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Category Archives: History

History – Wikipedia

Posted: January 15, 2021 at 1:46 pm

The study of the past as it is described in written documents

History (from Greek , historia, meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation")[2] is the study of the past.[3][4] Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Historians place the past in context using historical sources such as written documents, oral accounts, ecological markers, and material objects including art and artifacts.[5]

History also includes the academic discipline which uses narrative to describe, examine, question, and analyze a sequence of past events, and investigate the patterns of cause and effect that are related to them.[6][7] Historians seek to understand and represent the past through narratives. They often debate which narrative best explains an event, as well as the significance of different causes and effects. Historians also debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.[6][8][9][10]

Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends.[11][12] History differs from myth in that it is supported by evidence. However, ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. History is often taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.

Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is often considered (within the Western tradition) to be the "father of history",[13] or, the "father of lies".[14][15] Along with his contemporary Thucydides, he helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, was known to be compiled from as early as 722BC although only 2nd-centuryBC texts have survived.

The word history comes from the Ancient Greek [16] (histora), meaning "inquiry", "knowledge from inquiry", or "judge". It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his History of Animals.[17] The ancestor word is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar). The Greek word was borrowed into Classical Latin as historia, meaning "investigation, inquiry, research, account, description, written account of past events, writing of history, historical narrative, recorded knowledge of past events, story, narrative". History was borrowed from Latin (possibly via Old Irish or Old Welsh) into Old English as str ("history, narrative, story"), but this word fell out of use in the late Old English period.[18] Meanwhile, as Latin became Old French (and Anglo-Norman), historia developed into forms such as istorie, estoire, and historie, with new developments in the meaning: "account of the events of a person's life (beginning of the 12th century), chronicle, account of events as relevant to a group of people or people in general (1155), dramatic or pictorial representation of historical events (c.1240), body of knowledge relative to human evolution, science (c.1265), narrative of real or imaginary events, story (c.1462)".[18]

It was from Anglo-Norman that history was borrowed into Middle English, and this time the loan stuck. It appears in the 13th-century Ancrene Wisse, but seems to have become a common word in the late 14th century, with an early attestation appearing in John Gower's Confessio Amantis of the 1390s (VI.1383): "I finde in a bok compiled | To this matiere an old histoire, | The which comth nou to mi memoire". In Middle English, the meaning of history was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "the branch of knowledge that deals with past events; the formal record or study of past events, esp. human affairs" arose in the mid-15th century.[18] With the Renaissance, older senses of the word were revived, and it was in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about natural history. For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy).[19]

In an expression of the linguistic synthetic vs. analytic/isolating dichotomy, English like Chinese ( vs. ) now designates separate words for human history and storytelling in general. In modern German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, which are solidly synthetic and highly inflected, the same word is still used to mean both "history" and "story". Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive history is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, or the word historiography.[17] The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669.[20]

Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, and sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a "true discourse of past" through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race.[21] The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse.

All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record.[22] The task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the historian's archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents (by falsifying their claims to represent the "true past"). Part of the historian's role is to skillfully and objectively utilize the vast amount of sources from the past, most often found in the archives. The process of creating a narrative inevitably generates a silence as historians remember or emphasize different events of the past.[23][clarification needed]

The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and at other times as part of the social sciences.[24] It can also be seen as a bridge between those two broad areas, incorporating methodologies from both. Some individual historians strongly support one or the other classification.[25] In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history.

Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or by passing on an oral tradition, and have attempted to answer historical questions through the study of written documents and oral accounts. From the beginning, historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. In general, the sources of historical knowledge can be separated into three categories: what is written, what is said, and what is physically preserved, and historians often consult all three.[26] But writing is the marker that separates history from what comes before.

Archaeology is especially helpful in unearthing buried sites and objects, which contribute to the study of history. Archaeological finds rarely stand alone, with narrative sources complementing its discoveries. Archaeology's methodologies and approaches are independent from the field of history. "Historical archaeology" is a specific branch of archaeology which often contrasts its conclusions against those of contemporary textual sources. For example, Mark Leone, the excavator and interpreter of historical Annapolis, Maryland, USA, has sought to understand the contradiction between textual documents idealizing "liberty" and the material record, demonstrating the possession of slaves and the inequalities of wealth made apparent by the study of the total historical environment.

There are varieties of ways in which history can be organized, including chronologically, culturally, territorially, and thematically. These divisions are not mutually exclusive, and significant intersections are often present. It is possible for historians to concern themselves with both the very specific and the very general, although the modern trend has been toward specialization. The area called Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends. History has often been studied with some practical or theoretical aim, but also may be studied out of simple intellectual curiosity.[27]

The history of the world is the memory of the past experience of Homo sapiens sapiens around the world, as that experience has been preserved, largely in written records. By "prehistory", historians mean the recovery of knowledge of the past in an area where no written records exist, or where the writing of a culture is not understood. By studying painting, drawings, carvings, and other artifacts, some information can be recovered even in the absence of a written record. Since the 20th century, the study of prehistory is considered essential to avoid history's implicit exclusion of certain civilizations, such as those of Sub-Saharan Africa and pre-Columbian America. Historians in the West have been criticized for focusing disproportionately on the Western world.[28] In 1961, British historian E. H. Carr wrote:

The line of demarcation between prehistoric and historical times is crossed when people cease to live only in the present, and become consciously interested both in their past and in their future. History begins with the handing down of tradition; and tradition means the carrying of the habits and lessons of the past into the future. Records of the past begin to be kept for the benefit of future generations.[29]

This definition includes within the scope of history the strong interests of peoples, such as Indigenous Australians and New Zealand Mori in the past, and the oral records maintained and transmitted to succeeding generations, even before their contact with European civilization.

Historiography has a number of related meanings. Firstly, it can refer to how history has been produced: the story of the development of methodology and practices (for example, the move from short-term biographical narrative towards long-term thematic analysis). Secondly, it can refer to what has been produced: a specific body of historical writing (for example, "medieval historiography during the 1960s" means "Works of medieval history written during the 1960s"). Thirdly, it may refer to why history is produced: the philosophy of history. As a meta-level analysis of descriptions of the past, this third conception can relate to the first two in that the analysis usually focuses on the narratives, interpretations, world view, use of evidence, or method of presentation of other historians. Professional historians also debate the question of whether history can be taught as a single coherent narrative or a series of competing narratives.[30][31]

Historical method basics

The following questions are used by historians in modern work.

The first four are known as historical criticism; the fifth, textual criticism; and, together, external criticism. The sixth and final inquiry about a source is called internal criticism.

The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history.

