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Category Archives: Food Supplements

Here are 6 supplement myths worth busting – Seattle Times

Posted: July 21, 2020 at 12:47 pm

The dietary supplement industry brings in billions of dollars each year, with an estimated 90,000 products on the market in a range that extends far beyond multivitamins.

A dietary supplementis any product thats intended to supplement the diet with one or more dietary ingredients. This includes vitamins, minerals, herbs or otherbotanicals,amino acids, or other substances in pill,capsule, tablet or liquid form. But not all dietary supplements are as beneficial as they appear. Heres what you need to know before you open your wallet.

Myth 1: Supplements are proven to be safe.

Yes or no: dietary supplements are vetted for safety by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The answer is no. Unlike prescription and over-the-counter drugs, which must be approved by the FDA before they can be marketed, the FDA is not authorized to review dietary supplements for safety and effectiveness before they are marketed. The FDA can take action if they receive reports that a supplement already on the market is causing harm, but this can take several years.

Myth 2: The label information is science-based.

Dietary supplement labels can claim that the product addresses a nutrient deficiency, supports health or is linked to a particular body function (like immunity, bone health, heart health or cognitive function). The claim may not necessarily be backed up by scientific evidence.Product labels containing health claims must also include a disclaimer that reads, This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. The FDA and the Federal Trade Commission can take action if a product on the market has false or misleading claims, but this is difficult to monitor.

Myth 3: Herbal supplements are safe, because theyre natural.

According to the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), part of the National Institutes of Health, the safety of an herb or botanical depends on many things, such as its form, dose and how it works in the body. The effects range from mild to powerful, and many herbal products can interact with prescription drugs, either increasing or decreasing the potency of the drug.

Myth 4: Whole food supplements are best.

According to ConsumerLab, theres no clear benefit to using supplements made from whole foods. When it comes to natural versus synthetic forms of vitamins in dietary supplements, sometimes natural is better, sometimes synthetic is better and sometimes it doesnt matter. The bottom line is that all vitamin supplements can help prevent or treat deficiencies, and nearly all can be harmful at too high a dose.

Myth 5: A stamp on the label assures quality.

Many supplement bottles have stamps all over them, but some stamps mean more than others. Several independent organizations notably U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), ConsumerLab and NSF International offer quality testing. Their seals of approval mean that the supplement was properly manufactured, contains the ingredients listed on the label and doesnt contain harmful levels of contaminants. They dont guarantee that a product is safe or effective.

Myth 6: You should take a multivitamin for insurance.

Theres no evidence supporting use of multivitamins for people who are eating a healthy diet, but the ODS suggests that people who dont get enough vitamins and minerals from food because they are on a low-calorie diet, have a poor appetite or avoid certain food groups might consider taking a multivitamin/mineral.

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Baze receives Personalized Nutrition Initiative of the Year Award –

Posted: at 12:47 pm

With access to big data, digitalization, cutting-edge research and innovations, the award celebrates the best new initiatives in personalized nutrition. Differences in biochemistry, metabolism, genetics, and microbiota all contribute to the numerous responses to nutrition.In order to tailor dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements, Baze provides supplement recommendations based on an individuals blood micronutrient status. The Baze Marketplace is an extension of the program, which allows consumers to identify food options that address their micronutrient needs.

Additionally, the Baze Food Guide offers foods and ready-to-eat meals that meet strict nutritional criteria set by the company's team of registered dietitians. In a new partnership with Performance Kitchen, Baze now offers nutrient-dense meal recommendations as well.

Winning the Personalized Nutrition Initiative of the Year further validates the growing opportunity we are seeing for personalized nutrition brands to think more broadly beyond supplements to meet consumers needs for more holistic solutions. We truly believe that a solution that provides both targeted foods as well as personalized supplements will set the strongest foundation for optimized micronutrition, said Baze CEO Philipp Schulte.We hope that receiving this award both shines a spotlight on the benefits of our blood-based approach to identifying and resolving micronutrient deficiencies as well as opens the door for more cross-industry partnerships (and awareness) around personalized food and supplements.

The judges commended Bazes in-home blood test capillary cuff system as well as their meaningful effort to personalize through food as well as supplements, which could further advance personalization inside the nutrition industry.

Like many start-ups, the work is both rewarding and challenging.

Determining the micronutrient content of the meal or food was our biggest challengeamong the criteria by far. Only vitamin D, potassium, calcium, and iron are required onthe current nutrition facts panel. Food brands, unless it is a fortified product, typicallydont state what the Percent Daily Value (%DV) is for most of the essential nutrients we test and provide recommendations for. This is not only a gap in the food industry, but also a gap in health and wellness across our country. Micronutrients form the foundation for a wide array ofmetabolic processes necessary for survival such as growth and development, energyproduction, blood clotting, immunity, and cognitive function but this information is notreadily available to customers, explained Baze Content and Growth Operations Manager Alex Lewis, RD, LDN.

Gabrielle McGrath, MS, RD, LDN, said the experience has been especially rewarding because their dietitians envisioned and created this new offering from the ground up. The Baze business development associate added the product offering and additional direction has allowed them to open up new doors and strengthen existing relationships with partners across the industry.

We hope this award provides a call to action for the health, wellness, and food industries to paymore attention to the micronutrient and mineral content in their food products. Were excited tobe a leader and liaison in making this possible, said Lewis.

Traditionally, nutrigenomics were only used in specific medical situations. Today, personalized nutrition uses affordable, self-administered tests that are easily accessible.

The nutrigenomics field is rapidly developing and as we learn more about how people react differently to various foods, the idea of making more personalized nutrition choices is catching on.With such potential to contribute to health and wellness,the personalized nutrition market is forecasted to reach upwards of $11.5 billion by 2025 .

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Strategic Analysis to Understand the Competitive Outlook of Food Supplements Market – Cole of Duty

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Prophecy Market Insights has recently published a Food Supplements report which represents the latest industry data and future trends, allowing users to recognize the products and driving revenue growth and profitability of the market.

The report offers a broad analysis of key segments, key drivers, regions, and leading market players. The report contains an analysis of different geographical areas and presents a competitive scenario to promote leading market players, new entrants, and investors determine emerging economies. The key highlights offered in the report would benefit market players to formulate strategies for the future and gain a strong position in the Food Supplements market.

