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The Evolutionary Perspective
Category Archives: Oceania
Posted: January 18, 2020 at 10:21 am
(8:30 a.m. EST) -- Oceania Cruises has released details of its 2022 world cruise, a voyage that takes passengers on a global journey lasting six months.
Dubbed, the "Around the World in 180 Days" cruise, the sailing takes place aboard Oceania's 684-passenger Insignia, departing from Los Angeles on January 6, 2022, traveling around the world to New York. The voyage includes visits to six continents, 44 countries, 91 ports of call, 68 UNESCO World Heritage sites, and crosses four oceans.
"This is one of the most intriguing and all-encompassing world explorations available," said Bob Binder, president & CEO of Oceania Cruises. "Guests will experience a truly unique combination of destinations that includes the South Pacific, Asia, India, and even the British Isles. I think guests will be most delighted by the 12-day, nine-port immersion into Japan as well as the lesser known cultural jewels of western Africa."
The itinerary also features 19 overnight stays in ports that include Bora Bora, French Polynesia; Sydney, Australia; Bali (Benoa), Indonesia; Shanghai, China; Cape Town, South Africa; and London (Tilbury), U.K.
Those looking for an even longer cruise can begin their journey aboard Insignia in Miami on December 21, 2021, thereby turning the 180-day voyage into a 196-day exploration that Oceania calls its "Epic World Quest."
Reservations for the 2022 world voyage go on sail January 15, 2020.
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Posted: at 10:21 am
Oceania Cruises Isignia ship will be embarking on a voyage of a lifetime in 2022. The new epic journey will chart 44 countries in 6 continents in six months.
The worlds leading culinary-focused cruise line announced its plans yesterday unveiling an itinerary which treats guests to a host of incredible experiences.
Bob Binder, President and CEO of Oceania Cruises, said: This is one of the most intriguing and all-encompassing world explorations available. Guests will experience a truly unique combination of destinations that includes the South Pacific, Asia, India, and even the British Isles.
The guests on board Insignia are set to be astounded and entertained both on the seas and on shore. Theres a milieu of UNESCO World Heritage sites and optional overland tours included on the trip to nourish even the most adventurous cruisers.
Whether exploring the lush gardens and protected wildlife at the Royal Melbourne Zoological Gardens or celebrating the deep-seated Dutch tradition of seafaring life at Amsterdams National Maritime Museum, travelers will have the opportunity to witness the beauty of human expression and creativity in its purest form.
The unforgettable journey will also be punctuated with special celebratory events ranging from an exclusive overnight at one of Shanghais most luxurious and architecturally bold hotels to a regal feast at the Royal Citadel in Hue.
Bob Binder added: I think guests will be most delighted by the 12-day, nine-port immersion into Japan as well as the lesser known cultural jewels of western Africa.
Insignia, the vessel which is set to circumnavigate the globe, is now a completely transformed ship following a dramatic re-inspiration. Each luxurious suite and stateroom is entirely new from floor to ceiling, including the bathrooms. This high-quality level of accommodation on board is truly unprecedented.
The 2022 world cruise offers two curated itinerary journey, either departing from Miami on 21 December 2021 or from Los Angeles on 6 January. Guests will finally end their voyage six months later in New York, having soaked up enough glorious memories to last an eternity.
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Philippines offer to host Asia and Oceania Olympic boxing qualifier if moved from Wuhan – Insidethegames.biz
Posted: at 10:21 am
The Philippines has offered to host next month's Asia and Oceania Olympic boxing qualifier if the event is moved from Wuhan because of a pneumonia outbreak.
Fears over the outbreak, caused by what is believed to be a new type of coronavirus, have grown today after the World Health Organisation (WHO) confirmed the first human-to-human transmission.
Maria Van Kerkhove, acting head of WHO's emerging diseases unit, sought to ally concerns by insisting the organisation had not found sustained human-to-human spread of the virus.
The first case outside of China has also been reported, after a woman in Thailand was diagnosed with the new coronavirus.
