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Category Archives: Gene Medicine

Gene Testing for Most Effective Drugs Could Help Save Lives – NBCNews.com

Posted: June 29, 2017 at 11:47 pm


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Gene Testing for Most Effective Drugs Could Help Save Lives
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Gene Testing for Most Effective Drugs Could Help Save Lives. Thu, Jun 29. An apparent breakthrough in the field of personalized medicine: people can now test their genetic profiles to see how they might process a variety of drugs from pain relievers to ...

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Gene Medicine Therapy Market Growth Analysis, Share, Demand by Regions, Types and Analysis of Key Players … – MilTech

Posted: at 11:47 pm

Gene Medicine TherapyMarketanalysis is provided for global market including development trends by regions, competitive analysis of Gene Medicine Therapymarket. The Gene Medicine Therapyindustry report firstly announced the Gene Medicine TherapyMarket fundamentals: definitions, classifications, applications and market overview; product specifications; manufacturing processes; cost structures, raw materials and so on.

Gene Medicine TherapyMarket split by Application Application 1, Application 2, Application 3. Gene Medicine TherapyMarket Segment by Regions (North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific) and the main countries(United States, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, South Korea and China).

Through the statistical analysis,the Gene Medicine TherapyMarket report depicts the global Industry Analysis, Manufacturers Analysis, Gene Medicine TherapyIndustry Development Trend, Sales Demand and Forecast to 2021.

Get PDF Sample of Gene Medicine TherapyMarket Report @ https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/request-sample/10682285

Table of Contents:

Chapter 1: Gene Medicine TherapyMarket Overview

1.1 Definition

1.2 Classification Analysis

1.3 Application Analysis

1.4 Gene Medicine TherapyIndustry Chain Structure Analysis

1.5 Gene Medicine TherapyMarket Development Overview

1.6 Global Gene Medicine TherapyMarket Comparison Analysis

1.6.1 Global Import Market Analysis

1.6.2 Global Export Market Analysis

1.6.3 Global Main Region Market Analysis

1.6.4 Global Market Comparison Analysis

1.6.5 Global Market Development Trend Analysis

Chapter 2:Gene Medicine TherapyUp and Down Stream Industry Analysis

2.1 Upstream Raw Materials Analysis of Gene Medicine TherapyMarket

2.1.1 Upstream Raw Materials Price Analysis

2.1.2 Upstream Raw Materials Market analysis

2.1.3 Upstream Raw Materials Market Trends

2.2 Down Stream Market Analysis of Gene Medicine TherapyMarket

2.1.1 Down Stream Market Analysis

2.2.2 Down Stream Demand Analysis

2.2.3 Down Stream Market Trend Analysis

Inquire for further detailed information about Gene Medicine TherapyMarket Report @ https://www.absolutereports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/10682285

Chapter 3: Gene Medicine TherapyProductions Supply Sales Demand Market Status and Forecast

3.1 2012-2017 Gene Medicine TherapyMarket Capacity Production Overview

3.2 2012-2017 Gene Medicine TherapyProduction Market Share Analysis

3.3 2012-2017 Gene Medicine TherapyMarket Demand Overview

3.4 2012-2017 Supply Demand and Shortage of Gene Medicine TherapyIndustry

3.5 2012-2017 Gene Medicine TherapyImport Export Consumption

3.6 2012-2017 Gene Medicine TherapyCost Price Production Value Gross Margin

In the end Gene Medicine TherapyMarket report provides the main region, market conditions with the product price, profit, capacity, production, supply, demand and market growth rateand forecast etc. Gene Medicine TherapyMarket report also Present new project SWOT analysis, investment feasibility analysis, and investment return analysis.

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Gene Medicine Therapy Market Growth Analysis, Share, Demand by Regions, Types and Analysis of Key Players ... - MilTech

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Safety, tolerability, and risks associated with first- and second-generation antipsychotics: a state-of-the-art … – Dove Medical Press

Posted: at 11:47 pm

Marco Solmi,1,2 Andrea Murru,3 Isabella Pacchiarotti,3 Juan Undurraga,4,5 Nicola Veronese,2,6 Michele Fornaro,7,8 Brendon Stubbs,2,911 Francesco Monaco,2 Eduard Vieta,3 Mary V Seeman,12 Christoph U Correll,13,14 Andr F Carvalho2,15

1Neuroscience Department, University of Padua, 2Institute for Clinical Research and Education in Medicine, Padua, Italy; 3Bipolar Disorders Unit, Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clnic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Clnica Alemana Universidad del Desarrollo, 5Early Intervention Program, J. Horwitz Psychiatric Institute, Santiago, Chile; 6National Research Council, Ageing Section, Padua, 7Laboratory of Molecular and Translational Psychiatry, Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University Federico II, Naples, Italy; 8New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 9Health Service and Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Kings College London, 10Physiotherapy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, 11Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK; 12Institute of Medical Science, Toronto, ON, Canada; 13Department of Psychiatry Research, Zucker Hillside Hospital, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, 14Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine Hempstead, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA; 15Translational Psychiatry Research Group and Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Cear, Fortaleza, Cear, Brazil

Abstract: Since the discovery of chlorpromazine (CPZ) in 1952, first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) have revolutionized psychiatric care in terms of facilitating discharge from hospital and enabling large numbers of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) to be treated in the community. Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) ushered in a progressive shift from the paternalistic management of SMI symptoms to a patient-centered approach, which emphasized targets important to patients psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and recovery. These drugs are no longer limited to specific Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) categories. Evidence indicates that SGAs show an improved safety and tolerability profile compared with FGAs. The incidence of treatment-emergent extrapyramidal side effects is lower, and there is less impairment of cognitive function and treatment-related negative symptoms. However, treatment with SGAs has been associated with a wide range of untoward effects, among which treatment-emergent weight gain and metabolic abnormalities are of notable concern. The present clinical review aims to summarize the safety and tolerability profile of selected FGAs and SGAs and to link treatment-related adverse effects to the pharmacodynamic profile of each drug. Evidence, predominantly derived from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical trials of the drugs amisulpride, aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, iloperidone, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole,ziprasidone, CPZ, haloperidol, loxapine, and perphenazine, is summarized. In addition, the safety and tolerability profiles of antipsychotics are discussed in the context of the behavioral toxicity conceptual framework, which considers the longitudinal course and the clinical and therapeutic consequences of treatment-emergent side effects. In SMI, SGAs with safer metabolic profiles should ideally be prescribed first. However, alongside with safety, efficacy should also be considered on a patient-tailored basis. Keywords: antipsychotics, side effects, tolerability, safety, psychosis, psychiatry

This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution - Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License. By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms.

