The Prometheus League
Breaking News and Updates
- Abolition Of Work
- Alternative Medicine
- Artificial Intelligence
- Atlas Shrugged
- Ayn Rand
- Basic Income Guarantee
- Big Tech
- Black Lives Matter
- Boca Chica Texas
- Casino Affiliate
- Cbd Oil
- Chess Engines
- Cloud Computing
- Conscious Evolution
- Corona Virus
- Cosmic Heaven
- Designer Babies
- Donald Trump
- Elon Musk
- Ethical Egoism
- Eugenic Concepts
- Fake News
- Fifth Amendment
- Fifth Amendment
- Financial Independence
- First Amendment
- Fiscal Freedom
- Food Supplements
- Fourth Amendment
- Fourth Amendment
- Free Speech
- Freedom of Speech
- Gene Medicine
- Genetic Engineering
- Germ Warfare
- Golden Rule
- Government Oppression
- High Seas
- Hubble Telescope
- Human Genetic Engineering
- Human Genetics
- Human Longevity
- Immortality Medicine
- Intentional Communities
- Jacinda Ardern
- Jordan Peterson
- Las Vegas
- Life Extension
- Marie Byrd Land
- Mars Colonization
- Mars Colony
- Mind Uploading
- Minerva Reefs
- Modern Satanism
- Moon Colonization
- National Vanguard
- New Utopia
- New Zealand
- Online Casino
- Online Gambling
- Personal Empowerment
- Political Correctness
- Politically Incorrect
- Post Human
- Post Humanism
- Private Islands
- Proud Boys
- Quantum Computing
- Quantum Physics
- Resource Based Economy
- Ron Paul
- Second Amendment
- Second Amendment
- Socio-economic Collapse
- Space Exploration
- Space Station
- Space Travel
- Sports Betting
- Teilhard De Charden
- Terraforming Mars
- The Singularity
- Tor Browser
- Transhuman News
- Victimless Crimes
- Virtual Reality
- Wage Slavery
- War On Drugs
- Zeitgeist Movement
The Evolutionary Perspective
Category Archives: Polygamy
Violence against women: Why a rise in the number of complaints is not a problem in Nepal – Online Khabar (English)
Posted: November 28, 2021 at 10:08 pm
Today is November 25, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women. This day also marks the beginning of the 16 days of Activism against Gender-based Violence that lasts till December 10.
On the very occasion, Onlinekhabar recently talked with Nepal Police Inspector Anu Lama, the chief of Women, Children and Senior Citizen Service Center (WCSC) of Nepal Police, formerly known as Women Cell, that was established in 1996 to combat all forms of inhumane acts against women, children and senior citizens to review the overall status of violence against women in the country and police efforts to minimise them.
Youhave to deal with multiple cases of violence against women every day. How do you, as a woman, feel about it?
We have to deal with cases including rape, polygamy, child marriage, domestic violence, harassment, and attempted rape. As a woman, handling these cases every day makes me really sad and sometimes frustrated. I sometimes even question if there are any effects of social campaigning against violence against women.
This is interesting. There is campaigning, but news reports and other official reports show that cases of violence against women have increased every year. What does this mean?
Of course, the crime and complaint rates are directly proportional to population growth. With the increasing population, the surge in crime and complaints is natural. Besides, I also feel people have become more aware now, thanks to awareness campaigns and increased literacy rates.
Women are now empowered both mentally and financially. Women now know their rights that they should not tolerate such violence and are not confined to living with the abuser anymore. Therefore, they freely lodge complaints against the abuser now.
I dont see an increase in the number of complaints about violence against women as a problem. In the past also, there happened different forms of violence against women, but they remained unreported. The survivors remained suppressed and quiet, tolerating everything as they were neither aware nor independent.
Also, along with development, the lifestyle of people changed, but their mindset has remained traditional, which is also contributing to the rising violence cases, especially of domestic violence. This is directly linked to foreign employment, which is leading to extramarital affairs, polygamy, domestic violence and a lot of other crimes.
So, how does your organisation make the survivors comfortable sharing and dealing with their problems?
Women, children and senior citizens are among the most vulnerable groups in our society, hence we all work in civvies to make them comfortable enough to share their problems with us.
Survivors can not freely open up in front of policewomen even when they are in uniform because one woman can understand another womans problem. With the same mindset, this women cell was started. As women, we prioritise such cases and listen to them sensitively. In order to develop trust in us, we follow the formula of talking less and listening to more, and we have empathy rather than sympathy. We provide them with legal counselling and necessary support accordingly.
Among the complaints of violence against women registered, the cases of domestic violence dominate the list, covering about 80 per cent. Out of that, only about 20 per cent of cases make it to the court and all others cases are settled here itself. Apart from that, rape, child marriage and polygamy cases are reported.
Why do only a few cases of violence against women, especially those of domestic violence, reach the court?
If a complaint is lodged here for the first time, we usually summon both the accused and complainant, who are usually husband and wife in case of domestic violence. At first, we act as a mediator between them and try to resolve the things between them here itself as the quarrel between husbands and wives is a regular affair. Many times, people tend to register a complaint in the heat of the moment.
However, if the same complainant repeatedly comes with the same case, we take the case to the court.
To be precise, once a complaint is filed, the case remains in our cell for a month. During that time, we give both the complainant and accused four dates to try settlement, counsel them if there is any environment of settling again, allow them and their family members to have healthy discussions with each other inside and outside the cell.
If they decide to settle the case during this time, the case ends here. But, if they do not find any solution, we go through legal procedures. Some cases of violence against women remain pending also because they just lodge the complaint and do not follow up or comply with our procedure.
Who reports most of the cases? Survivors or witnesses or others?
It depends from case to case. For instance, in the case of a minor girl being raped, her guardian reports the case. If not that, different organisations working against violence against women or on other gender issues report such cases. As police cannot reach each and every place, they approach us.
That does not necessarily mean there is no crime in the places where police have not reached. Crime can take place anywhere, inside closed doors to public areas. Hence, witnesses also report such cases of violence against women. Survivors also come here to lodge complaints.
Then, who, the complainant or accused, generally propose settlements in cases of violence against women?
We counsel both of the parties. Naturally, the accused usually proposes settlement, stating I will not repeat such things from now onwards and I will change my habits.
Especially, in cases of polygamy, the complainants are tried to be made hostile and also pressurised to take back the case.
Personally, what do you think of settling the cases of violence against women without taking them to the court?
I think in cases such as child marriage, rape, attempted rape, polygamy, and others, there should not be any kind of settlement. In any case that has already reached the court, there should be no place for settlement.
However, regarding the matter between a husband and a wife, if the complaint is filed for the first time, I believe we should settle the matter as far as possible. Otherwise, the quarrels could lead to divorce and if a couple decide to separate, it majorly harms the growth of their child.
To conclude, why is the country failing to prevent violence against women?