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Detailed analysis of the COVID-19 impact will be given in the report, as our analyst and research associates are working hard to understand the impact of COVID-19 disaster on many corporations, sectors and help our clients in taking excellent business decisions. We acknowledge everyone who is doing their part in this financial and healthcare crisis.

The Food Supplements report begins with a brief introduction which contains a market overview of the industry followed by its market size and research scope. Further, the report provides an overview of market segmentation, for example- type, application, and region. The drivers, restraints, and opportunities for the market are also mentioned, along with current policies and trends in the industry. The Food Supplements market also covers PEST analysis for the market. Thisanalysisprovides information based on four external factors (political, economic, social and technological) in relation to your business situation. Basically, it helps to understand how these factorswillaffect the performance and activities of your business in the long-term. The report describes the growth rate of each segment in-depth with the help of charts and tables. Moreover, various regions related to the growth of the Food Supplements market are analyzed in the report. These regions include North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa, and Latin America.

Segmentation Overview:

Food Supplements market report states the overview, historical data along with size, share, growth, demand, and revenue of the global industry. In this research report, there is an accurate analysis of the current and upcoming opportunities in the market by explaining the fastest and largest growing segments across regions. The survey report includes vast investigation of the geographical scene of the Food Supplements market, which is manifestly arranged into the localities

Australia, New Zealand, Rest of Asia-Pacific

The study presents the performance of each player active in the Food Supplements market. It also provides a summary and highlights the current advancements of each player in the market along with its SWOT analysis. The information provided in the research report is a great source for study investors and stakeholders interested in the market. In addition, the report offers insights on buyers, suppliers, and merchants in the market. There is a comprehensive analysis of consumption, market share, and growth rate of each application is offered for the historic period.

Food SupplementsMarket Key Players:

Natures Products, Inc., Koninklijke DSM N.V., Direct Digital LLC, Bactolac Pharmaceutical, Inc., Superior Supplements, Inc, Balchem Corporation, Barrington Chemical Corporation, Lallemand Bio-Ingredients, Inc., Next Pharmaceuticals Inc, and Herbalife Nutrition Ltd.

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Hard pill to swallow: TTAB denies trademark application for dietary and nutritional supplements involving CBD – International Law Office

Posted: at 12:47 pm

The Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) recently affirmed a decision by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) denying the application of a mark for "hemp oil extracts sold as an integral component of dietary and nutritional supplements".(1)

In its decision, the USPTO had reasoned that the applicant's goods, which contained cannabidiol (CBD), were illegal under federal law specifically, the Food, Drug and Cosmetics Act (FDCA) and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). The mark 'CW', written in standard characters, would serve to identify the applicant's brand, CW Hemp, as the source of the goods. The mark was to be placed on bottles of the applicant's hemp extract, advertised as a nutritional supplement to "promote mind and body wellness", offered in multiple flavours and recommended to be used in beverage recipes. The TTAB held that the goods' illegality was a consequence of their nature and intended use as a dietary supplement.

The CSA lists marijuana, defined as "all parts of the plant Cannabis sativa L", as a Schedule I controlled substance. The Agricultural Act of 2014 (the 2014 Farm Bill), which was subsequently expanded in 2018, created an 'industrial hemp' exception to the CSA's marijuana prohibition (known as the 'industrial hemp provision'). The industrial hemp provision allows for the growth and cultivation of the Cannabis sativa L plant with less than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration for certain research purposes, as allowed under state law. While this provision allows for the growth of industrial hemp, it does not protect against the violation of other federal law for the illegal use of that hemp after cultivation.

The FDCA prohibits any food with a drug or biological substance additive from entering into commerce if it is the subject of a substantial clinical investigation that has been made public. Dietary supplements, which the 'CW' hemp oil extracts were advertised as, constitute food for the purposes of this statute. Hemp grown legally under the industrial hemp provision will nevertheless be deemed illegal if its use is found to violate the FDCA or another federal law. In other words, the use of CBD in food or dietary supplements will be deemed illegal under the FDCA as long as CBD remains the subject of a clinical investigation, regardless of whether the hemp was grown legally under the CSA exception. Illegal use will override legal cultivation.

The USPTO currently has a number of trademark applications pending in Class 5, which includes dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals involving CBD-related goods, which now are likely to be denied registration per the TTAB's decision. Accordingly, when making the decision to apply for a federal trademark, the nature and use of the CBD product in relation to federal law should be kept in mind. In addition, although it may be impossible to acquire a federal trademark registration for a CBD-related product, it may still be possible to obtain common law trademark protection and trademark registrations in various states. Applicants should seek competent counsel for additional guidance to register a trademark with the USPTO to ensure legal compliance.

For further information on this topic please contact Marcella Ballard, Kristen Ruisi or Maria Sinatra at Venable LLP by telephone (+1 410 244 7400) or email (, or The Venable LLP website can be accessed at


(1) All information derived from the TTAB opinion In re Stanley Brothers Social Enterprises, LLC (Serial No 86568478) (mailed 16 June 2020).

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Hard pill to swallow: TTAB denies trademark application for dietary and nutritional supplements involving CBD - International Law Office

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Magnesium: Why you need this mineral for better sleep, mood and more – CNET

Posted: at 12:47 pm

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Most of us have a cabinet full of supplements that at some point, get neglected. Whether it's because you fell out of your routine or you forgot why you even started it in the first place, there's one that most Americans could benefit from adding back into their regimen: magnesium.

Studies show that the majority of the population is at risk for magnesium deficiency due to a variety of lifestyle factors, including a diet high in processed food. Certain illnesses or health conditions, including Type 2 diabetes or alcohol dependency, can make you susceptible to low magnesium levels, too. A 2013-2016 analysis from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that 48% of Americans don't get adequate magnesium in their diets.

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Magnesium supplements have become popular in the wellness space recently, and many experts are recommending them for helping with sleep, stress, anxiety and more. But do these claims hold up? Below, I give an overview of the science on magnesium, and I also talked to registered dietitian Amy Gorin to find out more on why magnesium is important and how to know if a supplement may be right for you.

Magnesium requirements vary based on a person's age, gender and other health factors (like pregnancy), but the average recommendation is around 300mg per day.

"Magnesium is important for so many aspects of health. The mineral is involved in more than 300 enzymatic reactions in the body. It's important for bone health, helping to keep your blood sugar levels stable, helping your muscles and nerves to properly function, and keeping your blood pressure at healthy levels," Gorin says.

Magnesium levels also affect your brain and your mood, which is why low levels of magnesium are associated with mood disorders, although more research needs to be done to determine just how important it is for your emotional or mental health.

If you've ever asked a health expert about the best supplements for stress, chances are magnesium is on the list. Why? First of all, according to Gorin, magnesium helps the brain cope with stressors. "Research has shown that magnesium supplementation may affect the brain functions that help lower stress and anxiety," Gorin says.

It works by helping your body kick into the "rest and digest" state, or by activating your parasympathetic nervous system. When you are stressed, your body is likely in the sympathetic nervous system for prolonged periods, which over time can make you feel run down and tired. Studies also showed that magnesium intake helped improve heart-rate variability (HRV) scores, which are representative of how well your body can adapt to stress.

Likewise, magnesium can help you sleep better, since the mineral can have a calming effect on your body. Magnesium helps regulatethe hormone melatonin, which is involved with controlling your circadian rhythm. Your circadian rhythm regulates many things in your body, including when you feel tired and how well you sleep.

Many activities and habits can throw off your circadian rhythm, including exposing your eyes to blue light at night. If you are trying to optimize your circadian rhythm, or are trying to get better sleep with melatonin supplements, you should check that your magnesium levels are optimal since they work together to help you get better rest.

A 2017 study reviewed the connection between magnesium and exercise performance, and found that the more active you are, the more your body needs magnesium. Some claim that it can help you recover faster from workouts, but the evidence on magnesium specifically for workout recovery is limited.

We do know that your muscles need adequate magnesium to function well and avoid cramping, so it makes sense that optimal magnesium levels can facilitate better recovery from workouts.

Grains and seeds contain naturally occurring magnesium.

Vitamin D is crucial for your overall well-being and especially for your immune system health. But even if you think you're getting enough vitamin D through supplementation or sun exposure, you could still be low if your magnesium levels are not optimal.

According to the American Osteopathic Association, low magnesium levels can make vitamin D ineffective. That means that even though you are taking in vitamin D from food, supplements or sunlight exposure, your body can't use it or benefit from it unless you have sufficient magnesium levels.

Magnesium is found naturally in food, like leafy vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds and milk, but it's usually in smaller amounts and it can be difficult to get the full 300 mg or more that is needed per day. Plus, scientistspredict that only about 30% to 50% of the magnesium that you take in is actually absorbed in the body. For these reasons, many people turn to a supplement to ensure they are meeting their daily needs.

There are several different types of magnesium supplements that can help specific issues.

If you walk into a vitamin or health food store and look for magnesium supplements, you will likely find several different types. You can get magnesium supplements in powder form (like the popular Natural Vitality Calm supplement) that can be dissolved in water or you can take the mineral in a capsule or tablet.

But not all magnesium supplements are the same, which is why it's important to not only seek a health professional's guidance on which supplement may be best for you, but also understand that different forms of magnesium can have different side effects. For example, magnesium carbonate is one form of magnesium that, if you overdo it, you can end up with stomach upset and diarrhea.

Popular forms of magnesium that are available in supplements:

Magnesium glycinate:"This is a common form of magnesium in supplement form. You might also see it used in heartburn treatments," Gorin says. Magnesium glycinate is often recommended by experts since it's absorbed well in the body and tends to cause less stomach discomfort or upset.

Magnesium oxide: "This form of magnesium can be used as an antacid for heartburn relief, as a short-term laxative, or as a dietary supplement when you're not taking in enough magnesium from food," Gorin says.

Magnesium citrate: "This form of magnesium is sometimes used as a stool softener or laxative," Gorin says.

Magnesium L-threonate:"This is a specific type of magnesium that's been proven to have cognitive benefits. It was discovered by MIT researchers, and you can get it in supplement form. Research suggests that it may help improve brain plasticity, which may have positive effects on memory, learning and cognition," Gorin says.

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The information contained in this article is for educational and informational purposes only and is not intended as health or medical advice. Always consult a physician or other qualified health provider regarding any questions you may have about a medical condition or health objectives.

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L-Carnitine: Types, benefits, and side effects – Medical News Today

Posted: at 12:47 pm

L-carnitine, also known as levocarnitine, is a naturally occurring amino acid structure that the body produces. People can also get it from their diet or take it in the form of an oral supplement. L-carnitine plays a critical role in energy production, as it converts fat into energy.

Most people will get enough L-carnitine from their diet or their bodys production of this compound. Those with low L-carnitine levels may benefit from taking an oral supplement, though.

As well as supporting energy production, L-carnitine may help some other functions in the body, such as maintaining general brain function and reducing the risk of certain disorders.

Some people may experience mild side effects when increasing their L-carnitine intake, especially with long-term use.

In this article, we explore what the current research says about L-carnitine, including its benefits, effectiveness, and side effects.

L-carnitine is a type of carnitine, which is a derivative of amino acids. Amino acids combine to make proteins, which carry out many essential tasks in the body. Carnitine helps the body break down fatty acids and turn them into energy to power the cells.

L-carnitine is a conditionally essential nutrient, meaning that the body can generally make enough of it, but, in some cases, a person may have to get the compound from food or oral supplements if they cannot make enough.

In the body, the liver and kidneys create L-carnitine from the amino acids lysine and methionine. The kidneys can also store L-carnitine for later use and eliminate the excess through the urine stream.

Carnitine is a broad term that describes a few different compounds. L-carnitine is a more common form of carnitine, present in the body and many supplements. Other forms of carnitine include:

L-carnitine, and carnitine in general, is a key component in creating energy for the cells. Its main function, helping break down fatty acids for use as energy, keeps the bodys cells powered and working efficiently.

L-carnitine also has a secondary function of helping remove some waste products from the cells to prevent them from accumulating and causing problems.

In addition to its core functions, L-carnitine may also pose some other benefits to the body. These include:

L-carnitine may help with some markers of heart health, although the research is still ongoing.

Supplementation may help improve L-carnitine levels in a failing heart, which could boost heart health and circulation in the short term following a heart attack. Supplementation may also help with symptoms of heart failure, such as chest pain and arrhythmia.

At times, cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, may cause a person to become deficient in L-carnitine. In these cases, L-carnitine supplements may help reduce symptoms such as fatigue and weakness.

Researchers are currently studying the compound as a possible way to prevent tissue damage due to chemotherapy, but this research is in the early stages.

As the kidneys and liver help create and use L-carnitine, disease in these organs or organ failure may lead to L-carnitine deficiency. Doctors may recommend L-carnitine supplementation in these cases to support the function of the kidneys and liver and prevent deficiency.

Most people tolerate L-carnitine well. However, some individuals may experience digestive side effects when taking L-carnitine. These include:

Some people may also complain of a fishy body odor, which is not generally harmful but may be bothersome.

Some studies suggest that high levels of L-creatine may raise the long-term risks of cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis.

L-carnitine supplements may interact with certain antibiotics or anticonvulsants. Anyone considering taking L-carnitine should talk to their doctor to discuss any medications they are taking and the possible drug interactions.

The best amount and form of L-carnitine may vary depending on the persons reason for wanting more of this compound.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) note that healthy people do not need extra L-carnitine from food or supplements. The liver and kidneys will create enough to meet their daily needs.

Even though the body produces it naturally, carnitine is widely available in a number of simple foods. Animal proteins, such as fish, red meat, and poultry, are some of the best sources.

According to the NIH, adults who eat a mixed diet that includes red meat and other animal products get about 60180 milligrams (mg) of carnitine per day. People who avoid animal products, such as those following a vegan diet, may get roughly 1012 mg from their diet.

However, the kidneys can store carnitine for later use, so peoples overall levels will be about the same, regardless of their diet. The kidneys also eliminate excess carnitine through urine to maintain healthful concentrations.

Generally speaking, otherwise healthy adults do not need to take L-carnitine to support their health.

Some athletes take extra L-carnitine, believing that it will boost their athletic performance. L-carnitine availability seems to limit muscle metabolism during very high intensity exercise. So, in theory, supplementing carnitine during workouts may support exercise performance.

However, a study in Molecules notes that the evidence for this practice is lacking. While many athletes take L-carnitine, years of research does not provide conclusive evidence to support these claims.

As L-carnitine helps burn fatty acids for energy, many people assume that taking more of it may help them lose weight. More research is necessary, but some studies support this idea.

In a review of nine different trials, researchers found some evidence to support this claim. They suggest that participants who took L-carnitine lost an average of 1.3 kilograms (2.9 pounds) more than those who did not.

However, L-carnitine cannot replace healthful habits, such as a proper diet and regular exercise.

People who wish to take L-carnitine should talk to a doctor first. The doctor may have additional recommendations to support any treatment that the person needs and can help them avoid possible reactions and interactions.

Most people tolerate L-carnitine well. The recommended dosage is roughly 13 grams per day. However, people with genetic abnormalities or other conditions causing a lack of L-carnitine should talk to their doctor for a more specific dosage.

L-carnitine is an amino acid that the body naturally produces. In people with good health, the liver and kidneys produce and store enough of the compound to prevent deficiency.

People with L-carnitine deficiencies may need to get the compound through their diet or as a supplement. It is advisable to talk to a doctor before taking an L-carnitine supplement.

Some people may wish to take L-carnitine supplements for their potential benefits, such as aiding athletic performance or weight loss. However, more research is necessary to confirm these benefits.

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What Doctors Really Think of Brain-Boosting Dietary Supplements – MSN Money

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If you didn't know better, you might think better brain health is just a supplement away. More than 25 percent of adults in the United States, ages 50 and older, take supplements for mental sharpness and brain health, according to the 2019 AARP Brain Health and Dietary Supplements Survey. But do dietary supplements really work?

"Because of the way dietary supplements are regulated, suggestive claims are often without proof," says David Seres, MD, Director of Medical Nutrition and associate professor of medicine in the Institute of Human Nutrition at Columbia University Irving Medical Center in New York City.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates dietary supplements and, unlike drugs, they don't require FDA approval. It's up to the supplement manufacturers to determine that their products are safe and their label claims are truthful and not misleading.

"People take 'brain-boosting supplements' in hopes of reducing the decline in cognitive function as they age," saysPaul M. Coates, PhD, vice president of the American Society for Nutrition and former director of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Dietary Supplements."But the evidence is weak to non-existent that any of them work." Here's what you need to know about eight popular supplements that are believed to have brain benefits.

Ask a green tea lover why they love their drink and they'll likely talk about its de-stressing, concentration-boosting health benefits. They may be on to something. Research, including a study published in 2019 in Nutrients,suggests that L-theaninean amino acid found naturally in green tea leaveshas the potential to improve mental healthin people with stress-related ailments and cognitive impairments. After four weeks of taking an L-theanine supplement, participants' stress-related symptoms (depression, anxiety, and sleep deprivation) decreased and their cognitive function improved.

But the findings come with a caveat: "Given that tea contains both L-theanine and caffeine, and that it is safely consumed worldwide and might benefit mood and cognitive function, drinking tea could be a logical choice for people hoping to reap some benefits," says Carol Haggans, a registered dietitian and scientific and health communications consultant with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. However, "L-theanine supplements with or without caffeine havent been studied long-term. Although no safety concerns have been identified, their safety hasnt been rigorously studied." (Other foods aren't so unclear. Check out the 9 worst foods for your brain.)

This amino acidwhich is produced by the bodyis taken for everything from Alzheimers and depression to high blood glucose and Peyronies disease. So why take a supplement for something the body supplies naturally?

"This is a classic example of, 'If some is good, more must be better,' says Seres."There is a slew of cellular research that suggests that this amino acid might have a role in regulating pathways that have an impact on these diseases. The problem is, biology is complicated. In every situation, if youalterby supplementationonemechanism of a biological process, there is almost always a dozen or more redundant pathwaysthat will counter that alteration. These can never be fully anticipated. Nor can the potential for harm."

The bottom line? "Research on carnitine and these conditions, to the extent it exists, is preliminary at best, and to the best of our knowledge, no professional society or other expert group recommends taking supplemental carnitine," saysPaul R. Thomas, a doctor of education, registered dietitian, and scientific consultant with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. "At doses of approximately 3000 mg per day, carnitine supplements can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and a fishy body odor." (If you're looking to stay sharp for work, try these 7 morning brain boosters.)

Phosphatidylserine is a fatty substance known as a phospholipid, and it plays an important role in the brain, contributing to your memory and mental processing. Which helps explain the "claims that this compound may help protect against Alzheimer's disease, improve memory, slow mental decline with age, and treat ADHD," says Thomas. "A few preliminary studies suggested that phosphatidylserine might be of use for these conditions, but any benefits were short-lived and small in relation to other pharmacological and behavioral therapies for these conditions."

Bottom line? "Phosphatidylserine appears to be generally safe when taken as a dietary supplement, but doses over 300 milligrams a day may cause side effects like stomach upset and insomnia," says Thomas. Plus, it "can interact with drugs like atropine and various medications used to treat glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and allergies. Speak to a medical professional before taking phosphatidylserine, especially if you take any medications."

Also known as velvet bean, this is a tropical legume that has long been touted for its therapeutic value. One of the compounds found in the plant is L-DOPA, or levodopa, an amino acid that your body uses to make several neurotransmitters, including adrenaline and dopaminewhich plays a role in pleasure and reward centers in the brain. "Mucuna pruriens has significant antioxidant action that works in tandem with L-DOPA to promote brain health," says Edward F. Group III, a doctor of chiropractic and founder of the Global Healing Group. "When L-DOPA crosses the blood-brain barrier, it helps to increase brain levels of dopamine, an essential neurotransmitter associated with regulating mood and cognition." (Want to go the non-supplement route? Check out these 14 weird brain exercises that can help you get smarter.)

More commonly known as PEA, this amphetamine-like compound turns up in small amounts in chocolate, peas, and beans, and it behaves like a neurotransmitter in the body. "Any effects of PEAs may come in part by stimulating the production and reducing the breakdown of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine," says Thomas. "PEA is very rarely found in dietary supplements. Amphetamine-like compounds can have cardiac and neuropsychiatric side effects, including fast heartbeat, raised blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, and seizures." (Learn these50 surprising facts about the brain.)

Ask your doctor whether any of these supplements might be right for you. Research suggests they may have benefits, but more needs to be done.Ginger extract twice a day. Ginger was found in several studies to help reduce knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, as well as improve how the knee worked. Ginger has anti-inflammatory effects, just like ibuprofen.

Vitamin E containing pure alpha-tocopherols. Vitamin E may have anti-inflammatory benefits for people with rheumatoid arthritis.

Glucosamine/chondroitin. This combination supplement may provide long-term pain relief and slow the degeneration of cartilage. Some researchers believe that glucosamine and chondroitin may repair damaged cartilage. It appears to help some patients and not others; if it's working for you, you should experience relief within two to three months. If you do experience relief, after about a month you should be able to stop taking ibuprofen or other NSAIDs.If you don't see a benefit by three months, you're probably not going to. Next, don't miss these signs your joint pain could actually be a lot more serious.

There's a small mountain of scientific research exploring the potential health benefits of omega-3s, with those found in foodslike salmon and sardinesand fish oil supplements getting most of the attention as opposed to the omega-3s found in plant-based foods. That's because "omega-3 fatty acids, chiefly the long-chain polyunsaturated ones like DHA and EPA, are important in a variety of metabolic reactions that are involved in inflammation," says Coates.

What's clear is that "eating a diet rich in omega-3s is associated with better health outcomes than eating a diet poor in these compounds," he says. "Whether adding more omega-3s over and above those in the diet makes an additional difference is really the debate."

As for brain health, research suggests that diets high in DHA and EPA omega-3s are associated with a reduced risk of cognitive decline, Alzheimers disease, and dementia, according to the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. One study, published in 2003 in The British Journal of Nutrition, showed thatpatients with Alzheimers disease have lower levels of omega-3s (specifically, DHA) than cognitively healthy people. A review of studies published in 2015 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that consuming omega-3-rich fish and other sources of DHA lowered the risk for dementia and Alzheimers.

Why is honey so popular among the health-minded crowd? "It's a powerful energy source for our brain," says Keerthy Sunderxn, MD, psychiatrist and chief medical officer of New Day Psychotherapy Group and SUNDERMD & Associates.A review of studies, published in 2015 in Medical Sciences,showed that a specific type of honey called tualang improves memory and reduces cell-damaging oxidative stress in the brain. It also increases the protein BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), which is like fertilizer for the brain, triggering the growth of new neurons and helping repair and protect brain cells from degeneration. (Try making a habit of these 38 genius activities your 80-year-old brain will thank you for.)

A single chewable coffee cube can pack 50 milligrams of caffeinethe same as a cup of coffee. It also contains 500 percent of your recommended daily allowance of vitamins B6 and B12, 6 grams of sugar, and 100 milligrams of the amino acid L-theanine, whichenhances caffeine's effects, according toastudy published in 2014 in Nutrition Reviews.

The pairing of"L-theanine combined with caffeine might improve alertness and attention somewhat," says Haggans. "However, its not clear whether the combination is better than either of the compounds alone." Andgetting caffeine in such a concentrated form may not be the best idea; you may set yourself up for a potential caffeine overdose. Here's how much coffee you can safely drink.

Next up, make sure at least some of these 25 brain-boosting foods are among your diet staples.

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Rare pamphlet added to MASC Hogarth Press collection with employee bequest – WSU News

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By Nella Letizia, WSU Libraries

In 1942, Londons Hogarth Press published a pamphlet by British physician Isaac Harris called The Calcium Bread Scandal, a spirited denunciation of the Food Ministrys proposal of adding nutrients, including calcium, to bread as a way to fortify the health of the British public during wartime.

In any case, the disease [osteoporosis] is so rare that adding calcium to bread for this purpose [preventing osteoporosis] would be like burning a house in order to roast a pig, the good doctor wrote.

WSUs Manuscripts, Archives and Special Collections (MASC) recently acquired Harriss colorful and rare pamphlet, thanks to a $10,000 bequest of former MASC employee Leila Luedeking, who supported the Hogarth Press Collection as well as the Leonard and Virginia Woolf Library during her life.

While working at MASC from 1973 to 1998, Luedeking cataloged many of its rare book collections and especially contributed to the description of the Woolf Library. She served as a crucial resource for Woolf scholars in the United States and the United Kingdom who corresponded with the department. MASCs files include detailed letters and emails that Luedeking wrote to them.

She was a recognized expert on the work of Leonard Woolf and coauthored an important bibliography of his vast literary, political and critical publications, said Trevor Bond, WSU Libraries associate dean of digital initiatives and special collections. This work remains the standard source for Leonard Woolf.

With the acquisition of The Calcium Bread Scandal, MASC reached its goal of holding a copy of every title published by Hogarth Press from its founding by Virginia and Leonard Woolf in 1917 until Leonard sold his interest in the press in 1946, said special collections librarian Greg Matthews.

Harriss pamphlet has two parts: The first is his main diatribe against the Food Ministrys plan, which he explains in 10 points. The second reprints four letters Harris submitted to the editors of newspapers and medical journals arguing against the medical efficacy of adding nutritional supplements to bread. These pieces are more technical.

Harris objected to the Food Ministrys proposal for other reasons than the rarity of osteoporosis in the population. He also pointed out that Vitamin D aids the physiological absorption of calcium, so adding the mineral supplement without its necessary vitamin counterpart would be ineffective. Finally, Harris viewed the bread supplement scheme as a symptom of the very fascism the Allies were fighting against, Matthews said.

To-day it is one food crank who becomes the dictator; to-morrow there may be another, Harris wrote. To-day it is calcium; to-morrow, Heaven knows what else may be imposed upon us.

Matthews appreciates the doctors candor. Harriss writing style was clear as befits an expert writing for a general audience, though he exhibited a flair for simile and rousing rhetoric, encouraging his readers to resist the rise of tyranny at home, he said.

Luedeking came to Pullman in 1956 when her husband, Robert, was hired by WSU to teach chemical engineering. The couple raised five daughters here, and according to her obituary, Luedeking joined her husband at the university first as a graduate student and then as an employee in MASC when her youngest started preschool.

Colleagues who worked with Luedeking found her to be a good bibliographer. Rare books cataloger Julie King, who started working in MASC in 1986, remembers that Luedeking was involved at the start when MASC obtained the Woolf Library in the early 1970s.

Leila catalogued the bulk of the Woolf Library, King said. She was quite protective of the books, and rightly so. At the time, the Woolf Library was interfiled with the other books in MASC, and we have since collected it all into its own section in the book stacks, but Leila provided the foundation work.

Luedeking also initiated getting many MASC collections catalogued online, including those associated with Leonard and Virginia Woolf.

We were members of the Washington Library Network at the time, and Leila got us on the online format, King said. She and humanities librarian Ann Wierum were responsible for acquiring many of our English literature sub-collections: D.H. Lawrence, John Masefield, Vita Sackville-West, Henry James and others.

I could tell she was fussy about details, she added. I am, toothats what makes a good cataloguer, so I made sure to have everything just so.

Luedekings devotion to the Woolf collections didnt stop with her retirement in 1998; Bond said she regularly gave to MASC afterward until her death last November so that the department could continue to collect items.

I had the pleasure of working with Leila for a few months before she retired, he said. I remembered her as a quiet, sharp and dedicated colleague.

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2020 NutraIngredients-USA Product of the Year Winners –

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The awards cover 14 categories, including products of the year. These awards showcase the best in finished product innovations and market successes in specific categories, including omega-3, probiotic and sports nutrition.

The product of the year for Omega-3 recognizes the best branded or own-label supplements, foods and beverages containing omega-3 as a core ingredient.

Winner: Omega-3 with Xtra Absorb by Nature Made

Nature Made Omega-3 with Xtra Absorb technology is made with a specially designed emulsion system to enable nearly 4x better absorption than standard fish oil concentrate.

The judges viewed the smaller pills that can achieve therapeutic blood levels as somewhat of a game changer. This technology, coupled with impressive sales data, made for a winning product.

We are thrilled to have Nature Mades Omega-3 with Xtra Absorb named NutraIngredients Omega-3 Product of the year, commented Tobe Cohen, EVP, Chief Growth Officer at Pharmavite LLC, makers of Nature Made brand vitamins.This honor is a reflection of our deep commitment to delivering high-quality products rooted in science, a mission that is more important now than ever as Americans look for trusted and proven vitamins and supplements to bolster their health and wellness.

The Probiotic Product of the Year award celebrates the best branded or own-label supplements, functional foods and beverages containing probiotics. Interest in probiotics and the potential benefits of a healthy microbiome have led to multiple years of stellar growth for probiotic products.

Winner: Baby's Nordic Flora Probiotic Powder by Nordic Naturals

Babys Nordic Flora Probiotic Powder delivers digestive support for little ones 6-months to 3 years old and combines two extensively studied probiotic strainsLactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. Lactis.

The judges called this a well-thought out product for a clearly-defined and under-served category with two strains that are supported by solid science.

What great news! enthused Nick Noloboff, Senior Writer, Nordic Naturals. Winning Product of the Year for our Babys Probiotic Powder is especially meaningful to us given the work that Nordic Naturals has done to expand our supplement line and maintain the product quality that customers rely on. Ever since we introduced a higher standard of fish oil 25 years ago, innovation has been our thing. Weve always believed that with the right approach to ingredients and manufacturingand by always prioritizing qualitythe opportunity to innovate and excel is endless. Thanks for recognizing our commitment to making better supplements.

The Sports Nutrition Product of the Year is a new award for 2020, and it was as competitive as you might expect from such a category. Sports and active nutrition products are positioned for both niche athletic populations and the more mainstream active consumer.

This award celebrates the best branded or own-label supplements, functional foods and beverages positioned to enhance athletic performance and recovery.

Winner: 2before blackcurrant powder by 2before Performance Nutrition

2before is a berry juice powder providing a proven, efficacious dose of polyphenols from Adaptive New Zealand blackcurrants to deliver a significant sports performance improvement.

The judges appreciated the evidence behind this product, its clean sourcing story as well as its third-party lab certification.

Brendan Vercoe, Commercial Development Manager, Plant, New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research, toldNutraIngredients-USA that the award is an honor:Adaptive blackcurrants are a known elite sports nutrition ingredient in New Zealand, but we wanted to create a finished product that would resonate in the US market. So we set out to create a food first performance brand in a format that would allow athletes to create a new pre-ritual. We are extremely honored for NutraIngredients-USA to validate all the hard work we have put into both world-class research, but also ultimately a product that we hope can make a significant difference to athletic performance, recovery and immunity, as we count down a year to the Tokyo Olympics. We will continue to educate dietitians and athletes on the benefits of Adaptive New Zealand blackcurrants and seek to create a category for food first performance nutrition.

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An Overview Of EU Rules On Consumer Advertising Of Over-The-Counter Products In The Life Sciences Sector – Media, Telecoms, IT, Entertainment -…

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1. Introduction

Commentary on EU life science advertising regulation frequentlyfocuses on the rules applicable to advertisements for prescriptionproducts directed to healthcare professionals. Less iswritten about other types of products that form part of the EUhealthcare market, and the advertising restrictions that exist inrelation to the marketing of these products to consumers.While advertising restrictions on over-the-counter (OTC) productsare not, generally speaking, as detailed and stringent as thosewhich exist in relation to prescription medicines, it isnevertheless important to be aware of the regulatory framework thatapplies to consumer advertisements for such products. Thischapter is, therefore, intended to provide a summary of theoverarching EU regulatory framework for consumer advertisingof:

The European market for these OTC consumer healthcare productsis made up of over 2,000 companies.1 We summarisehere the general framework of law and industry codes of practicethat exist at EU level to regulate the advertising of thesecategories of products to consumers, with examples from nationalapproaches and commenting, where relevant, on recent developments.

At EU level, Directive 2005/29/EC on unfair commercialpractices2 (the UCP Directive) governsbusiness-to-consumer commercial practices relating to all kinds ofproducts and services including medicines, medical devices andfoods. In particular, the UCP Directive contains a broadprohibition on misleading and aggressive advertising. Forthese purposes, advertising is misleading if it contains falseinformation or in any way (including through overall presentation)deceives or is likely to deceive the average consumer (even if theinformation is factually correct) and causes or is likely to causehim to take a transactional decision that he would have otherwisenot taken. Aggressive commercial practices includeadvertising that applies undue influence, or pressure, in a waywhich significantly limits the consumer's ability to make aninformed decision. There are also restrictions on comparativeadvertising set out in Directive 2006/114/EC3 whichapply to advertising directed at consumers. The EU lawprovisions, as implemented in national laws, are enforcednationally through varying mechanisms; in some Member States it ispossible for companies to bring direct actions against competitors,whereas other countries require actions to be brought only byregulatory authorities. National laws may contain additionalrestrictions on both general and product-specific consumeradvertising.

Several pan-European industry bodies represent the interests ofmanufacturers of consumer healthcare products. These includethe Association of the European Self-Care Industry (AESGP), whichrepresents manufacturers of non-prescription medicines, foodsupplements and self-care medical devices in Europe, and theEuropean Federation of Associations of Health Product Manufacturers(EHPM), which represents specialist health product manufacturers inEurope. Individual companies may be affiliated with theseEuropean bodies directly or indirectly through nationalassociations. For example, the Dutch association representingmanufacturers of self-care products (Neprofarm) is a member ofAESGP while its trade association for operators concerned with foodsupplements (NPN) is a member of EHPM. Some national industrybodies are charged with operating self-regulatory systems ofadvertising control, and have their own enforcement mechanisms inplace. For example, in the UK, advertisements issued bycompanies who are members of the Proprietary Association of GreatBritain (PAGB) will, in the first instance, be supervised by thePAGB, whereas companies which have not agreed to abide by thePAGB's Codes of Practice will be supervised directly by theMedicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Inaddition to sector-specific enforcement agencies, advertising andpromotion of consumer health products is also subject toenforcement by bodies who enforce advertising standards generally,such as the UK Advertising Standards Agency (ASA).

The advertising to consumers of medicines not subject toprescription is regulated by the general advertising rules outlinedabove, and by Directive 2001/83/EC (the Directive) as implementedinto national laws. In addition, guidance is sometimesavailable at a national level from regulatoryauthorities,4 independent advertisingbodies,5 and industry associations.6There does not currently exist any pan-European industry code ofconduct applicable to the advertising of non-prescriptionmedicines,7 although AESGP represents the interests ofmanufacturers of non-prescription medicines at European level.

While advertising to the general public of prescription-onlymedicines is prohibited under the Directive, there is no suchrestriction in relation to non-prescription medicines.Provided they have a valid marketing authorisation and do notcontain any narcotic or psychotropic substances, non-prescriptionmedicines (including non-prescription herbal medicines) may,therefore, be advertised both to healthcare professionals and thegeneral public if they comply with the advertising requirements setout in the Directive, and with any further requirements containedin national law (discussed below). In addition to complyingwith the Directive's advertising rules applicable toprescription medicinal products, advertisements of non-prescriptionmedicines to the general public must also:

Advertisements for herbal medicinal products authorised by atraditional herbal registration must be accompanied by a noticestating "traditional herbal medicine for use in specificindication(s) exclusively based on long-standing use".

Homeopathic medicinal products must comply with the general EUlaw advertising requirements applicable to non-prescriptionmedicines, subject to additional limitations on the informationthat may be included in such advertisements. For example,advertisements for homeopathic medicines must include a statementthat the products are "without approved therapeuticindications".

Further restrictions on non-prescription medicines advertisingto consumers may be set out under national law and/or industrycodes. For example, French law prohibits advertising ofnon-prescription medicines to the general public where themedicines are reimbursed under the national social securityschemes. National industry codes of practice frequently setout detailed requirements specific to consumer advertising ofnon-prescription medicines. While compliance with such codesis not legally mandated, it is encouraged and represents industrybest practice. Compliance with the codes, which typicallyreflect and often elaborate on the legal requirements, is usually agood indication of compliance with legal requirements and thereforehelps to minimise enforcement action.

In some European countries, there is a requirement to obtainpre-approval from a regulatory body (e.g., the ANSM in France) oran industry body (e.g., the PAGB in the UK, where membercompanies' advertisements to consumers are concerned) beforeadvertisements for non-prescription medicines may be issued.Obtaining such approval further reduces the risk of enforcementaction for improper advertising.

There is little by way of EU law specifically directed towardsmedical devices advertising. Under the Medical DeviceDirective, only products that are CE-marked may be marketed inEurope, and only in accordance with their intended use. Theseprinciples extend to claims made in advertisements: to make amedicinal claim in an advertisement for a self-care medical device,the device must be CE-marked and the claim must be within the scopeof the device's intended use. Enforcement actions takenat national level in relation to self-care medical devices oftenconcern advertising that has made unauthorised use of medicinalclaims.

The Medical Devices Regulation8 introduces a specificprohibition on advertising that may mislead in relation to adevice's intended purpose, safety and performance.

The position under national laws is patchy, with some countrieshaving introduced laws to further regulate medical deviceadvertising (including, in some cases, laws that specificallygovern the advertising of self-care medical devices) beyond that ofthe EU-wide legislation.

In the context of industry self-regulation, it is important tonote that the Code of Ethical Business Practice issued by theEuropean medical device industry representative body, MedTechEurope, does not govern advertisements directed to consumers.However, several countries have issued national codes of conduct tothis effect; for example, the UK's PAGB Medical DevicesConsumer Code which is applicable to member companies'advertisements concerning self-care medical devices (those thattreat or prevent a self-treatable condition).

Food supplements are regulated as foods under EU law.Regulation (EC) No 1924/20069 (the Claims Regulation),which is directly effective in Member States, places strictcontrols on the use of nutrition and health claims on foodlabelling and in advertising. Under the ClaimsRegulation:

Under the Claims Regulation, only nutrition claims that arelisted in the Annex to the Regulation, and/or health claims thathave been authorised by the European Commission following aEuropean Food Safety Authority scientific review arepermitted. The only exception to these requirements is inrelation to claims that are trade marks (or brand or"fancy" names) and general, non-specific health claims(e.g., "good for you"). These claims may be usedwithout prior approval, provided they are "accompaniedby" an approved claim (which, in the case of a general healthclaim, must be an authorised specific health claim, such as thecalcium example given above).

The Claims Regulation is enforced at national level, andnational regulators have to date taken varying approaches in theirinterpretation of its requirements. A recent decision by theEuropean Court of Justice Case C-524/18Schwabe,10 which followed a referral from aGerman court, has helpfully clarified the meaning of the ClaimsRegulation's use of the phrase "accompaniedby". The European Court held that the concept of"accompanying" includes both a substantive and a visualdimension. The substantive element requires that the contentof the "general" health claim and the specific healthclaim match, meaning that the former is fully supported insubstance by the latter. In relation to the visual element,the Court held that this normally requires "spatial proximityor immediate vicinity" but that, exceptionally, a clearreference, such as an asterisk, between the two claims may suffice(e.g., in cases where the packaging of a food supplement contains areference to general, non-specific health benefits of a nutrient orfood on the front of the packaging, whereas the specific healthclaim intended to accompany it appears only on the back of thatpackaging). This is a more restrictive approach than thatwhich was preferred by the Advocate General,11 but willnevertheless help to inform a more uniform application of therelevant rules across Europe.

Also of importance to food supplements advertising in the EU isDirective 2002/46/EC (the Food Supplements Directive), whichprovides for specific marketing requirements relating to foodsupplements. These include that the labelling, presentationand advertising of food supplements:

There has been a recent flurry of activity by nationalregulators in some European countries in response to advertisementsfor food supplements that purport to prevent or treat infectionwith coronavirus/COVID-19. Such advertisements are contraryto the prohibition on medical claims contained in the FoodSupplements Directive, as implemented in national laws. Forexample, the Finnish Food Authority issued a statement in April2020, noting that marketing of foods (including food supplements)for the purpose of preventing or treating coronavirus had increasedsignificantly on the internet and social media, that these mustimmediately cease, and reminding commercial entities of their legalduties in this regard.13 In the UK, the ASA hasissued several recent decisions which uphold complaints made inrelation to advertisements claiming that various marketed vitamins,minerals and amino acids could help prevent or treatCOVID-19. For example, statements such as "Help protectand prevent against the new strand of virus (known as theCoronavirus) with a REVIV Megaboost IV Therapy containing ahigh dose of Vitamin C" were determined to be contrary to theapplicable regulatory requirements and the advertiser was orderedto remove the material, and refrain from making unauthorisedmedicinal claims going forward.14


1. (Hyperlink) [Accessed 20 May 2020].

2. Directive 2005/29/EC of the European Parliament and ofthe Council of 11 May 2005 concerning unfair business-to-consumercommercial practices in the internal market and amending CouncilDirective 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/ECof the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC)No 2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of theCouncil.

3. Directive 2006/114/EC of the European Parliament andof the Council of 12 December 2006 concerning misleading andcomparative advertising.

4. For example, the UK Medicines and Healthcare productsRegulatory Agency (MHRA) "Blue Guide".

5. For example, the UK Advertising Codes applied by theAdvertising Standards Authority (ASA).

6. For example, the UK PAGB's Advertising Codes forMedicines.

7. The European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industriesand Associations (EFPIA) Code of Practice does not apply toactivities relating solely to non-prescriptionmedicines.

8. Article 7 of Regulation (EU) No 2017/745 of theEuropean Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2017 on medicaldevices, amending Directive 2001/83/EC, Regulation (EC) No 178/2002and Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 and repealing Council Directives90/385/EEC and 93/42/EEC.

9. Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the EuropeanParliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition andhealth claims made on foods.

10. Case C-524/18, Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH &Co.KG v Queisser Pharma GmbH & Co. KG (30 January2020).

11. Opinion of Advocate General Hogan delivered on 12September 2019.

12. Articles 6(2) and 7 of Directive 2002/46/EC of theEuropean Parliament and of the Council of 10 June 2002 on theapproximation of the laws of the Member States relating to foodsupplements.

13. (Hyperlink) [Accessed 20 May2020].

14. ASA Ruling on REVIV UK Ltd (22 April 2020).Similar decisions were issued by ASA on the same day in relation toadvertisements by the Private Harley Street Clinic and CosmeticMedical Advice UK Ltd t/a Dr Rita Rakus Clinic.

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The content of this article is intended to provide a generalguide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be soughtabout your specific circumstances.

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