The latest developments have raised the possibility of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) having to move the competition, scheduled for February 3 to 14.
Ed Picson, secretary general of the Association of Boxing Alliances in the Philippines, said the country would be willing to stage the event if the IOC has to relocate it.
Picson claimed other countries had also expressed an interest in hosting the tournament.
"We only have a little over two weeks to go," he said.
"I know there are countries that have offered to host the event in lieu of Wuhan, China.
"We are also thinking about hosting it and I already sent feelers to the IOC task force regarding this.
"We feel that with the recent staging of the Southeast Asian Games, we have the mechanics in place and the people who can perhaps undertake the hosting."
In an update posted yesterday, the IOC boxing task force - set up after it suspended recognition of the International Boxing Association - said "no specific actions or changes to standard travel health advice" had been decided.
insidethegames understand the IOC is in contact with the Chinese Olympic Committee and is prepared to move the event if the situation worsens.
Wuhan is also set to host Group B of the third round of the Asian Football Confederation Women's Olympic Qualification Tournament from February 3 to 9.
According to China's state news agency Xinhua, 41 people have been diagnosed with the pathogen.
A 61-year-old man died from the disease at the weekend, but a total of 739 people who have come into close contact with those affected have been cleared, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission said.
Posted: at 10:21 am
Stonemaier Games has announced the next expansion to its hit game Wingspan to help raise money to rescue animals affected by recent wildfires in Australia. Earlier today, Stonemaier Games announced on the Wingspan Facebook page that the next expansion would focus on birds from Australia and Oceania. Additionally, Stonemaier would also donate $1 for each person who signed up for the company's newsletter between now and January 22nd, with proceeds going to WIRES, a wildlife rescue organization in Australia. Not only will signing up for the newsletter go towards a good cause, those who sign up will also be the first to know when the Oceania Expansion is available for pre-order.
Wingspan was one of the surprise board game hits of 2019 - a unique medium-weight game in which players try to attract the best birds to their nature reserves. Bird cards can be played to one of three different habitats, each of which offers its own unique resource that can be activated on a player's turn. During each turn, a player chooses to activate a habitat and collects either food, egg, or bird cards, which are then spent to add more birds to a habitat. The more birds in a habitat, the more resources a player generates on their turn. In addition, specific species of birds have bonus powers, which are activated either when played or when their habitat is activated. Players can set up powerful combinations of bird powers that can grant them food, eggs, or other beneficial effects. Players earn victory points by completing certain public or personal goals, and the player with the most victory points at the end of four rounds wins the game.
You can sign up for Stonemaier Games' newsletter here. Not only does it help the many animals affected by devastating fires in Australia, you'll also have the opportunity to get news from one of the top board game publishers in the industry.
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Posted: at 10:21 am
The year 2019 was capitalized for most of the Spanish soccer players and coaches who practice abroad. This is indicated by the 99 titles won during the last 12 months in 57 countries spread across the five continents. In total, 234 champions who made it possible to raise 39 Leagues, 25 Cups, seven League Cups, 20 Super Cups, seven continental tournaments and a Club World Cup.
If in 2018 we only managed to conquer two continental trophies (Champions of Oceania and CAF Confederation Cup), 2019 stands out for being the first year in which Spanish football was present in the four major titles of Europe Y South America: Champions League, Europa League, Copa Libertadores and Copa Sudamericana. Four trophies to which we must add an Asian Cup, an AFC Cup, the European Super Cup and the Club World Cup.
I feel that the Spanish footballer is a very valued athlete. Not only at the level of quality; also of professionalism. Clubs around the world bet on us and that makes us increasingly more out, he tells AS Csar Azpilicueta, responsible for raising the Europa League as captain of Chelsea. Alberto Moreno, who conquered the Champions with the Liverpool before returning to Spain, reveals the memory of having been able to dedicate it to Jose Antonio Reyes.
Two titles in Africa, 12 in America, 27 in Asia, 56 in Europe, one in Oceania and another World Cup. 99 trophies of which only one came from a tournament of selections: Over time we have realized how important it was for the country. The local league is not of high competitive level and we are a selection with limitations demographic, he explains Felix Sanchez, champion of the Asian Cup with the selection of Qatar.
