Commentary | Feb. 6, 2017
Should Christians face unethical uses of biotechnology with despair and resignation or with hope and determination?
Ive spent the last decade writing and speaking about the remarkable and terrifying world of biotechnology from a Catholic perspective. Many times Ive felt like Frodo Baggins at the gates of Mordor, looking upon Mt. Doom with despair and dread.
Ive never felt this more acutely than in the past few months. A series of recent headlines have renewed my sense of hopelessness in the face of the never-ending assault on the dignity of human life by modern biotechnology.
The gloom began to settle when it was revealed that a Swedish scientist is editing the DNA of healthy human embryos.Fredrik Lanner,a developmental biologist, is using a new gene-editing technique called CRISPR to disable some genes in healthy human embryos to see how those genes affect development. He and his team are intentionally modifyingotherwise healthy IVFembryos so they cannot develop properly.
Anin-depth story byNPRreveals that while the reporter was observing thegeneticmanipulation of five donated IVF embryos, one didnt survive the thawing process and one perished after being injected with the experimental gene-editing tool. Of the three who survived, one continued to divide, but not for long.All of the embryos were to be destroyedbefore they are 15 days old,as the law in Sweden dictates. Lanner insists that his research is critical to understanding human development, which, in turn, will shed light on infertility and disease.
Lanners work makes many ethicists and scientists extremely nervous. Jennifer Doudna, the co-inventor of CRISPR, along with other heavy-hitting scientists,havecalled for a voluntary moratorium on any editing of human embryosfor fear that it will lead to the creation of genetically modified children. Marcy Darnovsky, of the left-leaning Center for Genetics and Society, explains why she and her group havebeen so vocal in their opposition to the modification of human embryos. She told NPR: The production of genetically modified human embryos is actually quite dangerous. ... When youre editing the genes of human embryos, that means youre changing the genes of every cell in the bodies of every offspring, every future generation of that human being. So these are permanent and probably irreversible changes that we just dont know what they would mean.
Then came the revelation that a U.S. doctor traveled to Mexico to create the first baby intentionally engineered to have three genetic parents. This technique, misnamed mitochondrial replacement or MR, seeks to eliminate the transmission of genetic disease through the mitochondria.Mitochondria are small but abundant organellesoutside the nucleusinthe cytoplasmof our cells that make energy. They have their own DNA called mtDNA. We inherit our mtDNA solely from our mothers. A woman who carries a deleterious mutation in her mtDNA cannot help but pass that on to her offspring.
There are various MR techniques that replace the mitochondria of a woman with mitochondrial disease with the mitochondria of a donor femalein the IVF process.Essentially, MR creates a genetically alteredembryo with the genetic material from three people, one man and two women.
MR had only undergone limited study in primates before getting approval in the United Kingdom for use in fertility clinics to make babies. Little is known about the complexcommunication between the DNA in the nucleus and the DNA in the mitochondria,and so there is little data on the effects ofa mismatch between the nuclear DNA and mtDNA.
Alsoin all MR, its the nucleus thats being moved from cell to cell, not the mitochondria which is why mitochondrial replacement is such a misnomer.This makes MR acousin to cloning, which also transplants the nucleus of one cell into anotherto make a new organism. MR brings with it many of the same risks.Scientists are concerned about the health of the resulting children.
In anopen letterto the U.K. Parliament, Dr. Paul Knoepfler, a vocal American stem-cell researcher, warned: Even if, hypothetically, this technology might help avoid some people from having mitochondrial disorders (and thats a big if), the bottom line is that there is an equal or arguably greater chance that it will tragically produce very ill or deceased babies.
MRis also a germ-line genetic modification, which means that any girl born with this technique will pass her genetic modification on to her children.