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484 BCc.425 BC)[32] has generally been acclaimed as the "father of history". However, his contemporary Thucydides (c.460 BCc.400 BC) is credited with having first approached history with a well-developed historical method in his work the History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides, unlike Herodotus, regarded history as being the product of the choices and actions of human beings, and looked at cause and effect, rather than as the result of divine intervention (though Herodotus was not wholly committed to this idea himself).[32] In his historical method, Thucydides emphasized chronology, a nominally neutral point of view, and that the human world was the result of the actions of human beings. Greek historians also viewed history as cyclical, with events regularly recurring.[33]

There were historical traditions and sophisticated use of historical method in ancient and medieval China. The groundwork for professional historiography in East Asia was established by the Han dynasty court historian known as Sima Qian (14590 BC), author of the Records of the Grand Historian (Shiji). For the quality of his written work, Sima Qian is posthumously known as the Father of Chinese historiography. Chinese historians of subsequent dynastic periods in China used his Shiji as the official format for historical texts, as well as for biographical literature.[citation needed]

Saint Augustine was influential in Christian and Western thought at the beginning of the medieval period. Through the Medieval and Renaissance periods, history was often studied through a sacred or religious perspective. Around 1800, German philosopher and historian Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel brought philosophy and a more secular approach in historical study.[27]

In the preface to his book, the Muqaddimah (1377), the Arab historian and early sociologist, Ibn Khaldun, warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past. Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data." As a result, he introduced a scientific method to the study of history, and he often referred to it as his "new science".[34] His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of state, communication, propaganda and systematic bias in history,[35] and he is thus considered to be the "father of historiography"[36][37] or the "father of the philosophy of history".[38]

In the West, historians developed modern methods of historiography in the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and Germany. In 1851, Herbert Spencer summarized these methods:

From the successive strata of our historical deposits, they [Historians] diligently gather all the highly colored fragments, pounce upon everything that is curious and sparkling and chuckle like children over their glittering acquisitions; meanwhile the rich veins of wisdom that ramify amidst this worthless debris, lie utterly neglected. Cumbrous volumes of rubbish are greedily accumulated, while those masses of rich ore, that should have been dug out, and from which golden truths might have been smelted, are left untaught and unsought[39]

By the "rich ore" Spencer meant scientific theory of history. Meanwhile, Henry Thomas Buckle expressed a dream of history becoming one day science:

In regard to nature, events apparently the most irregular and capricious have been explained and have been shown to be in accordance with certain fixed and universal laws. This have been done because men of ability and, above all, men of patient, untiring thought have studied events with the view of discovering their regularity, and if human events were subject to a similar treatment, we have every right to expect similar results[40]

Contrary to Buckle's dream, the 19th-century historian with greatest influence on methods became Leopold von Ranke in Germany. He limited history to what really happened and by this directed the field further away from science. For Ranke, historical data should be collected carefully, examined objectively and put together with critical rigor. But these procedures are merely the prerequisites and preliminaries of science. The heart of science is searching out order and regularity in the data being examined and in formulating generalizations or laws about them.[41]

As Historians like Ranke and many who followed him have pursued it, no, history is not a science. Thus if Historians tell us that, given the manner in which he practices his craft, it cannot be considered a science, we must take him at his word. If he is not doing science, then, whatever else he is doing, he is not doing science. The traditional Historian is thus no scientist and history, as conventionally practiced, is not a science.[42]

In the 20th century, academic historians focused less on epic nationalistic narratives, which often tended to glorify the nation or great men, to more objective and complex analyses of social and intellectual forces. A major trend of historical methodology in the 20th century was a tendency to treat history more as a social science rather than as an art, which traditionally had been the case. Some of the leading advocates of history as a social science were a diverse collection of scholars which included Fernand Braudel, E. H. Carr, Fritz Fischer, Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Bruce Trigger, Marc Bloch, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Peter Gay, Robert Fogel, Lucien Febvre and Lawrence Stone. Many of the advocates of history as a social science were or are noted for their multi-disciplinary approach. Braudel combined history with geography, Bracher history with political science, Fogel history with economics, Gay history with psychology, Trigger history with archaeology while Wehler, Bloch, Fischer, Stone, Febvre and Le Roy Ladurie have in varying and differing ways amalgamated history with sociology, geography, anthropology, and economics. Nevertheless, these multidisciplinary approaches failed to produce a theory of history. So far only one theory of history came from the pen of a professional Historian.[43] Whatever other theories of history we have, they were written by experts from other fields (for example, Marxian theory of history). More recently, the field of digital history has begun to address ways of using computer technology to pose new questions to historical data and generate digital scholarship.

In sincere opposition to the claims of history as a social science, historians such as Hugh Trevor-Roper, John Lukacs, Donald Creighton, Gertrude Himmelfarb and Gerhard Ritter argued that the key to the historians' work was the power of the imagination, and hence contended that history should be understood as an art. French historians associated with the Annales School introduced quantitative history, using raw data to track the lives of typical individuals, and were prominent in the establishment of cultural history (cf. histoire des mentalits). Intellectual historians such as Herbert Butterfield, Ernst Nolte and George Mosse have argued for the significance of ideas in history. American historians, motivated by the civil rights era, focused on formerly overlooked ethnic, racial, and socio-economic groups. Another genre of social history to emerge in the post-WWII era was Alltagsgeschichte (History of Everyday Life). Scholars such as Martin Broszat, Ian Kershaw and Detlev Peukert sought to examine what everyday life was like for ordinary people in 20th-century Germany, especially in the Nazi period.

Marxist historians such as Eric Hobsbawm, E. P. Thompson, Rodney Hilton, Georges Lefebvre, Eugene Genovese, Isaac Deutscher, C. L. R. James, Timothy Mason, Herbert Aptheker, Arno J. Mayer and Christopher Hill have sought to validate Karl Marx's theories by analyzing history from a Marxist perspective. In response to the Marxist interpretation of history, historians such as Franois Furet, Richard Pipes, J. C. D. Clark, Roland Mousnier, Henry Ashby Turner and Robert Conquest have offered anti-Marxist interpretations of history. Feminist historians such as Joan Wallach Scott, Claudia Koonz, Natalie Zemon Davis, Sheila Rowbotham, Gisela Bock, Gerda Lerner, Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, and Lynn Hunt have argued for the importance of studying the experience of women in the past. In recent years, postmodernists have challenged the validity and need for the study of history on the basis that all history is based on the personal interpretation of sources. In his 1997 book In Defence of History, Richard J. Evans defended the worth of history. Another defence of history from post-modernist criticism was the Australian historian Keith Windschuttle's 1994 book, The Killing of History.

Today, most historians begin their research process in the archives, on either a physical or digital platform. They often propose an argument and use their research to support it. John H. Arnold proposed that history is an argument, which creates the possibility of creating change.[5] Digital information companies, such as Google, have sparked controversy over the role of internet censorship in information access.[44]

The Marxist theory of historical materialism theorises that society is fundamentally determined by the material conditions at any given time in other words, the relationships which people have with each other in order to fulfill basic needs such as feeding, clothing and housing themselves and their families.[45] Overall, Marx and Engels claimed to have identified five successive stages of the development of these material conditions in Western Europe.[46] Marxist historiography was once orthodoxy in the Soviet Union, but since the collapse of communism there in 1991, Mikhail Krom says it has been reduced to the margins of scholarship.[47]

Many historians believe that theproduction of history is embedded with bias because events and known facts in history can be interpreted in a variety of ways. Constantin Fasolt suggested that history is linked to politics by the practice of silence itself.[48] A second common view of the link between history and politics rests on the elementary observation that historians are often influenced by politics.[48] According to Michel-Rolph Trouillot, the historical process is rooted in the archives, therefore silences, or parts of history that are forgotten, may bean intentional part of a narrative strategy that dictates how areas of history are remembered.[23] Historical omissions can occur in many ways and can have a profound effect on historical records. Information can also purposely be excluded or left out accidentally. Historians have coined multiple terms that describe the act of omitting historical information, including: silencing,[23] selective memory,[49] and erasures.[50]Gerda Lerner, a twentieth century historian who focused much of her work on historical omissions involving women and their accomplishments, explained the negative impact that these omissions had on minority groups.[49]

Environmental historian William Cronon proposed three ways to combat bias and ensure authentic and accurate narratives: narratives must not contradict known fact, they must make ecological sense (specifically for environmental history), and published work must be reviewed by scholarly community and other historians to ensure accountability.[50]

Historical study often focuses on events and developments that occur in particular blocks of time. Historians give these periods of time names in order to allow "organising ideas and classificatory generalisations" to be used by historians.[51] The names given to a period can vary with geographical location, as can the dates of the beginning and end of a particular period. Centuries and decades are commonly used periods and the time they represent depends on the dating system used. Most periods are constructed retrospectively and so reflect value judgments made about the past. The way periods are constructed and the names given to them can affect the way they are viewed and studied.[52]

The field of history generally leaves prehistory to the archaeologists, who have entirely different sets of tools and theories. The usual method for periodisation of the distant prehistoric past, in archaeology is to rely on changes in material culture and technology, such as the Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age and their sub-divisions also based on different styles of material remains. Here prehistory is divided into a series of "chapters" so that periods in history could unfold not only in a relative chronology but also narrative chronology.[53] This narrative content could be in the form of functional-economic interpretation. There are periodisation, however, that do not have this narrative aspect, relying largely on relative chronology and, thus, devoid of any specific meaning.

Despite the development over recent decades of the ability through radiocarbon dating and other scientific methods to give actual dates for many sites or artefacts, these long-established schemes seem likely to remain in use. In many cases neighbouring cultures with writing have left some history of cultures without it, which may be used. Periodisation, however, is not viewed as a perfect framework with one account explaining that "cultural changes do not conveniently start and stop (combinedly) at periodisation boundaries" and that different trajectories of change are also needed to be studied in their own right before they get intertwined with cultural phenomena.[54]

Particular geographical locations can form the basis of historical study, for example, continents, countries, and cities. Understanding why historic events took place is important. To do this, historians often turn to geography. According to Jules Michelet in his book Histoire de France (1833), "without geographical basis, the people, the makers of history, seem to be walking on air."[55] Weather patterns, the water supply, and the landscape of a place all affect the lives of the people who live there. For example, to explain why the ancient Egyptians developed a successful civilization, studying the geography of Egypt is essential. Egyptian civilization was built on the banks of the Nile River, which flooded each year, depositing soil on its banks. The rich soil could help farmers grow enough crops to feed the people in the cities. That meant everyone did not have to farm, so some people could perform other jobs that helped develop the civilization. There is also the case of climate, which historians like Ellsworth Huntington and Allen Semple, cited as a crucial influence on the course of history and racial temperament.[56]

Military history concerns warfare, strategies, battles, weapons, and the psychology of combat. The "new military history" since the 1970s has been concerned with soldiers more than generals, with psychology more than tactics, and with the broader impact of warfare on society and culture.[57]

The history of religion has been a main theme for both secular and religious historians for centuries, and continues to be taught in seminaries and academe. Leading journals include Church History, The Catholic Historical Review, and History of Religions. Topics range widely from political and cultural and artistic dimensions, to theology and liturgy.[58] This subject studies religions from all regions and areas of the world where humans have lived.[59]

Social history, sometimes called the new social history, is the field that includes history of ordinary people and their strategies and institutions for coping with life.[60] In its "golden age" it was a major growth field in the 1960s and 1970s among scholars, and still is well represented in history departments. In two decades from 1975 to 1995, the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history rose from 31% to 41%, while the proportion of political historians fell from 40% to 30%.[61] In the history departments of British universities in 2007, of the 5723 faculty members, 1644 (29%) identified themselves with social history while political history came next with 1425 (25%).[62]The "old" social history before the 1960s was a hodgepodge of topics without a central theme, and it often included political movements, like Populism, that were "social" in the sense of being outside the elite system. Social history was contrasted with political history, intellectual history and the history of great men. English historian G. M. Trevelyan saw it as the bridging point between economic and political history, reflecting that, "Without social history, economic history is barren and political history unintelligible."[63] While the field has often been viewed negatively as history with the politics left out, it has also been defended as "history with the people put back in."[64]

The chief subfields of social history include:

Cultural history replaced social history as the dominant form in the 1980s and 1990s. It typically combines the approaches of anthropology and history to look at language, popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. It examines the records and narrative descriptions of past knowledge, customs, and arts of a group of people. How peoples constructed their memory of the past is a major topic.Cultural history includes the study of art in society as well is the study of images and human visual production (iconography).[65]

Diplomatic history focuses on the relationships between nations, primarily regarding diplomacy and the causes of wars. More recently it looks at the causes of peace and human rights. It typically presents the viewpoints of the foreign office, and long-term strategic values, as the driving force of continuity and change in history. This type of political history is the study of the conduct of international relations between states or across state boundaries over time. Historian Muriel Chamberlain notes that after the First World War, "diplomatic history replaced constitutional history as the flagship of historical investigation, at once the most important, most exact and most sophisticated of historical studies."[66] She adds that after 1945, the trend reversed, allowing social history to replace it.

Although economic history has been well established since the late 19th century, in recent years academic studies have shifted more and more toward economics departments and away from traditional history departments.[67] Business history deals with the history of individual business organizations, business methods, government regulation, labour relations, and impact on society. It also includes biographies of individual companies, executives, and entrepreneurs. It is related to economic history; Business history is most often taught in business schools.[68]

Environmental history is a new field that emerged in the 1980s to look at the history of the environment, especially in the long run, and the impact of human activities upon it.[69] It is an offshoot of the environmental movement, which was kickstarted by Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in the 1960s.

World history is the study of major civilizations over the last 3000 years or so. World history is primarily a teaching field, rather than a research field. It gained popularity in the United States,[70] Japan[71] and other countries after the 1980s with the realization that students need a broader exposure to the world as globalization proceeds.

It has led to highly controversial interpretations by Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee, among others.

The World History Association publishes the Journal of World History every quarter since 1990.[72] The H-World discussion list[73] serves as a network of communication among practitioners of world history, with discussions among scholars, announcements, syllabi, bibliographies and book reviews.

A people's history is a type of historical work which attempts to account for historical events from the perspective of common people. A people's history is the history of the world that is the story of mass movements and of the outsiders. Individuals or groups not included in the past in other type of writing about history are the primary focus, which includes the disenfranchised, the oppressed, the poor, the nonconformists, and the otherwise forgotten people. The authors are typically on the left and have a socialist model in mind, as in the approach of the History Workshop movement in Britain in the 1960s.[74]

Intellectual history and the history of ideas emerged in the mid-20th century, with the focus on the intellectuals and their books on the one hand, and on the other the study of ideas as disembodied objects with a career of their own.[75][76]

Gender history is a subfield of History and Gender studies, which looks at the past from the perspective of gender. The outgrowth of gender history from women's history stemmed from many non-feminist historians dismissing the importance of women in history. According to Joan W. Scott, Gender is a constitutive element of social relationships based on perceived differences between the sexes, and gender is a primary way of signifying relations of power,[77] meaning that gender historians study the social effects of perceived differences between the sexes and how all genders utilize allotted power in societal and political structures. Despite being a relatively new field, gender history has had a significant effect on the general study of history. Gender history traditionally differs from women's history in its inclusion of all aspects of gender such as masculinity and femininity, and today's gender history extends to include people who identify outside of that binary.

Public history describes the broad range of activities undertaken by people with some training in the discipline of history who are generally working outside of specialized academic settings. Public history practice has quite deep roots in the areas of historic preservation, archival science, oral history, museum curatorship, and other related fields. The term itself began to be used in the U.S. and Canada in the late 1970s, and the field has become increasingly professionalized since that time. Some of the most common settings for public history are museums, historic homes and historic sites, parks, battlefields, archives, film and television companies, and all levels of government.[78]

LGBT history deals with the first recorded instances of same-sex love and sexuality of ancient civilizations, involves the history of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) peoples and cultures around the world. A common feature of LGBTQ+ history is the focus on oral history and individual perspectives, in addition to traditional documents within the archives.

Professional and amateur historians discover, collect, organize, and present information about past events. They discover this information through archaeological evidence, written primary sources, verbal stories or oral histories, and other archival material. In lists of historians, historians can be grouped by order of the historical period in which they were writing, which is not necessarily the same as the period in which they specialized. Chroniclers and annalists, though they are not historians in the true sense, are also frequently included.

Since the 20th century, Western historians have disavowed the aspiration to provide the "judgement of history."[79] The goals of historical judgements or interpretations are separate to those of legal judgements, that need to be formulated quickly after the events and be final.[80] A related issue to that of the judgement of history is that of collective memory.

Pseudohistory is a term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions.It is closely related to deceptive historical revisionism. Works which draw controversial conclusions from new, speculative, or disputed historical evidence, particularly in the fields of national, political, military, and religious affairs, are often rejected as pseudohistory.

A major intellectual battle took place in Britain in the early twentieth century regarding the place of history teaching in the universities. At Oxford and Cambridge, scholarship was downplayed. Professor Charles Harding Firth, Oxford's Regius Professor of history in 1904 ridiculed the system as best suited to produce superficial journalists. The Oxford tutors, who had more votes than the professors, fought back in defence of their system saying that it successfully produced Britain's outstanding statesmen, administrators, prelates, and diplomats, and that mission was as valuable as training scholars. The tutors dominated the debate until after the Second World War. It forced aspiring young scholars to teach at outlying schools, such as Manchester University, where Thomas Frederick Tout was professionalizing the History undergraduate programme by introducing the study of original sources and requiring the writing of a thesis.[81][82]

In the United States, scholarship was concentrated at the major PhD-producing universities, while the large number of other colleges and universities focused on undergraduate teaching. A tendency in the 21st century was for the latter schools to increasingly demand scholarly productivity of their younger tenure-track faculty. Furthermore, universities have increasingly relied on inexpensive part-time adjuncts to do most of the classroom teaching.[83]

From the origins of national school systems in the 19th century, the teaching of history to promote national sentiment has been a high priority. In the United States after World War I, a strong movement emerged at the university level to teach courses in Western Civilization, so as to give students a common heritage with Europe. In the U.S. after 1980, attention increasingly moved toward teaching world history or requiring students to take courses in non-western cultures, to prepare students for life in a globalized economy.[84]

At the university level, historians debate the question of whether history belongs more to social science or to the humanities. Many view the field from both perspectives.

The teaching of history in French schools was influenced by the Nouvelle histoire as disseminated after the 1960s by Cahiers pdagogiques and Enseignement and other journals for teachers. Also influential was the Institut national de recherche et de documentation pdagogique, (INRDP). Joseph Leif, the Inspector-general of teacher training, said pupils children should learn about historians' approaches as well as facts and dates. Louis Franois, Dean of the History/Geography group in the Inspectorate of National Education advised that teachers should provide historic documents and promote "active methods" which would give pupils "the immense happiness of discovery." Proponents said it was a reaction against the memorization of names and dates that characterized teaching and left the students bored. Traditionalists protested loudly it was a postmodern innovation that threatened to leave the youth ignorant of French patriotism and national identity.[85]

In several countries history textbooks are tools to foster nationalism and patriotism, and give students the official narrative about national enemies.[86]

In many countries, history textbooks are sponsored by the national government and are written to put the national heritage in the most favourable light. For example, in Japan, mention of the Nanking Massacre has been removed from textbooks and the entire Second World War is given cursory treatment. Other countries have complained.[87] It was standard policy in communist countries to present only a rigid Marxist historiography.[88][89]

In the United States, textbooks published by the same company often differ in content from state to state.[90] An example of content that is represented different in different regions of the country is the history of the Southern states, where slavery and the American Civil War are treated as controversial topics. McGraw-Hill Education for example, was criticised for describing Africans brought to American plantations as "workers" instead of slaves in a textbook.[91]

Academic historians have often fought against the politicization of the textbooks, sometimes with success.[92][93]

In 21st-century Germany, the history curriculum is controlled by the 16 states, and is characterized not by superpatriotism but rather by an "almost pacifistic and deliberately unpatriotic undertone" and reflects "principles formulated by international organizations such as UNESCO or the Council of Europe, thus oriented towards human rights, democracy and peace." The result is that "German textbooks usually downplay national pride and ambitions and aim to develop an understanding of citizenship centered on democracy, progress, human rights, peace, tolerance and Europeanness."[94]

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History - Wikipedia

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History | discipline | Britannica

Posted: at 1:46 pm

History, the discipline that studies the chronological record of events (as affecting a nation or people), based on a critical examination of source materials and usually presenting an explanation of their causes.

