Ketamine was first synthesised in 1962 as researchers looked for an alternative to phencyclidine more commonly known as PCP or angel dust. Since then, it has been used by millions around the world for both medical and recreational purposes but what actually is it?
Following early research into ketamine, the drug became known as a dissociative anaesthetic due to its psychoactive effects and ability to induce unconsciousness. However, studies also identified some odd effects when the drug was taken in low doses.
In 1964, two years after the first synthesis of the drug, a doctor named Edward Domino conducted the first human trials of ketamine on inmates at Jackson State Prison, in Michigan. While the substance was observed to be a powerful sedative at higher doses, lower doses appeared to separate the mind from the body, having some strange effects on the participating inmates.
Despite these findings, the focus was placed on the sedative and anaesthetic potential of the drug as opposed to its psychotropic properties. It was soon to become a common anaesthetic in medical rooms.
The FDA approved ketamine as an anaesthetic in 1970, just as US legislation was to be introduced banning psychotropic substances such as LSD and psilocybin. Ketamine was widely used by the US military in the Vietnam War and is still a standard anaesthetic used in medical settings around the world.
Not much later, researchers and medical professionals began to notice other interesting properties of ketamine. Clinicians at Yale University in the US used ketamine to mimic the symptoms of schizophrenia however, they also noticed that the drug also seemed to improve the mood of participants. This led to the assessment of the substance as a possible treatment for depression.
As ketamine is licensed for use as an anaesthetic, it can also be used off-license for other applications most notably as a treatment for depression.
In 2006, the National Institute of Mental Health (US) concluded that ketamine had rapid antidepressant effects. Since then, hundreds of studies have been carried out in this area many of which suggest that a single dose of ketamine can relieve symptoms of depression for days and even weeks. Interestingly, researchers also observe that talking therapies (a common treatment option for patients with depression) tend to be more effective during this period.
A recent study (published in June 2020) found that a single low dose of ketamine was associated with an increased number of serotonin 1B receptors. Participating patients had been diagnosed with difficult-to-treat depression, following the inability of common antidepressant treatments such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Serotonin is a chemical produced naturally in our bodies to send signals between nerve cells. It has been found to contribute to mood regulation and feelings of wellbeing. While SSRIs work by increasing serotonin levels, this may not be an effective treatment for depression if there are still not enough receptors to catch these compounds. Increasing the number of serotonin receptors can also lead to the more efficient release of another feel-good chemical dopamine.
Ketamine is also considered a rapid treatment option in emergency situations for acutely suicidal patients.
Thanks to this impressive potential, a number of clinics offering ketamine-assisted therapy are popping up around the world. Last year, Bristol welcomed the UKs first ketamine clinic the Awakn Clinic. Prior to this, however, a number of clinics had begun to offer ketamine-assisted therapy across the US and other countries.
In addition to these impressive medicinal properties, ketamine also has powerful psychotropic effects that have made it an increasingly popular drug for recreational users.
Often labelled a psychedelic drug despite the efforts of early investors and researchers to avoid the drug being linked with other substances that had quickly become associated with counter-culture movements and recreational drug use it wasnt long before the drug was adopted by party-goers and ravers.
Recreational users more commonly snort the drug in lower doses in order to experience distortions to reality while still being capable of social interaction. However, when taken at higher doses, ketamines sedative effects can cause users to become unresponsive and appear unaware of their surroundings. This is referred to as being in a K-hole.
So, while ketamines psychoactive properties have at times made this drug controversial, its striking potential in the treatment of mental illness, as well as its ongoing use as an anaesthetic, appear to have secured the drugs place as an important medical product.
As governments and private and public investors continue to fund research into alternative treatments for mental illnesses, including depression and addiction, ketamine is expected to be a key drug in the ongoing psychedelics renaissance that is in full swing around the world.