Pep Guardiola's Manchester City, which conquered the national triplet in England and also raised the Community Shield, it was the foreign club with Spanish representation that won the most titles in 2019, while Xavi Hernandez, which raised the Qatar Stars League as a footballer and he won the Qatar Super Cup as coach of Al sadd, was the only Spanish who managed to proclaim himself champion from the grass and the bench. Another milestone was the one achieved by Pablo Mar in Brazil. Flamengo Central He became the first player born in Spain to win the Copa Libertadores. His compatriot Miguel Ramirez He did the same in the Copa Sudamericana, which this course will face in the Recopa.
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Posted: at 10:21 am
The OFC announced that New Zealand will host the 2020 edition of the OFC Nations Cup, as well as the qualifying date and place.
The 2020 OFC Nations Cup is set to be held from June 6th to 20th, with the Kiwis hosting for the first time in 18 years.
The All Whites are reigning champions of the tournament.
As is the norm, eight teams will automatically qualify for the tournament. New Zealand, Fiji, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tahiti and Vanuatu will all enter the Group Stage.
The Qualifying Stage will be hosted in Rarotonga, Cook Islands, between March 21st and 27th. The teams featuring there will be the hosts Cook Islands, as well as American Samoa, Samoa and Tonga.
The OFC says that exact timings and groups for the Group Stage will be made at a later unspecified date.
It is not known whether the tournament will be used as part of the 2022 FIFA World Cup Qualifiers, as it has been previously.
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Posted: December 21, 2019 at 10:52 am
The goal of this article is to teach you how to use price to earnings ratios (P/E ratios). Well apply a basic P/E ratio analysis to Oceania Healthcare Limiteds (NZSE:OCA), to help you decide if the stock is worth further research. Looking at earnings over the last twelve months, Oceania Healthcare has a P/E ratio of 15.59. In other words, at todays prices, investors are paying NZ$15.59 for every NZ$1 in prior year profit.
Check out our latest analysis for Oceania Healthcare
The formula for price to earnings is:
Price to Earnings Ratio = Share Price Earnings per Share (EPS)
Or for Oceania Healthcare:
P/E of 15.59 = NZ$1.17 NZ$0.08 (Based on the year to May 2019.)
The higher the P/E ratio, the higher the price tag of a business, relative to its trailing earnings. All else being equal, its better to pay a low price but as Warren Buffett said, Its far better to buy a wonderful company at a fair price than a fair company at a wonderful price.
The P/E ratio indicates whether the market has higher or lower expectations of a company. We can see in the image below that the average P/E (18.0) for companies in the healthcare industry is higher than Oceania Healthcares P/E.
Oceania Healthcares P/E tells us that market participants think it will not fare as well as its peers in the same industry. While current expectations are low, the stock could be undervalued if the situation is better than the market assumes. You should delve deeper. I like to check if company insiders have been buying or selling.
When earnings fall, the E decreases, over time. Therefore, even if you pay a low multiple of earnings now, that multiple will become higher in the future. Then, a higher P/E might scare off shareholders, pushing the share price down.
Oceania Healthcare saw earnings per share decrease by 41% last year. And EPS is down 20% a year, over the last 3 years. This might lead to low expectations.
Dont forget that the P/E ratio considers market capitalization. So it wont reflect the advantage of cash, or disadvantage of debt. In theory, a company can lower its future P/E ratio by using cash or debt to invest in growth.
While growth expenditure doesnt always pay off, the point is that it is a good option to have; but one that the P/E ratio ignores.
Oceania Healthcare has net debt equal to 34% of its market cap. Youd want to be aware of this fact, but it doesnt bother us.
Oceania Healthcares P/E is 15.6 which is below average (19.4) in the NZ market. The debt levels are not a major concern, but the lack of EPS growth is likely weighing on sentiment.
Investors should be looking to buy stocks that the market is wrong about. As value investor Benjamin Graham famously said, In the short run, the market is a voting machine but in the long run, it is a weighing machine. So this free visual report on analyst forecasts could hold the key to an excellent investment decision.
Of course you might be able to find a better stock than Oceania Healthcare. So you may wish to see this free collection of other companies that have grown earnings strongly.
If you spot an error that warrants correction, please contact the editor at email@example.com. This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. Simply Wall St has no position in the stocks mentioned.
We aim to bring you long-term focused research analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Thank you for reading.
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Posted: at 10:52 am
By Hannah Campbell
DID you know you can now travel from Wick John O'Groats Airport to the world with Loganair and its airline partners; British Airways, Emirates, Qatar, Turkish Airlines, KLM, United Airlines and Flybe?
The one-stop connections via Edinburgh Airport offer multiple benefits, including through check-in, protected connections in the event of delays and, importantly, the air passenger duty saving on flights from the Highlands and Islands if connecting onwards to long-haul destinations (up to 172 when flying in economy class).
Explore the luxury shopping, ultra-modern architecture and lively nightlife of Dubai with one-stop connections at Edinburgh Airport with Emirates. Dubai is the hub of the Emirates network allowing you to travel even further afield from Wick to the 130-plus destinations across Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, the Middle East and the Pacific. How about going on a safari in Johannesburg? Or relaxing on a yoga retreat in Bali? Connecting flights with Emirates can be booked at emirates.com or via a travel agent.
Another destination worth visiting in the Middle East is Doha with one-stop connections with Qatar Airways. Enjoy the once-in-a-lifetime experience of a camel ride across the desert! Doha is Qatar's main hub and opens a world of opportunity to explore Qatar's network of 150-plus destinations across Africa, the Americas, Europe, Asia, the Middle East, Australia and Oceania. What about experiencing the Gold Coast of Australia, all from your local airport? Start your journey at qatarairways.com or via a travel agent.
Experience over 300 worldwide destinations with United Airlines; fly to Newark, Chicago O'Hare, Washington-Dulles and onwards. Why not take in the amazing cityscape from the Top of the Rock in New York City, with one-stop connections via Edinburgh Airport? If you are in search of sunnier climates fly from Wick to Los Angeles and get an insight into the luxurious lives of celebrities in Beverly Hills. Connecting flights with United can be booked at united.com or via a travel agent.
Fly to over 170 destinations worldwide on the BA network from Wick John O'Groats. Indulge in excellent cuisine or browse the numerous markets on a weekend away in London. Fly further afield from BA's main UK hub at Heathrow. How about exploring the country music scene in Nashville? Loganair and British Airways connecting flights can be booked on britishairways.com or via a travel agent.
For travel closer to home, connect to Flybe's UK network with one-stop connections at Edinburgh. Visit the football museum and soak up the atmosphere at a football game in Manchester or how about a night out in Cardiff? Flights can be booked at loganair.co.uk or via a travel agent.
Visit over 700 destinations worldwide, fly to Europe, the Americas, Asia, Africa and Europe from Wick John O'Groats. How about a city break to enjoy the beautiful Dutch canals in Amsterdam? Book your connecting Loganair and KLM flights via a travel agent.
Bookable via a travel agent
Turkish Airlines gives you access to more countries in the world than any other airline, via its hub in Istanbul. Fly to Asia, Africa and Oceania with one-stop connections at Edinburgh Airport. Or soak up the atmosphere in Istanbul itself in the shadow of the beautiful Blue Mosque. Book now via a travel agent.
The next time you fly to the world, choose Wick John O'Groats Airport to Edinburgh and discover the world with Loganair's partners.
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Posted: December 18, 2019 at 9:39 pm
SINGAPORE Samsung Electronics has shifted PR duties for Southeast Asia and Oceania to IN.FOM following a competitive review, the Holmes Report has learned.
Singapore firm IN.FOM takes on an assignment that includes regional PR duties and the domestic PR mandate for Samsung in Singapore.
The duties were previously held by Edelman, which has a global relationship with the Korean electronics giant. It is understood that Edelman's role as Samsung's domestic PR firm in Australia is unaffected by the move.
The shift effectively means that IN.FOM and Edelman have swapped accounts, after Edelman took on the regional Microsoft PR assignment earlier this year. IN.FOMresigned its biggest account anchor client Microsoft in April, but continues to handle the Singapore mandate.
Rachel Um, Samsung senior regional manager for PR and citizenship, Southeast Asia & Oceania, confirmed the shift when contacted by the Holmes Report. Um joined Samsung in 2018, after four years with Edelman.
Edelman and IN.FOM representatives referred request for comment to Samsung.
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Posted: at 9:39 pm
George Orwell is one of the most widely read English-language authors, and has certainly been one of the most quoted ones for more than a half-century. There is no need to mention the many concepts associated with him: Newspeak, thought police, Orwellian and so on. At the same time, the man who strove, as he himself said, to turn political writing into an art and who declared that everything he wrote after 1936 (subsequent to his participation in the Spanish Civil War, against fascist forces) was written against totalitarianism and in favor of democratic socialism, continues to be perceived, ultimately, as a storyteller.
In contrast to the approach of the vast body of writing that exists about Orwell, and about his novel 1984 in particular, I will argue here, in brief, that his output needs to be seen as belonging to the realm of of political theory. In other words, Orwell is (also) a political theoretician (in the conventional sense of the term: a person who espouses a theory about the social reality). Moreover, and especially in his 1949 dystopic novel, he contributed significantly to the understanding of the dynamics of modern politics and in particular of the phenomenon the Roman historian Tacitus called the secrets of governing (arcana imperii). Every new political theory, by whatever name it called itself, led back to hierarchy and regimentation, Orwell wrote.
Any consideration of Orwells writing cannot ignore the fact that he chose the literary genre as the most congenial for giving expression to his views. Writing was for him a tool for changing social reality, and the literature he wrote was political. In fact, it often seems as though the narrative interferes with his attempt to set forth his views about modern capitalism (and about democracy, on the one hand, and fascism, on the other). Indeed, when he encountered difficulties in plot construction, he was known to deal with them by devious literary means, so as to retain his political point.
A vivid example of this is his insertion of a completely theoretical text running to dozens of pages in 1984, by means of a literary stratagem of introducing a fictitious book-within-a-book. The text, The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism, is manifestly a sociopolitical analysis of trends in modern industrial society and a historic description of the phenomenon called government. Some people advised him to remove the book from the book. Happily for us, he ignored them.
It depends on you
Orwell did not in any systematic way read the classic works of political thought and theory (as opposed to contemporaneous political writing, about which he was extremely knowledgeable), and that may help us understand why he chose the literary genre rather than focusing on philosophy or political science. In his works he gave expression to, and provided an explanation (theoretical) for, developments in modern society. Shortly before his death, in 1950, he made it unequivocally clear that the appalling picture of the future starkly depicted in 1984 was not some imaginative exercise for him. Dont let it happen. It depends on you, he asserted toward the end of his life. In his view, the dystopia had already begun to materialize.
What is the it he warned against? He is referring to the fact that in the struggle to impose limits on political power, society is at a disadvantage. Orwell went a few steps further, developing the analysis of Jos Ortega y Gasset, who in his book The Revolt of the Masses (1932), wrote, This is the gravest danger that today threatens civilization: State intervention; the absorption of all spontaneous social effort by the state The result of this tendency will be fatal. Spontaneous social action will be broken up over and over again by State intervention; no new seed will be able to fructify. Society will have to live for the State, man for the governmental machine. In 1984, Orwell showed how that scenario could be realized in everyday life.
His writing from the 1930s onward displays a persistent effort to identify the socioeconomic forces that were pushing toward the emergence of a society whose features resemble those he would portray in 1984 and to warn against them. For this reason, Orwells final book was a very frightening one. He was out to scare his readers, because he wanted to make them think about the direction in which modern society was being led. Power is not a means, it is an end, he wrote at the end of 1984.
Then, as now, the public had trouble conceiving of the fact that there are sociopolitical elements whose goal is to preserve a class society. In other words, precisely in an era in which technology is creating great abundance, unparalleled in human history, it is scarcity that rules. (In principle the war effort is always so planned as to eat up any surplus that might exist after meeting the bare needs of the population. In practice the needs of the population are always underestimated, with the result that there is a chronic shortage of half the necessities of life, Orwell wrote.)
In his view, this state of affairs was not the result of a mistake, a hidden hand or a government of fools; it was a deliberate policy advanced by an exploitative elite. And it isnt by accident that the masses dont grasp what is happening: In the long run, a hierarchical society was only possible on a basis of poverty and ignorance. In other words, there are forces whose vested interest is to preserve high and low. The rationale for this was explained as early as the 17th century by the French statesman Cardinal Richelieu in his Political Testament: All students of politics agree that when the common people are too well off, it is impossible to keep them peaceable It would not be sound to relieve them of all taxation and similar charges, since in such a case they would lose the mark of their subjection and consequently the awareness of their station.
Orwell died young, aged 46 younger than the age at which many thinkers in the realms of humanities and social sciences have written their magnum opus. From this point of view, its hard to imagine how our world would look if Niccolo Machiavelli (who died at 58), Karl Marx (at 64), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (66), Immanuel Kant (79) or Thomas Hobbes (91) had died when they were still in their forties. By the same token, its tempting to imagine how our world of ideas would look if Orwell had lived another 40 years.
A survey of his development as a thinker, beginning from his period of service in the Imperial Police in Burma (when he was in his 20s), shows one thing clearly: The issues that troubled Orwell beginning in the 1930s won a richer and more complete theoretical expression in 1984. Indeed, when we consider the stage his intellectual progress had reached in the autumn of his years, we find new directions, not yet fully matured, in his analysis of modern politics.
Mechanism of power
What Ive written so far is meant to justify my reading of 1984 as political theory, and not just as a novel. The general plotline is well known and needs no elaboration. I will only mention that the book covers a short period in the life of Winston Smith, a citizen of Oceania (a region congruent with much of todays Western world), which is under tight totalitarian rule as part of a one-party system and where life plays out under the watchful eye of Big Brother.
Over the years, what has drawn the most attention in the book and is also considered Orwells legacy is the description of the totalistic means of supervision and control that exist in Oceania, and in particular the telescreen that monitors people nonstop and identifies deviations from the governments sadistic path. And, of course, the notion of the media as serving political interests. (Most of the material that you were dealing with had no connection with anything in the real world, not even the kind of connection that is contained in a direct lie, Orwell wrote). In the wake of the technological and political developments of recent decades, references to him are only increasing, but often those references miss the crux of the book: not the mechanism of power, but the motif that generates it.
Two great questions arise from the book: How did it happen and why did it happen? That is, how did humanity reach a situation in which a small elite possesses spiritual and physical power over the entire population? Or, in Orwells famous formulation in 1984: I understand HOW: I do not understand WHY.
How refers to the technique: the tools that the development of modern industrial society has placed at the disposal of the rulers. Orwell offers a horrific account of the means by which the rules control the masses and bring about a totally regimented society: atomic bombs, perpetual war, Thought Police, social inequality, creation of a besieged city atmosphere, two minutes of hate fomented by the authorities against specific groups, and more. These and other means, Orwell makes clear, generate a disciplined community of fear. And even technological progress only happens when its products can in some way be used for the diminution of human liberty, he wrote, explaining the logic of technological and industrial development in Oceania.
He was adept at describing the how in the daily life of the countrys citizens: Technological developments have placed in the hands of an exploitative minority more efficient means to control the masses. And if in the past, the mechanisms of rule required the presence of physical violence, abuse, torture, executions and the like, the new techniques had to a certain degree made superfluous the Nazi Gestapo and the Stalinist NKVD, which unleashed terror in the streets. Authority in 1984 is reflectled in a total inner capitulation to the Moloch of government.
Orwells comments in this context are almost prophetic: Part of the reason for this was that in the past no government had the power to keep its citizens under constant surveillance. The invention of print, however, made it easier to manipulate public opinion, and the film and the radio carried the process further. With the development of television, and the technical advance which made it possible to receive and transmit simultaneously on the same instrument, private life came to an end.
Now, Orwell maintained in 1984, the new technologies made it possible to control the individuals thought. In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible, because there will be no words in which to express it. Tweeters would do well to make this their motto (it also helps one stay below character limits). Absurdly, a theoretical possibility that frightened many when the book was published is today legitimized by a public which considers itself enlightened, liberal and democratic.
In this sense, Oceania is so frightening because the totalitarianism of rule has resulted in the emergence of a totally static society, where no social change is possible. History indeed ended with the emergence of Oceania, which is also why the novels original title was The Last Man in Europe Winston is the last person who still thinks. If you are a man, Winston, you are the last man. Your kind is extinct; we are the inheritors, says OBrien, who is out to mend Winstons sick (and skeptical) mind.
One of the most illuminating aspects of 1984 is Orwells perceptive description of the relationship between domestic policy and foreign policy. The world of 1984 is divided into three powers Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia which wage unceasing wars on each other. The parallel to the blocs of the Cold War is perfectly clear. The wars, however, have limited goals and the adversaries are not capable of or interested in truly destroying one another. To understand the nature of the present war for in spite of the regrouping which occurs every few years, it is always the same war one must realize in the first place that it is impossible for it to be decisive. This principle is surely fraught with great meaning for people living in Israel, and we would be doing justice to Orwells memory to consider it more closely.
In the world depicted in 1984 (and by this Orwell meant everywhere) foreign policy is an instrument of domestic policy. As such, in his view, foreign policy is a continuation or projection of internal policy. Why? Because the former is implemented by the same elite that rules the country, and it has the same goals in foreign policy as it does in domestic policy. This is one of the splendid theoretical contributions of 1984. In contrast to the realistic description that is common in political science faculties (dealing with confirmation and preservation of the existing order), according to which foreign policy is activity by state A (as subject) directed at state B (as object) for the benefit of citizens of the former Orwell shows that the division between domestic and foreign policy is formal (illusory) and is only presented to the public as the form in which decisions are made by the political echelon. In fact, he maintains, the whole purpose of foreign policy is internal. Meaning, the implementation of power by the rulers is in fact aimed toward the population within a given country, and not toward populations in other countries, which are not the object of that specific government.
War is the direct expression of foreign policy, Orwell explains, but it is entirely aimed at influencing the domestic situation at home: War, it will be seen, is now a purely internal affair The war is waged by each ruling group against its own subjects, and the object of the war is not to make or prevent conquests of territory, but to keep the structure of society intact. The citizen doesnt know much about the wars the state is fighting, even though his whole being is mobilized for that end, Orwell avers. The antennas broadcast to the masses what the elite wishes them to hear: The enemy of the moment always represented absolute evil. The ruling groups know that, it is necessary that the war should continue everlastingly and without victory. This state of affairs creates the ultimate man of the masses for the rulers imbecilic masses whose psychological makeup is appropriate for the perpetuation of a hierarchical society. Fear, which is largely invented, is the means of control by which the society is organized.
But when war becomes literally continuous, it also ceases to be dangerous, Orwell writes. In practice, because war is ceaseless, there is no such thing as military necessity. War is life (itself). Its worth noting that Orwell coined the term Cold War (in a brilliant October 1945 article, You and the Atom Bomb). A reading of 1984 shows exactly what he meant: The aim of war is not a conquest of one kind or another, but the preservation of a hierarchical society of high and low. In fact, Orwell contended, we should talk about continuous warfare (and not about war that takes place in a given time) that serves the balance of forces in every country and allows the continuation of social inequality. This means, he notes, is also useful in keying up public morale to the necessary pitch.