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Patients Who Tested Positive For Genetic Mutations Fear Bias … – NPR – NPR

Posted: at 10:44 am

Patients who underwent genetic screenings now fear that documentation of the results in their medical records could lead to problems if a new health law is enacted. Sam Edwards/Caiaimage/Getty Images hide caption

Patients who underwent genetic screenings now fear that documentation of the results in their medical records could lead to problems if a new health law is enacted.

Two years ago, Cheasanee Huette, a 20-year-old college student in Northern California, decided to find out if she was a carrier of the genetic mutation that gave rise to a disease that killed her mother. She took comfort in knowing that whatever the result, she'd be protected by the Affordable Care Act's guarantees of insurance coverage for pre-existing conditions.

Her results came back positive. Like her mother, she's a carrier of one of the mutations known as Lynch syndrome. The term refers to a cluster of mutations that can boost the risk of a wide range of cancers, particularly colon and rectal.

As Republican lawmakers advance proposals to overhaul the ACA's consumer protections, Huette frets that her future health coverage and employment options will be defined by that test.

She even wonders if documentation of the mutation in her medical records and related screenings could rule out individual insurance plans. She's currently covered under her father's policy. "Once I move to my own health care plan, I'm concerned about who is going to be willing to cover me, and how much will that cost," she says.

In recent years, doctors have urged patients to be screened for a variety of diseases and predisposition to illness, confident it would not affect their future insurability. Being predisposed to an illness such as carrying the BRCA gene mutations associated with breast and ovarian cancer does not mean a patient will come down with the illness. But knowing they could be at risk may allow patients to take steps to prevent its development.

Under the current health law, many screening tests for widespread conditions such as prediabetes are covered in full by insurance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Medical Association have urged primary care doctors to test patients at risk for prediabetes. But doctors, genetic counselors and patient advocacy groups now worry that people will shy away from testing as the ACA's future becomes more uncertain.

Dr. Kenneth Lin, a family physician at Georgetown University School of Medicine in Washington, D.C., says if the changes proposed by the GOP become law, "you can bet that I'll be even more reluctant to test patients or record the diagnosis of prediabetes in their charts." He thinks such a notation could mean hundreds of dollars a month more in premiums for individuals in some states under the new bill.

Huette says she's sharing her story publicly since her genetic mutation is already on her medical record.

But elsewhere, there have been "panicked expressions of concern," says Lisa Schlager of the patient advocacy group Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE). "Somebody who had cancer even saying, 'I don't want my daughter to test now.' Or 'I'm going to be dropped from my insurance because I have the BRCA mutation.' There's a lot of fear."

Those fears, which come in an era of accelerating genetics-driven medicine, rest upon whether a gap that was closed by the ACA will be reopened. That remains unclear.

A law passed in 2008, the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act, bans health insurance discrimination if someone tests positive for a mutation. But that protection stops once the mutation causes "manifest disease" essentially, a diagnosable health condition.

That means "when you become symptomatic," although it's not clear how severe the symptoms must be to constitute having the disease, says Mark Rothstein, an attorney and bioethicist at the University of Louisville School of Medicine in Kentucky, who has written extensively about GINA.

The ACA, passed two years after GINA, closed that gap by barring health insurance discrimination based on pre-existing conditions, Rothstein says.

On paper, the legislation unveiled by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell last week wouldn't let insurers set higher rates for people with pre-existing conditions, but it could effectively exclude such patients from coverage by allowing states to offer insurance plans that don't cover certain maladies, health analysts say. Meanwhile, the bill that passed the House last month does have a provision that allows states to waive protections for people with pre-existing conditions, if they have a gap in coverage of 63 days or longer in the prior year.

When members of a Lynch Syndrome social media group were asked for their views on genetic testing amid the current health care debate, about two dozen men and women responded. Nearly all said they were delaying action for themselves or suggesting that family members, particularly children, hold off.

Huette was the only one who agreed to speak for attribution. She says before the ACA was enacted, she witnessed the impact that fears about insurance coverage had on patients. Her mother, a veterinarian, had wanted to run her own practice but instead took a federal government job for the guarantee of health insurance. She died at the age of 57 of pancreatic cancer, one of six malignancies she had been diagnosed with over the years.

Huette says she doesn't regret getting tested. Without the result, Huette points out, how would she have persuaded a doctor to give her a colonoscopy in her 20s?

"Ultimately, my health is more important than my bank account," she says.

Kaiser Health News, a nonprofit health newsroom whose stories appear in news outlets nationwide, is an editorially independent part of the Kaiser Family Foundation.

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New colistin resistance gene identified in China – CIDRAP

Posted: at 10:44 am

Researchers in China have discovered another gene that confers resistance to the last-resort antibiotic colistin.

In a study yesterday in mBio, the researchers report that the MCR-3 gene was discovered in a fecal sample obtained from an apparently healthy pig at a farm in Shangdong province during a routine surveillance study of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The gene was located on a colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolate, on a plasmid that contained 18 additional antibiotic resistance genes.

The authors of the study say they're concerned the gene may already be widely disseminated, and that scientists should be on the lookout for it. "Screening for the mcr-3 gene should be urgently included in the surveillance of colistin-resistant Gram-negative pathogens from animals, humans, and the environment," they write.

The discovery was made by several members of the research team that first reported the discovery of the mobile colistin resistance gene MCR-1 in E coli from pigs, pork products, and humans in China in November 2015. That finding raised international concern, given that colistin is an antibiotic of last resort for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. The gene's location on plasmids, which are highly mobile pieces of DNA that can be shared within and between different bacterial species, means that resistance to colistin can quickly spread.

Since then, MCR-1 has been identified in bacteria from humans, animals, and the environment in more than 30 countries, including the United States, and studies have documented the spread of the gene to the clinical setting in China. Earlier this year, Chinese scientists reported an outbreak of MCR-1carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae among patients in a pediatric leukemia ward.

In addition, six different variants of the MCR-1 gene have been reported, along with a second mobile resistance gene, MCR-2.

In yesterday's study, the researchers report that MCR-3 was identified when molecular testing showed the colistin-resistant E coli isolate was negative for both MCR-1 and MCR-2, but contained an unknown colistin resistance gene that could be transferred to another E coli strain. Further analysis revealed that the gene was located on a plasmid similar to MCR-1carrying plasmids.

The investigators also found that the genomic sequence of MCR-3 closely resembled sequences found in Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas bacteria collected from both clinical infection and environmental samples in 12 countries on four continents, a finding that suggests the previously unidentified gene may already have spread. "Due to the ubiquitous profile of aeromonads in the environment and the potential transfer of mcr-3 between Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonas species, the wide spread of mcr-3 may be largely underestimated," they write.