Go here to read the rest:
- Psychedelics Companies in Oregon Will Have to Grapple With 280E - Business Insider - May 21st, 2022
- TDR's Top 5 Psychedelic Developments For The Week Of May 16 - The Dales Report - May 21st, 2022
- Psychedelics and Mindfulness: The Future of Mental Health? | Microdose - Microdose Psychedelic Insights - May 21st, 2022
- CATALYST Summit: 3 Psychedelic Speakers to Catch This Weekend - Psychedelic Spotlight - May 21st, 2022
- 'I took ketamine to treat my severe depression' - iNews - May 21st, 2022
- TDR's Top 5 Psychedelic Developments For The Week Of May 9 - The Dales Report - May 15th, 2022
- Psychedelic Patents are Broken Because the Patent System Is Broken - VICE - May 15th, 2022
- Magic mushrooms are on WeHos mind - WEHOville - May 15th, 2022
- Behind the Scenes on the First Study To Compare the Effects of LSD and Psilocybin - Technology Networks - May 15th, 2022
- Revitalist's Strategic Initiatives Continue to Exceed Expectations for Execution Giving Company Record High Revenues Since Opening in 2018. - Business... - May 15th, 2022
- MDMA as medicine: Stemming the tide of veteran suicides in Western North Carolina - Smoky Mountain News - May 15th, 2022
- Cybin's CYB0004 Shows Positive Preclinical Results Over ... - May 3rd, 2022
- Psychedelics played role in Wallace Falls hiker's death ... - May 3rd, 2022
- The Mainstream Healthcare VCs Dipping Their Toes Into Psychedelics - Business Insider - May 3rd, 2022
- LSD Is Back On Campus, But This Time It's Approved - Green Market Report - May 3rd, 2022
- Mixing mushrooms and alcohol: What you need to know - Medical News Today - May 3rd, 2022
- Mycotopia Therapies Partners with Public Policy Specialist PsychedelicsEUROPE to Explore Opportunities in the European Market - GlobeNewswire - May 3rd, 2022
- Pharmadrug Advances Opthalmology Program with Final Selection of Lead DMT-Analogue to Provide Sustained Control of Elevated Intraocular Pressure for... - May 3rd, 2022
- Bicycle Day: Honoring The Onset Of The Psychedelic Revolution As It Zooms Across The Globe - Forbes - April 15th, 2022
- Psilocybin Rewires the Brain for People with Depression - University of California, San Francisco - April 15th, 2022
- Field Trip Health Houston's psychedelic healing with ketamine helps patient with depressive anxiety - Houston Chronicle - April 15th, 2022
- Mental Health Week: Magnetic Stimulation, Psychedelics and Tai Chi How Treatments For Anxiety And Depression Are Growing - KPCC - April 15th, 2022
- Psychedelics Want To Win Over The Sleep Aid Market - Green Market Report - April 15th, 2022
- Terran Biosciences and Blumentech SL announce the acquisition of a patent portfolio covering the groundbreaking discoveries of prominent psychedelics... - April 15th, 2022
- Delic Labs Receives Health Canada 56 Exemption to Conduct Research on MDMA, LSD and Other Psychedelic Compounds - Yahoo Finance - April 15th, 2022
- Experts discuss the intersections of cannabis, health and food - CSU Pueblo Today - April 15th, 2022
- Psychedelics - PMC - April 11th, 2022
- Psychedelics - PubMed - April 11th, 2022
- Peace with psychedelics: Palestinians, Israelis took ayahuasca - Big Think - April 11th, 2022
- Study maps psychedelic-induced changes in consciousness to specific regions of the brain - PsyPost - April 11th, 2022
- The Next Big Addiction Treatment - The New York Times - April 11th, 2022
- SABI Mind and Reverie Psychedelics Partner To Expand Research Into Psychedelic-Assisted Therapies - Benzi - Benzinga - April 11th, 2022
- Jaden Smith on His Trippy Summer '22 Collection and the Power of Mushrooms - Complex - April 11th, 2022
- Biomind Labs to Present at Benzinga Psychedelics Capital Conference in the U.S. on April 19th 2022 - Business Wire - March 31st, 2022
- Psychedelics' Interaction With Psych Meds: More Q's Than A's - Medscape - March 31st, 2022
- The Insights Psychedelics Give You Arent Always True - March 18th, 2022
- Stage Set for Psychedelics Stock Boom: Here's Where ... - March 18th, 2022
- SXSW stage is a collision of weed, metaverse, NFTs, acid and saving the planet - PitchBook News & Analysis - March 18th, 2022
- Jaden Smith Recalls His Experience With Psychedelic Mushrooms: Everything Just Becomes So Beautiful - Koimoi - March 18th, 2022
- Michigan Activists Submit Psychedelics Decriminalization ... - March 17th, 2022
- Psychedelics and the Future of Psychiatry - March 17th, 2022
