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Category Archives: Roulette

Roulette – Wikipedia

Posted: August 30, 2020 at 2:47 am

Game of chance

Roulette is a casino game named after the French word meaning little wheel. In the game, players may choose to place bets on either a single number, various groupings of numbers, the colors red or black, whether the number is odd or even, or if the numbers are high (1936) or low (118).

To determine the winning number, a croupier spins a wheel in one direction, then spins a ball in the opposite direction around a tilted circular track running around the outer edge of the wheel. The ball eventually loses momentum, passes through an area of deflectors, and falls onto the wheel and into one of 37 (single zero French/European style roulette) or 38 (double zero American style roulette) colored and numbered pockets on the wheel. The winnings are then paid to anyone who has placed a successful bet.

The first form of roulette was devised in 18th century France. Many historians believe Blaise Pascal introduced a primitive form of roulette in the 17th century in his search for a perpetual motion machine.[1] The roulette mechanism is a hybrid of a gaming wheel invented in 1720 and the Italian game Biribi.[2]

The game has been played in its present form since as early as 1796 in Paris. An early description of the roulette game in its current form is found in a French novel La Roulette, ou le Jour by Jaques Lablee, which describes a roulette wheel in the Palais Royal in Paris in 1796. The description included the house pockets, "There are exactly two slots reserved for the bank, whence it derives its sole mathematical advantage." It then goes on to describe the layout with, "...two betting spaces containing the bank's two numbers, zero and double zero". The book was published in 1801. An even earlier reference to a game of this name was published in regulations for New France (Qubec) in 1758, which banned the games of "dice, hoca, faro, and roulette".[3]

The roulette wheels used in the casinos of Paris in the late 1790s had red for the single zero and black for the double zero. To avoid confusion, the color green was selected for the zeros in roulette wheels starting in the 1800s.

In 1843, in the German spa casino town of Bad Homburg, fellow Frenchmen Franois and Louis Blanc introduced the single 0 style roulette wheel in order to compete against other casinos offering the traditional wheel with single and double zero house pockets.[citation needed]

In some forms of early American roulette wheels, there were numbers 1 through 28, plus a single zero, a double zero, and an American Eagle. The Eagle slot, which was a symbol of American liberty, was a house slot that brought the casino extra edge. Soon, the tradition vanished and since then the wheel features only numbered slots. According to Hoyle "the single 0, the double 0, and eagle are never bars; but when the ball falls into either of them, the banker sweeps every thing upon the table, except what may happen to be bet on either one of them, when he pays twenty-seven for one, which is the amount paid for all sums bet upon any single figure".[4]

In the 19th century, roulette spread all over Europe and the US, becoming one of the most famous and most popular casino games. When the German government abolished gambling in the 1860s, the Blanc family moved to the last legal remaining casino operation in Europe at Monte Carlo, where they established a gambling mecca for the elite of Europe. It was here that the single zero roulette wheel became the premier game, and over the years was exported around the world, except in the United States where the double zero wheel had remained dominant.

In the United States, the French double zero wheel made its way up the Mississippi from New Orleans, and then westward. It was here, because of rampant cheating by both operators and gamblers, that the wheel was eventually placed on top of the table to prevent devices being hidden in the table or wheel, and the betting layout was simplified. This eventually evolved into the American-style roulette game. The American game was developed in the gambling dens across the new territories where makeshift games had been set up, whereas the French game evolved with style and leisure in Monte Carlo.

During the first part of the 20th century, the only casino towns of note were Monte Carlo with the traditional single zero French wheel, and Las Vegas with the American double zero wheel. In the 1970s, casinos began to flourish around the world. By 2008, there were several hundred casinos worldwide offering roulette games. The double zero wheel is found in the U.S., Canada, South America, and the Caribbean, while the single zero wheel is predominant elsewhere.

The sum of all the numbers on the roulette wheel (from 0 to 36) is 666, which is the "Number of the Beast".[5]

Roulette players have a variety of betting options. Placing inside bets is either selecting the exact number of the pocket the ball will land in, or a small range of pockets based on their proximity on the layout. Players wishing to bet on the 'outside' will select bets on larger positional groupings of pockets, the pocket color, or whether the winning number is odd or even[citation needed]The payout odds for each type of bet are based on its probability.

The roulette table usually imposes minimum and maximum bets, and these rules usually apply separately for all of a player's inside and outside bets for each spin. For inside bets at roulette tables, some casinos may use separate roulette table chips of various colors to distinguish players at the table. Players can continue to place bets as the ball spins around the wheel until the dealer announces no more bets or rien ne va plus.

When a winning number and color is determined by the roulette wheel, the dealer will place a marker, also known as a dolly, on that winning number on the roulette table layout. When the dolly is on the table, no players may place bets, collect bets, or remove any bets from the table. The dealer will then sweep away all other losing bets either by hand or rake, and determine all of the payouts to the remaining inside and outside winning bets. When the dealer is finished making payouts, the marker is removed from the board where players collect their winnings and make new bets. The winning chips remain on the board.

In 2004, California legalized a form of roulette known as California Roulette.[6] By law, the game must use cards and not slots on the roulette wheel to pick the winning number.

The pockets of the roulette wheel are numbered from 0 to 36.

In number ranges from 1 to 10 and 19 to 28, odd numbers are red and even are black. In ranges from 11 to 18 and 29 to 36, odd numbers are black and even are red.

There is a green pocket numbered 0 (zero). In American roulette, there is a second green pocket marked 00. Pocket number order on the roulette wheel adheres to the following clockwise sequence in most casinos:[citation needed]

The cloth-covered betting area on a roulette table is known as the layout. The layout is either single-zero or double-zero. The European-style layout has a single zero, and the American style layout is usually a double-zero. The American-style roulette table with a wheel at one end is now used in most casinos. The French style table with a wheel in the centre and a layout on either side is rarely found outside of Monte Carlo.[citation needed]

In roulette, bets can either be inside or outside bets.

Outside bets typically have smaller payouts with better odds at winning. Except as noted, all of these bets lose if a zero comes up.

In the United Kingdom, the farthest outside bets (low/high, red/black, even/odd) result in the player losing only half of his/her bet if a zero comes up.

The expected value of a $1 bet (except for the special case of Top line bets), for American and European roulette, can be calculated as

where n is the number of pockets in the wheel. The initial bet is returned in addition to the mentioned payout. It can be easily demonstrated that this payout formula would lead to a zero expected value of profit if there were only 36 numbers. Having 37 or more numbers gives the casino its edge.

Top line (0, 00, 1, 2, 3) has a different expected value because of approximation of the correct 615-to-1 payout obtained by the formula to 6-to-1. The values 0 and 00 are not odd or even, or high or low.

En prison rules, when used, reduce the house advantage.

The house average or house edge or house advantage (also called the expected value) is the amount the player loses relative for any bet made, on average. If a player bets on a single number in the American game there is a probability of 138 that the player wins 35 times the bet, and a 3738 chance that the player loses his bet. The expected value is:

For European roulette, a single number wins 137 and loses 3637:

For triple-zero wheels, a single number wins 139 and loses 3839:

The presence of the green squares on the roulette wheel and on the table is technically the only house edge. Outside bets will always lose when a single or double zero comes up. However, the house also has an edge on inside bets because the pay outs (including the original player's bet) are always set at 36 to 1 when you mathematically have a 1 out of 38 (1 out of 37 for French/European roulette) chance at winning a straight bet on a single number. To demonstrate the house edge on inside bets, imagine placing straight $1 wagers on all inside numbers (including 0 and 00) to assure a win: you would only get back $36, having spent $38. The only exceptions are the five numbers bet where the house edge is considerably higher (7.89% on an American wheel), and the "even money" bets in some European games (French Roulette) where the house edge is halved because only half the stake is lost when a zero comes up. This is commonly called the "la partage" rule, and it is considered the main difference between European and French roulette. There is also a modification of this rule, which is called the "en prison" rule. These rules cut the house edge into half (1.35%) in French roulette, when playing even-money bets, as half of the even-money bets are given back to the player if the zero is drawn in the wheel.

The house edge should not be confused with the "hold". The hold is the average percentage of the money originally brought to the table that the player loses before he leavesthe actual "win" amount for the casino. The Casino Control Commission in Atlantic City releases a monthly report showing the win/hold amounts for each casino. The average win/hold for double zero wheels is between 21% to 30%, significantly more than the 5.26% house edge. This reflects the fact that the player is churning the same money over and over again. A 23.6% hold, for example, would imply that, on average, the player bets the total he brought to the table five times, as 23.6% is approximately equal to 100% (100% 5.26%)5. For example, a player with $100 making $10 bets on red (which has a near 50/50 chance of winning) is highly unlikely to lose all his money after only 10 bets, and will most likely continue to bet until he has lost all of his money or decides to leave. A player making $10 bets on a single number (with only 1/38 chance of success) with a $100 bankroll is far more likely to lose all of his money after only 10 bets.

In the early frontier gambling saloons, the house would set the odds on roulette tables at 27 for 1. This meant that on a $1 bet you would get $27 and the house would keep your initial dollar. Today most casino odds are set by law, and they have to be either 34 to 1 or 35 to 1. This means that the house pays you $34 or $35 and you get to keep your original $1 bet.

As an example, we can examine the European roulette model, that is, roulette with only one zero. Since this roulette has 37 cells with equal odds of hitting, this is a final model of field probability ( , 2 , P ) {displaystyle (Omega ,2^{Omega },mathbb {P} )} , where = { 0 , , 36 } {displaystyle Omega ={0,ldots ,36}} , P ( A ) = | A | 37 {displaystyle mathbb {P} (A)={frac {|A|}{37}}} for all A 2 {displaystyle Ain 2^{Omega }} .

Call the bet S {displaystyle S} a triple ( A , r , ) {displaystyle (A,r,xi )} , where A {displaystyle A} is the set of chosen numbers, r R + {displaystyle rin mathbb {R} _{+}} is the size of the bet, and : R {displaystyle xi :Omega to mathbb {R} } determines the return of the bet.

The rules of European roulette have 10 types of bets. First we can examine the 'Straight Up' bet. In this case, S = ( { 0 } , r , ) {displaystyle S=({omega _{0}},r,xi )} , for some 0 {displaystyle omega _{0}in Omega } , and {displaystyle xi } is determined by

The bet's expected net return, or profitability, is equal to

Without details, for a bet, black (or red), the rule is determined as

and the profitability

For similar reasons it is simple to see that the profitability is also equal for all remaining types of bets. r 37 {displaystyle -{frac {r}{37}}} .[7]

In reality this means that, the more bets a player makes, the more he is going to lose independent of the strategies (combinations of bet types or size of bets) that he employs:

Here, the profit margin for the roulette owner is equal to approximately 2.7%. Nevertheless, several roulette strategy systems have been developed despite the losing odds. These systems can not change the odds of the game in favor of the player.

It is worth noting that the odds for the player in American roulette are even worse, as the bet profitability is at worst 3 38 r 0.0789 r {displaystyle -{frac {3}{38}}rapprox -0.0789r} , and never better than r 19 0.0526 r {displaystyle -{frac {r}{19}}approx -0.0526r} .

For a roulette wheel with n {displaystyle n} green numbers and 36 other unique numbers the chance of the ball landing on a given number is 1 ( 36 + n ) {displaystyle {frac {1}{(36+n)}}} . For a betting option with p {displaystyle p} numbers that define a win, the chance of winning a bet is p ( 36 + n ) {displaystyle {frac {p}{(36+n)}}}

For example, betting on "red", there are 18 red numbers, p = 18 {displaystyle p=18} , the chance of winning is 18 ( 36 + n ) {displaystyle {frac {18}{(36+n)}}} .

The payout given by the casino for a win is based on the roulette wheel having 36 outcomes and the payout for a bet is given by 36 p {displaystyle {frac {36}{p}}} .

For example, betting on 1-12 there are 12 numbers that define a win, p = 12 {displaystyle p=12} , the payout is 36 12 = 3 {displaystyle {frac {36}{12}}=3} , so the better wins 3 times their bet.

The average return on a player's bet is given by p ( 36 + n ) 36 p = 36 ( 36 + n ) {displaystyle {frac {p}{(36+n)}}times {frac {36}{p}}={frac {36}{(36+n)}}}

For n > 0 {displaystyle n>0} the average return is always lower than 1 so on average a player will lose money.With 1 green number n = 1 {displaystyle n=1} the average return is 36 37 {displaystyle {frac {36}{37}}} , that is, after a bet the player will on average have 36 37 {displaystyle {frac {36}{37}}} of their original bet returned to them.With 2 green numbers n = 2 {displaystyle n=2} the average return is 36 38 {displaystyle {frac {36}{38}}} .

This shows that the expected return is independent of the choice of bet.

Although most often named "call bets" technically these bets are more accurately referred to as "announced bets". The legal distinction between a "call bet" and an "announced bet" is that a "call bet" is a bet called by the player without him placing any money on the table to cover the cost of the bet. In many jurisdictions (most notably the United Kingdom) this is considered gambling on credit and is illegal. An "announced bet" is a bet called by the player for which he immediately places enough money to cover the amount of the bet on the table, prior to the outcome of the spin or hand in progress being known.

There are different number series in roulette that have special names attached to them. Most commonly these bets are known as "the French bets" and each covers a section of the wheel. For the sake of accuracy, zero spiel, although explained below, is not a French bet, it is more accurately "the German bet". Players at a table may bet a set amount per series (or multiples of that amount). The series are based on the way certain numbers lie next to each other on the roulette wheel. Not all casinos offer these bets, and some may offer additional bets or variations on these.[citation needed]

This is a name, more accurately "grands voisins du zro", for the 17 numbers that lie between 22 and 25 on the wheel, including 22 and 25 themselves. The series is 22-18-29-7-28-12-35-3-26-0-32-15-19-4-21-2-25 (on a single-zero wheel).

Nine chips or multiples thereof are bet. Two chips are placed on the 0-2-3 trio; one on the 4-7 split; one on 12-15; one on 18-21; one on 19-22; two on the 25-26-28-29 corner; and one on 32-35.

Zero game, also known as zero spiel (Spiel is German for game or play), is the name for the numbers closest to zero. All numbers in the zero game are included in the voisins, but are placed differently. The numbers bet on are 12-35-3-26-0-32-15.

The bet consists of four chips or multiples thereof. Three chips are bet on splits and one chip straight-up: one chip on 0-3 split, one on 12-15 split, one on 32-35 split and one straight-up on number 26.

This type of bet is popular in Germany and many European casinos. It is also offered as a 5-chip bet in many Eastern European casinos. As a 5-chip bet, it is known as "zero spiel naca" and includes, in addition to the chips placed as noted above, a straight-up on number 19.

This is the name for the 12 numbers that lie on the opposite side of the wheel between 27 and 33, including 27 and 33 themselves. On a single-zero wheel, the series is 27-13-36-11-30-8-23-10-5-24-16-33. The full name (although very rarely used, most players refer to it as "tiers") for this bet is "le tiers du cylindre" (translated from French into English meaning one third of the wheel) because it covers 12 numbers (placed as 6 splits), which is as close to 13 of the wheel as one can get.

Very popular in British casinos, tiers bets outnumber voisins and orphelins bets by a massive margin.

Six chips or multiples thereof are bet. One chip is placed on each of the following splits: 5-8, 10-11, 13-16, 23-24, 27-30, and 33-36.

The tiers bet is also called the "small series" and in some casinos (most notably in South Africa) "series 5-8".

A variant known as "tiers 5-8-10-11" has an additional chip placed straight up on 5, 8, 10, and 11m and so is a 10-piece bet. In some places the variant is called "gioco Ferrari" with a straight up on 8, 11, 23 and 30, the bet is marked with a red G on the racetrack.

These numbers make up the two slices of the wheel outside the tiers and voisins. They contain a total of 8 numbers, comprising 17-34-6 and 1-20-14-31-9.

Five chips or multiples thereof are bet on four splits and a straight-up: one chip is placed straight-up on 1 and one chip on each of the splits: 6-9, 14-17, 17-20, and 31-34.

A number may be backed along with the two numbers on the either side of it in a 5-chip bet. For example, "0 and the neighbors" is a 5-chip bet with one piece straight-up on 3, 26, 0, 32, and 15. Neighbors bets are often put on in combinations, for example "1, 9, 14, and the neighbors" is a 15-chip bet covering 18, 22, 33, 16 with one chip, 9, 31, 20, 1 with two chips and 14 with three chips.

Any of the above bets may be combined, e.g. "orphelins by 1 and zero and the neighbors by 1". The "...and the neighbors" is often assumed by the croupier.

Another bet offered on the single-zero game is "final", "finale" or "finals".

Final 4, for example, is a 4-chip bet and consists of one chip placed on each of the numbers ending in 4, that is 4, 14, 24, and 34. Final 7 is a 3-chip bet, one chip each on 7, 17, and 27. Final bets from final 0 (zero) to final 6 cost four chips. Final bets 7, 8 and 9 cost three chips.

Some casinos also offer split-final bets, for example final 5-8 would be a 4-chip bet, one chip each on the splits 5-8, 15-18, 25-28, and one on 35.

A complete bet places all of the inside bets on a certain number. Full complete bets are most often bet by high rollers as maximum bets.

The maximum amount allowed to be wagered on a single bet in European roulette is based on a progressive betting model. If the casino allows a maximum bet of $1,000 on a 35-to-1 straight-up, then on each 17-to-1 split connected to that straight-up, $2,000 may be wagered. Each 8-to-1 corner that covers four numbers) may have $4,000 wagered on it. Each 11-to-1 street that covers three numbers may have $3,000 wagered on it. Each 5-to-1 six-line may have $6,000 wagered on it. Each $1,000 incremental bet would be represented by a marker that is used to specifically identify the player and the amount bet.

For instance, if a patron wished to place a full complete bet on 17, the player would call "17 to the maximum". This bet would require a total of 40 chips, or $40,000. To manually place the same wager, the player would need to bet:

The player calls his bet to the croupier (most often after the ball has been spun) and places enough chips to cover the bet on the table within reach of the croupier. The croupier will immediately announce the bet (repeat what the player has just said), ensure that the correct monetary amount has been given while simultaneously placing a matching marker on the number on the table and the amount wagered.

The payout for this bet if the chosen number wins is 392 chips, in the case of a $1000 straight-up maximum, $40,000 bet, a payout of $392,000. The player's wagered 40 chips, as with all winning bets in roulette, are still his property and in the absence of a request to the contrary are left up to possibly win again on the next spin.

Based on the location of the numbers on the layout, the number of chips required to "complete" a number can be determined.

Most typically (Mayfair casinos in London and other top-class European casinos) with these maximum or full complete bets, nothing (except the aforementioned maximum button) is ever placed on the layout even in the case of a win. Experienced gaming staff, and the type of customers playing such bets, are fully aware of the payouts and so the croupier simply makes up the correct payout, announces its value to the table inspector (floor person in the U.S.) and the customer, and then passes it to the customer, but only after a verbal authorization from the inspector has been received.

Also typically at this level of play (house rules allowing) the experienced croupier caters to the needs of the customer and will most often add the customer's winning bet to the payout, as the type of player playing these bets very rarely bets the same number two spins in succession. For example, the winning 40-chip / $40,000 bet on "17 to the maximum" pays 392 chips / $392,000. The experienced croupier would pay the player 432 chips / $432,000, that is 392 + 40, with the announcement that the payout "is with your bet down".

There are also several methods to determine the payout when a number adjacent to a chosen number is the winner, for example, player bets 40 chips on "23 to the maximum" and number 26 is the winning number. The most notable method is known as the "station" system or method. When paying in stations, the dealer counts the number of ways or stations that the winning number hits the complete bet. In the example above, 26 hits 4 stations - 2 different corners, 1 split and 1 six-line. The dealer takes the number 4, multiplies it by 30 and adds the remaining 8 to the payout: 4 30 = 120, 120 + 8 = 128. If calculated as stations, they would just multiply 4 by 36, making 144 with the players bet down.

In some casinos, a player may bet full complete for less than the table straight-up maximum, for example, "number 17 full complete by $25" would cost $1000, that is 40 chips each at $25 value.

Over the years, many people have tried to beat the casino, and turn roulettea game designed to turn a profit for the houseinto one on which the player expects to win. Most of the time this comes down to the use of betting systems, strategies which say that the house edge can be beaten by simply employing a special pattern of bets, often relying on the "Gambler's fallacy", the idea that past results are any guide to the future (for example, if a roulette wheel has come up 10 times in a row on red, that red on the next spin is any more or less likely than if the last spin was black).

All betting systems that rely on patterns, when employed on casino edge games will result, on average, in the player losing money.[citation needed] In practice, players employing betting systems may win, and may indeed win very large sums of money, but the losses (which, depending on the design of the betting system, may occur quite rarely) will outweigh the wins. Certain systems, such as the Martingale, described below, are extremely risky, because the worst-case scenario (which is mathematically certain to happen, at some point) may see the player chasing losses with ever-bigger bets until he runs out of money.

The American mathematician Patrick Billingsley said[8] that no betting system can convert a subfair game into a profitable enterprise.At least in the 1930s, some professional gamblers were able to consistently gain an edge in roulette by seeking out rigged wheels (not difficult to find at that time) and betting opposite the largest bets.

Whereas betting systems are essentially an attempt to beat the fact that a geometric series with initial value of 0.95 (American roulette) or 0.97 (European roulette) will inevitably over time tend to zero, engineers instead attempt to overcome the house edge through predicting the mechanical performance of the wheel, most notably by Joseph Jagger at Monte Carlo in 1873. These schemes work by determining that the ball is more likely to fall at certain numbers. If effective, they raise the return of the game above 100%, defeating the betting system problem.

Edward O. Thorp (the developer of card counting and an early hedge-fund pioneer) and Claude Shannon (a mathematician and electronic engineer best known for his contributions to information theory) built the first wearable computer to predict the landing of the ball in 1961. This system worked by timing the ball and wheel, and using the information obtained to calculate the most likely octant where the ball would fall. Ironically, this technique works best with an unbiased wheel though it could still be countered quite easily by simply closing the table for betting before beginning the spin.

In 1982, several casinos in Britain began to lose large sums of money at their roulette tables to teams of gamblers from the USA. Upon investigation by the police, it was discovered they were using a legal system of biased wheel-section betting. As a result of this, the British roulette wheel manufacturer John Huxley manufactured a roulette wheel to counteract the problem.

The new wheel, designed by George Melas, was called "low profile" because the pockets had been drastically reduced in depth, and various other design modifications caused the ball to descend in a gradual approach to the pocket area. In 1986, when a professional gambling team headed by Billy Walters won $3.8 million using the system on an old wheel at the Golden Nugget in Atlantic City, every casino in the world took notice, and within one year had switched to the new low-profile wheel.

Thomas Bass, in his book The Eudaemonic Pie (1985) (published as The Newtonian Casino in Britain), has claimed to be able to predict wheel performance in real time. The book describes the exploits of a group of University of California Santa Cruz students, who called themselves the Eudaemons, who in the late 1970s used computers in their shoes to win at roulette. This is an updated and improved version of Edward O. Thorp's approach, where NewtonianLaws of Motion are applied to track the roulette ball's deceleration; hence the British title.

In the early 1990s, Gonzalo Garcia-Pelayo believed that casino roulette wheels were not perfectly random, and that by recording the results and analysing them with a computer, he could gain an edge on the house by predicting that certain numbers were more likely to occur next than the 1-in-36 odds offered by the house suggested. This he did at the Casino de Madrid in Madrid, Spain, winning 600,000 euros in a single day, and one million euros in total. Legal action against him by the casino was unsuccessful, it being ruled that the casino should fix its wheel.[9][10]

To defend against exploits like these, many casinos use tracking software, use wheels with new designs, rotate wheel heads, and randomly rotate pocket rings.[11]

At the Ritz London casino in March 2004, two Serbs and a Hungarian used a laser scanner hidden inside a mobile phone linked to a computer to predict the sector of the wheel where the ball was most likely to drop. They netted 1.3m in two nights.[12] They were arrested and kept on police bail for nine months, but eventually released and allowed to keep their winnings as they had not interfered with the casino equipment.[13]

The numerous even-money bets in roulette have inspired many players over the years to attempt to beat the game by using one or more variations of a martingale betting strategy, wherein the gambler doubles the bet after every loss, so that the first win would recover all previous losses, plus win a profit equal to the original bet. The problem with this strategy is that, remembering that past results do not affect the future, it is possible for the player to lose so many times in a row, that the player, doubling and redoubling his bets, either runs out of money or hits the table limit. A large financial loss is certain in the long term if the player continued to employ this strategy. Another strategy is the Fibonacci system, where bets are calculated according to the Fibonacci sequence. Regardless of the specific progression, no such strategy can statistically overcome the casino's advantage, since the expected value of each allowed bet is negative.

The Labouchre System is a progression betting strategy like the martingale but does not require the gambler to risk his stake as quickly with dramatic double-ups. The Labouchere System involves using a series of numbers in a line to determine the bet amount, following a win or a loss. Typically, the player adds the numbers at the front and end of the line to determine the size of the next bet. When he wins, he crosses out numbers and continues working on the smaller line. If he loses, then he adds his previous bet to the end of the line and continues to work on the longer line. This is a much more flexible progression betting system and there is much room for the player to design his initial line to his own playing preference.

This system is one that is designed so that when the player has won over a third of his bets (less than the expected 18/38), he will win. Whereas the martingale will cause ruin in the event of a long sequence of successive losses, the Labouchre system will cause bet size to grow quickly even where a losing sequence is broken by wins. This occurs because as the player loses, the average bet size in the line increases.

As with all other betting systems, the average value of this system is negative.

The system, also called montant et demontant (from French, meaning upwards and downwards), is often called a pyramid system. It is based on a mathematical equilibrium theory devised by a French mathematician of the same name. Like the martingale, this system is mainly applied to the even-money outside bets, and is favored by players who want to keep the amount of their bets and losses to a minimum. The betting progression is very simple: After each loss, you add one unit to the next bet, and after each win, one unit is deducted from the next bet. Starting with an initial bet of, say, 1 unit, a loss would raise the next bet to 2 units. If this is followed by a win, the next bet would be 1 units.

This betting system relies on the gambler's fallacythat the player is more likely to lose following a win, and more likely to win following a loss.

There are numerous other betting systems that rely on this fallacy, or that attempt to follow 'streaks' (looking for patterns in randomness), varying bet size accordingly.

Many betting systems are sold online and purport to enable the player to 'beat' the odds. One such system was advertised by Jason Gillon of Rotherham, UK, who claimed you could 'earn 200 daily' by following his betting system, described as a 'loophole'. As the system was advertised in the UK press, it was subject to Advertising Standards Authority regulation, and following a complaint, it was ruled by the ASA that Mr. Gillon had failed to support his claims you could earn 200 daily, and that he had failed to show that there was any loophole.

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Roulette - Wikipedia

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Roulette, or little wheel in French, grew popular in late-18th century France. However, it was over a century earlier when Blaise Pascal developed a primitive form of the game during his quest for a perpetual motion machine.

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A popular game in the full scope of casino gaming, roulette offers one of the higher hold percentages for casinos.

Research from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) records how more money is held on roulette tables in Nevada than any of the other popular table games. This includes games like 21, Craps, or Baccarat. Its by a clear margin of several percentage points to boot.

One might propose a couple reasons why this is the case. The first explanation is that roulette has an inherently higher house advantage, 5.26%, than blackjack or craps. (House advantage is a concept thatwill be discussed further in this game review.)

Second, in a more abstract sense, roulette highlights a significant concept, one that permeates every casino in the world, the gamblers fallacy. Defined as a logical fallacy thatis the root of many common (illogical) gambling practices, roulette is the perfect game to demonstrate why casinos are profitable ventures. Lose a $5 bet on REDlast spin? Why not bet $10 on REDnext spin?

Roulettes lasting popularity likely stems from itssimplicity.

Though there are a few different kinds of bets with different payouts, roulette is ultimately a game where a ball spins around a wheel and lands on a number. Players place wagers on a roulette layout, usually felt, where their wagers (in chips or chip-like markers) are paid or taken based on where the ball lands on the wheel.

The game is generally a hands-on experience for players. They are the ones responsible for marking the felt with their chips or markers. The phrase chips or markers is used because casino patrons are welcome to place a casino chip with a cash value directly on the felt. Alternately, they can ask the casino to provide markers, or lammers as they are commonly called. (Theselook very similar tochips.)

Roulette lammers are colorful to differentiate thewagers. A player might pass the croupier (game operator) a $20 bill in exchange for 10 $2 lammers or ask for five lammers, assigning a value of $4 each. Within certain limits, players may ask to assign any value to their lammers.Dont be afraid to communicate with the croupier when first buying into the game.

Players get paid with their color lammer on winning wagers. When its time to cash out, the croupier will be happy to exchange lammers for larger denomination chips with cash value. For reference, a few of the most common bets and their payouts are:

Roulette has an inherent house advantage of 5.26%. This means that if one bets $100 anywhere on the felt, the players expected return is $94.74.

Hold percentage is naturally higher than house advantage. This is because players do not have the bankroll ortime to beatthe casino in the long run.

Furthermore, roulette affords opportunities to win many multiples of ones wager, like three, eight, or up to 35 times players initial wager. But players can also lose those profits quickly. While other table games have specific wagers manufactured within them that are (in terms of expected value) worse for the player, roulette is generally known by the gambling community to be one of the less friendly games to gambling bankrolls.

A very key point is that every possible wager is equally disadvantageous to the player. A $10 bet on 00 or RED or EVEN would carry the same negative expected value of -$0.526 (fifty-two point six cents).

But lets face it: roulette just looksfun. Gamblers are willing to trade some house advantage for the long, historic tradition of placing wagers on the classic felt and watching that unmistakable white ball spin around the wheel.

Players experience the excitement of placing their last-second wagers after the ball has been released and begins to spin. Croupiers announce the timeless phrase no more bets while making a waving gesture. Then, players eagerly await the ball to fall off the track and land in a compartment on which a unique number (and color) is printed.

The game, however, cannot be found in every casino. Often, roulette is nowhere to be found in jurisdictions that dont support full Class III Las Vegas-style gambling.

Certainly, roulette is a staple in Las Vegas, Atlantic City, and in casinos all across Europe.But what about in Native American casinos? Or state-sponsored card rooms in places like California or Florida?

Neither the Golden State nor the Sunshine State offer the classic casino game. Governing regulations can be cited for why roulette isnt offered in certain jurisdictions. Yet a gambling establishments ability to operate profitably without the game is also of note.

Casino managers and corporate employees are always reviewing ways to make profitable adjustments to existing casino games. Until recently, many assumed that roulette was not a game casinos would alter to be more advantageous to the house and disadvantageous to the player and most importantly while not adding anything unique, enterprising, or substantial of value for the player.

Even Dylan could not have harmonized the recent Las Vegas Sands (NYSE: LVS) move to add a third zero to roulette tables at the Venetian. The gaming giant tries to spin the monstrosity as a fun, new game Sands Roulette. In reality, its the timeless classic with a 7.7% house advantage.

Before jumping into the concepts of the gamblers fallacy, independent events, and mutual exclusivity, it helps to establish a clear thesis that the only way to (legally) affect the casinos advantage is to play only old-fashioned European Roulette. (It has only one green zero on the felt.)

A fair motto might be the fewer zeros, the better. The standard roulette wheel today, sometimes differentiated as American Roulette, features a zero and double zero. If there are 38 numbers on the felt, but a wager on exactly the correct number pays 35-1, the casino has a 5.26% house advantage on the game.

Its a little simple math dont be alarmed:

You can see how on a single roulette wheel, the house advantage is 2.7%. On the unfortunate Sands Roulette, its7.7 %. Conclusion: dont play triple zero roulette.

Its important for gamblers to understand that each roulette spin is an independent event.That means previous spins do not impact the odds or probability going forward. There are 38 possible outcomes on a typical double zero roulette game. Eighteen arered, 18black, and two are green.

There is an 18/38, or about a 47.4%, chance the ball will land on a red or black number. What is the probability that the ball will land on a red number if the past 10 spins landed on red? What if the last 12 spins were black? Its always 47.4 %, independent from any past or future spins.

This author, his host, and sponsors clearly and absolutely decryany form of cheating. That said, it would be unfair to ignore in a historical context how players have gained an edge by recording wheel bias.

Ultimately, roulette wheels are man-made. While todays wheels are manufactured with computer precision, in a past era, the most astute gambler may have been able to record and exploit some of the smallest biases in wheel imperfections.

In addition to playing the best version of the game one can find, there are a few basic things to remember when playing.

It is the croupiers job to keep an eye on things. However, it always helps to pay attention to ones own action. Even though roulette is a game with a lot of movement and excitement, dont hesitate to speak up and ask the croupier for assistance or clarification. Theyre there to help.

Keep your chips (roulette lammers) stacked neatly.There is no reason to have chips or lammers in a messy pile sprawled everywhere. Maintaining neat stacks in your personal space allows everyone involved the croupier, pit boss, and surveillance alike to ensure all patrons are having the best experience possible.

Lammers are generally a good idea.Every roulette player receivesuniquely colored lammers. Theymust only touch his or her own color. Though casinos allow chips with cash value to play, it doesnt hurt to accept lammers anyway. (Even for high rollers wagering black $100 chips on single numbers.)

As an aside, two or more players often make the same wager by placing their respective lammers on the same spot on the felt. When they do so, they stack their lammers vertically. With multiple players betting on the same outcome(s), colorful assortments of lammers begin to stack up on one another.

Roulette has been a big part of the online gaming experience for decades now. In fact, itwas an easy-to-implement game for online casinos. This is due tothe limited player decision-making and absence of player involvement in the outcome.

The online gaming experience has come a long way since the first online gaming platforms 20years ago. Roulette as a game, however, is still as recognizable as it was generations before.

On the mobile casino front, roulette is certainly a game casinos want to have. Mobile software has many more intricacies though.

How do players navigate whole layouts on four-inch screens? Tablet versions wont have this problem, but one might expect mobile versions to offer a zoom feature. From there, a change in camera view reveals the satisfying experience of the balls journey around the wheel.

Software gives the user the option to speed up the event of spinning. They cango straight to the announcement of the number or provide a more natural experience that takes several seconds. Whatever yourpleasure, todays digital casino experience is ready for roulette. Youll find the timeless classic casino game molds well into the modern gameplay environment.

If you are looking for places to play roulette online, just about every social online casino offers a version of the game. Additionally, many real-money New Jersey online casinos offer free-play versions of their games outside of the Garden State.

If you are lucky enough to be in New Jersey, you can play roulette online at a number of different online casinos, such as Golden Nugget, Tropicana, or Caesars Casino.

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Roulette Rules & Bet Types Guide – How to Play Roulette …

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Roulette is a simple yet fascinating game of chance that is extremely popular around the world both at land-based and at the top casino sites. I doubt there is a person on this Earth that hasnt heard of it and doesnt have the slightest idea of how to play roulette, yet if youre planning on playing for real money, I would recommend that you explore the rules of roulette inside out because in some cases that might actually give you better chances for a win. Have you wondered how does roulette work? We are here to help you understand!

Note: Though this guide might be used for both land-based and online roulette games, here on roulettesites.org, we are focused on the virtual variations of the game and the best places where you can play. If you are a UK player and after brushing up on the rules of the game you decide that you want to try your luck on roulette for real money, then make sure you only play at sites that are licensed by the United Kingdom Gambling Commission. If you need a suggestion for such sites, make sure you take a look at our list of the top 10 real money roulette sites.

The rules of roulette are quite straightforward. In this game, you have a wheel that features red and black slots that have the numbers from 1 to 36 on them, and one or two green zero slots depending on whether youre playing European single zero roulette or American double zero roulette. Except for the wheel, you have a table which also features the numbers and several additional sectors on which you can place bets.

After all the participants in the game have placed their bets on the table, the dealer spins the wheel and throws in a small ball. Whichever is the number of the slot the ball lands in is the winning number. If you have bet on that number or on a group of numbers that contain it, then youll get a payout.

According to the type of roulette game youre playing, there might be some differences in the wheel and table layout, but thats nothing to worry about as it doesnt impact in any way the outcome of the game. Something that is important to know, though, is the type of bets you can place when playing roulette. Lets take a closer look at them. But before that, we will give you few very useful tips about roulette gameplay.

In roulette, you can bet on a single number or on different groups of numbers. There are many betting combinations all of which bring you different odds for winning and different payouts. All in all, the more numbers you bet on, the bigger are your chances for a win and, therefore, the lower are the payouts that the game offers. Other than that, knowing how does roulette works, you should know that all roulette bets are divided in three main categories: inside, outside and announced bets.

The first two categories are the basic ones that are offered by all roulette games and that you should definitely know inside out, whereas the third is more advanced and featured only in select roulette variants. Now lets start with the basic roulette bets and Ill leave it up to you if you want to continue and learn more about the advanced ones.

Roulette rules are not the only thing that you must know perfectly in order to have a great time while playing. If you take a better look at the roulette table layout, youll notice that the main part consists of the numbers from zero to 36 and the rest are sectors for betting on groups of numbers: odd/even, red/black, 1-18/19-36, columns and dozens. The bets that you place on the numbers themselves are called inside bets, whereas the bets that you place on the other sectors are called outside bets. There are seven types of inside roulette bets, as described and illustrated below:

As you can see, the inside betting combinations are quite logical and easy to remember just like most rules of roulette. As we already mentioned, they bring you different chances for a win and different payoffs, but if youre playing at legal and fair online roulette sites, then you can leave that up to the software.

If you, on the other hand, decide to play at a land-based casino or at an online live dealer table, then I would suggest you read up on the subject, as the dealers are humans and as such might make a mistake. For such cases, I advise you to also check out our article on the odds and probabilities that the different roulette bets bring you.

As we already mentioned, the outside bets in roulette are those bets that are placed outside the number field, on the sectors that cover the bigger groups of numbers. There are five common types outside bets:

Theres another bet that is considered to be an outside bet but is available only in certain roulette variations. Its called the snake bet and it covers the red numbers 1, 5, 9, 12, 14, 16, 19, 23, 27, 30, 32 and 34, creating the shape of a snake. In this bet, all the numbers are covered by one chip.

Some games also feature a black snake bet which again resembles a snake but consists only of black numbers: 2, 6, 8, 10, 13, 17, 20, 24, 26, 29, 28, 31 and 35. In the black snake betting combination, the 17/20 numbers and 26/29 are split bets, while all the rest are straights.

The announced roulette bets are special betting combinations most commonly featured in French Roulette though also often present in online European Roulette variants and they are actually part of the rules of roulette which you must know. And since they are most commonly featured on French Roulette, they all have their individual French names. You will need to learn them by heart in order to learn also how to play roulette.

Lets start with the Voisins du Zro bet, also known as the Neighbours of Zero. This bet covers the zero and the 7 numbers on each side of the zero from 22 to 25 on the wheel. This makes for a 15-number bet which is made of 9 chips:

Another bet, which just like the Voisins du Zro is covering quite a bit of numbers, is called Le Tiers Du Cylindre. We know that all these roulette rules, together with foreign names can be confusing but they are indeed needed. So Its located opposite on the wheel compared to the Voisins du Zro and covers 12 numbers from 27 to 33 on the wheel. This is where the name of the bet comes from it literally translates to One Third of the Wheel. All the numbers covered by this bet are: 27, 13, 36, 11, 30, 8, 23,10, 5, 24, 16 and 33. This is a 6-piece bet. One chip is placed on the table for each of the following splits: 5/8, 10/11, 13/16, 23/24, 27/30 and 33/36.

Another popular announced bet is called Orphelins. This is pretty much the bet that covers what is not covered by the Voisins du Zro and the Tier bets combined. This bet covers 8 numbers: 1, 6, 9, 14, 17, 20, 31 and 34. This is a 4-chip bet consisting of one straight on the number 1 and four splits on 6/9, 14/17, 17/20 and 31/34.

Furthermore, theres also the Jeu Zro bet, also called the Zero Game. This bet covers 3 neighbours of the zero slot on each side of the wheel. Its a 4-piece bet theres one straight on the number 26 and 3 splits on 0/3, 12/15 and 32/35.

A very common announced bet that you can place on roulette is the neighbours. This is a 5-number bet that covers a certain number and 2 neighbouring numbers on each side. For example, the bet 5 and the neighbours covers the numbers 5, 24, 16, 10 and 23. In order to place this bet, youll need the special racetrack betting section (see the picture above) which is available in most online roulette variations but not in all of them. To know these things, together with the roulette rules is vital if you want to actually enjoy the game in full and, of course, to win money.

Some online games even allow you to change the number of neighbours you want to cover on each side of the number youve chosen, up to 8. A very useful bet, indeed, especially when youre playing live roulette online and discovered some pattern in the dealers actions which leads you to believe that the ball will fall in a certain section of the wheel.

Other special roulette bets include the Finals or Finales and the Red/Black splits. The Finals let you bet on what will be the last digit of the winning number. For example, if you bet on Finale 4, then you will place a 4-number bet on 4, 14, 24 and 34. This bet is also called Finale Plein so that it differs from the Finale a Cheval which lets you bet on two potential final digits of the winning number. As far as the Red/Black split bets go, they are exactly what the name says: combinations of all the splits of the same colour that you can find on the table.

As in online gambling sites there are no boundaries, there are many interesting and innovative roulette variations that feature even more types of bets. For example, Microgamings Premier Roulette Diamond Edition features the Chip Bomb bet which allows you to easily place a bet on a certain number and all of the numbers that surround it on the table layout. Furthermore, most virtual roulette games allow you to create your own betting patterns and save them in a special tab of the layout for easier access when you later want to repeat them.

Now that you know about all the possible bets and the basic roulette rules, its time to try the game for yourself. But how to play roulette how do you choose which bet to make? Well, it all depends on the roulette strategy that you want to adopt. If you would like to try the classic progressive betting systems Martingale or Fibonacci, then you should pick one of the so-called even-money bets that cover half of the numbers on wheel, when you exclude the zero: odd/even, red/black, 1-18/19-36.

The strategy you choose will also help you in picking the amount you want to bet. In the same example, you should start from a very low bet so that you have the room to increase the stake after each loss. Speaking of stakes, you should also take into account that each roulette game has its own betting limits which differ for the various types of bets. Considering what is the amount youre willing to spend and the strategy that youre about to adopt, you should choose a game with betting limits that fit your need.

If youre a low roller and youre looking for tables that allow very small bets, then make sure you visit our low stakes roulette article. If you, on the other hand, consider yourself a high roller and want to experience the thrill of betting large amounts of money on your favourite game of chance, then our article on the best high limit online roulette tables is the read that you are looking for.

Did we help you in understanding how does roulette works? We hope so, yet, additionally, you can check out the following Q&A section about this review of the beginner rules on how to play online roulette. We answered the most frequently asked questions as quick as possible, so they can nicely complement this review of the online roulette rules. Make sure to read them before playing at your favourite table!

Basically, the online roulette rules in UK include six main steps. Initially, you place your bet (chips) in a specific way on the table and for a specific period of time. Then, the dealer closes the 'betting window' and spins the ball around the wheel, and lastly, the dealer announces and spreads out the chips depending on the winning bets.

Yes, but that's because some RNG and live roulette games are specially optimised for UK mobile casino apps. Examples include larger buttons in the main menu, easily accessible settings, 3D visualisations and effects, and a possibility to play with a special mobile casino bonus for table games. Otherwise, the online roulette betting rules are the same for the desktop and mobile version of a UK online casino.

The rules for the European and American versions are basically the same, except for some characteristics of the game. More specifically, the layout of the tables are different and the American version features a double-zero slot. Thus, the total amount of the slots on the American wheel become 38, which causes a slight change in the odds and payouts, and in the overall rules of roulette.

First, the online roulette rules for the French version of the game include a visually different table layout (mostly the outside betting field) with the lowest house edge advantage among all other versions (1.35%). Other important rules of roulette that are different include: La Partage rule, Announced Bets like Voisins du Zro, Finale Cheval and others.

A correctly used strategy can certainly affect your game but shortly put: no, it cannot change the online roulette rules. A correctly used roulette strategy only changes the odds of winning and, of course, it all depends on how lucky you get.

Yes, there are many types of online roulette that use different or slightly different rules. Examples include high-stakes tables that allow higher limits, as well as Mini Roulette that has a 13-slot wheel. Also, you can find different Russian Roulette rules and simplified roulette rules for dummies. There are also extraordinary cases such as the strip roulette rules.

The 'Neighbours' roulette rules allow you to place your bets on entire sections of the wheel. The length of the sections and respectively the number of the neighbouring pockets can be adjusted upon placing your bet. There are three main sections on the wheel: Les Voisins du Zro, Les Orphelins and Le Tier du Cylindre.

It is pretty simple actually since it's based on luck and only luck. Once every player sets his bets on the table, the dealer spins the wheel. Then, he drops a ball that moves through all the different sectors of numbers. Once the wheel and the ball stop, the one who bet on the number in which sector the ball is, wins.

Written by: Luke Holmes

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Play Online Roulette – for Free or Real Money | Roulette …

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The rules of roulette are very easy to understand and so is the sequence of action. If you are not too sure where to start, you can just practice roulette instead. However, we are sure that you will have no trouble understanding the game. The game of roulette has several main components:

Each of these components plays an integral part in the game. You need the dealer to manage the bets, or in this case the automated software. The table is the main place where all bets are placed and the ball and wheel determine the outcome of players' bets.

Once you open a version of the game, whether this is free mobile roulette or online roulette for real money, you can start playing. For your convenience, we have listed the actions you need to follow in a bullet list:

Remember that if you want to play for real money, you will have to deposit USD first. Now, players are probably aware that there are different types of bets and some may look a little too difficult. Do not worry about the types of bets there are.

We have prepared a table with all the available bets that you can reference any time you want to. You can see the table right on this page.

Another important term to keep in mind is the table limit. That metric will determine your minimum and maximum bet sizes. Some players prefer to find tables with very low limits while others prefer to play for more money.

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Video chatroulette for you!

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Online service Videochat.chat is a best video chat website for online dating. This videochat has become popular for those who love webcam-based conversations and cam to cam chat rooms.Webcam chat with girls provides visitors with an excellent opportunity to search for a chat partner anywhere in the world. Videochat.chat is the russian Chatroulette, which is a well-known English-speaking cam chat site. However, our cam chat roulette just as good as Chatroulette in functionality and convenience. Video chat offers a completely new standard of communication, combining chat partners by interests, regardless of race and social class. The criteria and purpose of partner choosing is up to you!

You can start communicating for free, from any device and at any convenient time for you. A well-thought-out and convenient live webcam chat interface allows you to easily move from one function to another. Even someone with minimal skills can become an active cam chat user.

No tiresome registration and personal profile creating is not required the video chat ruleta provides an instantly connect opportunity and select the chat partner who is online.

Webchat provides the following features:

Your actions on the cam to cam chat site are as simple as possible! You indicate your gender and specifie the gender of the partner you would like to talk. The roulette starts after clicking the search button, and due to that very roulette you can get a great chance for pleasant communication. After choosing a random chat partner, the user decides whether he wants to start a dialogue with that person, or wants to try his fate further. The convenience of the functions makes it easy to switch from one person to another, and also return to the previous one. An additional advantage of cam cam chat is the ability to conduct conversations in a dialog box. During the existence of the Videochat site, there were many successful acquaintances who received a successful continuation in reality. Users are not tired of sharing their success in their blogs and social networking sites.

Start chatting in Random Chat now and get an excellent opportunity of unlimited communication in real time!

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Real Money Live Casinos with Roulette Macao by Evolution Gaming – Tunf.com News

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Live Macau Roulette is a multi-angle view game that has managed to tickle the interest of many of its players. If you have played Immersive Roulette before, this version is sort of the exact upgrade that laces your experience with roulettes luxury and real-life thrill. Besides, the game has a wide limit range of 1 to 500,000, which allows low and high rollers, although it was specifically dedicated to William Hill Customers.

When playing Roulette Macau by Evolution, you may want to first master a few straightforward guidelines which are provided at the start. You decide whether to place your bets inside or outside the red, black, dozen, odd straight, or high bet symbols. With this in mind, the payouts rely on the bet type.

Now, when playing Live Roulette Macau for real money, the best sites to use are Fruity Casa, Play Frank, and Casumo. These are arguably the top casino sites that have proven to bring that real thrill in this table game.

Fruity Casa in precise is that perfect venue if you are looking for some real casino nourishment. The site is super stylish and packed with all game varieties, and Live Roulette Macau is among in the top collection category. For variety, it includes slot machines from top brands such as 1X2 Gaming, Amaya, and NetEnt among others. Besides the numerous welcome bonus packages, this site is perfectly compatible with smartphones, tablet devices, laptops, and desktop computers.

PlayFrank on the other hand, offers among the most inclusive banking options from cover cards, prepaid to e-wallets, so players hardly feel shut out. In addition to Roulette Macau, this site notes that their game database is in the upwards of 1000 plus in count, and prides of being a go-to dealer for the most famous game brands. In short, from game variety, bonus promotions, to banking options, not forgetting a reliable customer care system, this site answers the needs of most customers.

Casumo Casino is the other great site to play Live Roulette Macau for real money. For long it has been trusted by over 20 different software developers because it treats customers well and prides of over 1500 game titles in its database. It has a great user interface, issues bonuses, and more. However, the thing that sets this site apart from the crowd and why it is a great option for Roulette Macau is, you get to keep the most of your money as they dont charge transaction fees.

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Top Live Casinos with European Roulette by Evolution Gaming – Tunf.com News

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Although it is slightly different than classic roulette, European Roulette by Evolution Gaming is popular as much as the original, much-cherished version of the game. European Roulette is not necessarily tied to the Old Continent only, it is also played in the rest of the world. Like many other Evolution Gamings products, European Roulette is available on multiple devices and its in-game menu allows you to navigate the game with ease.

European Roulette offers you the finest live game experience. It is set in an amazing environment, and the games camera coverage is simply superb. You will be able to see everything in HD. Also, the game is managed by a skilled live dealer with whom you can communicate via the handy live-chat option. Simple, immersive, and fun, European Roulette will keep you occupied for hours.

To play it, visit one of the three sites named below. The venues that we have picked for you are all 100% safe and will provide you with the best gambling experience in the world. So, without further delays, lets introduce you to the top 3 live casinos that offer European Roulette!

Always welcoming to newbies, Fruity Casa Casino is a site that boasts a host of loyal followers who hail from all parts of the world. Beloved because of its huge portfolio dotted with top-notch goods, Fruity Casa is a site that will never stop growing. It regularly imports new games and shuffles new bonuses and promos. Here, the fun never stops, therefore, make sure that you visit this site more than once, there is always something new at Fruity Casa Casino.

Known for its playful spirit, Casumo Casino constantly looks for new ways to improve customers gambling experience. Besides awesome bonuses and promotions, the site is filled with exciting games developed by the best vendors in the industry. Here you can play all types of games, from the finest card games and slots to best roulette games in the world, Casumo has it all! Also, the site boasts a fine VIP program, it would be wise to check it out!

Managed by a group of gambling enthusiasts who know what their players want, Play Frank Casino imports only the best products for its customers. This site is a synonym for quality, only the most reliable developers are allowed to export their goods here. Besides fine live dealer games, this casino also boasts top-quality slots and scratchers. If thats not enough, know that Play Frank Casino also has one of the best loyalty programs in the world too!

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Real Money Live Casinos with Turkish Roulette by Evolution Gaming – Tunf.com News

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Developed for those who live in Turkey or speak the Turkish language, this particular roulette variant has a unique setting and addictive gameplay. The studio is decorated in an exotic style, its dotted with Asia-Minor and Lepantine motifs. The game is set in an elegant environment that features the colors of the Turkish flag, plus, many other elements are inspired by Turkish cultural heritage too.

The skilled dealer who manages the game speaks Turkish, and, thanks to the live chat option, you will be able to converse with him or her. The games in-game menu is rich with features and its also very easy to use. Created to provide its customers with a unique Turkish roulette experience, this game still follows the European rules with a single zero socket. Available 24/7, Turkish Roulette represents the apex of Evolution Gamings creativity.

To play it, you will need to visit one of the three casinos listed below. The sites that you are about to see are all 100% safe and own big portfolios, filled with interesting games. When you are done reading about Casumo, Play Frank, and Fruity Casa Casino, make sure that you visit these places.

This sites live dealer games department is rich with blockbuster games. Many of its live dealer products were made by Evolution Gaming, so expect to see some really good titles at this site! Besides roulette and cards, Casumo Casino also offers many fine slot games. The site also knows how to improve players gambling experience by offering them various bonuses and promos. After all, this venue boasts so many loyal fans, it would never allow itself to lose their affections.

Play Frank Casino is a site that follows that old quality over quantity rule. Although it has a solid number of games at its disposal, this casino is still very thorough when importing new products. Here, only the names like Evolution Gaming, NetEnt, Microgaming, Playtech, and Yggdrasil are allowed to store games. Play Frank Casino works with the most reliable providers only, and that reflects positively on its selection of games. Its portfolios quality is simply superb. Besides many bonuses and promos, Play Frank Casino also features a really great VIP program, rich with prizes, gifts and other boons.

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Real Money Live Casinos with Turkish Roulette by Evolution Gaming - Tunf.com News

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Rushing Roulette: With David Montgomery Potentially Out, What are The Bears Options at Running Back? – Windy City Gridiron

Posted: at 2:47 am

Earlier today, the unfortunate news broke that David Montgomery left practice with a potentially serious injury. This is incredibly bad news for the Bears, but even more so for the second year player who is looking to improve in his sophomore campaign with increased comfort both with the playbook and with the NFL in general. All around, not good.

This being the NFL however, the season must go on (assuming COVID doesnt do it in). So. What exactly are the Bears options at running back? Ill break this down into two sections: Long Term (if Montgomery misses most or all of 2020), and Short Term (if he only only misses a handful of games or less).

Seeing that there isnt really a suitable long term replacement for Montgomery on the roster with only Tarik Cohen, Ryan Nall, Artavis Pierce and (sort of) Cordarrelle Patterson behind him, Ryan Pace would likely look to bring someone in. With that in mind, these are the best FA options available for a long term replacement:

Freeman is a fairly accomplished NFL starter, and has operated well in a timeshare too (something that could easily be done in Chicago with Tarik Cohen). He is a jack of all trades type back who can be equally useful in the passing game as he is in the ground game. At 5 8 and just over 200 lbs, he is a physical runner with good burst and vision who is solid at everything, if not spectacular at anything. He runs good routes and has developed into a pretty good pass blocker during his 6 year career, so on paper he has every down back versatility.

Of course, he was released in Atlanta for a reason. He didnt look himself last season, seeming a step slow and lacking power. Of course he did miss most of 2018 after sports hernia surgery, and battled a recurring foot injury as well. At this point, its tough to say whether that played a role in his down performance in 2019, or if age has caught up with him at 28. Running back is a physical position, and he was a physical runner after all.

If he is back to his old self after another off-season of recovery, then he could make for a solid long term replacement for David Montgomery.

Ware has never really been a starter in the NFL. Yes, hes been called on to start, but hes never really been a teams featured back. That said, he is an accomplished runner and has produced well when called upon. At 5 10 and 224 lbs, he is a big, physical runner with a nasty streak who excels at short yardage. While not a prolific pass catcher, he is competent enough to be trusted in the pass game.

Is he as versatile as Montgomery (or a healthy Freeman)? No. Does he move the chains anyway? Yes. Having averaged 4.6 ypc through his career, he has established himself as a guy who can get it done when called upon. On top of that, having spent 4 years in KC, he is more than familiar with Matt Nagys offense. That said, he would probably be better utilized in a timeshare with Cohen and Patterson than as a featured back in his own right. Theres also the question of whether or not hes fully healthy after being placed on IR late last season with a torn Rotator Cuff. He was also a free agent for most of last season before being re-signed by the Chiefs after a slew of injuries at the position, and didnt exactly light the world on fire in his 3 games back.

With all that in mind, if he is in good physical condition, Ware could be more than useful for the Bears should Montgomery miss significant time. His utility as a short yardage and goal line back alone would be useful, but he would also be a solid piece to have in a rotation with Cohen and Patterson on early downs as well. Hes not a replacement for Montgomery, but he could be a strong anchor for a committee, and at a bargain basement price most likely.

Crowell is an interesting back. Hes been a starter, but still doesnt feel like hes ever gotten a fair shake. Being in Cleveland will do that to I suppose. At 5 11 and 225 lbs, he is a big bodied back with good burst, vision, change of direction and balance, with enough top end speed to do some damage at the second level. Hes never been much of a receiver, but of course hes largely had to deal with Cleveland quarterbacking (and Duke Johnson), so he may not be as bad as his numbers make him look in that regard. Pass pro is a question with him, but again, he often spent much of his time off the field when in passing situations, so its hard to judge that fairly as well.

Obviously, hes coming off a torn Achilles that cost him his 2019 campaign. Thats not an insignificant injury to come back from, so questions remain as to where he is physically at this point. If he is healthy though, he is an intriguing option at the position carrying a career 4.3 ypc average and a skill set that could be very useful to this Bears team should they be without David Montgomerys services long term. I could see him fitting adequately at the top of the rotation with Cohen and Patterson, and would likely come at a team friendly price as well.

In the case that Montgomery doesnt miss much time, there are a slew of other options the Bears could take.

If Montgomery is only likely to miss a few weeks, the Bears may well just run with what they have. A rotation of Nall, Cohen and Patterson isnt exactly inspiring, but it may work well enough in the short term to negate them needing to bring in another back, or maybe just bring in a UDFA like Reggie Corbin to shore up the back end. In my mind, should Montgomerys injury not be serious, this is the most likely course the Bears take.

Powell has always been a solid role player in New York. The fact that he stuck with the team for 9 seasons should be a testament to that. At 5 10 and 205 lbs, Powell is a solid runner carrying a 4.3 ypc average through his career, and a reliable pass catcher out of the backfield. On top of that, hes quite good in pass protection making him useful even when not running the ball. At 31, hes likely no season long solution, but for a game or two, hes probably better than anyone currently on the roster, and it wouldnt hurt to have a veteran presence in the running back room.

Look. Marshawn isnt the Marshawn of years past. Hes 34, and has gone through his fair share of injuries. Im really only bringing him up due to name recognition and dont see him as a legit option really. That said, with fresh legs and a committee approach, he could be useful for a game or two, assuming he takes his Geritol.

Thompson is more of a 3rd down back than a true runner. This might be a bit redundant with Cohen and Patterson on the roster, but theres little denying Thompsons acumen as a pass catcher. Could Matt Nagy shift to a short pass game out of the backfield in place of a true ground game until Montgomery gets back (assuming his injury is monor)? Maybe. If thats the plan, then Thompson wouldnt be a bad option. Id say this isnt a terribly likely outcome, but it is worth mentioning. Never mind, I somehow missed he was signed by Jacksonville. Ill leave this here as the point still stands.

Ive heard Bells name bandied about as a possible trade target for the Bears should Montgomery be lost for a significant amount of time. While I think its unlikely The Bears swing such a deal, it is worth looking at. Ill spare you going over what Lev Bell could bring to the team, as Im sure youre all familiar. Suffice to say, he would likely fit in well in this offense, and has a skill set well suited to being the lead horse on a Matt Nagy team. However, the cost to acquire him would be not insignificant, and his contract would put a decent dent in the cap space. That said, there is enough space, and any draft pick investment in him could probably be recouped in the off-season should they trade him away (assuming he has a good season).

Like I said, I dont see this as a likely outcome, but it is worth mentioning.

Im sure everyone here will join me in hoping for a quick recovery for David Montgomery. I was (am) personally excited to see what the kid can do in year two, and this injury is a real shot to the gut. Hopefully hes good to go opening day, but in the chance hes not, what are your thoughts on what the Bears should do? Leave them in the comments below.

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Rushing Roulette: With David Montgomery Potentially Out, What are The Bears Options at Running Back? - Windy City Gridiron

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City of San Francisco Pays for Billboard on ‘Safe’ Heroin Injection – American Council on Science and Health

Posted: at 2:47 am

Several months ago, we were about to cover an important story out of San Francisco. However, the coronavirus pandemic hit, and we've been focused almost exclusively on it since then. But now, we're starting to shift back to our regularly scheduled programming.

Back in March, the City of San Francisco paid for a billboard as part of a harm reduction campaign that displays easily the dumbest, most dangerous public health message we've ever seen:

This is jaw-dropping. Rather than encourage people not to use heroin at all, San Francisco is teaching residents to do so in groups because it's less harmful. That's like saying, "If you're going to play Russian roulette, please do so with plenty of medical equipment handy in case we need to put your brains back inside your skull."

In merely a handful of words, the city is providing deadly misinformation. Let's go through them.

Use with people and take turns. Take turns? If you're the last person to inject heroin, that means everybody else is already blitzed out. Who is going to help you now? Also, the poster doesn't mention the importance of not sharing needles, so we can assume that will be happening at these city-approved heroin parties. That's an excellent way to spread HIV, hepatitis, and other nasty infectious diseases.

Get free naloxone. Returning to our Russian roulette analogy, this is akin to saying, "Wear a helmet." Naloxone certainly can save the life of a person who has overdosed on heroin or another opioid, but it doesn't always. One study claims that naloxone, when administered by just an average person, is effective 75% to 100% of the time. That's good, but it also means that roughly 1 in 4 people who overdose on an opioid will die anyway, even if given naloxone.

Let's take care of each other. Uh-huh. The best way to take care of each other is to encourage people never to take these dangerous drugs. Heroin is inherently unsafe because it's impossible to know what stuff bought off the street is adulterated with. It could be anything from fentanyl (which is far more potent and deadlier than heroin) to rat poison. The neighborhood drug dealer isn't always trustworthy.

When does harm reduction make sense?

In general, we are in favor of harm reduction as a public policy when it comes to chronic health problems, such as smoking. Vaping devices and e-cigarettes are a far better choice than tobacco. But harm reduction is a dangerous policy when it comes to drugs that can kill you in a single overdose. Hopefully, that billboard has been pulled down.

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City of San Francisco Pays for Billboard on 'Safe' Heroin Injection - American Council on Science and Health

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