Up until recently, colistin was widely used in Chinese agriculture, and MCR-1 is thought to be a product of selection pressure caused by that use. China banned use of the drug in animal feed in 2016, based in part on the discovery of MCR-1.

Because of its toxicity, colistin was rarely used in human medicine until the late 1990s, when resistance to other last-resort drugs, including carbapenems, necessitated its use in serious multidrug-resistant infections. Colistin is on the World Health Organization's list of critical antimicrobials for human medicine.

One of the major concerns about MCR-1 and its offshoots is that it's often located on plasmids that contain other antibiotic resistance genes. That raises the possibility of bacterial infections that will not respond to any antibiotic. The authors say continuous monitoring for mobile resistance elements in colistin-resistant bacteria is "imperative for understanding and tackling the dissemination of mcr genes in both the agricultural and health care sectors."

Scientists with the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, which monitors worldwide pathogens and changes in antibiotic resistance patterns, have been tracking the global spread of MCR-1 since it was identified, while the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been hunting for the gene in the United States.

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Jun 27 mBio study

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The gene behind follicular lymphoma – Medical Xpress

Posted: at 10:44 am

June 28, 2017 Disruption of a region in chromosome 6 or epigenetic modifications of the DNA block Sestrin1 expression and these contribute to the development of follicular lymphoma. Credit: Elisa Oricchio/Natalya Katanayeva/EPFL

Follicular lymphoma is an incurable cancer that affects over 200,000 people worldwide every year. A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular lymphoma develops when the body starts making abnormal B-cells, which are white blood cells that in normal conditions fight infections. This cancer is associated with several alterations of the cell's DNA, but it has been unclear which gene or genes are involved in its development. EPFL scientists have now analyzed the genomes of more than 200 patients with follicular lymphoma, and they discover that a gene, Sestrin1, is frequently missing or malfunctioning in FL patients. The discovery opens to new treatment options and it is now published in Science Translational Medicine.

One of the common features of follicular lymphoma is a genetic abnormality between two chromosomes (14 and 18). In an event known as "chromosomal translocation" the two chromosomes "swap" certain parts with each other. This triggers the activation of a gene that protects cells from dying, making cells virtually immortalthe hallmark of a tumor.

Moreover, approximately 30% of follicular lymphoma patients lose also a portion of chromosome 6, affecting multiple genes involved in suppressing the emergence of a tumor. These patients typically have poor prognosis. Another 20 % of patients have alterations causing chromosomal disorganization and the consequent malfunctioning of several genes and proteins. The bottom line is that for both group of patients it is very difficult to pinpoint which of all the affected genes are actually causing the disease.

The lab of Elisa Oricchio at EPFL, with colleagues from the US and Canada, analyzed the genomes of over 200 follicular lymphoma patients. Their analyses revealed that a specific gene, Sestrin1, can be harmed by both loss of chromosome 6 and silenced in patients.

Sestrin1 helps the cell defending itself against DNA damagefor example after exposure to radiationand oxidative stress. In fact, Sestrin1 is part of the cell's anti-tumor mechanism that stops potentially cancerous cells from growing.

Disruption of a region in chromosome 6 or epigenetic modifications of the DNA block Sestrin1 expression and these contribute to the development of Follicular Lymphoma.

Beyond identifying the Sestrin1 gene as frequently altered in FL patients, the scientists demonstrated that Sestrin1 is able to suppress tumors in vivo. They showed that Sestrin1 exerts its anti-tumor effects by blocking the activity of a protein complex called mTORC1, which is well known for controlling protein synthesis as well as acting as a sensor for nutrient or energy changes in the cell.

Finally, the identification of loss of Sestrin1 as a key event behind the development of follicular lymphoma is particular important because it helps identifying patients that will benefit from new therapies. Indeed, this study shows that the therapeutic efficacy of a new drug that is currently in clinical trial depends on Sestrin1. Importantly, this dependency can be extended beyond follicular lymphoma to other tumor types.

Explore further: Combination therapy may help patients with follicular lymphoma

More information: E. Oricchio el al., "Genetic and epigenetic inactivation of SESTRIN1 controls mTORC1 and response to EZH2 inhibition in follicular lymphoma," Science Translational Medicine (2017). stm.sciencemag.org/lookup/doi/10.1126/scitranslmed.aak9969

A new study in The Journal of Experimental Medicine reveals that a high-risk group of patients with follicular lymphoma could benefit from a novel drug combination.

Mutations present in a blood cancer known as follicular lymphoma have revealed new molecular targets for potential treatments, according to researchers at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) together with collaborators ...

Immune cellular therapy is a promising new area of cancer treatment. Anti-cancer therapeutics, such as chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells, can be engineered to target tumor-associated antigens to attack and ...

Follicular lymphoma (FL), the second most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, is a largely incurable disease of B cells, yet in many cases, because of its indolent nature, survival can extend to well beyond 10 years following ...

The goal for many cancer patients is to reach the five-year, disease-free mark, but new research from UR Medicine's Wilmot Cancer Institute suggests that two years might be a more practical survival goal for people with follicular ...

(HealthDay)An initial watch-and-wait strategy does not have a detrimental effect on the freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) or overall survival rate in selected patients with low-tumor burden follicular lymphoma compared ...

While mutations in protein-coding genes have held the limelight in cancer genomics, those in the noncoding genome (home to the regulatory elements that control gene activity) may also have powerful roles in driving tumor ...

Scientists have had limited success at identifying specific inherited genes associated with prostate cancer, despite the fact that it is one of the most common non-skin cancers among men. Researchers at University of Utah ...

Cancerous tumors are formidable enemies, recruiting blood vessels to aid their voracious growth, damaging nearby tissues, and deploying numerous strategies to evade the body's defense systems. But even more malicious are ...

Follicular lymphoma is an incurable cancer that affects over 200,000 people worldwide every year. A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular lymphoma develops when the body starts making abnormal B-cells, which are white ...

Leukemia researchers led by Dr. John Dick have traced the origins of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to rare therapy-resistant leukemia stem cells that are already present at diagnosis and before chemotherapy begins.

Adding an investigational antibody to the chemotherapy rituximab appears to restore its cancer-killing properties in certain leukemia patients with a natural resistance to the drug, according to a small, proof-of-concept ...

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Researchers propose new approach to identify genetic mutations in men with prostate cancer – Medical Xpress

Posted: at 10:44 am

June 29, 2017 Micrograph showing prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma (the most common form of prostate cancer) Credit: Wikipedia

Scientists have had limited success at identifying specific inherited genes associated with prostate cancer, despite the fact that it is one of the most common non-skin cancers among men. Researchers at University of Utah Health studied prostate cancer patients with multiple cancer diagnoses, many who would not be recommended for genetic tests following current guidelines, to identify genetic mutations that may influence cancer treatment and cancer risk assessment for family members. Their findings are reported in the June issue of the journal Cancer.

"We commonly use a combination of a patient's personal and family cancer histories to identify those individuals who may have a mutation in a gene that predisposes that individual to developing cancers," said Patrick Pili, M.D., medical oncology fellow at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. "Testing for hereditary cancers impacts not only the patient with cancer but also potentially the cancer screening and health outcomes of their entire family, but many prostate cancer patients do not meet the current guidelines to test for genetic cancer heritability."

Pili was part of a research team led by Kathleen Cooney, M.D., chair of the Department of Internal Medicine at U of U Health and a Huntsman Cancer Institute investigator, who proposed a strategy to identify germline mutations in men selected for the study based on their clinical history not their family history.

The study was highly selective, including 102 patients who had been diagnosed with prostate cancer and at least one additional primary cancer, like melanoma, pancreatic cancer, testicular cancer, or Hodgkin lymphoma.

The researchers examined the frequency of harmful germline mutations in this group of men. These mutations originate on either the egg or sperm and become incorporated into the DNA of every cell in the body of the resulting offspring.

Using next generation sequencing, the researchers found that 11 percent of the patients had a disease-causing mutation in at least one cancer-predisposing gene, which suggests these genetic variations contributed to their prostate cancer. Cooney found no difference in cancer aggressiveness or age of diagnosis compared to patients without these mutations.

In addition, a certified genetic counselor and co-investigator Elena Stoffel, M.D., University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, reviewed personal and family histories from each patient to determine whether they would meet clinical genetic testing guidelines. The majority of the men in the study, 64 percent, did not meet current criteria to test for hereditary cancer based on personal and/or family history.

The findings suggest that there are men with heritable prostate cancer-predisposing mutations that are not eligible for genetic screening under current guidelines.

"This is the first paper in which we can show the potential of using a clinical history of multiple cancers, including prostate cancer, in a single individual to identify inherited germline mutations," Cooney said.

The majority of harmful mutations identified were in genes involved in DNA repair.

"These mutations prevent the DNA from healing itself, which can lead to a predisposition for cancer," Cooney said.

This result is also beneficial because drugs like PARP [poly ADP ribose polymerase] inhibitors have a better success rate in treating cancers with the underlying gene mutation associated with DNA repair.

Cooney cautions that this is a small pilot study rather than a broader epidemiological survey, and it consists of a highly specific subset of patients.

"We cannot generalize these findings to the broader population, because we used highly selective criteria to tip us off to patients that may have mutations outside typical hereditary genetic patterns," she said.

The 102 patients included in the study were identified from the University of Michigan's Prostate Cancer Genetics Project, which registers patients who are diagnosed with prostate cancer before age 55 or who have a first- or second-degree relative with prostate cancer. In addition, the research team identified patients from the University of Michigan's Cancer Genetics Registry, which includes individuals with personal or family history suggestive of a hereditary risk of cancer.

"Our findings are in line with those of other studies, suggesting that approximately 1 in 10 men with advanced prostate cancer harbors a genetic variant associated with increased cancer risk," said Stoffel. "While family history is an important tool, there may be better ways to identify patients with genetic risk."

Future studies with larger sample sizes will include sequencing of tumors that will allow investigators to more carefully explore the different features associated with tumors that arise in individuals with germline mutations.

"This approach will help us identify patients at greater risk for aggressive prostate cancer so they can seek earlier screening while pre-symptomatic," Cooney said.

Explore further: Are men with a family history of prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance?

More information: Patrick G. Pili et al. Germline genetic variants in men with prostate cancer and one or more additional cancers, Cancer (2017). DOI: 10.1002/cncr.30817

Journal reference: Cancer

Provided by: University of Utah

Active surveillancecareful monitoring to determine if or when a cancer warrants treatmentis an increasingly prevalent choice for prostate cancer, but it's unclear if the strategy is appropriate for men with a family ...

Inherited mutations in genes that function to repair DNA may contribute to metastatic prostate cancer more than previously recognized, according to a study out today in the New England Journal of Medicine. Though infrequent ...

African-American men develop prostate cancer more often than other men, and it tends to be more deadly for this population. Some of the differences seem to be due to socioeconomic factors, but scientists wondered whether ...

(HealthDay)A man's risk of aggressive and fatal prostate cancer may be heavily influenced by gene mutations previously linked to breast and ovarian cancer in women, a trio of new studies suggests. Findings from the studies ...

Scientists are reporting a test which can predict which patients are most at risk from aggressive prostate cancer, and whether they suffer an increased chance of treatment failure. This test, reported at the European Association ...

While mutations in protein-coding genes have held the limelight in cancer genomics, those in the noncoding genome (home to the regulatory elements that control gene activity) may also have powerful roles in driving tumor ...

Scientists have had limited success at identifying specific inherited genes associated with prostate cancer, despite the fact that it is one of the most common non-skin cancers among men. Researchers at University of Utah ...

Cancerous tumors are formidable enemies, recruiting blood vessels to aid their voracious growth, damaging nearby tissues, and deploying numerous strategies to evade the body's defense systems. But even more malicious are ...

Follicular lymphoma is an incurable cancer that affects over 200,000 people worldwide every year. A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, follicular lymphoma develops when the body starts making abnormal B-cells, which are white ...

Leukemia researchers led by Dr. John Dick have traced the origins of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to rare therapy-resistant leukemia stem cells that are already present at diagnosis and before chemotherapy begins.

Adding an investigational antibody to the chemotherapy rituximab appears to restore its cancer-killing properties in certain leukemia patients with a natural resistance to the drug, according to a small, proof-of-concept ...

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gene therapy facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia …

Posted: June 28, 2017 at 5:47 am

Gene therapy is a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat diseases. Genes control heredity and provide the basic biological code for determining a cell's specific functions. Gene therapy seeks to provide genes that correct or supplant the disease-controlling functions of cells that are not, in essence, doing their job. Somatic gene therapy introduces therapeutic genes at the tissue or cellular level to treat a specific individual. Germ-line gene therapy inserts genes into reproductive cells or possibly into embryos to correct genetic defects that could be passed on to future generations. Initially conceived as an approach for treating inherited diseases, like cystic fibrosis and Huntington's disease, the scope of potential gene therapies has grown to include treatments for cancers, arthritis, and infectious diseases. Although gene therapy testing in humans has advanced rapidly, many questions surround its use. For example, some scientists are concerned that the therapeutic genes themselves may cause disease. Others fear that germ-line gene therapy may be used to control human development in ways not connected with disease, like intelligence or appearance.