War needs to be managed not resolved, Orwell explains (and one is compelled to mention here the grotesque concept that is dominant in these parts, that of conflict management). In practice, It does not matter whether the war is actually happening, and, since no decisive victory is possible, it does not matter whether the war is going well or badly. All that is needed is that a state of war should exist.
In this connection, a prime principle in Orwells politological analysis is the difference between formal posturing/speech (aimed at the masses in order to mobilize public opinion) and realistic posturing/speech. War is waged for purposes quite other than the declared ones. This, in Orwells view, is one of the secret(s) of rulership.
Indeed, in Oceania as in Israel there is no threat of destruction, even though its hammered into the publics head relentlessly that the Sword of Damocles is hovering over everyone. Occasionally, in Oceania as in Israel a missile falls and creates panic. This is the meaning of continuous war today, and it achieves its goal: constant deprivation, perpetuation of distress and the heightening of the fear level. Orwell explains the politics underlying the missile: because a general state of scarcity increases the importance of small privileges and thus magnifies the distinction between one group and another. This is what rulers want, he argues.
However, the big question Orwell tries to answer is the why: Why did a society come into being in which God is power and in which political power is concentrated in the hands of a small privileged caste? This question perturbed Orwell for the last 15 years of his life, and in 1984 he addresses that complex issue: But there is one question which until this moment we have almost ignored. It is; WHY should human equality be averted?... what is the motive for this huge, accurately planned effort to freeze history at a particular moment of time?
A reading of 1984 shows that Orwell did not think, as is usually thought today, that the difference between the rulers and the ruled lies only in only a division of labor (as if the ruler punches a card in the elected institutions). In his view, societys division into a working class (tasked with the industrial production that is the foundation of modern society) and a ruling class (whose role is to rule and to swallow up the profits the workers create) is a historical phenomenon that demands explanation. He is critical of the establishment scholars who interpreted history as a cyclical process and claimed to show that inequality was the unalterable law of human life.
Answering the why
Already in the opening of the book-within-a-book, Oligarchical Collectivism, Orwell explains that rule, enslavement and exploitation are a phenomenon that has characterized human society probably since the end of the Neolithic Age. In other words, in the period of the agricultural revolution some 10,000 years ago, the social structures were created that institutionalized exploitation of the community by a ruling elite. In terms of Homo Sapiens, this is a new phenomenon.
Herein lies the heart of the matter of 1984 and of the why the reason for the continued existence of a hierarchical society, of an exploitative minority and an exploited majority. Orwell noted that the growth in social wealth (which already was a fact at the time the book was written, and remains so today) and the way that wealth is distributed is destined to wreak destruction on the class society. Why? It was possible, no doubt, to imagine a society in which wealth, in the sense of personal possessions and luxuries, should be evenly distributed, while power remained in the hands of a small privileged caste. But in practice such a society could not long remain stable. For if leisure and security were enjoyed by all alike, the great mass of human beings who are normally stupefied by poverty would become literate and would learn to think for themselves; and when once they had done this, they would sooner or later realize that the privileged minority had no function, and they would sweep it away.
This is why continuous war is needed, why rule by fear is essential. And this is where Orwells greatness resides: in his horrifying account of the everyday existence of a person living in a society where fear rules and war never ends. If you want a picture of the future, imagine a boot stamping on a human face for ever, OBrien tells Winston near the end of the book.
I am obliged here to recall Jack Londons hair-raising passage in his masterful novel The Iron Heel (1907), which Orwell read and very much esteemed: We will grind you revolutionists down under our heel, and we shall walk upon your faces. The world is ours, we are its lords, and ours it shall remain. As for the host of labor, it has been in the dirt since history began, and I read history aright. And in the dirt it shall remain so long as I and mine and those that come after us have the power. There is the word. It is the king of words Power. Not God, not Mammon, but Power. Pour it over your tongue till it tingles with it. Power.
The author of Ecclesiastes seems to have had thoughts along the same line when he wrote (8:4), Inasmuch as a kings command is authoritative, and none can say to him, What are you doing? Indeed, who can say?
Originally posted here: