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The Evolutionary Perspective
Category Archives: Food Supplements
Posted: August 28, 2021 at 11:45 am
Lutein is a type of carotenoid that has antioxidant properties and can provide various health benefits.
The most researched benefit of lutein is related to eye health, but it has also been linked to heart health, improved cognitive function, and reduced risk of certain types of cancer.
This article explores everything you need to know about lutein, including food sources of it, supplements, health benefits, and potential risks.
Lutein is a xanthophyll, or an oxygen-containing carotenoid. Carotenoids are responsible for the naturally occurring yellow, orange, and red pigments found in foods. They are considered an essential nutrient since our bodies cant make them, we must get them through food (1).
There are two types of carotenoids. Xanthophylls, which contain oxygen and usually contribute to yellow pigments, and carotenes, which dont contain oxygen and tend to contribute to orange pigments.
Lutein is found in the retina of the eye, along with another xanthophyll, zeaxanthin. Because these carotenoids are found concentrated in the back of the eye, they are known as macular pigments and may be beneficial for eye health (1).
Lutein has antioxidant properties that may also play a role in cognitive function, heart health, and the prevention of some cancers, though more studies are needed (1).
The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) is an often-cited study on lutein and eye health. Researchers looked at specific formulations of supplements and their impact on age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
A supplement containing lutein and zeaxanthin reduced the occurrence of advanced AMD by 25% over 5 years in people who already had AMD. In people without AMD, the supplement did not prevent or treat the condition (2).
Beta carotene, another carotenoid linked to eye health, was originally used in the supplement but was found to increase the risk of lung cancer in people who smoke.
Swapping out beta carotene for lutein and zeaxanthin was just as beneficial for eye health and did not increase lung cancer risk (2, 3).
Another eye-health plus for lutein is that its an antioxidant. Inflammation and oxidative stress are related to eye conditions such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and macular degeneration.
Lutein has antioxidant properties, and studies have found it to be significantly effective in the prevention of these eye conditions (4, 5, 6).
Additionally, research suggests that lutein is important for babies eye development during pregnancy and for vision throughout their lifespan, though more research is needed to determine the optimal dose for pregnant and breastfeeding women (7).
Lastly, lutein may be an effective treatment for dry eyes, though more studies in this area are needed (8).
High dietary intakes of lutein, as well as high levels of circulating lutein, have been associated with better heart health (9).
One study associated lutein and zeaxanthin with improvements in clinical markers in patients with heart disease. Researchers believe the anti-inflammatory properties were beneficial and suggest continued research in this area (10).
Another study found that daily supplementation of 20 mg of lutein for 3 months was associated with a decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels, both of which are known risk factors for heart disease (11).
However, research on lutein and heart health is mixed overall, and some studies have found no correlation at all. More research, specifically in humans, is needed to determine luteins role in heart health (3, 12).
Lutein, along with other carotenoids, may improve cancer prognosis (13).
One study found that a high intake of lutein, along with other nutrients found in fruits and vegetables, was associated with a decreased risk of pancreatic cancer (14).
Additionally, lutein, along with other carotenoids, may be protective against breast cancer as well as head and neck cancer (15, 16, 17).
Overall, research on lutein and its benefits relating to cancer is promising but not definitive, and more human studies are needed (18).
Research indicates that a high dietary intake and high circulating levels of lutein are associated with both better cognitive performance and enhanced memory (19, 20, 21).
One study found that a daily supplement including 10 mg of lutein along with zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin was effective in improving memory over the course of 1 year (22).
Carotenoids overall may play a protective role in preventing neurodegenerative diseases, too, meaning they may help promote brain health in older age, though the research is still mixed (3, 23).
Lutein is generally found in dark, leafy green vegetables and yellow-pigmented foods. Because its a fat-soluble nutrient, you need to consume some fat to absorb the lutein you eat.
Some lutein-rich food sources are (6):
Because lutein is fat-soluble, your body will absorb it best when you eat it with other foods, particularly foods containing fat. However, if you prefer, lutein is available in supplement form, often in conjunction with zeaxanthin or as a part of the AREDS-2 formulation for eye health.
A typical diet contains 13 mg of lutein per day, but most benefits have been shown at 6 mg per day, which can be achieved through consuming food sources of lutein (6).
Most supplements contain 20 mg or more, which is much higher than the amount needed to get the benefits of lutein. However, most studies on lutein have used doses from 1040 mg per day and have not found any adverse effects (5).
Lutein is categorized as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS), meaning that research has not found a significant link between regular lutein consumption and adverse side effects.
However, high intakes of xanthophylls, in general, have been linked to an increased risk of skin and stomach cancers.
While results from these studies were not found to be significant, more research is needed to confirm safe and optimal doses of xanthophylls such as lutein (5, 24, 25).
Before adding lutein supplements to your diet, its a good idea to talk with your doctor.
Lutein is a type of carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties that have been shown to be beneficial for eye health, cognitive function, and heart health and may even help decrease the risk of some cancers.
However, while some of the research is promising, most if it is not definitive and more studies are needed to confirm some of these benefits.
Foods such as dark, leafy greens and egg yolks are great sources of lutein. While you can find lutein in supplement form, it is possible to consume enough lutein through diet alone.
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Posted: at 11:45 am
When youre struggling to lose weight, it might be tempting to want to try every pill and potion on the internet that promises to blast, burn or melt the pounds away in a matter of weeks. The thing is, those concoctions could make things worse instead of better. So whats the skinny on herbal weight loss supplements? Obesity medicine physician Shweta Diwakar, MD, helps us understand how they work and why its better to stick with a supervised weight loss program.
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According to Dr. Diwakar, there is a lack of high-quality evidence to suggest how herbal weight loss supplements work.
Herbal supplements claim to cause weight loss through:
Most herbal supplements have limited or no consistent data to support long-term weight loss efficacy and safety. They also have the potential for adverse interactions between supplements and prescription medications. Unlike medications, supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent or cure diseases. Therefore, claims such as reduces pain or treats heart disease arent substantiated. Claims like these can only legitimately be made for drugs that go through scientific rigor, a process thats not routinely followed for dietary supplements, says Dr. Diwakar.
One mistake that people make is thinking that herbal supplements are good for them because the ingredients arent synthetic. Dr. Diwakar points out that herbs are not always safe just because theyre natural. In fact, increased herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use is directly proportional to increased HDS-induced liver injuries.
HDS-induced liver injuries account for about 20% of the cases of liver damage in the U.S. The major implicated ingredients for these cases include anabolic steroids and green tea extract. Many weight loss supplements that are considered unsafe can be found online. Its important to recognize that these products can come with associated risks.
If youre getting an herbal product from a retail chain, keep in mind that the salesperson might have limited knowledge about how the product works. They also might not be aware of reported problems or how the herbs might interact with medications that you may be taking. Many herbal manufacturers also make false claims about the health benefits of these products. For all of these reasons and the lack of proven health benefits, its best to avoid herbal weight loss supplements or to talk to your healthcare provider about other options.
Other things to keep in mind should you still decide to try an herbal weight loss supplement:
Here are some key points about common herbal weight loss products and some insights as to their effectiveness as weight loss agents.
Ephedrine: Ephedrine is a common ingredient in herbal dietary supplements used for weight loss. Its also an ingredient found in asthma medicine. In addition, ephedrine is used to make methamphetamine or speed.
Ephedrine can slightly decrease your appetite, but no studies have shown it to be effective in weight loss. Ephedrine can be dangerous. It can cause high blood pressure, changes in heart rate, trouble sleeping, nervousness, tremors, seizures, heart attacks, strokes and even death. Ephedrine can also interact with many prescription and over-the-counter medications. In the US, ephedra-containing dietary supplements are no longer available.
St. Johns wort: St. Johns wort, also called hypericum, is a plant that has been used for centuries to treat mental disorders, nerve pain, malaria, insect bites, wounds, burns and other conditions. More recently, St. Johns wort has been studied to treat depression, but studies have shown that it was no more effective than a placebo.
There arent too many studies that examine the use of St. Johns wort as a weight-loss agent. However, keep in mind that it shouldnt be combined with anything that contains tyramine aged cheeses, cured or processed meats, wine, pickled or fermented vegetables and citrus or tropical fruit to name a few.
It also shouldnt be combined with:
Overall, using St. Johns wort for weight loss isnt a good idea because its potentially very dangerous.
5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) is found in some over-the-counter weight loss formulas. This extract from a West African plant seed contains an ingredient that is linked to a rare and potentially deadly blood disorder. It has not been proven to be an effective weight-loss agent. Until more is known, 5-HTP products should be avoided.
Chitosan: This dietary supplement is made from chitin, a starch found in the skeleton of shrimp, crab, and other shellfish. Chitosan binds with fat in fatty food, moves it through the digestive tract and then, the fat is passed out of the body in bowel movements. Some research suggests that combining chitosan with a calorie-restricted diet might result in a small amount of weight loss. But taking chitosan without reducing caloric intake doesnt appear to cause weight loss. People with shellfish allergies might be allergic to chitosan as well.
Pyruvate: Pyruvate is formed when the body digests carbohydrates and proteins. Some research suggests that it may promote slight weight loss. Found in the form of pyruvic acid, pyruvate is in many different types of foods, including red apples, cheese, and red wine. Pyruvate appears to be safe, but its claims of boosting metabolism, decreasing appetite and aiding in weight loss need further study.
Aloe: Aloe, or aloe vera, is a plant that is related to cacti. Oral forms of aloe are added to herbal weight-loss products. Oral aloe causes bowel movements and many aloe weight-loss products are marketed as internal cleansers. Aloe supplements have not been proven to promote permanent weight loss. Taking oral aloe can lead to side effects such as abdominal cramping, diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and decreases in potassium. Therefore, taking oral aloe is likely unsafe, especially at high doses.
Cascara: Cascara is only marketed as a dietary supplement. It is a common ingredient in weight loss products and is mostly used as a laxative for constipation. Misuse of this herb can cause disturbances in electrolytes (such as potassium and sodium). Electrolytes help your body maintain normal functioning. Do not take if you are pregnant or lactating (can be passed into breast milk). Cascara may interact with medications such as digoxin and diuretics.
Dandelion: Dandelion is a natural diuretic (a substance that makes you urinate more often). This is how it causes weight loss. Dandelion has been known to cause allergic reactions. People who are allergic to ragweed and related plants (daisies, chrysanthemums, marigolds) are likely to be allergic to dandelion.
Glucomannan: Glucomannan is a sugar made from the root of the konjac plant (Amorphophallus konjac). It is available in powder, capsules, and tablet forms. Glucomannan might work in the stomach and intestines by absorbing water to form a bulky fiber that treats constipation. It may also slow the absorption of sugar and cholesterol from the gut. Glucomannan tablets are not considered safe as they can sometimes cause blockages of the throat or intestines. Glucomannan may interfere with blood sugar control. Blood sugar should be closely monitored if you have diabetes and use glucomannan.
Guarana: Made from the seeds of a plant native to Brazil, guarana is an effective central nervous system stimulant. It is used as a weight loss product due to its stimulant and diuretic effects. Guarana contains caffeine and may cause high blood pressure. Some of the extracts have been known to interact with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin [Coumadin]) and lengthen the bleeding time in the event of a health emergency. Many advertisements state that guarana is free from side effects; however, this statement is not true. Side effects may include nausea, dizziness, and anxiety.
Yerba mate: Also known as Paraguay tea, yerba mate is a strong central nervous system stimulant (the doses typically used mimic that of 100 to 200 milligrams of caffeine). The main reported side effects excessive central nervous system stimulation (speeding up the bodys mental and physical activity) and high blood pressure. Yerba mate has not been proven as a weight-loss aid. A few cases of poisoning, which led to hospitalization, have been reported with the use of this product. When taken in large amounts or for long periods, yerba mate increases the risk of mouth, esophageal, laryngeal, kidney, bladder and lung cancers. This risk is especially high for people who smoke or drink alcohol.
Guar gum: Also known as guar, guar flour, and jaguar gum, guar gum is a dietary fiber obtained from the Indian cluster bean. Guar gum is often used as a thickening agent for foods and drugs. It has been studied for decreasing cholesterol, managing diabetes and weight loss. As a weight-loss product, it helps move foods through the digestive tract and firms up stool. It can decrease appetite by providing a feeling of fullness. However, like glucomannan, guar gum and guar gum preparations have been linked to causing blockages in the esophagus. The water-retaining ability of the gum permits it to swell to 10- to 20-fold and has led to gastrointestinal blockages. Guar gum can also cause large swings in blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetic patients should avoid this ingredient.
Herbal diuretics: Many herbal diuretics are commonly found in over-the-counter (OTC) weight-loss products and herbal weight-loss products. Most of the diuretics used OTC come from xanthine alkaloids (like caffeine or theobromine). Avoid anything that contains juniper seeds (capable of causing renal damage), equistine (neurotoxic and can cause brain damage) and horsetail/shave grass (contain several dangerous ingredients that can lead to convulsions or hyperactivity).
Herbal diuretics can interact with certain drugs like lithium, digoxin, or conventional diuretics such as furosemide or hydrochlorothiazide. They also do not provide enough water loss to be considered effective weight loss aids.
While many products out there suggest that they can help you lose weight fast, they can also come with a slew of health concerns. If you need help with starting your weight loss journey, talk to your provider. They can steer you in the right direction and help you find a program that is safe and effective.
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Surprising Side Effects of Taking Melatonin Supplements, Says Science | Eat This Not That – Eat This, Not That
Posted: at 11:45 am
Melatonin is a hormone that is produced in the brain. It regulates the body's circadian rhythm, hormones secreted by the endocrine system, and sleep patterns.
Experts may recommend a melatonin supplement for certain conditions like jet lag or insomnia, but those supplements are synthetically made in a laboratory. (For natural sleep-supporting supplements, check out these 5 Absolute Best Foods to Eat For Better Sleep.) Usually, the supplements come in pill form, but they can also be found in a form that you place in the cheek or under your tongue so it gets absorbed quickly into the body.
If you're looking to take melatonin, here are 5 side effects that you may experience. Read on, and for more on how to eat healthy, don't miss 7 Healthiest Foods to Eat Right Now.
Some folks have trouble falling asleep at a usual bedtime. Research shows that taking melatonin supplements can help reduce the length of time young adults and kids fall asleep (in those who have trouble falling asleep). It should be noted that this supplement is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and should only be used in children and adults after speaking with a medical doctor.
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If you take melatonin during the day, it can cause sleepiness. This is why when you take it matters. It is advised not to drive or use machinery for 4 to 5 hours after taking the supplement.
When taken orally, melatonin has been reported to have side effects like nausea, abdominal cramps, mild abdominal pain, diarrhea, decreased appetite, and/or constipation. Oftentimes these symptoms happen within the first few days of taking the supplement and then subside after a few days.
READ MORE:The Best Supplements for Digestion, According to Dietitians
When taken orally, melatonin has been reported to cause migraine-like headaches or dizziness, especially during the first few days. The symptoms tend to be more common when melatonin is taken in the morning or at high doses (greater than 50mg).
Taking 2 to 3 milligrams of melatonin daily when traveling to a different time zone seems to improve alertness and reduce daytime sleepiness in those with jet lag. There is also some evidence that melatonin supplements may help improve other jet lag symptoms including fatigue.
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Posted: at 11:45 am
Protein powder is one of the top nutrition supplements on the market.
Some people use it to support muscle growth, and others use it because they want to consume more protein than theyre getting from food alone. Protein powder can be part of a balanced diet.
However, you may wonder if consuming a lot of protein powder can be harmful. The short answer is no, but it may have minor side effects.
This article discusses whether consuming too much protein powder is dangerous, reviews the research on its side effects, and examines some misconceptions about protein powder.
Protein powders are concentrated forms of protein from animal or plant sources. You can buy them at many health food stores and online, and theres a wide range of brands, types, and flavors to choose from.
Animal-based protein powders are usually made of two milk proteins called whey and casein, with whey being more popular. While less common, protein powders containing beef or chicken protein are also available.
Whey protein powder is isolated from whey, a liquid byproduct of cheese making that manufacturers spray-dry into a powder (1, 2).
Plant protein powders can be made from various plant-based proteins, such as brown rice, pea, soy, and hemp. Typically, plant-based protein powders contain a blend of plant proteins (3).
Both types of protein powder will generally provide 2030 grams of protein per scoop, so they are a great way to get additional protein in your diet. They also commonly contain added vitamins, flavors, and sweeteners.
People often use protein powder after workouts to support muscle growth. Your muscles need enough protein to rebuild muscle tissue after a strength training workout (4, 5, 6, 7).
You might use it if you have difficulty meeting your daily protein needs through food alone for example, if you arent eating large amounts of food or youre following a vegan diet (8, 9, 10).
That said, if youre getting enough protein through food, its unlikely that youll see much benefit from taking protein powder.
The DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) for protein is 0.36 grams of protein per pound (0.8 grams per kg) of your body weight per day.
However, if youre aiming to build muscle, this can go up to 0.60.9 grams per pound (1.42.0 grams per kg) per day. A good general rule is to try to get 2040 grams of protein per meal (4, 5, 11, 12).
Protein powder is a concentrated form of protein from plant or animal sources. Available types include whey, casein, pea, soy, and rice.
Simply put, protein powder is not bad for you.
Its a convenient source of protein that helps many people meet their daily protein needs.
Of course, if you have allergies to a certain type of protein or other ingredients in a protein powder, then it will cause you to have an allergic reaction. In that case, you should avoid that type of protein powder.
The ingredients in protein powders vary significantly among brands and products.
While the Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplements such as protein powder, manufacturers are responsible for evaluating the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of their products (13, 14).
This means that the labels on protein powders and other dietary supplements could provide misleading ingredient or product information. In fact, one study found that numerous protein powders actually contained lower-cost proteins such as chicken, rice, and soy (15).
Though this is rare, protein powders may sometimes contain harmful ingredients or substances that have been banned in sports. Fortunately, many reputable protein powder brands use third-party testing to demonstrate their products safety and transparency (16).
Try to select a protein powder from a reputable company with third-party testing. And make an effort to eat a balanced diet that includes plenty of protein-rich whole foods, such as lean meats, poultry, eggs, beans, lentils, tofu, nuts, and seeds.
Protein powder is not bad for you. Some protein powders may contain unwanted or harmful ingredients, but this is rare. Be sure to buy powders that have been through third-party testing they will say this on the label.
You might be worried about taking too much protein powder because youve heard that it affects your liver, kidneys, or bones. But research has shown that these claims are false.
Heres a look at these misconceptions in detail.
One major concern some people raise about taking protein powder is that it affects the kidneys and liver.
Experts once thought that too much protein could damage the kidneys and liver in healthy people, but many recent studies have disproven this (17, 18, 19, 20).
In one study, 48 men and women consumed a high protein diet from both food and whey-beef protein powder during an 8-week heavy resistance training program. Those who took the protein powder didnt have any difference in kidney function (21).
However, those with kidney disease or decreased kidney function have more difficulty excreting protein waste products in their urine and will need to monitor their protein intake.
Decreased kidney function is defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of less than 90 (22, 23).
Therefore, unless you have chronic kidney disease or decreased kidney function, consuming protein powder and other high protein foods is likely safe.
People once thought a high protein diet was harmful for bone health. This myth was rooted in the idea that proteins high acid content stripped bones of their calcium, leading to high calcium levels in the urine and weaker bones (24).
However, current research suggests that a high protein diet may actually boost bone health.
Researchers believe it does this by promoting calcium absorption, supporting the growth of skeletal muscle mass, and preserving bone mass during weight loss (24, 25, 26, 27).
In an 18-month high quality study, 280 older men and women consumed 45 grams of whey protein or a placebo each day. Results showed no differences in bone composition between the groups (28).
Interestingly, the whey protein group preserved significantly more muscle mass, suggesting that protein may help reduce age-related muscle loss. This may benefit bone health by allowing aging people to stay active longer (28).
To date, there is no evidence that consuming protein powder or high protein foods is harmful to bone, liver, or kidney health. If you have kidney issues, speak with a doctor before taking protein powder to make sure its safe for you.
Protein powders are generally recognized as safe, although you may experience digestive side effects if you consume large amounts of protein powder.
If youre lactose intolerant or otherwise sensitive to lactose, dairy-based protein powder may lead to stomach upset, bloating, and gas. Instead, opt for a plant-based protein powder or try whey protein isolate, which is much lower in lactose than other dairy protein powders (29).
If you want to use plant-based protein powder, read the ingredient label carefully to identify any potential food allergens or sensitivities. For example, soy and gluten are common allergens found in plant-based protein powders (30).
Furthermore, those who have irritable bowel syndrome or are sensitive to FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols) may experience bloating and cramping from pea protein powder or powders with added sugar alcohols (31).
Companies may add sugar alcohols as low calorie sweeteners.
Trial and error will help you determine the best protein powder for you.
The main side effects of consuming a lot of protein powder are digestive issues such as bloating, gas, and cramping. If you have any food sensitivities, be sure to read the label first.
Most peoples bodies can process excess protein from food and supplements and can safely tolerate 1.141.5 grams per pound (2.53.3 grams per kg) of protein per day (4, 32).
However, more research is needed to investigate an upper limit for protein powder consumption.
Until then, if you want to use protein powder, stick to 12 servings per day and get the rest of your protein through food.
Theres no known safety limit for protein powder. Most research shows healthy people can tolerate up to 1.5 grams of protein per pound (3.3 grams per kg) of body weight per day from both food and protein supplements with no side effects.
Protein is important for growth and development during childhood and adolescence. Most experts agree that children and teens should get their protein from food sources such as (33, 34, 35):
In some cases, a healthcare professional might recommend that a child take a protein supplement, such as PediaSure, if the child is malnourished, is a picky eater, or has strict dietary restrictions.
While there is no data to suggest that protein powder is harmful to children and teens, relying on protein powder and supplements may displace nutritious, whole foods in the diet. Therefore, protein-rich whole foods should come first (36).
If youre concerned that your child or teen isnt getting enough protein, speak with a registered dietitian, a qualified nutritionist, or your childs doctor.
Children and teens should aim to get their protein from food first to ensure theyre getting enough calories and nutrients. A healthcare professional may recommend a protein supplement for picky eaters or those with malnutrition.
Protein powder can be a great addition to a balanced diet. However, here are a few important considerations.
It might feel overwhelming to choose a protein powder from the many available options online or at the health food store. Here are a few things you can do to make it easier:
Though protein powder can be a great addition to your diet, you dont need to consume it to be healthy.
Whole, protein-rich foods contain vitamins and minerals that are important for health. Whats more, they take longer to digest than protein powder, so they may make you feel full longer.
On the other hand, protein powder is considered predigested and will leave your stomach more quickly after you consume it than whole foods do (37).
Instead, use protein powder to supplement your balanced diet at times when you may not be able to meet your protein needs.
When shopping for a protein powder, look at the label to ensure the product has been third-party tested and doesnt contain any unwanted ingredients. Ideally, use protein powder in addition to a nutritious diet, not as a replacement for one.
If youve ever wondered whether protein powder is safe to use, you can rest assured that it is.
Due to protein powders popularity, many research studies have investigated its safety and effectiveness. Theyve found that its safe and does not pose a risk to bone, liver, or kidney health, even if you take it in large amounts.
Still, its best to get most of your protein from whole, minimally processed foods and use protein powder only to address any unmet protein needs.
The best protein powders will be third-party tested, contain 2030 grams of protein per scoop, and contain ingredients you can personally tolerate.
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Posted: at 11:45 am
India has a sizeable portion of people who suffer from various nutritional deficiencies. According to studies by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency ranged from 40 per cent to 99 per cent, while that of vitamin B12 deficiency was at least 47 per cent in the Indian population. Deficiencies of important nutrients like iron, folic acid and macro nutrients like protein are also very common in India. Speaking on this, Mihir Gadani, Co-Founder, OZiva, says, Nutritional deficiencies are due to the absence of right nutrition in daily diet or other physiological conditions. Vitamin deficiencies can lead to various health conditions and can affect the overall functioning of the body. Hence it is imperative to supplement your diet with the right kind of vitamins and minerals.
Nutritionists and experts across the world suggest that picking the right supplements is the key to fighting nutritional deficiencies. That being said, there is a cloud of contention regarding the usefulness and overall impact of dietary supplements. Gadani acknowledges that overconsuming a particular supplement for a sustained period can put the individual at risk of suffering from a condition known as vitamin overdose. While water-soluble vitamins like B and C are flushed out of the body, synthetic vitamins A, D, E and K will be stored in the body as they are fat soluble. Such storage usually happens in the fatty tissues and liver, leading to various health hazards like nutritional imbalance and the same can also upset the equation of the body with other nutrients and minerals, he adds.
Addressing Nutritional DeficienciesSo, what can one do to address nutritional deficiencies that might be developing in the body? Well, start with eating the right kind of food that can lend you the essential nutrition and energy necessary for everyday function. If you stick to eating a well-balanced diet consisting of fresh fruits and vegetables, you are likely to meet your necessary vitamin intake. However, a substantial percentage of people who manage to eat good food still suffer from nutritional deficiencies. Therefore, consuming some kind of supplement to fulfill the required nutritional quota is also important. Global experts recommend choosing clean and plant-based nutritional supplements like natural vitamins and minerals over synthetic supplements.
Keep In Mind: Choose supplements according to your health needs Read labels, go for plant-based supplements free of chemicals, added sugars, etc Buy supplements from a trusted source or brand Know the recommended daily amount (RDA) for all vitamins and minerals and avoid ingesting more than whats required; take expert advice for the same and stick to the dosage Never substitute dietary supplements for wholesome food Take fat soluble vitamins with high-fat meals to facilitate better absorption; ingest water soluble supplements first thing in the morning or half an hour before meals Taking probiotics like yoghurt with supplements can aid digestion and increase nutrient absorption Reduce caffeine consumption if youre taking calcium supplements, avoid taking zinc and copper, and iron and calcium supplements together Pair certain nutrients to increase absorption vitamins D and K2 boost calcium absorption, while vitamin C helps increase iron absorption
Read more: Herbs And Spices To Boost Your Kids Immunity During The Pandemic
Posted: at 11:45 am
The global cannabidiol (CBD) market size is expected to reach USD 13.4 billion by 2028.1 And yet a large part of that marketCBD-infused food, beverages, and dietary supplementsconsists of unlawful sales. This article discusses why this is the case, how these companies can mitigate enforcement risk, and whether the law is likely to change anytime soon.
The Cannabis sativa L. plant refers broadly to marijuana, which is a Schedule I drug and therefore illegal to sell or possess under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).2 In 2018, however, Congress exempted hemp from marijuana. Hemp is any part of the cannabis plant with a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration of no more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.3
Despite common misconceptions about the 2018 Farm Bill, CBD products are not automatically federally legal to sell. CBD derives from the Cannabis sativa L. plant, including its flowers, leaves, and stems.4 CBD oil with a THC concentration of more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis is considered marijuana and is illegal to sell, and CBD oil with 0.3 percent THC or less on a dry weight basis is considered hemp and is generally legal to sell.5 To be sure, most CBD oil is derived from hemp (i.e., cannabis with less than 0.3 percent THC on a dry weight basis), so there is generally no issue with respect to the CSA. Nevertheless, counsel for CBD manufacturers (and consumer product companies that infuse their products with CBD oil) should ensure that their clients have substantiation to prove that the CBD oil (or product with CBD oil) is derived from hemp, not marijuana.
Attorneys must also recognize that even though hemp (and CBD oil derived from hemp) is no longer a controlled substance under the CSA, it remains subject to regulation. For instance, the United States Department of Agriculture and the United States Drug Enforcement Administration regulate hemp production, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates hemp-derived consumer products that contain CBD. Hemp also remains subject to state regulation, which is yet another complicating factor.
This article focuses on FDAs authority. The 2018 Farm Bill explicitly preserved FDAs authority to regulate products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds including CBD. Generally, FDA treats products containing cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds as it does any other FDA-regulated products, meaning that they are subject to the same authorities and requirements as FDA-regulated products containing any other substance. This is true regardless of whether the cannabis or cannabis-derived compounds are classified as hemp under the 2018 Farm Bill.6
Notably, FDA takes the position that cannabis and hemp-derived CBD generally cannot be used as an ingredient in a food, drug, or dietary supplement, but hemp-derived CBD may be included as an ingredient in cosmetics.7
Dietary Supplements Containing CBD
As it stands now, FDA has concluded that CBD products cannot be used in dietary supplements.8 Generally, the definition of dietary supplements does not include any substance that (1) is an active ingredient in an FDA-approved drug product or (2) has been authorized for investigation as a new drug (i.e., is the subject of an investigative new drug application). CBD is an active ingredient in at least one approved drug product (Epidiolex), and substantial clinical investigations regarding CBD have been made public.9 While there is an exception if the substance was marketed as a dietary supplement or as a conventional food before the drug was approved or before the new drug investigations were authorized, FDA has concluded that this is not the case for CBD. Since CBD has been excluded from the dietary supplement definition, companies violate the federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act if they market dietary supplements containing these substances.10
Other cannabinoids (such as Delta-8 tetrahydrocannabinol) might fall outside the scope of this exclusion and therefore might be able to be marketed as dietary supplements. However, all products marketed as dietary supplements must comply with all applicable laws and regulations governing dietary supplement products.11 Manufacturers and distributors that wish to market dietary supplements that contain new dietary ingredients generally must notify FDA about these ingredients.12 That notification must include information demonstrating that a dietary supplement containing the new dietary ingredient will reasonably be expected to be safe under the conditions of use recommended or suggested in the labeling.13 Several other legal requirements apply to dietary supplement products, including requirements relating to Current Good Manufacturing Practices and labeling.14
CBD-Infused Food and Beverages
As it stands now, FDA has also concluded that CBD cannot be added to food or beverages (including to animal food or feed). Generally, like the definition of dietary supplements, the definition of food and beverages does not include substances that (1) is an active ingredient in an FDA-approved drug product or (2) has been authorized for investigation as a new drug. As is the case with dietary supplements, there are exceptions, but FDA has concluded that they dont apply with respect to CBD. FDA has therefore concluded that it is a prohibited act to introduce or deliver for introduction into interstate commerce any food (including any animal food or feed) or beverage to which THC or CBD has been added.15 In other words, CBD-infused dog treats and candy are illegal to sell.
Ingredients that are derived from parts of the cannabis plant that do not contain CBD might be able to be added to food or a beverage. However, all ingredients must comply with all applicable laws and regulations. Any substance intentionally added to food or a beverage is an additive and therefore subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by qualified experts under the conditions of its intended use, or the use of the substance is otherwise excepted from the definition of an additive.16 Aside from three hemp seed ingredients (hulled hemp seed, hemp seed protein powder, and hemp seed oil), no cannabis or cannabis-derived ingredients have been the subject of a food additive petition or an evaluated GRAS notification, or have otherwise been approved for use in food or beverages by FDA. Companies that wish to use cannabis or cannabis-derived ingredients in their foods and beverages are subject to the relevant laws and regulations that govern all consumer products, including those that relate to the additive and GRAS processes.17
Despite this illegality, CBD-infused dietary supplements, food, and beverages constitute a highly profitable industry. That is in large part because FDA doesnt aggressively police the industry. FDA has limited resources and broad jurisdiction, and it considers many factors in deciding whether to initiate an enforcement action, including state legality, agency resources, and the threat to the public health.18
But even in those states that permit the sale of CBD-infused products, companies should be careful to avoid making any type of claim that the product can be used to prevent, diagnose, treat, or cure diseases.19 In 2021, FDA issued five warning letters to manufacturers of CBD products.20 Each of the five companies involved marketed at least some products with health claims.21 Notably, some of the marketing appeared in the form of blog postings on the manufacturers websites.22
Whether Congress acts before FDA does is an open question. Under the Trump Administration, FDA considered promulgating a Cannabidiol Enforcement Policy, which the industry had hoped would offer more guidance.23 Unfortunately, that guidance was withdrawn in the dawn of the new Administration. Former FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn explained that FDA still had a limited understanding of the safety profile of CBD.24
Congress is currently considering two bills that would affect the regulation of CBD-infused products. In February, a group of bipartisan congressmen introduced House Resolution 841the Hemp and Hemp-Derived CBD Consumer Protection and Market Stabilization Act of 2021which, if enacted, would allow the use of hemp-derived CBD in dietary supplements. A bipartisan group of senators also introduced similar legislation in the Senate. If enacted, the Hemp Access and Consumer Safety Act (S.1698) would allow hemp-derived CBD products to be lawfully used in dietary supplements, food, and beverages.
CBD businesses face unique risks. Only by paying close attention to both federal and state laws can attorneys help grow this extremely profitable industry responsibly.
1Global $13.4 Billion Cannabidiol Market to 2028 Increasing Awareness [Of] CBD Health Benefits, Changing Consumer Opinion, and Attitude Toward CBD Products (Mar. 24, 2021), available at: https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-13-4-billion-cannabidiol-market-to-2028---increasing-awareness-cbd-health-benefits-changing-consumer-opinion-and-attitude-toward-cbd-products-301254807.html.
2See B. Cohen, Cannabis Law: A Primer on Federal and State Law Regarding Marijuana, Hemp, and CBD, Ch. 1, 2 (2021).
37 U.S.C. 1639o(1) (defining hemp as the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of that plant, including the seeds thereof and all derivatives, extracts, cannabinoids, isomers, acids, salts, and salts of isomers, whether growing or not, with a delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of not more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis.).
4See, infra, n. 2.
5See 21 U.S.C. 802(16)(A) (defining marihuana); see id. 802(16)(B) (exempting hemp as defined in 7 U.S.C. 1639o from the CSAs definition of marihuana); id. 812 Sched. I(c)(17) (placing tetrahydrocannabinolsexcept those in hempon Schedule I of the CSA).
6See,supra, FDA, Cannabis FAQs, A.2.
7See,supra, FDA, Cannabis FAQs, A.8.
8See 21 U.S.C. 321(ff)(3)(B).
9See, supra, FDA, Cannabis FAQs, A.11.
10See, supra, FDA, Cannabis FAQs, A.9.
12See 21 U.S.C. 350b(d).
13See, supra, FDA, Cannabis FAQs, A.9.
15See, supra, FDA, Cannabis FAQs, A.10.
16See 21 U.S.C. 321(s) and 348.
17See, supra, FDA, Cannabis FAQs, A.10, 12.
18See, supra, FDA, Cannabis FAQs, A.14.
20FDA, Warning Letters and Test Results for Cannabidiol-Related Products, available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/warning-letters-and-test-results-cannabidiol-related-products.
22See, e.g., Cannafyl Warning Letter, No. 611957 (Mar. 1, 2021), available at: https://www.fda.gov/inspections-compliance-enforcement-and-criminal-investigations/warning-letters/cannafyl-611957-03012021.
23See OIRA, OMB, 09-10-ZA76, available at: https://www.reginfo.gov/public/Forward?SearchTarget=RegReview&textfield=cannabidiol&Image61.x=17&Image61.y=22.
24See FDA, Better Data for a Better Understanding of the Use and Safety Profile of Cannabidiol (CBD) Products (Jan. 8, 2021), available at: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/fda-voices/better-data-better-understanding-use-and-safety-profile-cannabidiol-cbd-products?.
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Dietary Supplements Market 2021-2025 | Increasing Adoption of Healthy Eating Habits to Boost Growth | Technavio – Yahoo Finance
Posted: at 11:45 am
NEW YORK, Aug. 23, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Technavio has been monitoring the dietary supplements market and it is poised to grow by $ 27.67 bn during 2021-2025, progressing at a CAGR of over 4% during the forecast period. The report offers an up-to-date analysis regarding the current market scenario, latest trends and drivers, and the overall market environment.
Attractive Opportunities with Dietary Supplements Market by Product and Geography - Forecast and Analysis 2021-2025
Download the Free Sample Report to Know More
The market is fragmented, and the degree of fragmentation will accelerate during the forecast period. Abbott Laboratories, Amway Corp., Archer Daniels Midland Co., Bayer AG, Glanbia Nutritionals Inc., GlaxoSmithKline Plc, Herbalife Nutrition Ltd., Pfizer Inc., Suntory Holdings Ltd., and The Carlyle Group Inc. are some of the major market participants. Although the increasing adoption of healthy eating habits will offer immense growth opportunities, the threat of counterfeit dietary supplements will challenge the growth of the market participants. To make the most of the opportunities, market vendors should focus more on the growth prospects in the fast-growing segments, while maintaining their positions in the slow-growing segments.
Dietary Supplements Market 2021-2025: SegmentationDietary Supplements Market is segmented as below:
To learn more about the global trends impacting the future of market research, download a free sample: https://www.technavio.com/talk-to-us?report=IRTNTR45382
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Dietary Supplements Market 2021-2025: ScopeTechnavio presents a detailed picture of the market by the way of study, synthesis, and summation of data from multiple sources. Our dietary supplements market report covers the following areas:
Dietary Supplements Market size
Dietary Supplements Market trends
Dietary Supplements Market industry analysis
This study identifies the rising demand for sports supplements as one of the prime reasons driving the dietary supplements market growth during the next few years.
Dietary Supplements Market 2021-2025: Vendor AnalysisWe provide a detailed analysis of around 25 vendors operating in the Dietary Supplements Market. Backed with competitive intelligence and benchmarking, our research reports on the Dietary Supplements Market are designed to provide entry support, customer profile, and M&As as well as go-to-market strategy support.
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Dietary Supplements Market 2021-2025: Key Highlights
CAGR of the market during the forecast period 2021-2025
Detailed information on factors that will assist dietary supplements market growth during the next five years
Estimation of the dietary supplements market size and its contribution to the parent market
Predictions on upcoming trends and changes in consumer behavior
The growth of the dietary supplements market
Analysis of the market's competitive landscape and detailed information on vendors
Comprehensive details of factors that will challenge the growth of dietary supplements market vendors
Table Of Contents :Executive SummaryMarket Landscape
Value chain analysis
Five Forces Analysis
Market Segmentation by Product
Comparison by Product
Vitamins - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
Combination - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
Fatty acids - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
Probiotics - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
Others - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
Market opportunity by Product
APAC - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
North America - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
Europe - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
South America - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
MEA - Market size and forecast 2020-2025
Key leading countries
Market opportunity by geography
Market positioning of vendors
Archer Daniels Midland Co.
Glanbia Nutritionals Inc.
Herbalife Nutrition Ltd.
Suntory Holdings Ltd.
The Carlyle Group Inc.
About UsTechnavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. Their research and analysis focus on emerging market trends and provides actionable insights to help businesses identify market opportunities and develop effective strategies to optimize their market positions. With over 500 specialized analysts, Technavio's report library consists of more than 17,000 reports and counting, covering 800 technologies, spanning across 50 countries. Their client base consists of enterprises of all sizes, including more than 100 Fortune 500 companies. This growing client base relies on Technavio's comprehensive coverage, extensive research, and actionable market insights to identify opportunities in existing and potential markets and assess their competitive positions within changing market scenarios.
ContactTechnavio ResearchJesse MaidaMedia & Marketing ExecutiveUS: +1 844 364 1100UK: +44 203 893 3200Email: email@example.comWebsite: http://www.technavio.com/Report: http://www.technavio.com/report/dietary-supplements-market-industry-analysisNewsroom: newsroom.technavio.com/news/dietary-supplements-market
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The #1 Best Supplement To Take Before a Walk, Says Dietitian | Eat This Not That – Eat This, Not That
Posted: at 11:45 am
Taking a walk is an excellent form of exercise: it provides fresh air and some beneficial time in nature, and it's a great low-impact way to get your heart rate up and those feel-good endorphins pumping. Not to mention, it's totally free and requires no special equipment whatsoever. But before you lace up your sneakers and head out, consider this: your body will be better primed for that stroll if you're taking the right vitamins and minerals. Specifically, Trista Best, MPH, RD, LD, and a registered dietitian at Balance One Supplements, says the best supplement to take before a walk is a vitamin B complex.
"When it comes to ensuring you have optimal energy levels to keep your walking regimen going long-term, the first thing you should turn to is a B-complex supplement," she says. "This group of water-soluble vitamins is known for their wide range of responsibilities and benefits in the body."
According to Best, the top reason why B vitamins are an excellent choice is that they provide your body with the energy to fuel you through that walk by metabolizing the macronutrients in your food. For example, thiamine (B1) helps to convert carbohydrates into energy. Not only that, but these vitamins also help to transport energy-containing nutrients throughout your body.
Related: The One Vitamin Doctors Are Urging Everyone to Take Right Now
"Extra B12 can help improve anyone's energy levels, but for those with a B12 deficiency it can also lead to a type of anemia known as pernicious anemia," explains Best. "Any form of anemia can create chronic fatigue and supplementing with this vitamin can improve energy levels."
And that's not allBest notes that vitamin B12, in particular, can have a positive impact on bone density, which is another important factor in walking longevity.
A 2006 review published in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism revealed that exercise may increase the requirements for vitamin B6. So even if you thought you might be getting enough B vitamins in your diet (from foods like dark leafy greens, seeds, dairy, and eggs), it's a good idea to add a supplement to ensure you're meeting your needs.
By the wayif you're taking walks with the goal of losing weight, it's also worth noting that low levels of B vitamins can negatively impact the functioning of your metabolism, making it tougher to shed those pounds.
Of course, everyone's nutritional needs depend on their sex, age, and activity level, among other factors. That said, vitamin B deficiencies are super commonand clearly, this powerhouse complex can work wonders in not only energizing you for your walk but also ensuring that you reap the most fitness benefits from it.
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Posted: at 11:45 am
LOS ANGELES Earlier this year, HAPPYBOND partnered with rspin, a health and wellness platform founded by Halle Berry, to launch a line of functional elixir supplements for pets.
HAPPYBOND is a pet nutrition brand offering collagen supplements, treats and soon-to-be-announced complete-and-balanced pet food formulas. The new elixirs add to the companys functional pet offerings.
Elixirs are available in three formulas, each made in the United States with natural ingredients. The Shine On formula includes high concentrations of vitamin E and fatty acids to support skin and coat health, according to the company. The Tum Tamer formula targets gut health and digestive issues, and the Be Well Elixir is designed to support immune system strength.
Ingredients in these Elixirs include turmeric, vitamin C, zinc, flaxseed oil and papaya juice. All ingredients are active, and formulas do not contain any fillers.
Halle Berry (left) and Anja Skodda, partners on the HAPPYBOND x rspin Elixirs line. (Source: HAPPYBOND)
We are excited to have the opportunity to work with Halle, said Anja Skodda, chief executive officer of HAPPYBOND. HAPPYBOND and rspin align in so many ways. Halle is all about a healthy lifestyle and feeds her dogs with only the best ingredients. We both believe in preventative health for our pets and therefore created the series of elixirs together with the goal to extend those special bonding moments and keep our pets healthy and happy.
HAPPYBOND x rspin Elixirs can be added to a complete-and-balanced diet as a meal topper.
I couldnt be happier about our collaboration with Anja and HAPPYBOND, Berry said. I wanted to create rspin with the notion that modern wellness means tending to mind, body, and spirit. This also includes our pets. My dogs are so much more than beloved pets; they are family. HAPPYBOND takes this evolved notion of wellness and applies it to the well-being, health, and happiness of our furry children. When it comes to nourishing your pets, they couldnt be in better hands than with HAPPYBOND.
The Elixir line will be sold on happybond.com and re-spin.shop.com.
Read more aboutnew pet food and treat products.
Celebrating 20 Years In The Food Delivery Industry, Vital Choice Wild Seafood & Organics Looks Back On How It All Began – PRNewswire
Posted: at 11:45 am
With 20 years in business Vital Choice Wild Seafood & Organics explores how it began with a request from a salmon lover.
After one such show, "This very insistent woman named Helen, comes up and says, 'How can I get this when you guys are gone?'" It was a lightbulb moment. If Helen wanted this salmon shipped, then maybe other people wanted seafood shipped to them as well.
"I said, 'I'll send you some," Hartnell says, "Though I had no idea how to send frozen salmon to Kalamazoo or anywhere else. I figured it out and sent it."
After building a business plan and a website, Vital Choice was born in August of 2001.
The early product line was "pretty thin," recalls Dave Hamburg, Vital Choice president and a fellow Alaska fisherman.
"We had some sockeye, some halibut, some smoked salmon and lox. That was about it." Eventually, Vital Choice became what it is today, nationally recognized by leading doctors and nutritionists, a certified B-Corporation (since 2014), and a thriving business with over 200 unique sustainably sourced products.
Because it was started by fishermen, Vital Choice retains its unique understanding of where its products originate, and the importance of sourcing with care and giving back to the environment.
"We're not just a retailer. We're also an active advocate for protecting wild fish resources and the livelihood of the responsible fishers," says Hamburg. "We feel it personally because that's the world we come from."
And what about the next 20 years?
"Health and sustainability are two megatrends that I believe will only grow," said Hartnell. "Wild salmon is among the most nutrient dense foods on the planet. Demand will continue to grow. There is competition in the space now that wasn't there 20 years ago, but I think our intense focus on quality and responsibility will serve us well to 2041 and beyond."
About Vital Choice Wild Seafood & OrganicsBefore founding Vital Choice in 2001, Northwest Washington nativeRandy Hartnell spent more than 20 years as a commercial fishermanin Alaska. Today, Vital Choice is the trusted source for fast home delivery of the world's finest wild Alaskan seafood, whole-food supplements, and organic fare.
Vital Choice foods are the purest available, always sustainably harvested from healthy, well-managed wild fisheries and organic farms. The company's products are recognized for their superior taste and health benefits andendorsed by leading health and wellness experts.
For more about Vital Choice Wild Seafood & Organics, please visit http://www.vitalchoice.comor follow @vitalchoice in social media.
SOURCE Vital Choice