Gene therapy has grown out of the science of genetics or how heredity works. Scientists know that life begins in a cell, the basic building block of all multicellular organisms. Humans, for instance, are made up of trillions of cells, each performing a specific function. Within the cell's nucleus (the center part of a cell that regulates its chemical functions) are pairs of chromosomes. These threadlike structures are made up of a single molecule of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), which carries the blueprint of life in the form of codes, or genes, that determine inherited characteristics.

A DNA molecule looks like two ladders with one of the sides taken off both and then twisted around each other. The rungs of these ladders meet (resulting in a spiral staircase-like structure) and are called base pairs. Base pairs are made up of nitrogen molecules and arranged in specific sequences. Millions of these base pairs, or sequences, can make up a single gene, specifically defined as a segment of the chromosome and DNA that contains certain hereditary information. The gene, or combination of genes formed by these base pairs ultimately direct an organism's growth and characteristics through the production of certain chemicals, primarily proteins, which carry out most of the body's chemical functions and biological reactions.

Scientists have long known that alterations in genes present within cells can cause inherited diseases like cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia, and hemophilia. Similarly, errors in the total number of chromosomes can cause conditions such as Down syndrome or Turner's syndrome. As the study of genetics advanced, however, scientists learned that an altered genetic sequence also can make people more susceptible to diseases, like atherosclerosis, cancer, and even schizophrenia. These diseases have a genetic component, but also are influenced by environmental factors (like diet and lifestyle). The objective of gene therapy is to treat diseases by introducing functional genes into the body to alter the cells involved in the disease process by either replacing missing genes or providing copies of functioning genes to replace nonfunctioning ones. The inserted genes can be naturally-occurring genes that produce the desired effect or may be genetically engineered (or altered) genes.

Scientists have known how to manipulate a gene's structure in the laboratory since the early 1970s through a process called gene splicing. The process involves removing a fragment of DNA containing the specific genetic sequence desired, then inserting it into the DNA of another gene. The resultant product is called recombinant DNA and the process is genetic engineering.

There are basically two types of gene therapy. Germ-line gene therapy introduces genes into reproductive cells (sperm and eggs) or someday possibly into embryos in hopes of correcting genetic abnormalities that could be passed on to future generations. Most of the current work in applying gene therapy, however, has been in the realm of somatic gene therapy. In this type of gene therapy, therapeutic genes are inserted into tissue or cells to produce a naturally occurring protein or substance that is lacking or not functioning correctly in an individual patient.

In both types of therapy, scientists need something to transport either the entire gene or a recombinant DNA to the cell's nucleus, where the chromosomes and DNA reside. In essence, vectors are molecular delivery trucks. One of the first and most popular vectors developed were viruses because they invade cells as part of the natural infection process. Viruses have the potential to be excellent vectors because they have a specific relationship with the host in that they colonize certain cell types and tissues in specific organs. As a result, vectors are chosen according to their attraction to certain cells and areas of the body.

One of the first vectors used was retroviruses. Because these viruses are easily cloned (artificially reproduced) in the laboratory, scientists have studied them extensively and learned a great deal about their biological action. They also have learned how to remove the genetic information that governs viral replication, thus reducing the chances of infection.

Retroviruses work best in actively dividing cells, but cells in the body are relatively stable and do not divide often. As a result, these cells are used primarily for ex vivo (outside the body) manipulation. First, the cells are removed from the patient's body, and the virus, or vector, carrying the gene is inserted into them. Next, the cells are placed into a nutrient culture where they grow and replicate. Once enough cells are gathered, they are returned to the body, usually by injection into the blood stream. Theoretically, as long as these cells survive, they will provide the desired therapy.

Another class of viruses, called the adenoviruses, also may prove to be good gene vectors. These viruses can effectively infect nondividing cells in the body, where the desired gene product then is expressed naturally. In addition to being a more efficient approach to gene transportation, these viruses, which cause respiratory infections, are more easily purified and made stable than retroviruses, resulting in less chance of an unwanted viral infection. However, these viruses live for several days in the body, and some concern surrounds the possibility of infecting others with the viruses through sneezing or coughing. Other viral vectors include influenza viruses, Sindbis virus, and a herpes virus that infects nerve cells.

Scientists also have delved into nonviral vectors. These vectors rely on the natural biological process in which cells uptake (or gather) macromolecules. One approach is to use liposomes, globules of fat produced by the body and taken up by cells. Scientists also are investigating the introduction of raw recombinant DNA by injecting it into the bloodstream or placing it on microscopic beads of gold shot into the skin with a "gene-gun." Another possible vector under development is based on dendrimer molecules. A class of polymers (naturally occurring or artificial substances that have a high molecular weight and formed by smaller molecules of the same or similar substances), is "constructed" in the laboratory by combining these smaller molecules. They have been used in manufacturing Styrofoam, polyethylene cartons, and Plexiglass. In the laboratory, dendrimers have shown the ability to transport genetic material into human cells. They also can be designed to form an affinity for particular cell membranes by attaching to certain sugars and protein groups.

In the early 1970s, scientists proposed "gene surgery" for treating inherited diseases caused by faulty genes. The idea was to take out the disease-causing gene and surgically implant a gene that functioned properly. Although sound in theory, scientists, then and now, lack the biological knowledge or technical expertise needed to perform such a precise surgery in the human body.

However, in 1983, a group of scientists from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, proposed that gene therapy could one day be a viable approach for treating Lesch-Nyhan disease, a rare neurological disorder. The scientists conducted experiments in which an enzyme-producing gene (a specific type of protein) for correcting the disease was injected into a group of cells for replication. The scientists theorized the cells could then be injected into people with Lesch-Nyhan disease, thus correcting the genetic defect that caused the disease.

As the science of genetics advanced throughout the 1980s, gene therapy gained an established foothold in the minds of medical scientists as a promising approach to treatments for specific diseases. One of the major reasons for the growth of gene therapy was scientists' increasing ability to identify the specific genetic malfunctions that caused inherited diseases. Interest grew as further studies of DNA and chromosomes (where genes reside) showed that specific genetic abnormalities in one or more genes occurred in successive generations of certain family members who suffered from diseases like intestinal cancer, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, diabetes, and many more. Although the genes may not be the only cause of the disease in all cases, they may make certain individuals more susceptible to developing the disease because of environmental influences, like smoking, pollution, and stress. In fact, some scientists theorize that all diseases may have a genetic component.

On September 14, 1990, a four-year old girl suffering from a genetic disorder that prevented her body from producing a crucial enzyme became the first person to undergo gene therapy in the United States. Because her body could not produce adenosine deaminase (ADA), she had a weakened immune system, making her extremely susceptible to severe, life-threatening infections. W. French Anderson and colleagues at the National Institutes of Health's Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, took white blood cells (which are crucial to proper immune system functioning) from the girl, inserted ADA producing genes into them, and then transfused the cells back into the patient. Although the young girl continued to show an increased ability to produce ADA, debate arose as to whether the improvement resulted from the gene therapy or from an additional drug treatment she received.

Nevertheless, a new era of gene therapy began as more and more scientists sought to conduct clinical trial (testing in humans) research in this area. In that same year, gene therapy was tested on patients suffering from melanoma (skin cancer). The goal was to help them produce antibodies (disease fighting substances in the immune system) to battle the cancer.

These experiments have spawned an ever growing number of attempts at gene therapies designed to perform a variety of functions in the body. For example, a gene therapy for cystic fibrosis aims to supply a gene that alters cells, enabling them to produce a specific protein to battle the disease. Another approach was used for brain cancer patients, in which the inserted gene was designed to make the cancer cells more likely to respond to drug treatment. Another gene therapy approach for patients suffering from artery blockage, which can lead to strokes, induces the growth of new blood vessels near clogged arteries, thus ensuring normal blood circulation.

Currently, there are a host of new gene therapy agents in clinical trials. In the United States, both nucleic acid based (in vivo ) treatments and cell-based (ex vivo ) treatments are being investigated. Nucleic acid based gene therapy uses vectors (like viruses) to deliver modified genes to target cells. Cell-based gene therapy techniques remove cells from the patient in order to genetically alter them then reintroduce them to the patient's body. Presently, gene therapies for the following diseases are being developed: cystic fibrosis (using adenoviral vector), HIV infection (cell-based), malignant melanoma (cell-based), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (cell-based), hemophilia B (cell-based), kidney cancer (cell-based), Gaucher's Disease (retroviral vector), breast cancer (retroviral vector), and lung cancer (retroviral vector). When a cell or individual is treated using gene therapy and successful incorporation of engineered genes has occurred, the cell or individual is said to be transgenic.

The medical establishment's contribution to transgenic research has been supported by increased government funding. In 1991, the U.S. government provided $58 million for gene therapy research, with increases in funding of $15-40 million dollars a year over the following four years. With fierce competition over the promise of societal benefit in addition to huge profits, large pharmaceutical corporations have moved to the forefront of transgenic research. In an effort to be first in developing new therapies, and armed with billions of dollars of research funds, such corporations are making impressive strides toward making gene therapy a viable reality in the treatment of once elusive diseases.

The potential scope of gene therapy is enormous. More than 4,200 diseases have been identified as resulting directly from abnormal genes, and countless others that may be partially influenced by a person's genetic makeup. Initial research has concentrated on developing gene therapies for diseases whose genetic origins have been established and for other diseases that can be cured or improved by substances genes produce.

The following are examples of potential gene therapies. People suffering from cystic fibrosis lack a gene needed to produce a salt-regulating protein. This protein regulates the flow of chloride into epithelial cells, (the cells that line the inner and outer skin layers) that cover the air passages of the nose and lungs. Without this regulation, patients with cystic fibrosis build up a thick mucus that makes them prone to lung infections. A gene therapy technique to correct this abnormality might employ an adenovirus to transfer a normal copy of what scientists call the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, or CTRF, gene. The gene is introduced into the patient by spraying it into the nose or lungs. Researchers announced in 2004 that they had, for the first time, treated a dominant neurogenerative disease called Spinocerebella ataxia type 1, with gene therapy. This could lead to treating similar diseases such as Huntingtons disease. They also announced a single intravenous injection could deliver therapy to all muscles, perhaps providing hope to people with muscular dystrophy.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) also is an inherited disease, resulting in the inability to process cholesterol properly, which leads to high levels of artery-clogging fat in the blood stream. Patients with FH often suffer heart attacks and strokes because of blocked arteries. A gene therapy approach used to battle FH is much more intricate than most gene therapies because it involves partial surgical removal of patients' livers (ex vivo transgene therapy). Corrected copies of a gene that serve to reduce cholesterol build-up are inserted into the liver sections, which then are transplanted back into the patients.

Gene therapy also has been tested on patients with AIDS. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which weakens the body's immune system to the point that sufferers are unable to fight off diseases like pneumonias and cancer. In one approach, genes that produce specific HIV proteins have been altered to stimulate immune system functioning without causing the negative effects that a complete HIV molecule has on the immune system. These genes are then injected in the patient's blood stream. Another approach to treating AIDS is to insert, via white blood cells, genes that have been genetically engineered to produce a receptor that would attract HIV and reduce its chances of replicating. In 2004, researchers reported that had developed a new vaccine concept for HIV, but the details were still in development.

Several cancers also have the potential to be treated with gene therapy. A therapy tested for melanoma, or skin cancer, involves introducing a gene with an anticancer protein called tumor necrosis factor (TNF) into test tube samples of the patient's own cancer cells, which are then reintroduced into the patient. In brain cancer, the approach is to insert a specific gene that increases the cancer cells' susceptibility to a common drug used in fighting the disease. In 2003, researchers reported that they had harnessed the cell killing properties of adenoviruses to treat prostate cancer. A 2004 report said that researchers had developed a new DNA vaccine that targeted the proteins expressed in cervical cancer cells.

Gaucher disease is an inherited disease caused by a mutant gene that inhibits the production of an enzyme called glucocerebrosidase. Patients with Gaucher disease have enlarged livers and spleens and eventually their bones deteriorate. Clinical gene therapy trials focus on inserting the gene for producing this enzyme.

Gene therapy also is being considered as an approach to solving a problem associated with a surgical procedure known as balloon angioplasty. In this procedure, a stent (in this case, a type of tubular scaffolding) is used to open the clogged artery. However, in response to the trauma of the stent insertion, the body initiates a natural healing process that produces too many cells in the artery and results in restenosis, or reclosing of the artery. The gene therapy approach to preventing this unwanted side effect is to cover the outside of the stents with a soluble gel. This gel contains vectors for genes that reduce this overactive healing response.

Regularly throughout the past decade, and no doubt over future years, scientists have and will come up with new possible ways for gene therapy to help treat human disease. Recent advancements include the possibility of reversing hearing loss in humans with experimental growing of new sensory cells in adult guinea pigs, and avoiding amputation in patients with severe circulatory problems in their legs with angiogenic growth factors.

Although great strides have been made in gene therapy in a relatively short time, its potential usefulness has been limited by lack of scientific data concerning the multitude of functions that genes control in the human body. For instance, it is now known that the vast majority of genetic material does not store information for the creation of proteins, but rather is involved in the control and regulation of gene expression, and is, thus, much more difficult to interpret. Even so, each individual cell in the body carries thousands of genes coding for proteins, with some estimates as high as 150,000 genes. For gene therapy to advance to its full potential, scientists must discover the biological role of each of these individual genes and where the base pairs that make them up are located on DNA.

To address this issue, the National Institutes of Health initiated the Human Genome Project in 1990. Led by James D. Watson (one of the co-discoverers of the chemical makeup of DNA) the project's 15-year goal is to map the entire human genome (a combination of the words gene and chromosomes). A genome map would clearly identify the location of all genes as well as the more than three billion base pairs that make them up. With a precise knowledge of gene locations and functions, scientists may one day be able to conquer or control diseases that have plagued humanity for centuries.

Scientists participating in the Human Genome Project identified an average of one new gene a day, but many expected this rate of discovery to increase. By the year 2005, their goal was to determine the exact location of all the genes on human DNA and the exact sequence of the base pairs that make them up. Some of the genes identified through this project include a gene that predisposes people to obesity, one associated with programmed cell death (apoptosis), a gene that guides HIV viral reproduction, and the genes of inherited disorders like Huntington's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease, and some colon and breast cancers. In April 2003, the finished sequence was announced, with 99% of the human genome's gene-containing regions mapped to an accuracy of 99.9%.

Gene therapy seems elegantly simple in its concept: supply the human body with a gene that can correct a biological malfunction that causes a disease. However, there are many obstacles and some distinct questions concerning the viability of gene therapy. For example, viral vectors must be carefully controlled lest they infect the patient with a viral disease. Some vectors, like retroviruses, also can enter cells functioning properly and interfere with the natural biological processes, possibly leading to other diseases. Other viral vectors, like the adenoviruses, often are recognized and destroyed by the immune system so their therapeutic effects are short-lived. Maintaining gene expression so it performs its role properly after vector delivery is difficult. As a result, some therapies need to be repeated often to provide long-lasting benefits.

One of the most pressing issues, however, is gene regulation. Genes work in concert to regulate their functioning. In other words, several genes may play a part in turning other genes on and off. For example, certain genes work together to stimulate cell division and growth, but if these are not regulated, the inserted genes could cause tumor formation and cancer. Another difficulty is learning how to make the gene go into action only when needed. For the best and safest therapeutic effort, a specific gene should turn on, for example, when certain levels of a protein or enzyme are low and must be replaced. But the gene also should remain dormant when not needed to ensure it doesn't oversupply a substance and disturb the body's delicate chemical makeup.

One approach to gene regulation is to attach other genes that detect certain biological activities and then react as a type of automatic off-and-on switch that regulates the activity of the other genes according to biological cues. Although still in the rudimentary stages, researchers are making headway in inhibiting some gene functioning by using a synthetic DNA to block gene transcriptions (the copying of genetic information). This approach may have implications for gene therapy.

While gene therapy holds promise as a revolutionary approach to treating disease, ethical concerns over its use and ramifications have been expressed by scientists and lay people alike. For example, since much needs to be learned about how these genes actually work and their long-term effect, is it ethical to test these therapies on humans, where they could have a disastrous result? As with most clinical trials concerning new therapies, including many drugs, the patients participating in these studies usually have not responded to more established therapies and often are so ill the novel therapy is their only hope for long-term survival.

Another questionable outgrowth of gene therapy is that scientists could possibly manipulate genes to genetically control traits in human offspring that are not health related. For example, perhaps a gene could be inserted to ensure that a child would not be bald, a seemingly harmless goal. However, what if genetic manipulation was used to alter skin color, prevent homosexuality, or ensure good looks? If a gene is found that can enhance intelligence of children who are not yet born, will everyone in society, the rich and the poor, have access to the technology or will it be so expensive only the elite can afford it?

The Human Genome Project, which plays such an integral role for the future of gene therapy, also has social repercussions. If individual genetic codes can be determined, will such information be used against people? For example, will someone more susceptible to a disease have to pay higher insurance premiums or be denied health insurance altogether? Will employers discriminate between two potential employees, one with a "healthy" genome and the other with genetic abnormalities?

Some of these concerns can be traced back to the eugenics movement popular in the first half of the twentieth century. This genetic "philosophy" was a societal movement that encouraged people with "positive" traits to reproduce while those with less desirable traits were sanctioned from having children. Eugenics was used to pass strict immigration laws in the United States, barring less suitable people from entering the country lest they reduce the quality of the country's collective gene pool. Probably the most notorious example of eugenics in action was the rise of Nazism in Germany, which resulted in the Eugenic Sterilization Law of 1933. The law required sterilization for those suffering from certain disabilities and even for some who were simply deemed "ugly." To ensure that this novel science is not abused, many governments have established organizations specifically for overseeing the development of gene therapy. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the National Institutes of Health require scientists to take a precise series of steps and meet stringent requirements before proceeding with clinical trials. As of mid-2004, more than 300 companies were carrying out gene medicine developments and 500 clinical trials were underway. How to deliver the therapy is the key to unlocking many of the researchers discoveries.

In fact, gene therapy has been immersed in more controversy and surrounded by more scrutiny in both the health and ethical arena than most other technologies (except, perhaps, for cloning) that promise to substantially change society. Despite the health and ethical questions surrounding gene therapy, the field will continue to grow and is likely to change medicine faster than any previous medical advancement.

Cell The smallest living unit of the body that groups together to form tissues and help the body perform specific functions.

Chromosome A microscopic thread-like structure found within each cell of the body, consisting of a complex of proteins and DNA. Humans have 46 chromosomes arranged into 23 pairs. Changes in either the total number of chromosomes or their shape and size (structure) may lead to physical or mental abnormalities.

Clinical trial The testing of a drug or some other type of therapy in a specific population of patients.

Clone A cell or organism derived through asexual (without sex) reproduction containing the identical genetic information of the parent cell or organism.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) The genetic material in cells that holds the inherited instructions for growth, development, and cellular functioning.

Embryo The earliest stage of development of a human infant, usually used to refer to the first eight weeks of pregnancy. The term fetus is used from roughly the third month of pregnancy until delivery.

Enzyme A protein that causes a biochemical reaction or change without changing its own structure or function.

Eugenics A social movement in which the population of a society, country, or the world is to be improved by controlling the passing on of hereditary information through mating.

Gene A building block of inheritance, which contains the instructions for the production of a particular protein, and is made up of a molecular sequence found on a section of DNA. Each gene is found on a precise location on a chromosome.

Gene transcription The process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to RNA, resulting in a specific protein formation.

Genetic engineering The manipulation of genetic material to produce specific results in an organism.

Genetics The study of hereditary traits passed on through the genes.

Germ-line gene therapy The introduction of genes into reproductive cells or embryos to correct inherited genetic defects that can cause disease.

Liposome Fat molecule made up of layers of lipids.

Macromolecules A large molecule composed of thousands of atoms.

Nitrogen A gaseous element that makes up the base pairs in DNA.

Nucleus The central part of a cell that contains most of its genetic material, including chromosomes and DNA.

Protein Important building blocks of the body, composed of amino acids, involved in the formation of body structures and controlling the basic functions of the human body.

Somatic gene therapy The introduction of genes into tissue or cells to treat a genetic related disease in an individual.

Vectors Something used to transport genetic information to a cell.

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Christensen R. "Cutaneous Gene TherapyAn Update." Histochemical Cell Biology (January 2001): 73-82.

"Gene Therapy Important Part of Cancer Research." Cancer Gene Therapy Week (June 30, 2003): 12.

"Initial Sequencing and Analysis of the Human Genome." Nature (February 15, 2001): 860-921.

Kingsman, Alan. "Gene Therapy Moves On." SCRIP World Pharmaceutical News (July 7, 2004): 19:ndash;21.

Nevin, Norman. "What Has Happened to Gene Therapy?" European Journal of Pediatrics (2000): S240-S242.

"New DNA Vaccine Targets Proteins Expressed in Cervical Cancer Cells." Gene Therapy Weekly (September 9, 2004): 14.

"New Research on the Progress of Gene Therapy Presented at Meeting." Obesity, Fitness & Wellness Week (July 3, 2004): 405.

Pekkanen, John. "Genetics: Medicine's Amazing Leap." Readers Digest (September 1991): 23-32.

Silverman, Jennifer, and Steve Perlstein. "Genome Project Completed." Family Practice News (May 15, 2003): 50-51.

"Study Highlights Potential Danger of Gene Therapy." Drug Week (June 20, 2003): 495.

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National Human Genome Research Institute. The National Institutes of Health. 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. (301) 496-2433. http://www.nhgri.nih.gov.

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. Online genetic testing information sponsored by National Center for Biotechnology Information. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Omim/.

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Estimating Alzheimer’s disease causative genes by an evolutionary … – Medical Xpress

Posted: at 5:47 am

June 27, 2017

Alzheimer's disease patients are increasing with the aging of the world's population, becoming a huge health care and social burden. To find the cause of various diseases, in recent years, scientists have focused within the human genome on copy number variations (CNVs), which are changes in the number of genes within a population.

Likewise, a group of genes responsible for a gene number change has also been reported for Alzheimer's disease, but to date, it has not been easy to identify a causative gene from multiple genes within the pathogenic CNV region.

Now, a new approach to finding Alzheimer's disease (AD) causative genes was estimated by paying attention to special duplicated genes called "ohnologs" included in the genomic region specific to AD patients. Human ohnologs, which are vulnerable to change in number, were generated by whole genome duplications 500 million years ago.

In a new study published in the advanced online edition of Molecular Biology and Evolution, Mizuka Sekine and Takashi Makino investigated the gene expression and knockout mouse phenotype for ohnologs, and succeeded in narrowing down the genetic culprits. The narrowed gene group had a function related to the nervous system and a high expression level in the brain which were similar to characteristics of known AD causative genes.

Their findings suggest that the identification of causative genes using ohnologs is a promising and effective approach in diseases caused by dosage change.

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Genetic tests help identify relative risk of 25 cancer-associated mutations – Medical Xpress

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June 27, 2017 Credit: CC0 Public Domain

No one wants to hear that they have a mutation in their DNA associated with the development of cancer. But it may be even more difficult to accept that, in many cases, clinicians can't say whether or by how much that mutation might increase a person's actual risk of developing the disease. This uncertainty causes anxiety and clouds treatment decisions.

Now, in the largest study of its kind, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia have analyzed the genetic test results, family histories and disease status of nearly 95,600 women who underwent genetic testing for 25 mutations associated with the development of breast and ovarian cancer. Some of the women had cancer; many did not. Seven percent of the women in the study carried at least one of the mutations, the researchers found.

The researchers hope the study is the first step to providing much-needed clarity to women and their physicians as they struggle to interpret the results of genetic testing. It may also help guideline-making organizations such as the American Cancer Society recommend when additional or more-frequent screening tests might be appropriate.

"The results of this study will help to personalize our risk estimates and recommendations for preventive care," said Allison Kurian, MD, associate professor of medicine and of health research and policy at Stanford. "A better understanding of cancer risks can help women and their clinicians make better-informed decision about options to manage cancer risk."

For example, Kurian said, some women with a high risk of developing breast cancer might consider preventive mastectomy, whereas those with lower riskfor example, a twofold elevation over the average riskmight instead pursue intensive regular screening, including breast magnetic resonance imaging.

Kurian is the lead author of the study, which will be published online June 27 in JCO Precision Oncology. Michael Hall, MD, associate professor of clinical genetics at the Fox Chase Cancer Center, is the senior author. The study was funded by Salt Lake City-based Myriad Genetics Inc., which performed the genetic testing.

What does a mutation mean?

Increasingly, women who are tested for a panel of cancer-associated mutations are given a mixed bag of results. Advances in DNA sequencing have made it quicker, easier and cheaper to identify mutations in an ever-growing panel of cancer-associated genes. With the exception of a few well-studied mutations such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, however, the exact effect of most of these remains murky because few large-scale studies have been completed.

The researchers assessed the mutation status of 95,561 women with and without the disease who chose to have their genome tested by Myriad Genetics for the presence of 25 cancer-associated mutations between September 2013 and September 2016. They matched the women according to their ages, ethnicity and family history of cancer to assign a relative risk of developing cancer to each of the mutations.

Kurian and her colleagues found that eight of the mutations were positively associated with the development of breast cancer, and 11 were positively associated with ovarian cancer. Increased cancer risk for women carrying the mutations ranged from two to 40 times that of a woman without the mutations.

'Significant advantage'

"This large sample size provided a reliable data set on real people," said Hall. "This is a significant advantage as we work to identify the strength of association between mutation and risk."

In many cases the researchers' findings dovetailed with what had already been surmised from smaller studies. But there were some surprises. One mutation assumed to increase a woman's risk of breast cancer was shown to instead increase the likelihood of ovarian cancer. Three other mutations thought to increase the risk of breast cancer seem instead to have little effect.

"One surprising finding was the association of an increased ovarian cancer risk with mutations in a gene called ATM," said Kurian. "Although this risk was relatively small numerically, it was statistically significant, and to our knowledge it had not previously been published. Additional studies will be important to determine the robustness and clinical relevance of this finding, and to expand the evidence base that we use to counsel our patients."

The work is an example of Stanford Medicine's focus on precision health, the goal of which is to anticipate and prevent disease in the healthy and precisely diagnose and treat disease in the ill.

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