- Mind Cure Gives Up On Psychedelics, Fires C-Suite, And Reverts To Shell After Strategic Review - The Deep Dive - March 17th, 2022
- A Fully-Seated Audience Takes Post-Punk with the Psychedelic Furs - Cornell University The Cornell Daily Sun - March 17th, 2022
- 5 people who used psychedelics to treat PTSD describe their trips - Business Insider - March 15th, 2022
- What is Microdosing, and Does it Work? - The New York Times - March 15th, 2022
- Bolt's Breslow Teams With Psychedelics Founder on Crypto Pharma Startup - The Information - March 15th, 2022
- Enveric, University of Calgary to study psychedelic therapy - OutSourcing-Pharma.com - March 15th, 2022
- Psychedelic therapy integral to ancient societies may be coming to Pennsylvania - 90.5 WESA - March 15th, 2022
- The Bluntness Debuts The BLUNTNESS/100 Its Inaugural List of the 100 Most Influential People in Cannabis & Psychedelics - 69News WFMZ-TV - March 15th, 2022
- Former NFL Player Eben Britton On His New Book, And The Tools He Used To Rebuild His Life (Including Psychedelics) - The Dales Report - March 15th, 2022
- Made by Marlo: Max Ingersoll and the Meaning of Meditation - Harvard Independent - March 15th, 2022
- What are Psychedelics? - March 8th, 2022
- Get the Legal Psychedelics for Sale in the USA ... - March 8th, 2022
- Fireside Project manifests a $200K fund to improve access to careers in psychedelic health - TechCrunch - March 8th, 2022
- Oklahoma bill to study mental health effects of 'shrooms' advances - Oklahoman.com - March 8th, 2022
- Terran Biosciences and University of Maryland, Baltimore announce exclusive licensing deal for a portfolio of patents and data supporting novel... - March 8th, 2022
- Cybin Teams With Chopra Foundation To Foster Psychedelics Awareness - Benzinga - Benzinga - March 8th, 2022
- How My Drinking Was Used to Deny Me Treatment for Depression - Filter - March 8th, 2022
- Seelos Therapeutics: Year-End Results and Business Highlights Microdose - Microdose Psychedelic Insights - March 8th, 2022
- No worries: Severe anxiety disorders to get the Incannex, Monash Uni treatment via psychedelics within vir ... - Stockhead - March 8th, 2022
- Meet the 16 Most Influential Women Shaping the Future of Psychedelics - Business Insider - February 15th, 2022
- Psychedelics startups are taking on mental health - Fast Company - February 15th, 2022
- Psychedelics Are Trending: If You Are Seeing Psilocybin In The Headlines Everywhere, You Are Right! - Ben - Benzinga - February 15th, 2022
- Why theres a push to legalize psychedelic drug therapy in Missouri - KTVI Fox 2 St. Louis - February 15th, 2022
- Cybin Announces Grant of U.S. Patent Covering its Proprietary Compound CYB004 (Deuterated DMT) for the Treatment of Anxiety Disorders - Business Wire - February 15th, 2022
- Psychedelic-assisted therapy program coming to Vancouver Island University | CTV News - CTV News VI - February 15th, 2022
- Sponsor 'confident' cannabis banking will pass this year (Newsletter: February 14, 2022) - Marijuana Moment - February 15th, 2022
- Core One Labs' Successful Patent Application Filing for Protection of its Biosynthetic Production System for Psilocybin Marks a Significant Milestone... - February 15th, 2022
- IBN (InvestorBrandNetwork) Expands Collaboration With Microdose Psychedelic Insights to Serve as Official Media Sponsor for all 2022 Events - Yahoo... - February 9th, 2022
- Journey Colab Believes It Has The Formula For Addiction Treatment - The Dales Report - February 9th, 2022
- Psychedelics Without the Trip Could Be 'Healing Magic' for Mental Health - Singularity Hub - February 7th, 2022
- Utah Lawmakers Vote To Study Benefits Of Psychedelics In Treating Mental Health Disorders - Marijuana Moment - February 7th, 2022
- TDR's Top 5 Psychedelic Developments For The Week Of January 31 - The Dales Report - February 7th, 2022
- Psychedelic Therapy and Suicide: A Myth Busted? - Medscape - February 7th, 2022
- Back to the future: Psychedelic drugs in ... - Harvard Health - February 1st, 2022
- Seattle Legalizes Psychedelics - The Seattle Medium - February 1st, 2022
- How to Change Your Mind - Wikipedia - February 1st, 2022
- The Psychedelic Drug Industry Appears To Have A New Sugar Daddy - The Dales Report - February 1st, 2022
- Increased psychedelic use during pandemic prompts new research - University of Miami - February 1st, 2022
- What Is Microdosing and Can It Help Mental Health? - PsychCentral.com - February 1st, 2022