All the stakeholders including the government, Nepal Police, local governments, and non-governmental organisations are continuously working for preventing gender-based violence. But still, many people are not aware at the community level. Patriarchy has a major role to play here and it is directly connected to power. Men are considered powerful in our society, and it is human nature that powerful ones tend to suppress the weaker group, which adds to the cases of gender-based violence.
Most of the campaigns organised by the governmental or non-governmental sectors are usually targeted at educated or aware people who are vulnerable groups. Isnt it necessary to upgrade this approach and also bring change in the potential abusers and abusers?
Yes, I always insist on campaigners organising campaigns on violence against women to encourage mens participation as well. Women by now already know a lot about such violence, in fact, some of them are already experiencing it. So, the priority should be focused on the probable abusers or abusers as they should know what they are doing is violence and punishable by law, and they should not be doing it.
Gender-based violence survivors are rarely accepted by society. No matter how empowered they have become, many of them struggle to make a space in society. How can this problem be solved?
What I believe is that society has to come out of the traditional mindset as the problem is in the society. For this, all should come together and work to increase the awareness at the community level and educate them
Are the roles played by police as of now enough for preventing rising cases of violence against women?
Police play multiple roles in this, starting from the role of information collector, mediator, counsellor, investigator, awareness campaigner and also a bridge to access justice. Yet, it is not enough because technology-based violence is also increasing day by day. It is a time to take diverse approaches to handle such cases and not only the police but other stakeholders should also get involved.
Police, moreover, should be ready to handle all types of complaints and crimes, which is a great challenge currently. We still function in a traditional way, but criminals have gone far away in terms of the use of technology.
But, it is more important that all people should have at least minimal knowledge of the law regarding violence against women and all other forms of violence.
Sister Wives Season 16 Episode 2: November 28 Release, Where To Watch and What To Know Before Watching? – Gizmo Story
Posted: at 10:08 pm
Sister Wives is an American reality show which is back with its sixteenth season. Season 16 of the show was premiered on November 21, 2021,onTLC. This reality show is about a family that is residing in Utah. Kody Brown, who is a polygamist, along with his four wives and eighteen children of theirs, are the ones whose lives are shown on the reality show.
As we can decipher from the number of seasons of the show that how much the audience is so intrigued to know about all the happenings, and therefore, episode 2 of season 16 of Sister Wives has been scheduled to be released on November 28,2021.
Episode 2 of the reality show Sister Wives season 16 will be released on November 28,2021. This season is back with a bang, and all the fans are eagerly waiting to know that finally, what will happen to Christine and Kodys relationship? Are they going to get separated? Well, this season is going to pick up the pace so keep reading this article to know all these details in one go.
You can watch the show onTLC. Also, thanks to all those OTT platforms, which have practically made our life easier because we can easily stream any of our favorite shows at any time and anywhere. Therefore, you can stream the episode on a large number of OTT platforms such as Xfinity, Fubo TV, Philo TV, Spectrum, DirecTV, Dish,andSling.
Episode 1 was released on November 21, 2021, and the episode began with Christine wanting to return to Utah. Polygamy was legally acceptable in Utah, and everyone was well aware of it. But other than her, no one wanted to leave Arizona and return to Utah.
Thus, her concerns were simply neglected. Even her husband, Kody Brown himself, was feeling very much at home in Arizona. Though he was instructed to stay in solitude still, he liked the way it was.
Later on, Kody felt a bit upset about the way he completely neglected Christines opinion. Thus, he further made attempts to sort things out with her. He even asked Janelle that if they could relocate back. To this, Janelle was not at all in favor of this thought because it is a very tiring job to relocate again and make all those attempts and efforts to make her children get adjusted there.
Everyone out there had different opinions. Janelle was having a great time in Arizona as she could do all those things which she had always wanted to do. On the other hand, Christine is so adamant that she wants to relocate. It was more like Robyn and Kodys relationship was not in the best shape. Kody even left Meri to take care of herself because, in the last season, it seemed like their marriage was practically over.
The main person who is to be blamed for all these is Kody because it was caused because of his personality that he loves to wanders. Even though he gives it thought about relocating, but it will be the place where parents of Robyn are residing.
Read more from the original source:
Posted: at 10:08 pm
Mzansis most-loved polygamy reality TV show, uThando Nesthembu, continues to leave its viewers in dismay as the topic of taking on a new wife and growing the Mseleku name by having more children keeps arising, causing unnecessary drama and tension between Musa Mselekus wives.
Thursday evenings episode saw Mseleku and his four wives sit in a meeting with the king in their community to discuss Mselekus last will and testament.
The king made it clear that just like any man, Musa should definitely have a will in place for when he passes on, and he also said if he does not want to keep the will in his lawyers possession, then he can give it to the king who will keep it safe for him.
The meeting then progressed onto the topic of children, which stirred some tension between the wives and their husband.
ALSO READ: uThando Nesthembu: Sometimes tradition is used to justify nonsense
Traditionally, the sons of a household are usually the ones who take care of the household once they reach a certain age, and that is why it is important for each household to have at least one boy child.
Musas first two wives, MaCele and MaYeni, both have two sons while MaNgwabe gave birth to only girls, and MaKhumalo has not yet been able to have children of her own.
During the meeting, Musa and the king mentioned that it would be ideal for one of MaCele and MaYenis sons to move into the homes of the other two wives.
Annoyed by that notion, MaCele said she could not agree with that.
She also pointed out that because she has the oldest son, he has always had the responsibility of taking care of all the other households when his father is not around, and she has been unhappy about that for many years.
The meeting ended off with MaCele becoming emotional and annoyed at the topic, leading to her storming out of the meeting.
Viewers were once again angered at the fact that MaKhumalo was being reminded that she does not have children, and they felt that there was no need for her to be present in the meetings, seeing as though she could not relate to the topic at hand.
Read this article:
Massachusetts rules about wedding relationship designation, assistant regarding the Commonwealth. Used to – ADOTAS
Posted: at 10:08 pm
Massachusetts rules about wedding relationship designation, assistant regarding the Commonwealth. Used toDining table of materials
MGL c.207: relationships. Certain areas of interest:
Collins v. Guggenheim , 417 bulk. 615 (1994). The Court conducted that cohabitation in Massachusetts will not produce the commitment of wife and husband into the lack of a formal solemnization of marriage [and] the occurrences associated with marital relationship [do maybe not] attach to an arrangement of cohabitation. common-law marriage isnt respected in Massachusetts.
Commonwealth v. Lane, 113 Mass. 458 (1873). The court conducted that we typically offer recognition to out-of-State marriages under maxims of comity, even in the event these types of marriages was restricted here, unless the marriage violates Massachusetts community policy, such as polygamy, consanguinity and attraction.
Elia-Warnken v. Elia, 463 Size. 29 (2012). The great Judicial Court recognized a Vermont municipal union while the equivalent of relationships in Commonwealth under maxims of comity.
Parton v. Hervey , 67 size. 119 (1854) conversation associated with legitimacy of marriage of minors above the ages of consent without adult consent.