Britannica Quiz

41 Questions from Britannicas Most Popular World History Quizzes

This quiz collects 41 of the toughest questions from Britannicas most popular quizzes on world history. If you want to ace it, youll need to know the history of the United States, some of the most famous people in history, what happened during World War II, and much more.

History is treated in a number of articles. For the principal treatment of the subject of historiography and the scholarly research necessary for the discipline, see historiography. Information on any specific historical topic, such as the history of specific peoples, cultures, countries, and regions, will be found under the relevant title. For information on the historical aspects of military affairs, economics, law, literature, sciences, art, philosophy, religion, and other fields of human endeavour, the reader should also first consult the relevant title and review the subtopics in the Table of Contents. The general articles contain many cross-references to specific historical movements and events and to biographies of significant figures.

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History | discipline | Britannica

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This Day in History – What Happened Today – HISTORY

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On January 15, 1929, Martin Luther King, Jr. is born in Atlanta, Georgia, the son of a Baptist minister. King received a doctorate degree in theology and in 1955 helped organize the first major protest of the African American civil rights movement: the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott. Influenced by Mohandas Gandhi, he advocated civil disobedience and nonviolent resistanceto segregation in theSouth.The peaceful protests he led throughout the American South were often met with violence, but King and his followers persisted, and the movement gained momentum.

A powerful orator,King appealed to Christian and American ideals and won growing support from the federal government and Northern whites. In 1963, Bayard Rustin and A. Philip Randolph led the massive March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom; the events grand finalewas Kingsfamous I Have a Dreamspeech. Two hundred and fifty thousand people gathered outside the Lincoln Memorial to hear the stirring speech.

In 1964, the civil rights movement achieved two of its greatest successes: the ratification of the 24th Amendment, which abolished the poll tax, and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited racial discrimination in employment and education and outlawed racial segregation in public facilities. Later that year, Kingbecame the youngest person to win theNobel Peace Prize (in2014 Malala Yousafzai became the youngest to receive the prize at age 17). In the late 1960s, King openly criticized U.S. involvement in Vietnam and turned his efforts to winning economic rights for poor Americans. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968.


10 Things You May Not Know About Martin Luther King, JrFor Martin Luther King, Jr., Nonviolent Protest Never Meant Wait and SeeThe Fight for Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

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View and delete browser history in Microsoft Edge

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With your permission, the new Microsoft Edgecan remember information for you, making it easier to return to a favorite site or fill in forms. Microsoft Edge stores your browsing data, such as your passwords, info you've entered in forms, sites you've visited, and other information. Other browsing modes such as InPrivate browsing and Guest mode function differently and store less data than normal browsing.

Your browsing data is stored on your device. If you've turned on sync, those data types can also be stored in the Microsoft cloud to be synced across your signed in versions of Microsoft Edge.

You can see and clear your browsing history by selecting Settings and more > History > Manage history. You may choose to clear your browsing history at any time.

To clear browsing data on your computer, make sure sync is turned off. Items that are synced will be cleared across all synced devices.

Here's how to clear your browsing data in Microsoft Edge:

Select Settings and more >Settings> Privacy, search, and services .

Under Clear browsing data, select Choose what to clear.

Choose a time range from the Time range drop-down menu.

Choose the types of data you want to clear (see the table below for descriptions). For example, you may want to remove browsing history and cookies but keep passwords and form fill data.

Select Clear now.

To manage and delete data saved in the Microsoft cloud, see the privacy dashboard. On the privacy dashboard you can view or delete your data. Data that you delete on the privacy dashboard wont be deleted from your device.

To learn more about how to stop sharing your data with Microsoft, see Microsoft Edge browsing data and privacy.

Types of info

What gets deleted

Where it's stored

Browsing history

The URLs of sites you've visited, and the dates and times of each visit.

On your device (or if sync is turned on, across your synced devices)

Download history

The list of files you've downloaded from the web. This only deletes the list, not the actual files that you've downloaded.

On your device

Cookies and other site data

Info that sites store on your device to remember your preferences, such as sign-in info or your location and media licenses.

On your device

Cached images and files

Copies of pages, images, and other media content stored on your device. The browser uses these copies to load content faster the next time you visit those sites.

On your device


Site passwords that you've saved.

On your device (or if sync is turned on, across your synced devices)

Autofill form data (includes forms and cards)

Info that you've entered into forms, such as your email, credit card, or a shipping address.

On your device (or if sync is turned on, across your synced devices)

Site permissions

Go to Settings and more> Settings > Site permissions to see a list for each website, including location, cookies, pop-ups, and media autoplay.

On your device

Hosted app data

Info web apps store on your device. This includes data from the Microsoft Store. To see the apps saved to Microsoft Edge, go to Settings and more> Apps > Manage apps.

On your device

Using Microsoft Edge, you can clear all browsing data from Internet Explorer. Clearing Internet Explorer browsing data wont affect your browsing data in another browser.

Note:This is only available if your organization has turned on Internet Explorer mode.

In Microsoft Edge, select Settings and more > Settings > Privacy, search, and services .

Under Clear browsing data for Internet Explorer, select Choose what to clear.

Choose the types of data you want to clear.

Select Delete.

Block pop-ups in Microsoft Edge

Microsoft Edge, browsing data, and privacy

Recover your Microsoft account

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View and delete your browsing history in Internet Explorer

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The new browser recommended by Microsoft is here

Get speed, security, and privacy with the new Microsoft Edge.

Try it now

Your browsing history is the info that InternetExplorer stores on a PC asyousurf the web. To help improve your experience, this includes info you'veentered into forms, passwords, and sites you've visited. However, if you're using a shared or public PC, youmay not want InternetExplorer tosave your history.

By viewing your browsing history, you can choose to delete specific sites, or return to a webpage that you've already visited.

In InternetExplorer, select the Favorites button.

Select the History tab, and choose how you want to view your history by selecting a filter from the menu. To delete specific sites, right-clicka site from any of these lists and then select Delete. Or, return to a page by selecting any site in the list.

Regularly deleting your browsing history helps protect your privacy, especially if you're using a shared or public PC.

In InternetExplorer, select the Tools button, point to Safety, and then select Delete browsing history.

Choosethe types of data or files you want to remove from your PC, and then select Delete.

Types of info

What gets deleted

InternetExplorer version

Browsing history

The list of sites you've visited.


Cached images temporary Internet files

Copies of pages, images, and other media content stored on your PC. The browser uses these copies to load content faster the next time you visit those sites.



Info that sites store on your PC to remember your preferences, such as your sign-in or your location.


Download history

The list of files you've downloaded from the web. This only deletes the list, not the actual files you've downloaded.

Only InternetExplorer 11 and InternetExplorer 10

Form data

Info that you've enteredinto forms, such as your email or a shipping address.



Passwords that you've saved for sites.


Tracking Protection, ActiveX Filtering, and Do Not Track data

Websites you've excluded from ActiveX Filtering, and data that the browser uses to detect tracking activity.



The list of sites that you've saved as favorites. Don't delete favorites if you only want to remove individual sitesthis will delete all of your saved sites.


InPrivate filtering data

Saved data used by InPrivate Filtering to detect where sites might be automatically sharing details about your visit.

Only for InternetExplorer 9 and InternetExplorer 8


View and delete your browsing history in Internet Explorer

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Will Donald Trump go down as the worst president in history? – CNN

Posted: at 1:46 pm

"On several occasions, Trump has suggested that he expects to take his place on the list of former presidents aside Abraham Lincoln, presumably knocking George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and all the others in the top rank down a tick," wrote presidential historian Joseph Ellis in a op-ed for the Los Angeles Times this week. "To put it politely, he needs to adjust his expectations."

Added Ellis: "Donald Trump is quite likely to assume the title as the worst president in American history."

Deciding how presidents rank is, admittedly, a very subjective matter. And it's usually done by people like Ellis, academics and authors who have devoted their professional lives to the study of the presidency, which may not be a group naturally inclined to like Trump's decided anti-intellectual approach to, well, everything.

But those are the people who tend to rank the presidents. So, let's look at a few of the more recent rankings -- and where Trump stands.

On "luck," Trump ranked tenth. On "willingness to take risks," he was 25th. (Remember that this came out in early 2019, long before the world had ever heard of "Covid-19." The arrival of the pandemic is very likely to drop Trump's "luck" score in future surveys.)

Trump ranked dead last in this survey, trailing Buchanan, William Henry Harrison, Franklin Pierce and Johnson, respectively. Broken out by the relative ideology of the panel, Trump fared little better. Among self-identified conservatives, Trump was ranked as the 40th best president. (Buchanan was conservatives' choice as worst president.) Among moderates and liberals in the survey, Trump was ranked dead last.

"He said, 'Kristi, come on over here. Shake my hand,'" Noem told the Sioux Falls Argus-Leader about a meeting with Trump in the Oval Office. "I shook his hand, and I said, 'Mr. President, you should come to South Dakota sometime. We have Mount Rushmore.' And he goes, 'Do you know it's my dream to have my face on Mount Rushmore?'. "I started laughing. He wasn't laughing, so he was totally serious."

Now, making historical judgments about a president in the middle of his term -- or even immediately after his term ends -- is a dicey business. Ulysses S. Grant was widely seen to be a failure in the immediate aftermath of his presidency but has fared far better in the light of history. (Grant is ranked 24th by Siena and 21st in the "Presidential Greatness Survey.") Ditto George H.W. Bush (21st in Siena, 17th in the "Presidential Greatness Survey.")

"I suspect the tour guides at Buchanan's National Historic Landmark homeplace, Wheatland, in Pennsylvania, are already celebrating," concluded Ellis in his op-ed. "Their man, they must fondly hope, will never be last again."

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Gandhi, History, and the Lessons of the Events at the Capitol – The New Yorker

Posted: at 1:46 pm

The rapid decline of American newspapers is robbing us of, among many other things, classic headlines. It took the Times of Indiain what remains the worlds great newspaper nationto really capture the events at the U.S. Capitol last week: Coup Klux Klan, it blazed across its front page, communicating the sense of giddy white entitlement, like a picnic at a lynching, that gave the event its distinctive and disgusting tone.

Maybe its just easier to see reality from a distance. Were so used to the background noise of racism in this country that erecting a gallows with a noose on the West Front of the Capitol or carrying a Confederate battle flag through the halls of Congress doesnt register as alarming as it should. Revulsion at the Capitol siege should be, in large measure, revulsion at the bigotry that underlies itit was, after all, carried out in the service of absurd claims about election fraud, most of which depend on disenfranchising huge blocs of Black voters. And its possible that this could be one of those moments that helps us come to terms with that past: the shock of people storming Congress, killing one police officer and wounding several others as they hunted for elected officials, might be a catalyst for really dealing with the ugliness that defines too much of American history.

Or it might slide slowly into joining that history. Im thinking of India again. In a few years, that country will mark the seventy-fifth anniversary of the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi, arguably the most important political leader of the twentieth century. He not only led the subcontinent to freedom against the most powerful empire that the world has ever known; he helped awaken Indians to the evils of caste and developed a theory and practice of nonviolent civil disobedience that has since become one of the worlds most precious possessions. His funeral, the day after his death, was attended by an estimated two million people. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru used the occasion, which came in the wake of the horrific violence of Partition, to call for an end to sectarianism. At the ceremony for the immersion of Gandhis ashes in the Ganges, Nehru said, Our country gave birth to a mighty one, and he shone like a beacon not only for India but for the whole world. And yet he was done to death by one of our own brothers and compatriots. How did this happen? You might think that it was an act of madness, but that does not explain this tragedy. It could only occur because the seed for it was sown in the poison of hatred and enmity that spread throughout the country and affected so many of our people. Out of that seed grew this poisonous plant. It is the duty of all of us to fight this poison of hatred and ill will.

Over time, however, that resolve dissipated. One of the right-wing Hindu-nationalist groups to which Gandhis assassin, Nathuram Godse, had belonged, the R.S.S., was banned for only a year before its leadersthe Josh Hawleys and Ted Cruzes of their daymanaged to have the moratorium overturned. The current Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, is a graduate of the group, and his Bharatiya Janata Party has governed as bigots, partaking of the same anti-Islam hatred that animated Gandhis killer. Muslims have faced the loss of citizenship; those suspected of eating beef have been murdered; Godse is being steadily rehabilitated. In 2017, the B.J.P. named Yogi Adityanath, an extremist Hindu monk, to run the giant state of Uttar Pradesh, in what one political observer called a final rejection of Nehru. Adityanath has called for building a temple to the Hindu god Ram on top of a mosque destroyed by a mob, and has proposed renaming one of Uttar Pradeshs cities in Godses memory.

All of which is to say that impeaching Trump will not be enough, nor will prosecuting his followers who invaded the Capitol. Joe Biden has endorsed unity, but meaningful change is going to require that the whole nation do what its never really done before: grapple definitively with its past. The reaction to George Floyds murdera wave of support for Black Lives Matterand the increasing shock and revulsion over the events that Trump has provoked are both signs that we might possibly be ready for something akin to a truth and reconciliation process that puts solutions like reparations on the table, where they belong. That conversation will be hard, and, obviously, it will provide a chance for demagogues to regroup. But, if it doesnt happen, we will be back here, eventually. And it will only happen if we take our precarious situation with the utmost seriousness. The ugly infection that has always sapped Americas strength burst to the surface last week. Simply bandaging it will be a mistakehistory doesnt offer many moments when a more thorough cure might be possible.

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Derby history is not kind to the Lecomte – VSiN

Posted: at 1:46 pm

Las Vegas

The Lecomte Stakes has forever been a blush of springtime hope in the middle of winter. It is always looked at as being loaded with so much potential that it is impossible not to stop and smell the promise of roses.

Here we go again with Saturdays $200,000 Grade 3 points prep for the Kentucky Derby. Mandaloun brings in a 2-for-2 record for presumptive trainer of the year Brad Cox. Midnight Bourbon, Red N Wild and Arabian Prince finished in the money in their previous Derby preps. Game Day Play is already a stakes winner.

It is the annual ritual. Look at the full field racing at the Fair Grounds in New Orleans. Tout it as being deep in talent. Then sit back this spring and watch as others from around the country pass these horses and collect the big prizes.

Nothing like a dose of history to throw cold water on a hot-looking horse race.

In all its runnings since it was restricted to 3-year-olds starting in 1962, the Lecomte has produced exactly one Kentucky Derby winner War Emblem in 2002.

There have been close calls since. Hard Spun in 2007 and Golden Soul in 2013 came through the Bayou on the way to second-place finishes in the Derby. War Of Will notably won both the Lecomte and Preakness two years ago just as Oxbow had in 2013. Otherwise, the January test in Louisiana has been a proving ground for regional talent more than it has been a bellwether for the classics.

Yet there is a lesson to be learned from most of the successful exceptions. Think about what War Emblem, Hard Spun, War of Will and Oxbow had in common. They were either pacesetters or stalkers, a style that is more suited to the classics than it is to a wintertime race on a track with a seemingly unending 1,346-foot homestretch.

Since 2000, there have been 22 horses that started in both the Lecomte and the Derby. Of those, 15 did not show their speed until the second halves of their races. Last years winner Enforceable was a microcosm, a deep closer that overcame a pedestrian pace to power home at the Fair Grounds by 1 lengths. Nearly eight months later that style did not translate at Churchill Downs, where he finished seventh.

At least one Derby starter has come out of 12 of the last 14 runnings of the Lecomte, but the style for most of those 18 horses did not fit well against faster competitors from across the country.

A stark fact about the Fair Grounds is that its current points preps the Lecomte, Risen Star and Louisiana Derby have produced only four Kentucky Derby winners Black Gold in 1924, Grindstone in 1996, War Emblem in 2002 and the controversially promoted Country House in 2019. Current preps at Gulfstream Park, Keeneland and Oaklawn Park, the other big tracks in that quadrant of the nation, have produced a combined 82.

That does not mean the Lecomte will be a bad betting race. Not with 11 horses entered, including five coming off now-forbidden Lasix and three that have experience going the 8 furlongs that the Lecomte became with its lengthening last year.

Bet down to 40-1 at Circa Sports and 35-1 at William Hill Nevada in Kentucky Derby futures, Mandaloun (3-1 morning line) must use his mid-pack style negotiate two turns for the first time and overcome post 10, which Enforceable did last year. It is also his first time in stakes company. Strong speed ratings from his November allowance win at Churchill Downs are an asset, and so are his connections. Cox was 13-for-55 coming into this week at the current Fair Grounds meet, and Florent Gerouxs win percentage of 28.6 was the best among jockeys with more than a handful of rides.

Trainer Mike Stidham entered the Godolphin colt Proxy (6-1), a pacesetting 2-for-2 at the Fair Grounds, and Manor House (8-1), a 12-length debut winner last month at Laurel Park that was cross-entered into an allowance race on Saturdays undercard.

After his father, Mark, won the Lecomte the last two years, trainer Norman Casse carries the family name with Beep Beep (12-1), a winning favorite in his only start Nov. 29 at Churchill Downs. This Tapizar colt owned by Marylou Whitneys estate and ridden by Joe Talamo could challenge Proxy for the early lead.

Game Day Play (20-1) is a gelding that was a seven-furlong stakes winner in October at Remington Park, but trainer Bret Calhoun has had him idle from races since. Arabian Prince (6-1) might not have the style that suits the Derby, but he was able to close into a noteworthy third-place finish Thanksgiving weekend in the Grade 2 Kentucky Jockey Club at Churchill Downs. Drawing the rail, Midnight Bourbon (7-2) tries to prove he merits Derby consideration after he finished 14 lengths in third behind Jackies Warrior and Reinvestment Risk in the Grade 1 Champagne three months ago at Belmont Park. Santa Cruiser (6-1) may be only a maiden winner, but he carries a strong speed rating from that mile victory two months ago at Churchill Downs.

My ticket will be keyed to Game Day Play, presuming his new jockey Gabriel Sez has him positioned to get a decisive first run on the leaders turning for home. In spite of his poor draw Mandaloun should be there at the end, too. And it is hard to leave off Arabian Prince, the quintessential, deep-closing Lecomte runner.

If a horse that is forwardly placed should win the Lecomte, that ought to carry a lot more weight in Derby futures than a run-of-the-mill closer accomplishing the same thing. Whether bettors take heed is another matter. What is the old line about not learning from history?

Racing notes and opinions

From the oh, no, not again folder: Barring an unforeseen end to 15 months of stubbornness, Oaklawn Park will not be on offer to horseplayers through Nevada racebooks. A track spokeswoman confirmed to VSiN that no deal is in place for the meet that starts next Friday. It goes back to the wearisome impasse between the Nevada Pari-Mutuel Association and Churchill Downs Inc. Although the Cella family has owned Oaklawn Park for four generations, CDI acquired the rights to negotiate the tracks interstate pari-mutuel contracts. I can confirm that CDI negotiates our signal, and (we) are currently not in Vegas, Oaklawn spokeswoman Jennifer Hoyt wrote in an email. The one ray of hope is that the refusal of the two sides to speak to one another is apparently over. One of two Las Vegas sources who spoke to VSiN said, We are communicating at least. Since the CDI standoff began in October 2019, Churchill Downs, the Fair Grounds, Turfway Park and Arlington Park have all been rendered legally unavailable to Nevada bettors. So, too, have smaller tracks, some of which are paying CDI to be their negotiating agent. The only exception came in September, when casinos booked the Kentucky Derby and Oaks on their own, honoring track mutuels at their risk but putting strict limits on the options and potential winnings available to bettors.

With thoughts about the relationship with Churchill Downs and response to criticism that the odds are too conservative, William Hill US CEO Joe Asher provides insight into the making of Kentucky Derby futures in a rare interview for the new episode of the Ron Flatter Racing Pod. The conversation was also detailed in a story for Horse Racing Nation.

The death Tuesday of Prince Khalid Abdullah, 85, not only evoked tributes, but it raised questions. He built Juddmonte Farms into one of the biggest forces in racing and in breeding, producing champions like Arrogate, Frankel, Empire Maker, Enable and Dancing Brave. His lieutenants, notably Garrett ORourke in America and Lord Teddy Grimthorpe in Europe, are two of the most charismatic executives running any stable. Yet there has been no public outlining of Juddmontes future. Since His Highness passed away only this week, it would be untoward to expect answers right away, even if the questions came naturally. James Delahooke, a big name in bloodstock circles who worked for Prince Khalid in the 70s and 80s, told Racing Post, As long as its run by horsemen and not by accountants, Juddmonte will continue to thrive and prosper.

Add Prince Khalid: Juddmonte Farms bred and owns Mandaloun, offering a sentimental angle for the Lecomte and, who knows, maybe for the Derby trail.

Ron Flatters racing column is available every Friday morning at and more frequently during coverage of big races. You may also hear the Ron Flatter Racing Pod at William Hill US CEO Joe Asher talks about the making of Kentucky Derby futures, trainer Michael Stidham discusses Manor House and Proxy on Saturdays Lecomte Stakes card, and DraftKings Sportsbooks Johnny Avello handicaps weekend races. The RFRP is available for download and free subscription at Apple, Google, iHeart, Spotify and Stitcher. It is sponsored by 1/ST BET.

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Naples Underground Featured on the History Channel – PRNewswire

Posted: at 1:46 pm

LOS ANGELES, Jan. 15, 2021 /PRNewswire/ --History was made in 2007, as the History Channel premiered their first ever full-length documentary, diving into the hidden secrets of Naples via Naples Underground (Napoli Sotterranea) founded and run by lead Speleologist Enzo Albertini. The program, titled "The Secret Cities'' begins at a depth of 6 metres, in the excavations of San Lorenzo, traveling all the way into the Decumani area, situated below the Spanish Quarters.

The program aired on Sky channel 406, quite the momentous occasion as it was the first time the History Channel shot a documentary on Naples. In the past, they had only broadcast an in-depth study on the Napoli Liberation, a program which was made up of local footage and computer reconstructions of the Pompeii eruption, but no real footage was shot at the time.

This time, the History Channel documentary was filmed by a cohort of American television producers led by Executive Producer Dolores Gavin, accompanied by Producers Sarah Wetherbee and Emre Sahin who worked with Vincenzo Albertini to explore the underground city in a way which also tells the stories of a world long ago and their rich history. Their relationship and conversations with Mr. Albertini over the course of their many days and excursions there, allowed for an in-depth level of conversation into which aspects of Italy's great history accounts for the current geological marvels that exist within Naples Underground (Napoli Sotterranea). It was especially in these moments of conversation, that we see a National hero and honorary Tourism Ambassador Vincenzo Albertini shining through in his depth of knowledge and ability to paint such an inviting sense of adventure and intrigue over the city of Naples.

This dynamic troupe of storytellers, begin their journey by visiting the Pompeii excavations and showing the entire world how Naples was saved from the eruption of 79AC. They then make their way into the entrance of the Anticaglia house, from a trap door which descends into the stalls of the Roman theater, the remains of the Teatro di Nero.

The tour then continues under the Basilica of San Lorenzo in Naples where the Seat of San Lorenzo was born and where the remains of the columns of the ancient Court can still be seen today. At each of these great points in the unique landscape, Vincenzo Albertini continues to supply extensive insight into exactly which geological features we are seeing at the moment in time and also giving us the historical context, seamlessly merging story, lore and geology, bringing it into the Naples Underground (Napoli Sotterranea) of today.

After exploring the secrets hidden in the underground, the History Channel cameras arrive in the hypogeum of Naples and for the first time they show the city. This momentous broadcast of Naples to the world was celebrated by Italians everywhere and a special salute was given to Vincenzo Albertini and his team.

Instagram @napoisotterraanea

Contact:Lizzie Maria+44 (0) 7570 82 0089[emailprotected]

SOURCE Napoli Sotterranea

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A Brief Cultural History of Work Sucking – The New Republic

Posted: at 1:46 pm

In his 2017 book,Guerrillas of Desire: Notes on Everyday Resistance and Organizing to Make a Revolution Possible, Kevin Van Meter explores how a broad working class has been claiming autonomy through a wide variety of refusal of work: Theft of time and materials, feigned illness, sabotage, arson, murder, exodus, and the myriad of other forms this refusal takesas well as the process of creating counter-communitiescan be found in everyday life.

We see glimpses of these acts in pop culture all the time, probably because work is often a backdrop to plot, not the driver of it. While maybe not the most revolutionary critique of corporate culture, The Office consists of office workers trying to find moments of joy during worknot through it but in spite of it. Given that their shenanigans occur on the clock, they technically constitute theft of time.

Homer Simpson constantly sleeps at the power plant; Barry Berkman takes acting classes, avoiding his job of killing people; and Jake Peralta spends as much time formulating Title of Your Sex Tape jokes as he does perpetrating state violence as a member of the NYPD. Work is never the point in these shows. Its the thing in the way of the point. Much of our pop culture treats work, particularly white-collar corporate work, the way it deserves: as something between a glorified chore and an impediment to fulfillment. (This could be because artists and culturemakers have experienced the tiresome and frustrating necessity of working solely to support their art themselves.) Dolly Partons iconic 9 to 5, and the film of the same name, wasnt about loving your job, after all. Pop culture has always reminded us that work sucks. Weve known.

Before my first job, before I truly understood the necessity of working or the strange oscillation between fulfillment and the utter despair that comes with having a career, I knew that work was not fun. I may have even assumed that adulthood was largely defined by a disciplined tolerance for work. After all, countless kids shows dedicated at least one episode to teaching children who wished they could either be adults or be rid of themfrom Rugrats having adult versions of Tommy and Chuckie literally push paper around with brooms before getting fired to Fairly Oddparents Timmy Turner wishing that the kids were in charge, inadvertently transforming the world into a boring dystopiathat the freedom of adulthood is not actually freedom. It is toil.

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