLA is a catalyst for innovation and economic growth. The impact UCLA has in just a single year is enormous.

The Astronomy Division needs your support. While UCLA is a public University, state funding has steadily decreased. Private giving can help us educate promising young scientists who will make the discoveries of tomorrow.

Giving to the Astronomy Division

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Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics – Home

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U of MN – Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics

Riess to Deliver Kaufmanis Lecture

Nobel Laureate Adam Riess will deliver the Kaufmanis Public Lecture on April 21, 2016 at 7:30 p.m. in the McNamara Alumni Center. Riess will speak on the topic of “Supernovae Reveal an Accelerating Universe.”

Riess, who is a Professor at John Hopkins University and a member of the Space Telescope Science Institute won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2011 for discovering that expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating, implying in the simplest interpretation, that the energy density is non-vanishing, even in the absence of any matter and radiation.

The Kaufmanis Lecture is presented in memory of beloved Professor of Astronomy Karlis Kaufmanis, bringing distinguished scientists to the campus to provide public lectures on the latest hot topics in research.

More information at http://www.astro.umn.edu/seminars/kaufmanis/

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U of MN – Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics

Astro-Physics / Telescopes, Cameras & Astronomy Products …

OPT is thrilled to be able to offer our customers Astro-Physics mounts and accessories. Astro-Physics is legendary in the astronomical community, and has been developing and building telescopes and accessories since 1975.

Astro-Physics mounts, such as the Mach1, 1600, and 3600GTO models, are designed for solid stability under a variety of observing conditions. At the same time, these mounts are truly portable so that they can be transported and set up quickly and accurately. AP mounts break down into manageable sizes, but when set up, they are extremely rugged and steady platforms. A very accurate worm gear set was designed to insure smooth, effortless tracking of celestial objects for all visual and photographic purposes.

AP accessories, including piers, saddle and dovetail plates, counterweights, and a wide range of adapters are designed for functionality and tested in the field under actual observing conditions. The OPT telescope staff is expert in matching the proper accessories to a telescope system for optimal performance. You can choose from any of the categories below to find quality Astro-Physics equipment, and if you need help or advice, just give us a call, start a chat, or send an email.

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Astro-Physics / Telescopes, Cameras & Astronomy Products …

MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research

TheMIT Kavli Institutepaves the way for new developments in space- & ground-based astrophysics. Our faculty, research staff, and students develop technology & instrumentation with a focus on an engineering and technical core.

We are comprised of theMIT Department of Physics,MIT School of Engineering, &MIT EAPS (Earth, Atmospheric & Planetary Sciences).

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MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research

Astrophysics at the NSSDCA – NASA

Recent News in Astrophysics

ESA’s Gaia mission launched successfully on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from Kourour, French Guiana at 09:12UT on 19December 2013. The mission is designed to measure the positions and velocity of roughly 1,000,000,000 stars as well as determine their temperature, composition, and other properties. More…

NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer(WISE) satellite has released data from the first 57% of the sky surveyed during the mission. The satellite went into hibernation in early February2011, but its discoveries include 20 comets, more than 33,000 asteroids between Mars and Jupiter, and 133 near-Earth objects. More…

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Astrophysics at the NSSDCA – NASA

Northwestern University Center for … – CIERA

Jan. 11 Special Seminar Tim Brandt Institute for Advanced Study Discovering and Characterizing Exoplanets with High-Contrast Spectroscopy More information… Jan. 14 Special Seminar Ian Stephens Boston University Uncovering the Link Between Magnetic Fields and Star Formation More information… Jan. 19 Special Seminar Jennifer Yee Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Probing Small Planets at Several AU with Microlensing More information…

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Northwestern University Center for … – CIERA

Astro-Physics Price List

Orders shipped to an Illinois address will be charged IL Sales Tax at 8.25%. No additional shipping charges for most shipments delivered to a U.S. address. All prices include freight and insurance to the 48 contiguous states unless otherwise noted. Most orders will be shipped via UPS Ground Service (United Parcel Service). UPS delivery to Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico is made by 2nd Day Air and will require an additional charge. Some accessory orders may be shipped via USPS (United States Postal Service). If you wish to receive your shipments faster or by alternate means, we will only charge you for the difference between our normal shipping costs and that of the desired service. If your order is shipped via United Parcel Service (UPS), you will receive an email from “Quantium View Notify” with tracking number data. If your order is shipped via a different service, you will be receiving a fax or e-mail directly from Astro-Physics.

Some of the items below refer to refractors and mounts that we no longer produce. We include them in our product descriptions for the convenience of those customers who continue to enjoy these instruments. These include: Refractors – 90mm f5 Stowaway, 105mm Traveler, Star12ED, Star130ED, 130mm StarFire EDT and EDF, Star155ED, 155mm StarFire EDT and EDF, 180 StarFire EDT and EDF, and 206 StarFire EDF Mounts – 800 German Equatorial, all models of the 400 mount and all models of the 600 mount

All prices, specifications and availability subject to change without notice.

Astro-Physics, Inc. 11250 Forest Hills Road, Machesney Park, IL 61115, U.S.A. Phone: 815-282-1513 Fax: 815-282-9847

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Astro-Physics Price List

Shop at OPT – Astro-Physics / Telescopes, Cameras …

OPT is thrilled to be able to offer our customers Astro-Physics mounts and accessories. Astro-Physics is legendary in the astronomical community, and has been developing and building telescopes and accessories since 1975.

Astro-Physics mounts, such as the Mach1, 1600, and 3600GTO models, are designed for solid stability under a variety of observing conditions. At the same time, these mounts are truly portable so that they can be transported and set up quickly and accurately. AP mounts break down into manageable sizes, but when set up, they are extremely rugged and steady platforms. A very accurate worm gear set was designed to insure smooth, effortless tracking of celestial objects for all visual and photographic purposes.

AP accessories, including piers, saddle and dovetail plates, counterweights, and a wide range of adapters are designed for functionality and tested in the field under actual observing conditions. The OPT telescope staff is expert in matching the proper accessories to a telescope system for optimal performance. You can choose from any of the categories below to find quality Astro-Physics equipment, and if you need help or advice, just give us a call, start a chat, or send an email.

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Shop at OPT – Astro-Physics / Telescopes, Cameras …

Submillimeter Wave Astrophysics at Caltech

Submillimeter wave astronomy is a relatively new branch of astronomy that studies celestial objects using the submillimeter band of the electromagnetic spectrum, which ranges from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm (300 GHz to 3000 GHz). This band, which lies between the far infrared and high-frequency radio bands, contains valuable astonomical information in both continuum and molecular spectral lines, but has been unavailable to astronomers until recently because most of the radiation is blocked by the Earth’s atmosphere. In order to overcome this barrier, submillimeter observatories are usually placed at high altitude.

The Caltech Submillimeter Wave Astrophysics group pursues research in all areas of submillimeter astronomy, including molecular spectroscopy, astrochemistry, star formation, and the structure and evolution of galaxies. With a strong tradition in instrumentation, the group operates the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with support from the NSF. The group also developed instruments for the Herschel Space Observatory.

Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics California Institute of Technology, 301-17 1200 East California Boulevard Pasadena, CA 91125 Phone: (626) 395-6608 Fax: (626) 796-8806

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Submillimeter Wave Astrophysics at Caltech

Astro-Physics – Buy Telescopes

Astro-Physics products can be shipped to overseas destinations except for the following countries: Australia, France, Germany, and Japan.

Astro-Physics is dedicated to the production and development of amateur telescopes and accessories. They strive to produce the highest possible quality telescope components at an affordable price. Astro-Physics builds optics, critical gears, circuit boards, and components including the knobs and fitting from scratch.

Astro-Physics offers a variety of telescope mounts andmount accessories, tube rings and photo / visual accessories.

The German Equatorial mounts Astro-Physics manufactures are: the Mach1GTO, 1100GTO, 1600GTOand 3600GTO. The Mach1GTO is compact, light-weight and portable. The 1100GTO German Equatorial Mount incorporates the design features of the 1600GTO in a smaller, more portable package.The 1600GTO can be used for basic configuration or with the optional Absolute Encoders it can go into demanding astro-imaging. The 3600GTO is the solution for imaging with large instruments or with a combined weight.

Mounting plates are another product of Astro-Physics. They produce an arrangement of dovetail mountings and fixed mountings. Astro-Physics also offer an array of accessories from counterweight shaft options, shaft extension and shaft safety parts, tripod, piers, power supplies and so much more. From the smallest accessory to the largest telescope mount you will find Astro-Physics products to be of the finest quality.

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Astro-Physics – Buy Telescopes

Cosmology & Astrophysics

If you have an interest in the physical properties of space, this is the place for you. Cosmology & astrophysics are sub-fields of astronomy, focusing on the properties of the universe as a whole (cosmology) and the physical or chemical properties of celestial bodies (astrophysics).

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Cosmology & Astrophysics

Astrophysics – Postgraduate taught degree programmes …

We ask that you apply online for a postgraduate taught degree. Our system allows you to fill out the standard application form online and submit this to the University within 42 days of starting your application.

You need to read the guide to applying onlinebefore starting your application. It will ensure you are ready to proceed, as well as answer many common questions about the process.

Do I have to apply online for a postgraduate taught degree?

Yes. To apply for a postgraduate taught degree you must apply online. We are unable to accept your application by any other means than online.

Do I need to complete and submit the application in a single session?

No. You have 42 days to submit your application once you begin the process. You may save and return to your application as many times as you wish to update information, complete sections or upload additional documents such as your final transcript or your language test.

What documents do I need to provide to make an application?

As well as completing your online application fully, it is essential that you submit the following documents:

If you do not have all of these documents at the time of submitting your application then it is still possible to make an application and provide any further documents at a later date, as long as you include a full current transcript (and an English translation if required) with your application. See the Your References, Transcripts and English Qualification sections of our Frequently Asked Questions for more information.

Do my supporting documents need to be submitted online?

Yes, where possible, please upload the supporting documents with your application.

How do I provide my references?

You must either upload the required references to your online application or ask your referees to send the references to the University as we do not contact referees directly. There is two main ways that you can provide references: you can either upload references on headed paper when you are making an application using the Online Application (or through Applicant Self-Service after you have submitted your application) or you can ask your referee to email the reference directly to pgadmissions@glasgow.ac.uk. See the ‘Your References, Transcripts and English Qualifications’ section of the Frequently Asked Questions for more information.

What if I am unable to submit all of my supporting documents online?

If you cannot upload an electronic copy of a document and need to send it in by post, please attach a cover sheet to it that includes your name, the programme you are applying for, and your application reference number.

You may send them to:

Recruitment & International Office 71 Southpark Avenue Glasgow G12 8QQ Fax: +44 141 330 4045

Can I email my supporting documents?

No. We cannot accept email submissions of your supporting documents.

What entry requirements should I have met before applying? Where can I find them?

You should check that you have met (or are likely to have met prior to the start of the programme) the individual entry requirements for the degree programme you are applying for. This information can be found on the entry requirements tab on each individual programme page, such as the one you are viewing now.

What English Language requirements should I have met before applying? Where can I find them?

If you are an international student, you should also check that you have met the English Language requirements specific to the programme you are applying for. These can also be found on the entry requirements tab for each specific programme.

Further Information

Please see the Frequently Asked Questions for more information on applying to a postgraduate taught programme.

These notes are intended to help you complete the online application form accurately, they are also available within the help section of the online application form.If you experience any difficulties accessing the online application then you should visit the Application Troubleshooting/FAQs page.

Classes start September 2016 and you may be expected to attend induction sessions the week before.

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Astrophysics authors/titles "new"

Authors: M. Montalto (1), N. Iro (3), N. C. Santos (1,2), S. Desidera (4), J. H. C. Martins (1,7), P. Figueira (1,2), R. Alonso (5,6). ((1) Instituto de Astrofsica e Cincias do Espao, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, PT4150-762 Porto, Portugal, (2) Departamento de Fsica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Cincias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, PT4169-007 Porto, Portugal, (3) Theoretical Meteorology group Klimacampus, University of Hamburg Grindelberg 5, 20144, (4) INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova, IT-35122, (5) Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, (6) Dpto. de Astrofsica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain, (7) European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura Casilla 19001, Santiago 19, Chile)

We report on novel observations of HAT-P-1 aimed at constraining the optical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of its transiting Hot-Jupiter exoplanet. Ground-based differential spectrophotometry was performed over two transit windows using the DOLORES spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). Our measurements imply an average planet to star radius ratio equal to $rm R_p/R_{star}$=(0.1159$pm$0.0005). This result is consistent with the value obtained from recent near infrared measurements of this object but differs from previously reported optical measurements being lower by around 4.4 exoplanet scale heights. Analyzing the data over 5 different spectral bins 600AA$,$ wide we observed a single peaked spectrum (3.7 $rmsigma$ level) with a blue cut-off corresponding to the blue edge of the broad absorption wing of sodium and an increased absorption in the region in between 6180-7400AA. We also infer that the width of the broad absorption wings due to alkali metals is likely narrower than the one implied by solar abundance clear atmospheric models. We interpret the result as evidence that HAT-P-1b has a partially clear atmosphere at optical wavelengths with a more modest contribution from an optical absorber than previously reported.

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Astrophysics authors/titles "new"

Astrophysics – arXiv

For a specific paper, enter the identifier into the top right search box.

Phenomena pertaining to galaxies or the Milky Way. Star clusters, galactic nebulae, the interstellar medium, clouds, dust. Galactic structure, formation, dynamics. Galactic nuclei, bulges, disks, halo. Active Galactic Nuclei, supermassive black holes, quasars. Gravitational lens systems. The Milky Way and its contents

Phenomenology of early universe, cosmic microwave background, cosmological parameters, primordial element abundances, extragalactic distance scale, large-scale structure of the universe. Groups, superclusters, voids, intergalactic medium. Particle astrophysics: dark energy, dark matter, baryogenesis, leptogenesis, inflationary models, reheating, monopoles, WIMPs, cosmic strings, primordial black holes, cosmological gravitational radiation

Interplanetary medium, planetary physics, planetary astrobiology, extrasolar planets, comets, asteroids, meteorites. Structure and formation of the solar system

Cosmic ray production, acceleration, propagation, detection. Gamma ray astronomy and bursts, X-rays, charged particles, supernovae and other explosive phenomena, stellar remnants and accretion systems, jets, microquasars, neutron stars, pulsars, black holes

Detector and telescope design, experiment proposals. Laboratory Astrophysics. Methods for data analysis, statistical methods. Software, database design

White dwarfs, brown dwarfs, cataclysmic variables. Star formation and protostellar systems, stellar astrobiology, binary and multiple systems of stars, stellar evolution and structure, populations, coronas. Stellar and planetary nebulae, helioseismology, solar neutrinos, production and detection of gravitational radiation from stellar systems

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Astrophysics – arXiv

Brian May – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brian May CBE Background information Birth name Brian Harold May Born (1947-07-19) 19 July 1947 (age68) Hampton, Middlesex, England Genres Rock Occupation(s) Musician, singer, songwriter, record producer, astrophysicist, author Instruments Guitars, keyboards, vocals Years active 1965present Labels Hollywood, Parlophone Associated acts Smile, Queen, Phenomena, G3, Black Sabbath, Queen + Paul Rodgers, Anita Dobson, Kerry Ellis, Queen + Adam Lambert, Lady Gaga Website brianmay.com Notable instruments

Brian Harold May, CBE (born 19 July 1947) is an English musician, singer, songwriter, and astrophysicist who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the rock band Queen. He uses a home-built electric guitar, called the Red Special. His compositions for the band include “We Will Rock You”, “Tie Your Mother Down”, “I Want It All”, “Fat Bottomed Girls”, “Flash”, “Save Me”, “Who Wants to Live Forever” and “The Show Must Go On”.

May was a founding member of Queen with lead singer Freddie Mercury and drummer Roger Taylor, having previously performed with Taylor in the band Smile, which he had joined while he was at university. Within five years of their formation in 1970, Queen had become established as one of the biggest rock bands in Britain with the album A Night at the Opera and its single “Bohemian Rhapsody”. From the mid-1970s until the early 1990s, Queen were an almost constant presence in the UK charts and played some of the biggest venues in the world, most notably giving an acclaimed performance at Live Aid in 1985. As a member of Queen, May became regarded as a virtuoso musician and he was identified with a distinctive sound created through his layered guitar work. Following the death of Mercury in 1991, Queen were put on hiatus for several years but were eventually reconvened by May and Taylor for further performances featuring other vocalists. In 2005, a Planet Rock poll saw May voted the 7th greatest guitarist of all time.[1] He was ranked at No. 26 on Rolling Stone magazine’s list of the “100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time”.[2] In 2012, May was ranked the 2nd greatest guitarist of all time by a Guitar World magazine readers poll.[3]

He was appointed a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 2005 for “services to the music industry and for charity work”.[4] May attained a PhD in astrophysics from Imperial College London in 2007 and was Chancellor of Liverpool John Moores University from 2008 to 2013.[5] He was a “science team collaborator” with NASA’s New Horizons Pluto mission.

May has homes in London and Windlesham, Surrey.[6] He is an active animal rights advocate and was appointed a vice-president of animal welfare charity the RSPCA in September 2012.[7]

Brian Harold May, the only child of Harold and Ruth May, was born in Hampton, London, and attended the local Hampton Grammar School, then a voluntary aided school (now independent and known as Hampton School).[8][9] He is of English and Scottish descent, with his mother being Scots.[10] During this time, he formed his first band, named 1984 after George Orwell’s novel of the same name, with vocalist and bassist Tim Staffell.[11] At Hampton Grammar School, he attained ten GCE Ordinary Levels and three A-Levels (Physics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics).[11] He studied Mathematics and Physics at Imperial College London, graduating with a BSc. in Physics with honours.[12][13]

May formed the band Smile in 1968. The group included Tim Staffell as the lead singer and bassist, and later, drummer Roger Taylor, who also went on to play for Queen. The band lasted for only two years, from 1968 to 1970, as Staffell departed in 1970, leaving the band with a catalogue of nine songs. Smile would reunite for several songs on 22 December, 1992. Taylor’s band The Cross were headliners, and he brought May and Staffell on to play “Earth” and “If I Were a Carpenter”.[14] May also performed several other songs that night.

Queen was formed in London in 1970, originally consisting of Freddie Mercury (lead vocals, piano), May (guitar, vocals), John Deacon (bass guitar), and Roger Taylor (drums, vocals). May also served as Queen’s backing vocalist.

In Queen’s three-part vocal harmonies, May was generally the lower-range backing vocals. On some of his songs, he sings the lead vocals, most notably the first verse of “Who Wants to Live Forever”, the final verse of “Mother Love”, the middle eight on “I Want It All” and “Flash’s Theme”, and full lead vocals on “Some Day One Day”, “She Makes Me (Stormtrooper in Stilettoes)”, “’39”, “Good Company”, “Long Away”, “All Dead, All Dead”, “Sleeping on the Sidewalk”, “Leaving Home Ain’t Easy” and “Sail Away Sweet Sister”.

Throughout Queen’s career, May frequently wrote songs for the band and has composed many worldwide hits such as “We Will Rock You”, “Tie Your Mother Down”, “I Want It All”, “Fat Bottomed Girls”, “Who Wants To Live Forever” and “The Show Must Go On” as well as writing significant hit songs “Hammer to Fall”, “Flash”, “Now I’m Here”, “Brighton Rock”, “The Prophet’s Song”, “Las Palabras de Amor”, “No-One But You” and “Save Me”. Typically, either Mercury or May wrote the most songs on every Queen album.

Excerpt from:

Brian May – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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