Shea v. Cameron, 92 Bulk. Software. Ct. 731 (2018) a declare of fake inducement to marriage is actually barred by center Balm Act (act), G. L. c. 207, 47A.
One-day matrimony designation, Secretary of this Commonwealth. Used to posses a buddy or friend perform the service.
Marriage without delay/Marriage of minors (CJD 430). Bulk. Probate meet an inmate com and Household Courtroom Department. used to request waiver regarding the required 3 time prepared course and/or affirmation for lesser to get married. Read also: guidelines for marriage without delay-Marriage of minors
Fiance & relationship visas: a couple ofs guide to U.S. immigration, Nolo, 2019 has information on visas, eco-friendly notes, earnings demands, getting ready the papers and much more. Demands no-cost library cards for accessibility.
Getting married in Massachusetts: prior to the wedding ceremony, Mass.gov, 2017. Discusses the basics of all things you need to know, including who are able to marry, who is going to run the wedding, and necessary papers.
Getting hitched in Massachusetts, Gay and Lesbian supporters and Defenders (GLAD), July 2015 Written for same-sex people, but the processes tend to be similar for every couples. Evident more information. Consists of information on how to change your surname.
Justices associated with serenity: overview of tasks Compiled by any office from the Massachusetts Governor, explains the projects of a fairness from the serenity in performing a wedding, including the type of the ceremony, allowed charge, and much more.
Massachusetts legal impediments to marriage, Bulk. Registry of public information and stats produces a list of which may well not marry whom in Massachusetts.
Purchasing a delivery, marriage, or demise certificate, Mass. Registry of public record information and data details on acquiring duplicates of wedding documents
Premarital agreement legislation in Massachusetts, Charles P. Kindregan Jr., December 3, 2012 This report provides an overview of the drafting and employ of premarital or prenuptial contracts in Massachusetts.
LexisNexis rehearse instructions: Massachusetts parents law, LexisNexis, 2021. Section 1: relationships: this part protects who may enter into a wedding, the appropriate needs of a wedding, annulments and same gender marriages in Massachusetts.
Lindy and Parley on divorce agreements and antenuptial deals, Matthew Bender, loose-leaf, 1999 with recent supplement. Contains information about prenuptial contracts.
Massachusetts exercise v.1-3 (families laws and practice) fourth ed., Thomson Reuters, 2013 with present pills. Sections 17-22: what the law states of matrimony.
Continue reading here:
Posted: November 23, 2021 at 4:16 pm
Polygamy is legal under certain circumstances in South Africa. All polygamous marriages entered into in accordance with the provisions of the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act are legal. The husband in an existing customary marriage wishing to marry a second wife must apply to a competent court for such a marriage to be legal. Hence former President Jacob Zuma currently has four legally-recognised wives. The court considers the interests of all parties to the marriage and may add whatever conditions the court deems just for the polygamous marriage to be valid under customary law. Polygamous marriages are not allowed under the Marriage Act and the Civil Unions Act.
A person married under the Civil Union Act which allows same-sex couples to marry, may not enter into marriage with a second partner until the existing marriage is dissolved. Therefore only men are allowed to marry more than one spouse of the opposite sex at the same time.
South African traditionalists have been well known to practice polygamy and the topic has been a serious political issue in the past several years, especially in the 2009 elections. Many of the indigenous Bantu peoples, both Christians and Indigenous, are polygamous. Islamic South Africans such as are found among the Cape Malays, Cape Coloureds, and Indian South Africans also allow for polygamy.
Jacob Zuma, the former president of South Africa, is a self-proclaimed polygamist. He has been married five times, and is currently married to four different women. He has reportedly fathered 20 children among his wives and mistresses.
Read the original post:
Posted: at 4:16 pm
More than a thousand years after the Viking Age drew to a close, theres still a lot we dont know about these seafaring Norse warriors, who explored territory from the furthest reaches of Russia to the earliest settlement in North America and left a lasting mark on the lands and peoples they encountered.
Now, archaeologists are attempting to piece together a clearer picture of one of the darker aspects of the Viking world: slavery.
Historical accounts make it clear that when they raided coastal towns from the British Isles to the Iberian Peninsula, the Vikings took thousands of men, women and children captive, and held or sold them as slavesor thralls, as they were called in Old Norse. According to one estimate, slaves might have comprised as much as 10 percent of the population of Viking-era Scandinavia.
While hard evidence in the archaeological record may be scarce, what seems clear is that slavery played an important part in the Viking way of life, as in many societies both before and since. In fact, the desire for slaves might have been one of the main reasons Vikings began raiding in the first place.
Many of these slaves came from the British Isles and Eastern Europe. In one historical account of Viking-era slavery, an early-medieval Irish chronicle known as The Annals of Ulster, described a Viking raid near Dublin in A.D. 821, in which they carried off a great number of women into captivity.
This is one of numerous written sources referring to slavery in the Viking world, which include historical chronicles produced within northern European monasteriesoften by people who were the victim of Viking attacks. Other sources emerged from the Arab world, including the account of the 10th-century geographer Ibn Hawqual, who in A.D. 977 wrote of a Viking slave trade that extended across the Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt.
Shackles from the Viking-Age town of Birka, Sweden (top left), Neu Niekhr, Germany (bottom left), and Trelleborg, Slagelse, Denmark (right).
Christer hlin/Swedish Historical Museum; Ben Raffield
These sources provide very clear indications that Viking raiding groups are engaging in slaving activity, says Ben Raffield, an archaeologist at Swedens Uppsala University who is conducting research on the Viking slave trade as part of the Viking Phenomenon project.
In contrast to the wealth of historical and literary evidence for Viking-era slavery, actual archaeological proof remains relatively sparse. In an article published in the journal Slavery & Abolition in April 2019, Raffield detailed what has been discovered so far, starting with a collection of iron collars and shackles found at several sites thought to be Viking slave trading hubs, like Dublin (Ireland), Birka (Sweden), and Hedeby (Denmark).
Though its been suggested the objects could have been used for restraining animals, rather than humans, Raffield argues that their presence in these urban centers (rather than rural areas), as well as their concentration near the harbors tends to support their use on slaves. They look strikingly similar to all kinds of restraints that have been used on humans throughout history, from antiquity to the early modern period, he says.
Aside from the collection of restraints, researchers have discovered what may be evidence of slave quartersan arrangement of smaller houses surrounding a large house at Sanda, a Viking site in Sweden. The few that have been excavated seem to have been used for crafting activities, things like textile making, Raffield says. They strangely look quite similar to what you see in the United States in the antebellum period.
Scholars have long wondered why the Vikings suddenly emerged as a formidable raiding force in the late eighth century, starting with their attack on the Christian monastery of Lindisfarne, located on the northeast coast of England, in A.D. 793.