A recent review in Nature reveals that MR leaves a tiny percentage of mutant mitochondria behind, and sometimes the mutant mitochondria rapidly divide and overtake the healthy mitochondria. Shoukhrat Mitalipov, head of the Center for Embryonic Cell and Gene Therapy at the Oregon Health and Science University, reported a 15% failure rate where mitochondrial defects returned. Mitalipov told NPR, That original, maternal mitochondrial DNA took over, and it was pretty drastic. There was less than 1% of the original maternal mitochondrial DNA present after replacement with donor DNA and before fertilization, and yet it took over the whole cell later. University of California San Francisco professor Patrick OFarrell suggests that mutant mitochondria can resurge at any time in a developing three-parent child or even resurface in future generations.
For all these reasons, MR is not yet approved by the FDA in the United States,and may never be.So, when a Jordanian woman with mitochondrial disease wanted to have a child using MR, John Zhang, from the New Hope Fertility Center in New York City, had to perform the procedure in Mexico. He created five embryos,and, according toNewScientist.com,only one developed normally. That child is now 9 months old.
Zhang went to Mexico because, he said, there are no rules, and yet he insists he did the safe and ethical thingin the absence of any medical or ethical oversight. In an ironic twist, the couple is Muslim and so chose the MR technique that wouldnt destroy existing embryos.But it was clear that only male embryos would be transferred for gestation, because boys cant pass on the genetic modification. What happened to the other four embryos, however? Were they destroyed,discarded or frozen? If they were females, would they have been destroyed anyway to make sure they couldnt pass on any ill effects?
Darnovskycalledthis rogue experimentationand added, No researcher or doctor has the right to flout agreed-upon rules and make up their own. This is an irresponsible and unethical act.
Knoepflerrespondedto the news by remindingus that this is a living human experiment that is going to unfold over years and decades. It is also worth noting that this child is a genetically modified human being as a result of this technique.
Of course, these are happenings to despair of not only because of the sheer disregard for the sanctity of individual human lives, but because of the breakneck speed at which scientists are kicking ethical lines farther and farther down the road like a tin can. All the while, they insist that its for the good of humanity. I wonder: How can wetreatindividual members of the human species so callously and then, at the same time, say its for the good of the whole human race?
I fear there is no line we wont cross;no ethical boundary wewonttear down in the name of science.
On a daily basis, Im surrounded by science and scientists. Often, their response to this madness is that its going to happen anyway, and theres no way to stop it, which implies we must go along to get along all in the name of progress.
If I am Frodo, then they and the rest of society are Saruman giving in to the despair and making a deal with Sauron.In the film version of The Lord of the Rings, Saruman says to Gandalf: Against the power of Mordor there can be no victory. We must join with him, Gandalf. We must join with Sauron. It would be wise, my friend.
Gandalf replies, Tell me, friend, when did Saruman the Wise abandon reason for madness?
Indeed. When did science abandon reason for madness, ethics for recklessness?
So what shall we do? If wesuccumb to despair, we become like Saruman.
We always have prayer. Its time toadd human embryonic research and germ-line human genetic engineering to our list of life issues that we pray about.It doesnt matter whether we understand the finer points of the science or not.Praying for an end to abortion andassisted suicide is nolongerenough.
In addition to prayer, there are other things we can do. The first is to vote pro-life at every level of government, from city council to state assemblymen. Being pro-life isnt just about abortion, however. Its about protecting the sanctity of life from the beginning to the end. Pro-life legislators, even if they cannot overturn Roe v. Wade, can effect local and state laws and steer funding away from unethical research.
Secondly, we must fight for conscience rights for medical professionals. I envision a not-so-far-off world wheredoctorsare forced into making genetically engineered embryos and bringing these children to term simply because parents claim its their reproductive right to have the children of their design. Without conscience rights, unethical experimentation on the next generation will be rampant and unchecked.
We must, however, always have hope. Whenstaring downthe juggernaut that is modern biotechnology, I always remember Frodo Baggins.When he was faced with the seemingly impossible task of taking the One Ring to Mordor, instead of shying away because it was too hard, he said: I will take the Ring, though I do not know the way.
Rebecca Tayloris a
clinical laboratory specialist in molecular biology.
She writes about bioethics on her blog,Mary Meets Dolly.
- Human genetic enhancement - Wikipedia - October 19th, 2021
- 16 Advantages and Disadvantages of Human Genetic Engineering - June 23rd, 2021
- Engineering Illusions Part I: Religion and Technology III - Medium - April 9th, 2021
- Genetic Engineering in Humans - Curing Diseases and ... - March 9th, 2020
- Human Genetic Engineering - AllAboutPopularIssues.org - March 9th, 2020
- Human Genetic Engineering Probe Ministries - March 9th, 2020
- Human Genetic Engineering Facts - August 14th, 2017
- The ethics of creating GMO humans | The Spokesman-Review - The Spokesman-Review - August 6th, 2017
- Human Genetic Engineering Cons - July 26th, 2017
- China unveils technology to create SUPER-HUMANS via hyper-muscular test-tube dogs - Express.co.uk - July 19th, 2017
- The Scopes Monkey Trial and global warming: Same playbook, different football - Baptist News Global - July 14th, 2017
- Science and Scientists on the Vineyard: Genes at play with CRISPR - Martha's Vineyard Times - June 17th, 2017
- Two Representatives Offer A Look At How Congress Is Doing - WNIJ and WNIU - June 16th, 2017
- 'Knights of Sidonia' is the Pinnacle of Gritty Mecha Anime - Inverse - June 12th, 2017
- Technosplit: The bifurcation of humanity - Salon - June 5th, 2017
- Breakthrough Regenerative Therapeutics Company Establishes Scientific Advisory Board - PR Newswire (press release) - May 4th, 2017
- Ethical Implications of Human Genetic Engineering | SAGE - April 19th, 2017
- Human Genetic Engineering on the Doorstep - hgalert.org - April 15th, 2017
- The Threat of Human Genetic Engineering - hgalert.org - April 12th, 2017
- Gene Editing Could Make You Smarter - Futurism - Futurism - March 1st, 2017
- Human-pig hybrids might be unsettling. But they could save lives. - Washington Post - February 6th, 2017
- 5 Key Pros and Cons of Human Genetic Engineering | NLCATP.org - November 21st, 2016
- Gene therapy - Wikipedia - October 25th, 2016
- Human Genetic Engineering: A Guide for Activists, Skeptics ... - September 20th, 2016
- Human Genetic Engineering - The Future of Human Evolution - March 25th, 2016
- Human Genetic Engineering : History - December 22nd, 2015
- 00.03.07: Human Cloning, Genetic Engineering and Privacy - October 16th, 2015
- Online Debate: Human genetic engineering is a good thing ... - October 16th, 2015
- Bioethics Of Human Genetic Engineering - Documentary Video ... - September 30th, 2015
- Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering in Humans - Part 1 - August 29th, 2015
- Genetic Engineering - humans, body, used, process, plants ... - August 27th, 2015
- Genetic Engineering In Humans - August 27th, 2015
- Human Nature on Collision Course with Genetic Engineering ... - August 27th, 2015
- Human Genetic Engineering Cons: Why This Branch of Science ... - August 19th, 2015
- Human Genetics Alert - Human Genetic Engineering resources - August 19th, 2015
- Genetic engineering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - August 4th, 2015
- Benefits of Human Genetic Engineering - Popular Issues - August 4th, 2015
- Human Genetics - July 31st, 2015
- Human Genetic Engineering Pros And Cons - July 31st, 2015
- Gene therapy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - July 28th, 2015
- Human Genetic Engineering - Popular Issues - July 28th, 2015
- Human Genetics Alert - The Threat of Human Genetic Engineering - July 28th, 2015
- Human Genetic Engineering - Popular Issues ... - February 16th, 2015
- Human Genetic Engineering - Buzzle - February 12th, 2015
- Pros and Cons of Genetic Engineering in Humans - February 12th, 2015
- Human Genetic Engineering History - February 12th, 2015
- Benefits of Human Genetic Engineering - Popular Issues ... - February 12th, 2015