The answer might have been a need for foreign slave labor to help build their enormous fleets of ships and produce the textiles for their sails. Raffield and his colleagues see the desire to take slaves as a possible motivating factor behind the Viking expansion. Fleets of hundreds of ships [were] sailing out of Scandinavia in the 9th century, he says. We wonder whether you would need a new labor force to produce the materials you need to do that.
Slaveswho could also be traded at international marketsmay have represented another type of resource for the Vikings, too. Evidence suggests Vikings often targeted women and girls in their raids, suggesting the existence of sexual slavery, as well as intermarriage. There are also indications thatVikings practiced polygamy, which in their highly stratified society would have meant that poorer unmarried men might have had limited access to women, and would have targeted female slaves as concubines (or even wives).
DNA mapping of the modern Icelandic population found that up to two-thirds of Icelands female founding population had Gaelic origins (either Ireland or Scotland) while only one-third had Nordic roots. The reverse was true for the male population, suggesting that many Nordic men in Iceland had children with women who were likely taken in raids from the British Isles.
Its also possible that in addition to sexual motives, Vikings might have targeted women as slaves because of their specific value as a source of skilled labor. Quite often in a slaving context, women are taken because in a lot of societies they are traditionally the people who produce high-value goods, says Raffield. A lot of people think if you wanted captives for labor, you would take men, but that's not necessarily the case. Textile working in Scandinavia, for example, is strongly associated with women.
Whatever motivated the Vikings to start taking slaves, evidence suggests they were often brutal with those who had the misfortune to be captured. In one study, research Anna Kjellstrm of Stockholm University examined the skeletal remains of presumed Viking-era slaves found in graves in Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and found that they showed signs of abuse and decapitation.
In some cases, the slaves were buried alongside their masters, suggesting they may have ended up as human sacrifices, and included with grave goods to accompany powerful Vikings into the afterlife.
While written sources provide strong evidence of slavery in the Viking world, the slaves themselveswhy they were taken, how they were transported, where and how they livedleft little trace on the archaeological record.
Raffield stresses the need to more fully excavate Viking sites where slaves are believed to have lived. Ultimately, there may be limits to how much well ever know about forced labor in the Viking Age, beyond the evidence gleaned from written sources and archaeological digs.
The thing about studying slavery and captivity is that these groups are often described in the archaeological literature as invisible, or unseen, Raffield cautions. Their movements are curtailed, they're denied of possessions, they're not always accorded formal habitationplaces to sleep, places to live. They're really hard to identify in the archaeological record.
Posted: at 4:16 pm
Lynn A. Thompson, President of the Priesthood of the Apostolic United Brethren, the largest Mormon fundamentalist religion, quietly passed away this week on October 5, 2021.
Mormon fundamentalist religion is a term used by both early leaders of the movement and leaders within the LDS Church to differentiate themselves from those who continued the controversial marital practice. According to the Apostolic United Brethren, they were charged with continuing the fundamentals of the faithnamely polygamyafter the LDS Church essentially brought an end to the practice in 1904.
Over the past two years, the legal and criminal status of polygamy in the US has once again been at the center of public attention. At the start of the 2020 Utah legislative session, Senator Deidre Henderson and Representative Lowry Snow introduced a bill that sought to effectively decriminalize polygamy in Utah. SB102 reclassified the practice as an infraction for consenting adults, whereas polygamy associated with other crimes remains a felony.
The bill passed by an astronomical margin. At the center of the bills debate was harm reduction, and further integrating polygamous families into wider Utah society. Among supporters were several of Thompsons children who left the faith as adults, and who recognized the criminal status of polygamy as contributing to a childhood marked by isolation, even within a more progressive fundamentalist movement.
While Mormon fundamentalism is most often associated with the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (FLDS), led by Warren Jeffs, the AUB has demonstrated the diversity of practice within the movement. Members of the community have frequently appeared on television shows such as My Five Wives and Sister Wives. Their public presence has forced people to interrogate their previously held ideas about polygamous Mormons in the U.S.
Despite media attention over the last decade, the AUB has always been a marginalized and criminalized faith. Beginning in 1933, in the face of governmental prosecution and persecution from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, polygamous Mormons sought a place of refuge to practice their faith. However, even in its earliest years, the polygamous Mormon movement was marked by schism.
In 1952, the fledgling polygamous Mormon community in Utah underwent a split. Those who were faithful to Joseph W. Musser looked to Rulon C. Allred as his successor and the new President of the Priesthood. Under Allred, the faith grew. Most notably, the group experienced a growth in membership after the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints desegregated their temples. Shortly after, the group officially incorporated as the Apostolic United Brethren (AUB). By 1970, the group had communities in Pinesdale, MT, as well as in Bluffdale and Rocky Ridge, UT.
When Allred died in 1977, he was succeeded by his brother, Owen Allred, followed by LaMoine Jenson, the man he appointed as his successor and who served as the leader of the community until 2014. Thompson assumed leadership of the group following Jensons death, bypassing more senior members of the priesthood organization.
Thompsons leadership was not without controversy. In November 2014, Rosemary Williams accused Thomson of abuse. Thompson denied the allegations, but was only met with additional accusations of embezzlement and abuse.
With the passing of this controversial Mormon Prophet, the AUB once again raises the question of who is recognized as Mormon (if anyone is) and how polygamy contributed to the isolation that marks the AUBs history. When LDS Church President Thomas S. Monson passed away in 2018, Latter-day Saints from across Utah visited the Conference Center at Temple Square to view their late prophet and pay their respects to his legacy. International leaders sent flowers that lined the Hall of Church Presidents, with Monsons casket situated at the end of the room decorated with images of his predecessors.
Like Monson, Thompson was upheld as the man designated to lead the faithful, speak on behalf of the divine, and seal families together for eternity. However, with limited media recognition of the death, the religious community that surrounded him will continue relatively unnoticed in the public sphere. Given the continued prevalence of polygamy in Utah, and the legal questions surrounding the faith Thompson led, the recognition of diversity within the Mormon Restoration is more important than ever.
Posted: at 4:16 pm
Polyamory: Withdrawal from responsibility or absolute trust?
Nowadays, people are often encouraged to follow their desires, no matter what. Its not surprising that polyamorous relationships arent as rare as they used to be. Monogamy feels unnatural to many people, so they start looking for a solution that wont destroy their relationships. Couples then introduce someone new in the bedroom or start seeing other people without changing anything else. It can make sex lives better in a functional way, but thats also why an incentive for less mature people to engage in polygamous dating: it looks like an easy way out of responsibility. But is polyamory the best way to connect with a partner, when its done right?
Definition and general considerations
First things first: the difference between polyamory and polygamy.
Most people nowadays want to experience polyamory, not polygamy, because they see it as a good way of trying new things. That has led to the creation of dating sites offering the possibility to join as a couple and look for partners online. Clearly this has been an enormous relief for polyamorous daters and meeting each other online means they are safe from prejudices some people still have. Today any couple seeking women can find bisexual girls looking to connect with open-minded couples, and of course there are men looking for the same. Of course, the chat is rarely dull, and singletons exchange explicit content with couples on the site, but polyamory isnt only about sex. There must be chemist and trust otherwise, it could ruin their relationship. Thats why many couples talk about rules before meeting girls on dating sites. Other than the public opinion that polyamory is just the product of lust, there are some more obstacles polyamorous people have to face, and some common misconceptions. Those not in the know sometimes think those involved in polyamory spread STDs around, and thats no truer than for anyone else seeking consensual sexual liaisons. Its such a silly assumption, and theres no need to explain how protection works! Another commonly held and often misguided belief is that someone always gets hurt in the end, which is no more true than for a monogamous relationship: there is always a risk. Even if the relationship lasts forever, one side will suffer when their partner dies. There is no painless path in love, so the risk of getting hurt shouldnt stop people from looking for what they need.
Polyamory in homosexual and heterosexual relationships
Some people think that they have to be bisexual to engage in polyamory. Thats not true gay couples can introduce someone new into their sex lives and be polyamorous without venturing outside of their norm. When straight couples seek polyamorous adventures, in many cases they want to meet women who are either gay or bisexual. It rarely happens that another 100% straight girl joins a heterosexual couple. It can cause jealousy and competition, and that risk is there for gay couples too. Lesbian couples also seek other likeminded women for polyamory. One the whole, the shared trait of all polyamorous relationships is that those involved are open to new things and want to make each other feel good. They can lift the spirits in the same way new decoration brightens up a home, but in order to safely have such a relationship and avoid disaster its important to be cautious. Someone who is single and looking for a couple (regardless of their sexual orientation) should them what they want to get out of the situation and ensure the answer is compatible with their desires. If it isnt, its best not to force anything.
Couples seeking singles for dating should be on the same page about their preferences as well. If they cant agree on the type of person they want, they cant expect to be any good at polyamory.
Lust or trust?
For outsiders, it can seem that polyamory is a tool for horny people to assuage the lusty beasts within them. However, thats rarely true one of the many things everyone should know about polyamory is that in many cases lust isnt the motive, though of course it can be for some singles and couples. In fact, most couples seeking polyamory do it to make their relationship better: letting someone new into the bedroom is a sign of the ultimate trust, not lust. Most people are too insecure to give comments about hot people in front of their partners, let alone invite them to join in. People in polyamorous relationships dont have that problem they know honesty is ok, and they dont get upset if their partner finds someone else attractive. It doesnt matter because theyre sure their relationship is safe. In many ways, polyamorous couples show more love and respect to each other than monogamous couples.
The editorial unit
Read the original:
Posted: November 21, 2021 at 9:35 pm
In this article we are going to present you the history of polygamy. By studying the history of polygamy you are going to better understand how everything works and what are the motivations in the past that have made this practice accepted.
The polygamy comes mainly in three different forms: polygyny (where a man has more than two wives at the same time), polyandry (where a woman has more than one husband) and there are also the plural marriages (where a family is made out of multiple husbands and wives at the same time).
The history of polygamy dates back to a long time ago, since this has been practiced for many centuries by cultures from all over the world. The Hebrew society has partially accepted polygamy and there are traces that say that it happened in the classical China too. The polygamy was also encountered sporadically at the Native Americans, in the West African continent, Polynesia, India and the ancient Greece.
The polygamy was widely accepted throughout the world until the Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church has imposed the rules of having just one wife, but multiple other lovers were the norm.
The polygamy was widely accepted during the last two thousands of years in the Sub-Saharan Africa also.
However in the Hebrew Bible, the polygamy was permitted only if a man has more than one wife, at the same time if a woman had more than one husband, it was seen as adultery.
In the United States the polygamy was allowed back at the early years of the history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (which was also known as LDS Church). However all this ended back in the year 1890 when Wilford Woodruff was the president. But officially it was the year 1899 when the members of this church began to be thrown out for being polygamous. This way there were a few different and new sects that separated from the LDS Church that continue to practice the polygamy even if the polygynous marriages have started to be an illegal practice in the United States.
The historical China has an even more interesting story to tell. Back in those days a child was considered to have more than one mother and he could have up to 4 monthers. The first wife was considered to be the official mother (in spoken language it was called big monther) while the others were the unofficial mothers (in spoken language they were called little mother or aunt).
This way the polygamous marriages were generally made out of one main wife, which was called the queen wife that has a higher status compared to the other wives and at the same time it also has a higher authority among the other wives.
Posted: at 9:35 pm
Polygamy in Christianity
Polygamy is "the practice or custom of having more than one wife or husband at the same time." Polygamy has been practiced by many cultures throughout history.:3
Although the Old Testament describes numerous examples of polygamy among devotees to God, most Christian groups have historically rejected the practice of polygamy and have upheld monogamy alone as normative. Nevertheless, some Christians groups in different periods have practiced, or currently do practice, polygamy. Some Christians actively debate whether the New Testament or Christian ethics allows or forbids polygamy and there are several Christian views on the Old Covenant. This debate focuses almost exclusively on polygyny (one man having more than one wife) and not polyandry (one woman having more than one husband).
The Torah contains a few specific regulations that apply to polygamy, such as Exodus 21:10: "If he take another wife for himself; her food, her clothing, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish". Deut 21:1517, states that a man must award the inheritance due to a first-born son to the son who was actually born first, even if he hates that son's mother and likes another wife more; and Deut 17:17 states that the king shall not have too many wives.
The Torah may distinguish concubines and "sub-standard" wives with the prefix "to" (e.g., lit. "took to wives"). Despite these nuances to the biblical perspective on polygamy, many important figures had more than one wife, such as in the instances of Esau (Gen 26:34; 28:6-9), Jacob (Gen 29:15-28), Elkanah (1 Samuel 1:1-8), David (1 Samuel 25:39-44; 2 Samuel 3:2-5; 5:13-16), and Solomon (1 Kings 11:1-3).
Despite its prevalence in the Hebrew Bible, some scholars do not believe that polygyny was commonly practiced in the biblical era because it required a significant amount of wealth. Michael Coogan (and others), in contrast, states that "Polygyny continued to be practiced well into the biblical period, and it is attested among Jews as late as the second centuryCE".
The monogamy of the Roman Empire was the cause of two explanatory notes in the writings of Josephus describing how the polygamous marriages of Herod the Great were permitted under Jewish custom.
Polygamy was a rare exception in post-exilic Israel. The practice began to be criticized and declined during the intertestamental period:5962 but there is some extant evidence of polygamy being practiced in the New Testament period.:365 The Dead Sea Scrolls show that several smaller Jewish sects forbade polygamy before and during the time of Jesus. The Temple Scroll (11QT LVII 1718) seems to prohibit polygamy.
Three passages in the pastoral epistles (1Timothy 3:2, 1Timothy 3:12 and Titus 1:6) state that church leaders should be the "husband of one wife." This has been read by some Christian denominations as a prohibition of polygamy. Others argue that polygamy is allowed, but not for church leaders. Still others argue that the passage only prevents church leaders from divorcing their first wives. In his 1990 book Walter Lock argues that it simply prevents marital unfaithfulness since "no Christian, whether an overseer or not, would have been allowed to practice polygamy."
In 1 Corinthians Paul the Apostle states that a man is to have his own wife and a woman is to have her own husband.
Now concerning the matters about which you wrote: "It is good for a man not to have sexual relations with a woman." But because of the temptation to sexual immorality, each man should have his own wife and each woman her own husband. The husband should give to his wife her conjugal rights, and likewise the wife to her husband. For the wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does. Likewise the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. Do not deprive one another, except perhaps by agreement for a limited time, that you may devote yourselves to prayer; but then come together again, so that Satan may not tempt you because of your lack of self-control.
Matthew Henry comments on 1 Corinthians 7:
II. He informs them that marriage, and the comforts and satisfactions of that state, are by divine wisdom prescribed for preventing fornication (v. 2), PorneiasFornications, all sorts of lawless lust. To avoid these, Let every man, says he, have his own wife, and every woman her own husband; that is, marry, and confine themselves to their own mates. And, when they are married, let each render the other due benevolence (v. 3), consider the disposition and exigency of each other, and render conjugal duty, which is owing to each other. For, as the apostle argues (v. 4), in the married state neither person has power over his own body, but has delivered it into the power of the other, the wife hers into the power of the husband, the husband his into the power of the wife. Note, Polygamy, or the marriage of more persons than one, as well as adultery, must be a breach of marriage-covenants, and a violation of the partner's rights. And therefore they should not defraud one another of the use of their bodies, nor any other of the comforts of the conjugal state, appointed of God for keeping the vessel in sanctification and honour, and preventing the lusts of uncleanness, except it be with mutual consent (v. 5) and for a time only, while they employ themselves in some extraordinary duties of religion, or give themselves to fasting and prayer. Note, Seasons of deep humiliation require abstinence from lawful pleasures. But this separation between husband and wife must not be for a continuance, lest they expose themselves to Satan's temptations, by reason of their incontinence, or inability to contain. Note, Persons expose themselves to great danger by attempting to perform what is above their strength, and at the same time not bound upon them by any law of God. If they abstain from lawful enjoyments, they may be ensnared into unlawful ones. The remedies God hath provided against sinful inclinations are certainly best.
John Gill comments on 1 Corinthians 7 and states that polygamy is unlawful; and that one man is to have but one wife, and to keep to her; and that one woman is to have but one husband, and to keep to him and the wife only has a power over the husband's body, a right to it, and may claim the use of it: this power over each other's bodies is not such, as that they may, by consent, either the husband allow the wife, or the wife the husband, to lie with another.
Although the New Testament is largely silent on the issue, some point to Jesus' repetition of the earlier scriptures, noting that a man and a wife "shall become one flesh." (Genesis 2:24, Matthew 19:36) However, some look to the 1 Corinthians 6:16: "Or do you not know that he who is joined to a prostitute becomes one body with her? For, as it is written, "The two will become one flesh."" Supporters of polygamy claim this indicates a physical, rather than spiritual, union.
Most Christian theologians argue that in Matthew 19:39 and referring to Genesis 2:24 Jesus explicitly states a man should have only one wife:
Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female, And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh?
Polygamists do not dispute that in marriage "two shall be one flesh", they only disagree with the idea that a married man can only be "one flesh" with one woman. Assuming the man is married, the fact that a man can even be "one flesh" with a harlot apparently does not negate his being "one flesh" with his wife. Further, if a man is married, he and his wife are "one flesh." To add another wife would mean that the new wife becomes "one flesh" with the man and his current wife. Gill argues that polygamists in disagreeing with the idea that a married man can only be "one flesh" with one woman are in fact disagreeing with Apostle Paul, who makes it clear that in the Christian Covenant the man who already has one wife can not add another wife because his body belongs to the one wife and is no longer his; if the man adds another wife, then that woman is coveting another woman's husband. In the Christian Covenant, a woman shalt not covet another woman's husband just like in the Mosaic covenant a man is shalt not covet another man's wife.
Many critics of polygamy also point to the Pauline epistles that state that church officials should be respectable, above reproach, and the husband of a single wife. (1 Timothy 3,Titus 1) Hermeneutically, the Greek phrase mias gunaikos andra is an unusual Greek construction, capable of being translated in multiple ways, including (but not limited to): 1) "one wife man," (prohibiting plural marriage) or 2) "a wife man" (requiring elders to be married) or 3) "first wife man" (prohibiting divorcs from ordination).
In the time around Jesus' birth, polygamy (also called bigamy or digamy in texts) was understood as having several spouses consecutively, as evidenced for example by Tertullian's work De Exhortatione Castitatis. Paul the Apostle allowed widows to remarry (1 Cor. vii. 39. and 1 Tim 5:1116). Paul says that only women older than 60 years can make the list of Christian widows,[clarification needed] but that younger widows should remarry to hinder sin. Some conclude that by requiring leaders of the Church be monogamous, Paul excluded remarried widowers from having influence. Perpetual monogamy - even after the death of ones spouse - would have been a more strict understanding of monogamy than Roman law codified, and would have been a new and unusual demand on men.
On this subject William Luck writes:
Thus it is most probable that the qualifications list sees the "husband of one wife" as a condemnation of porneiaunlawful sex, though doubtless the clause also prohibited adulterysex with someone elses wife, polygyny was out of sight and mind. The issue is not the number of covenant relations the man hadhe would only have had one at a time, since the empire was monogamousbut his womanizing. This of course does not eliminate the grievous sin of marrying and divorcing in order to have sexual relations with a number of women. But that too is not the issue in polygyny.
Jewish polygamy clashed with Roman monogamy at the time of the early church:
"When the Christian Church came into being, polygamy was still practiced by the Jews. It is true that we find no references to it in the New Testament; and from this some have inferred that it must have fallen into disuse, and that at the time of our Lord the Jewish people had become monogamous. But the conclusion appears to be unwarranted. Josephus in two places speaks of polygamy as a recognized institution: and Justin Martyr makes it a matter of reproach to Trypho that the Jewish teachers permitted a man to have several wives. Indeed when in 212 A.D. the lex Antoniana de civitate gave the rights of Roman Citizenship to great numbers of Jews, it was found necessary to tolerate polygamy among them, even though it was against Roman law for a citizen to have more than one wife. In 285 A.D. a constitution of Diocletian and Maximian interdicted polygamy to all subjects of the empire without exception. But with the Jews, at least, the enactment failed of its effect; and in 393 A.D. a special law was issued by Theodosius to compel the Jews to relinquish this national custom. Even so they were not induced to conform.":560
Tertullian, who lived at the turn of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, wrote that marriage is lawful, but polygamy is not:
"We do not indeed forbid the union of man and woman, blest by God as the seminary of the human race, and devised for the replenishment of the earth and the furnishing of the world and therefore permitted, yet singly. For Adam was the one husband of Eve, and Eve his one wife, one woman, one rib."
The 3rd century Eusebius of Caesarea wrote the lost work "On the Numerous Progeny of the Ancients". Eusebius references this twice, in the Prparatio Evangelica, and in the Demonstratio Evangelica. Although his work has been given as an example of plural marriage being reconciled with the ascetic life, the problem dealt with was the contrast presented by the desire of the Patriarchs for numerous offspring and the honour in which continence was held by Christians.
Basil of Caesarea wrote in the 4th century of plural marriage that "such a state is no longer called marriage but polygamy or, indeed, a moderate fornication." He ordered that those who are engaged in it should be excommunicated for up to five years, and "only after they have shown some fruitful repentance" were they to be allowed back into the church. Moreover, he stated that the teachings against plural marriage are "accepted as our usual practice, not from the canons but in conformity with our predecessors."Augustine wrote in the second half of the 4th century that
"That the good purpose of marriage, however, is better promoted by one husband with one wife, than by a husband with several wives, is shown plainly enough by the very first union of a married pair, which was made by the Divine Being Himself."
and "The Sacrament of marriage of our time has been so reduced to one man and one wife, as that it is not lawful to ordain any as a steward of the Church, save the husband of one wife."
Socrates of Constantinople wrote in the 5th century that the Roman Emperor Valentinian I took two wives and authorized his subjects to take two wives, supporting that Christians were then practicing plural marriage.:398 There is no trace of such an edict in any of the extant Roman Laws. Valentinian I divorced his first wife according to John Malalas, the Chronicon Paschale and John of Nikiu, before marrying his mistress, which was viewed as bigamy by Socrates, since the Church did not accept divorce.
Justin Martyr, Irenaeus and Tertullian all spoke against polygamy, condemning it. Tertullian explicitly tackled the objection that polygamy was allowed for the patriarchs. He wrote, "each pronouncement and arrangement is (the act) of one and the same God; who did then indeed, in the beginning, send forth a sowing of the race by an indulgent laxity granted to the reins of connubial alliances, until the world should be replenished, until the material of the new discipline should attain to forwardness: now, however, at the extreme boundaries of the times, has checked (the command) which He had sent out, and recalled the indulgence which He had granted". (De Monogamia chapt. VI.) According to chapter XVI of De Monogamia, Hermogenes thought it was allowed for a man to take several wives. Tertullian also made a direct attack on the polygamous practice of some cults in his work Adversus Hermogenem. This is the same Hermogenes mentioned above. Tertullian writes that he was a sect leader, who mixed Stoic, Gnostic and Christian views to create a new religion.
The Church held a synod in Hertford, England, in 673 that was supervised by Archbishop Theodore. Chapter 10 issued by the synod declared that marriage is allowed between one man and one woman, and separation (but not divorce) is only granted in the case of adultery, but even then remarriage is not allowed.
In the medieval period, multiple wives were often obtained through kidnapping. It is with this in view that we must interpret the following laws: The Frankish Laws of 8189 strictly forbade kidnapping of women. The XXVII. law issued by King Stephen I of Hungary (10001030) declares that the kidnapper must return the woman to her parents even if he has had sexual intercourse with her, and must pay a penalty to the parents. According to the Hungarian law, the kidnapped girl was then free to marry whomever.
The Roman councils of 1052 and 1063 suspended from communion those laymen who had a wife and a concubine at the same time. Divorce was also forbidden, and remarriage after a divorce counted as polygamy. Nicholas the Great (85867) forbade Lothair II of Lotharingia to divorce his barren wife Teutberga and marry his concubine Waldrada, with whom he had several children. After a council of the Lotharingian bishops, as well as the archbishop of Kln and Trier had annulled his marriage to Theutberga, the pope voided this decision, and made him take his wife back.
In Scandinavia, the word for an official concubine was "frille". Norwegian Bishop ystein Erlendsson (ca. 11201188) declared that concubines were not allowed to accept the sacraments unless they married, and men were forced to promise marriage to women they had lain with outside of wedlock. In 1280, the Norwegian king Eirik Magnusson (128099) declared that men were exempted from having to promise marriage to the frille if they went to confession and did penance. The Church answered by making several declarations in the 14th century, urging men to marry their concubines. In 1305, King Hkon V (12701319) issued a law that declared marriage to be the only lawful way of cohabitation, and declared that only women in wedlock were allowed to dress as they pleased, while the dress of concubines was restricted.
When asked for an opinion on polygamy in 1526, Luther wrote, "It is my earnest warning and counsel that Christians especially shall have no more than one wife, not only because it is a scandal, which a Christian should avoid most diligently, but also because there is no word of God here to show that God approves it in Christians.... I must oppose it, especially in Christians, unless there be need, as for instance if the wife be a leper, or be taken away from the husband in some other way."
Monogamy was the norm among Christians, However, in the context of the sickness of a wife preventing matrimonial intercourse, the founder of the Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther wrote: "I confess that I cannot forbid a person to marry several wives, for it does not contradict the Scripture. If a man wishes to marry more than one wife he should be asked whether he is satisfied in his conscience that he may do so in accordance with the word of God. In such a case the civil authority has nothing to do in the matter."
Arthur Cushman McGiffert also states,
"Some of the radical Anabaptists undertook to introduce polygamy, appealing to the patriarchal order of society in justification of their position. Even among Luther's followers and associates there was no little uncertainty about the matter, as was not altogether surprising when the old order of things was undergoing revision at so many points, including the marriage of monks, priests, and near relatives. But Luther himself was unalterably opposed to any such revolution. Monogamy he considered, under ordinary circumstances, alone tolerable in a Christian community, and held that no Christian ruler has any moral right to legalize polygamy. At the same time, finding no explicit prohibition in the Bible, he believed exceptions might be allowed in certain extreme cases such as are now generally recognized in Protestant countries as justifying divorce."
Lutheran theologians approved of Philip of Hesse's polygamous marriages to Christine of Saxony and Margarethe von der Saale for this purpose, as well as initial disapproval of divorce and adultery. As well as Phillip, there was much experimentation with marital duration within early German Lutheranism amongst clergy and their erstwhile wives.The theologian Philipp Melanchthon likewise counseled that Henry VIII need not risk schism by dissolving his union with the established churches to grant himself divorces in order to replace his barren wives, but reluctantly, and with remorse afterward, consented that polygamy was an allowable alternative.
Anabaptist leader Bernhard Rothmann initially opposed the idea of plural marriage. However, he later wrote a theological defense of plural marriage, and took nine wives himself, saying "God has restored the true practice of holy matrimony amongst us.":141 Franz von Waldeck and the other enemies of Anabaptist leader John of Leiden accused him of keeping 16 wives, and publicly beheading one when she disobeyed him. This was used as the basis for their conquest of Mnster in 1535.
The 16th-century Italian Capuchin monk, Bernardino Ochino, 77 years old and never married, wrote the "Thirty Dialogues", wherein Dialog XXI was considered a defense of plural marriage. Evidently, he borrowed some of his strongest arguments from a Lutheran dialogue written in 1541 in favor of plural marriage which was written under the fictitious name Huldericus Necobulus in the interest of justifying Philip of Hesse.
A different position was taken by the Council of Trent in 1563, which was opposed to polygyny:p194 and concubinage, "If anyone says that it is lawful for Christians to have several wives at the same time, and that it is not forbidden by any divine law (Matt. 19:4f): let him be anathema".:202203 The polemicist John Milton expressed support for polygamy in his De doctrina christiana.
The Lutheran pastor Johann Lyser strongly defended plural marriage in a work entitled "Polygamia Triumphatrix".:398 As a result, he was imprisoned, beaten and exiled from Italy to the Netherlands. His book was burned by the public executioner. He never married nor desired wedlock. Samuel Friedrich Willenberg, a doctor of law at the University of Cracow wrote the pro-plural marriage book De finibus polygamiae licitae. In 1715, his book was ordered to be burned. Friedrich escaped with his life, but was fined one hundred thousand gold pieces.
One of the more notable published works regarding the modern concept of Christian plural marriage dates from the 18th century. The book Thelyphthora was written by Martin Madan, a significant writer of hymns and a contemporary of John Wesley and Charles Wesley. Although Madan was an adherent only of polygyny in a Christian context, this particular volume set the foundation of what is considered the modern Christian plural marriage movement.
The Council of Trent condemns polygyny: "If any one saith, that it is lawful for Christians to have several wives at the same time, and that this is not prohibited by any divine law; let him be anathema."
The Catechism forbids polygamy as a grave offense against marriage and contrary to the original plan of God and equal dignity of human beings.
Nevertheless, in parts of Africa such as Kenya, many Roman Catholics including catechists, have more than one wife although these people are usually not vocal about the cultural practice because it is in conflict with Roman Catholic teaching.
Martin Luther deplored divorce (only permitting it in the cases of adultery and the Pauline privilege) and taught that that polygamy was allowed in Scripture, citing positive examples of it from the biblical patriarchs; as such in 1521, he granted the approval for a man to take a second wife, and again in 1539 for Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse to take a second wife. The Lutheran World Federation hosted a regional conference in Africa, in which the acceptance of polygamists and their wives into full membership by the Lutheran Church in Liberia was defended as being permissible. While the Lutheran Church in Liberia permits men to retain their wives if they married them prior to being received into the Church, it does not permit polygamists who have become Christians to marry more wives after they have received the sacrament of Holy Baptism. Evangelical Lutheran missionaries in Maasai also tolerate the practice of polygamy and in Southern Sudan, some polygamists are becoming Lutheran Christians.
Polygamy was first discussed during the Lambeth Conference of 1888:
A resolution dated 1958 and numbered 120 states that:
The Twelfth Lambeth Conference held in 1988, in Resolution 26 - Church and Polygamy stated:
This Conference upholds monogamy as God's plan, and as the ideal relationship of love between husband and wife; nevertheless recommends that a polygamist who responds to the Gospel and wishes to join the Anglican Church may be baptized and confirmed with his believing wives and children on the following conditions:
In 2008 the Lambeth Conference noted:
Polygamy (which was called "plural marriage" by Mormons in the 19th century or "the Principle" as it is called by modern fundamentalist practitioners) was taught by leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and publicly practiced from 1852 to 1890, nevertheless, it was not the norm but the exception, even during this period. On September 24, 1890, Wilford Woodruff, the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints at that time, issued the 1890 Manifesto, which advised church members against entering into any marriage prohibited by the law of the land, and made it possible for Utah to become a U.S. state. Nevertheless, even after the Manifesto, the church quietly continued to perform a small number of plural marriages in the United States, Mexico, and Canada,[a] thus a Second Manifesto was released during U.S. congressional hearings which were held in 1904. Although neither Manifesto dissolved existing plural marriages, plural marriage in the LDS Church gradually died by attrition during the early 1900s. The Manifesto was canonized in the LDS Church standard works as Official Declaration 1 and mainstream Mormons, believe it was prompted by a divine revelation in which Woodruff was shown that the church would be thrown into turmoil if they did not comply with it. Mormon fundamentalists dispute the claim that Woodruff received any such revelation and as a result, they continue to practice plural marriage; these denominations include the Apostolic United Brethren and Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, among others.
Interviewed by Time magazine about his book, Michael Coogan said that, from a strictly literalist view, fundamentalist Mormons are right about polygamy.[b]
William Luck states that polygyny is not prohibited by the Bible and it would have been required if a married man seduced (Ex. 22) or raped (Deut. 22) a virgin, as long as her father did not veto the marriage.
However, in a book-length consideration of the problem, William George Blum argues that monogamy was always God's ideal. He points out that in every Old Testament example where polygynous families are described in any detail, family strife which involves the plural wives is also described. He argues that the concept of two becoming one flesh makes polygamy a violation of God's plan for marriage.
On August 29, 2017, the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood released a manifesto on human sexuality which is known as the "Nashville Statement". The statement was signed by 150 evangelical leaders, and it includes 14 points of belief. Among other things, it states, "We deny that God has designed marriage to be a homosexual, polygamous, or polyamorous relationship."
However, an estimated 50,000 Evangelical Christians practice Christian polygamy in the West, based on their belief that the Bible glorifies this form of marriage, which they justify by citing the fact that many biblical prophets had multiple wives, including David, Abraham, Jacob and Solomon. Individual evangelical Christian pastors have married more than one woman throughout Christendom. The Presbyterian missionary Harold Turner acknowledged the fact that the practice of polygamy was a cultural norm in some parts of the world, such as Africa, and based on it, he cautioned Western Christian missionaries not to impose the foreign cultural norm of monogamy on the Christians of Africa because doing so would lead to the sin of divorce, leaving children without both of their parents, and leading divorced wives to remarry.
What have we done to the Africans in the name of Christianity? Polygamy which Christ does not forbid, we have fought against as the greatest of all evils, but divorce and remarriage which he does forbid, we have introduced. We have truly managed to Europeanize them. Mission theory should teach us to preach the gospel but not our own national traditions.Harold Turner, Presbyterian missionary
Indeed, in many cultures, there is the possibility that the image of Christianity can be marred when a cleric in a Christian denomination which opposes polygamy "suggests that these wives may marry others, while the community regards them as still married to the first man"; in these cases, the Church can be seen as "a promoter of immorality and a destroyer of home and family" and become a stumbling block to nonbelievers.The Rev. Vincent Mulwa of Christ Pilgrim Restoration Centre opines that polygamy is a biblical practice, because it was the standard for various biblical prophets, and opposition to having more than one wife stems from Westerners imposing their views on Christians who belong to other cultures.
The rest is here: