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Category Archives: Neurotechnology

New SentiVeillance 6.0 Improves Speed and Accuracy for Biometric Identification Using Surveillance Cameras – PR Newswire (press release)

Posted: March 21, 2017 at 12:00 pm

Because SentiVeillance 6.0 can process information from up to 10 surveillance cameras with one GPU, it provides faster, easier, more accurate identification of faces against watch lists, making it suitable for a wide range of surveillance applications.

As with previous versions, the new SentiVeillance also provides real-time moving object detection; tracking and classification for pedestrians, vehicles and other predefined object classes based on size and speed of movement; and area control that triggers "events" when people or objects enter, leave or stay in restricted areas.

The SentiVeillance 6.0 SDK is available through Neurotechnology or from distributors worldwide. For more information and trial version, go to: http://www.neurotechnology.com. As with all Neurotechnology products, the latest version is available as a free upgrade to existing SentiVeillance customers.

About NeurotechnologyNeurotechnology is a provider of high-precision software and development products for biometric fingerprint, face, iris, palmprint and voice identification; object recognition; AI and robotics. Drawing from years of academic research in the fields of neuroinformatics, image processing and pattern recognition, Neurotechnology was founded in 1990 in Vilnius, Lithuania and released its first fingerprint identification system in 1991. Since that time, the company has released more than 130 products and version upgrades for identification and verification of objects and personal identity. More than 3000 system integrators, security companies and hardware providers integrate Neurotechnology's algorithms into their products, with millions of customer installations worldwide.

Media ContactJennifer Allen Newton Bluehouse Consulting Group, Inc. +1-503-805-7540 jennifer (at) bluehousecg (dot) com

To view the original version on PR Newswire, visit:http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/new-sentiveillance-60-improves-speed-and-accuracy-for-biometric-identification-using-surveillance-cameras-300426744.html

SOURCE Neurotechnology

http://www.neurotechnology.com

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Several tech billionaires are openly or secretely funding broadband mind computer interfacing projects – Next Big Future

Posted: March 19, 2017 at 4:33 pm

Last year Bryan Johnson, founder of the online payments company Braintree, starting making news when he threw $100 million behind Kernel, a startup he founded to enhance human intelligence by developing brain implants capable of linking peoples thoughts to computers.

Johnson isnt alone in believing that neurotechnology could be the next big thing. To many in Silicon Valley, the brain looks like an unconquered frontier whose importance dwarfs any achievement made in computing or the Web.

According to neuroscientists, several figures from the tech sector are currently scouring labs across the U.S. for technology that might fuse human and artificial intelligence. In addition to Johnson, Elon Musk has been teasing a project called neural lace, which he said at a 2016 conference will lead to symbiosis with machines. And Mark Zuckerberg declared in 2015 that people will one day be able to share full sensory and emotional experiences, not just photos. Facebook has been hiring neuroscientists for an undisclosed project at Building 8, its secretive hardware division.

Even when speaking to a computer program like Alexa or Siri, you can convey at most about 40 bits per second of information and only for short bursts. Compare that to data transfer records of a trillion bits per second along a fiber-optic cable.

Ridiculously slow, Musk complained.

But it turns out that connecting to the brain isnt so easy. Six months after launching Kernel amid a media blitz, Johnson says hes dropped his initial plans for a memory implant, switched scientific advisors, hired a new team, and decided to instead invest in developing a more general-purpose technology for recording and stimulating the brain using electrodes.

Johnson says he concluded that Bergers memory implant work is really interesting, but not an entry point into a commercially viable business.

DARPA says it is close to announcing $60 million in contracts under a program to create a high-fidelity brain interface able to simultaneously record from one million neurons (the current record is about 200) and stimulate 100,000 at a time.

Johnson declined to describe the specifics of Kernels technological approach to connecting with the brain, as did Boyden and Wentz. However, the team members have been working on well-identified problems. Wentz has been involved with developing electronics for high-speed reading of data emitted by wireless implants. Already, the flow of information that can be collected from a mouses brain in real time outruns what a laptop computer can handle. The team also needs a way to interface with the human brain. Boydens lab has worked on several concepts to do so, including needle-shaped probes with tiny electrodes etched onto their surface. Another idea is to record neural activity by threading tiny optical fibers through the brains capillaries, an idea roughly similar to Musks neural lace.

Under a concept that Boyden calls brain coprocessors, it may be possible to create closed-loop systems that detect certain brain signalssay, those associated with depressionand shock the brain to reverse them.

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This therapy may balance brain signals to reduce blood pressure, migraines – Knowridge Science Report

Posted: March 17, 2017 at 7:26 am

A noninvasive neurotechnology, which uses sound to balance right- and left-side brain frequencies was associated with lowered blood pressure, improved heart rate variability, and reduced symptoms of migraine headaches.

The neurotechnology is called High-resolution, relational, resonance based, electroencephalic mirroring, or HIRREM (Brain State Technologies, Scottsdale, Arizona).

It uses sensors placed on the scalp to measure brain electrical activity, and detect right/left imbalances, or hyperarousal.

Most people have relatively balanced electrical activity between the right side and left sides of the brain, the lead author Shaltout said.

Imbalance, with one side dominant, or more active, may reflect autonomic dysregulation associated with the effects of chronic stress, which is thought to play a role in high blood pressure, migraines, insomnia, depression, hot flashes and more.

In real time, HIRREM monitors brain electrical activity and translates dominant brain frequencies into computer-generated audible tones that are reflected back simultaneously via ear buds.

Gradually, and on its own, with no conscious, cognitive activity required, the electrical pattern tends to shift towards improved balance and reduced hyperarousal, Shaltout said.

In one study, researchers looked at HIRREMs impact on 10 men and women with stage one hypertension at the start of the study.

After an average of 17.7 HIRREM sessions received over 10.2 in-office days, hypertensive patients showed an average reduction in their systolic blood pressure, from 152 to 136 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), and a reduction in their diastolic pressure from 97 to 81 mmHg.

Insomnia severity improved in the small study group, and anxiety seemed to improve.

The researchers also found that heart rate variability increased from an average 42 to 57 milliseconds, which is a good thing, Shaltout said. Heart rate variability refers to variations in the interval between heartbeats.

The more flexibility and dynamic range the body has to be able to change the heart rate in response to the blood pressure, the better, Shaltout said.

In another study, the researchers examined the effect of HIRREM on 52 adults who had reported they suffered from migraines. The patients studied received 15.9 sessions over nine in-office days.

Comparing the data they collected before the therapy to two weeks after, researchers found patients reported improvements for insomnia, mood, and headaches.

These results are the first to suggest that HIRREM could offer cardiovascular as well as behavioral benefits in the treatment of high blood pressure.

More research is needed to verify these preliminary findings, Shaltout said.

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News source: AHA. The content is edited for length and style purposes. Figure legend: This Knowridge.com image is for illustrative purposes only.

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Stryker Corporation named one of Fortune Magazine’s 100 Best Companies to Work For for seventh consecutive year – Yahoo Finance

Posted: March 12, 2017 at 8:19 pm


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Stryker Corporation named one of Fortune Magazine's 100 Best Companies to Work For for seventh consecutive year
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The Company offers a diverse array of innovative products and services in Orthopaedics, Medical and Surgical, and Neurotechnology and Spine that help improve patient and hospital outcomes. Stryker is active in over 100 countries around the world ...
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Stryker Corporation named one of Fortune Magazine's 100 Best Companies to Work For for seventh consecutive year - Yahoo Finance

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How to ensure future brain technologies will help and not harm society – USAPP American Politics and Policy (blog)

Posted: March 11, 2017 at 8:19 am

Thomas Edison, one of the great minds of the second industrial revolution, once said that the chief function of the body is to carry the brain around. Understanding the human brain how it works, and how it is afflicted by diseases and disorders is an important frontier in science and society today.

Advances in neuroscience and technology increasingly impact intellectual wellbeing, education, business, and social norms. Recent findings confirm the plasticity of the brain over the individuals life. Imaging technologies and brain stimulation technologies are opening up totally new approaches in treating disease and potentially augmenting cognitive capacity. Unravelling the brains many secrets will have profound societal implications that require a closer contract between science and society.

Convergence across physical science, engineering, biological science, social science and humanities has boosted innovation in brain science and technological innovation. It offers large potential for a systems biology approach to unify heterogeneous data from omics tools, imaging technologies such as fMRI, and behavioural science.

Citizen science the convergence between science and society already proved successful in EyeWire where people competed to map the 1,000-neuron connectome of the mouse retina. Also, the use of nanoparticles as coating of implanted abiotic devices offers great potential to improve the immunologic acceptance of invasive diagnostics. Brain-inspired neuromorphic engineering aims to develop novel computer systems with brain-like characteristics, including low energy consumption, adequate fault tolerance, self-learning capabilities, and some sort of intelligence. Here, the convergence of nanotechnology with neuroscience could help building neuro-inspired computer chips; brain-machine interfaces and robots with artificial intelligence systems.

Future opportunities for cognitive enhancement for improved attentiveness, memory, decision making, and control through, for example, non-invasive brain stimulation and neural implants have raised, and shall continue to raise, profound ethical, legal, and social questions. What is societally acceptable and desirable, both now and in the future?

At a recent OECD workshop, we identified five possible systemic changes that could help speed up neurotechnology developments to meet pressing health challenges and societal needs.

There is growing interest in discussing and unpacking the ethical and societal aspects of brain science as the technologies and applications are developed. Much can be learned from other experiences in disruptive innovation. The international Human Genome Project (1990-2003), for example, was one of the earlier large-scale initiatives in which social scientists worked in parallel with the natural sciences in order to consider the ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI) of their work.

The deliberation of ELSI and Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in nanotechnologies is another example of how societies, in some jurisdictions, have approached R&D activities, and the role of the public in shaping, or at least informing, their trajectory. RRI knits together activities that previously seemed sporadic. According to Jack Stilgoe, Senior Lecturer in the Department of Science and Technology Studies, University College London, the aim of responsible innovation is to connect the practice of research and innovation in the present to the futures that it promises.

Frameworks, such as ELSI and RRI should more actively engage patients and patient organisations early in the development cycle, and in a meaningful way. This could be achieved through continuous public platforms and policy discussion instead of traditional one-off public engagement and the deliberation of scientific advances and ELSI through culture and art.

Research funders public agencies, private investors, foundations, as well as universities themselves are particularly well positioned to shape trajectories of technology and society. Through their funding power, they have unique capacity to help place scientific work within social, ethical, and regulatory contexts.

It is an opportune time for funders to: 1) strengthen the array of approaches and mechanisms for building a robust and meaningful neurotechnology landscape that meaningfully engages human values and is informed by it; 2) discuss options to foster open and responsible innovation; and 3) better understand the opportunities and challenges for building joint initiatives in research and product development.

Society and industry would benefit from earlier, and more inclusive, discussions about the ethical, legal and social implications of how neurotechnologies are being developed and their entry onto the market. For example, the impact of neuromodulatory devices that promise to enhance cognition, alter mood, or improve physical performance on human dignity, privacy, and equitable access could be considered earlier in the research and development process.

Given the significant investment risks and high failure rates of clinical trials in central nervous systems disorders, companies could adopt more open innovation approaches in which public and private stakeholders actively collaborate, share assets including intellectual property, and invest together.

Popular media is full of colourful brain images used to illustrate stories about neuroscience. Unproven health claims, including those which give rise to so-called neuro-hype and neuro-myths. Misinformation is a strong possibility where scientific work potentially carries major social implications (for example, work on mental illness, competency, intelligence, etc).

It has the potential to result in public mistrust and to undermine the formation of markets. There is a need for evidence-based policies and guidelines to help the responsible development and use of neurotechnology in medical practice and in over-the-counter products. Policymakers and regulators could lead the development of a clear path to translate neurotechnology discoveries into human health advantages that are commercially viable and sustainable.

Policymakers should discuss the socio-economic questions raised by neurotechnology. Rising disparities in access to often high-priced medical innovation require tailored solutions for poorer countries. The development of public-private partnerships and simplification of technology help access to innovation in resource-limited countries.

In addition to helping people with neurological and psychiatric disorders, the biggest cause of disability worldwide, neurotechnologies will shape every aspect of society in the future. A roadmap for guiding responsible research and innovation in neurotechnology may be transformative.

Notes:

P. Murali Doraiswamy Leading expert in brain and behavioural sciences, health innovation and mobile medical technologies. Professor of Psychiatry and Medicine, Duke University Health System. Member of corporate and non-profit boards. Adviser to several health and technology businesses.

Hermann GardenOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Working Party on Biotechnology, Nanotechnology and Converging Technologies

David WinickoffOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Working Party on Biotechnology, Nanotechnology and Converging Technologies

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Stryker’s Spine division to exhibit key technologies at AAOS 2017 – OrthoSpineNews

Posted: at 8:19 am

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ALLENDALE, N.J.(BUSINESS WIRE)Strykers Spine division today announced that it will demonstrate its Aero-C Cervical Stability System (Aero-C) and Xia 4.5 Cortical Trajectory implants and instruments (Xia CT) at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) Annual Meeting, March 1518, 2017, in San Diego (booth No. 3133).

Aero-C, the only straight forward anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) device that offers uniform compression across the interbody space, will be displayed at AAOS 2017, highlighting its full commercial launch. Using Aerofoil Compression Technology, Aero-C is designed to pull the vertebral bodies toward the implant as it is inserted, creating compressive forces at the implant-to-endplate interface.1 Aerofoil Compression Technology is also available for lateral and anterior lumbar interbody fusion procedures (LLIF and ALIF). Since the initial introduction to the market, over 600 cases have been completed.

Also to be demonstrated at AAOS is Xia CT, which includes implants and instruments used in less invasive LITe LIF posterior lumbar interbody fusion procedures for patients with degenerative disc disease, spondylolisthesis, and trauma. The cortical trajectory procedure facilitates a smaller midline incision to help achieve decompression, fixation, and fusion.2 It also is intended to be more muscle sparing than standard open procedures that require lateral dissection, and its reduced incision may allow for more efficient exposure and closure time.2 The launch of the Xia CT system occurred in 2016, with 575 cases completed to date.

Since their introduction last year, Aero-C and Xia CT have been well received by our surgeon customers and have achieved rapid adoption in the marketplace, said Bradley Paddock, President of Strykers Spine division. These unique products reflect our strong commitment to advancing spine health and helping to enhance outcomes for patients by providing physicians with innovative and differentiated technology.

Aero-C and Xia CT offer advancements that highlight the Spine divisions leadership in pioneering innovative technologies for traditional and minimally invasive surgical techniques. The company offers one of the most comprehensive and diverse product portfolios for the treatment of degenerative and complex spinal disorders. Its suite of leading-edge products includes implants, instruments, and biologics for the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine.

About Stryker

Stryker is one of the worlds leading medical technology companies and, together with our customers, we are driven to make healthcare better. The Company offers a diverse array of innovative products and services in Orthopaedics, Medical and Surgical, and Neurotechnology and Spine that help improve patient and hospital outcomes. Stryker is active in over 100 countries around the world. Please contact us for more information atwww.stryker.com.

References

Indications for Use

The AERO-C Cervical Cage is indicated for use in cervical interbody fusion procedures in skeletally mature patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) at one level from the C2-C3 disc to the C7-T1 disc. The AERO-C Cervical Cage System is to be used with autogenous bone graft and/or allogenic bone graft comprised of cancellous and/or corticocancellous bone graft, and is to be implanted via an open, anterior approach.

The Xia CT implants and instruments are intended for anterior/anterolateral and posterior, non-cervical pedicle and non-pedicle fixation for the following indications: Degenerative Disc Disease (as defined by back pain of discogenic origin with degeneration of the disc confirmed by patient history and radiographic studies); spondylolisthesis; trauma (i.e. fracture or dislocation); spinal stenosis; curvatures (i.e., scoliosis, kyphosis, and/or lordosis); tumor; pseudarthrosis; failed previous fusion.

Content ID: CVAER-PR-2_13458

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Preview: MedX Future of Healthcare conference – The Mancunion

Posted: at 8:19 am

Photo: ReThinkX

The MedX Future of Healthcare conference will be held on 25th March at Citylabs 1.0, ran by ReThinkX, which aims to bridge the gap between the next generation and leaders of the field and to create an accessible medium to showcase the technology at the forefront of healthcare.

Tariq Ramtoola, Director of ReThinkX, says: We will have speaker panels running in the same time as workshops in order for people to feel more free to choose what mood they are in: listening to innovative speakers, be more hands on, be enthusiastic and debate, or even just relax in the chill-out area. There will be something for everybody!

We think traditional conferences are too rigid and set the agenda for attendees, says Ramtoola on the format of the conference.

Keynotes on the day include Hugo Mercier, CEO & co-founder of Rythm, a neurotechnology company that has made the first active wearable headband to help improve sleep. The Dreem headband is due to be available to consumers soon.

Also speaking is Dr Pablo Rojo, a Paediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist from Madrid. Previously Dr Rojo is part of the EPIICAL project, which aims to provide new therapeutics to early treated HIV-infected children, and has published over 80 peer-reviewed articles in his career.

Unlike other events of its kind, the MedX conference is free for students, but limited priced tickets are available for academics and professionals in the healthcare field. Explaining this decision, Ramtoola says that ReThinkX wanted to put great emphasis on accessibility.

Workshops will also be held throughout the day, including one by GMC which will challenge the ethical implications of social media and a digital world, led by Tista Chakravarty-Gannon, GMCs Principal Regional Liaison Advisor.

Bella Eacott, Research and Curriculum Manager at Clod Ensemble, and Suzy Wilson, Director of Performing Medicine, an education programme led by a theatre company will be holding a Circle of Care workshop, looking at art based methods in healthcare education.

In the future, ReThinkX hope to grow the conference so that it spans two days with 500 to 1000 delegates.

We are working with Manchester entrepreneurs, Manchester Science Partnerships and the North-West Biotech Initiative to create an entrepreneurship academy focused on small scale innovation, Ramtoola says.

Tickets are available here.

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Stryker’s Spine Division To Feature Novel 3D-Printed Spinal Implants at AAOS Conference – OrthoSpineNews

Posted: March 8, 2017 at 1:28 pm

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Allendale, N.J.March 8, 2017Strykers Spine division will feature its 3D-printed Tritanium Posterior Lumbar (PL) Cage and introduce a variety of new cage sizes at the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) Annual Meeting, March 15-18, 2017, in San Diego (booth No. 3133).

Strykers Tritanium PL Cage launch initially included four footprint options, eight height options, and two lordosis options. The company now offers several additional sizes based on surgeon needs and requests, including a hyper-lordotic (12) cage option, as well as two new footprints9 x 32 mm and 11 x 32 mm.

During the conference, Strykers proprietary Tritanium In-Growth Technology will be featured in a virtual reality tour, providing surgeons with a unique perspective on how 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, allows the company to produce highly porous implants that would be difficult or impossible to create using traditional manufacturing techniques.

Tritanium Technology allows for the creation of porous structures designed to mimic cancellous bone in pore size, level of porosity, and interconnectivity of the pores.1 This precise randomization1 of fully interconnected pores differs from other technologies featuring longitudinal channels and traverse windows that result in a uniform lattice structure, as well as cages offering porosity that is only present on the surface.

Stryker is a pioneer in 3D additive manufacturing, investing nearly 15 years in research and development, said Strykers Spine division President Bradley Paddock. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques, the flexibility of our 3D additive manufacturing capabilities allows us to precisely engineer and produce porous Tritanium devices. We are excited to continue growing our unique suite of Tritanium spinal products.

Also at AAOS, results will be presented from a pre-clinical animal study that evaluated the biomechanical performance and bone in-growth potential of various lumbar interbody fusion implants utilizing different materials, including the Tritanium PL Cage. Preliminary results of the study were presented at the North American Spine Society conference in October 2016. (Click here to access the Tritanium pre-clinical study summary.)

The Tritanium PL Cage features fully interconnected pores that span endplate to endplate. Its large lateral windows and open architecture allow visualization of fusion on CT and X-ray,2 and its solid-tipped, precisely angled serrations are designed to allow for bidirectional fixation and to maximize surface area for endplate contact with the cage. Additional spinal implants based on Strykers Tritanium Technology are in development.

About StrykerStryker is one of the worlds leading medical technology companies and, together with our customers, we are driven to make healthcare better. The Company offers a diverse array of innovative products and services in Orthopaedics, Medical and Surgical, and Neurotechnology and Spine that help improve patient and hospital outcomes. Stryker is active in over 100 countries around the world. For more information, visitwww.stryker.com or http://www.stryker.com/builttofuse.

Media ContactBarbara Sullivan, Sullivan & Associatesbsullivan@sullivanpr.com, 714/374-6174

Editors note: For images, video footage, or animation of the Tritanium PL Cage and Strykers 3D additive manufacturing process, contact Barbara Sullivan at bsullivan@sullivanpr.com or 714/374-6174.A backgrounder is available at http://www.stryker.com/builttofuse.

References

Content ID: TRITA-PR-6_13360

Stryker Corporation or its divisions or other corporate affiliated entities own, use or have applied for the following trademarks or service marks: AMagine, Stryker, Tritanium. All other trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners or holders.

Josh Sandberg has been an executive search consultant focused exclusively on orthopedic and spine start-ups since 2004. He has had a tremendous impact in helping his clients avoid costly hiring mistakes by his deep industry knowledge and network. In 2010, Josh co-founded Ortho Spine Companies, which is the parent company of Ortho Spine Distributors (OSD), Surg.io and Ortho Sales Partners (OSP). OSD a searchable database that helps ease the frustration of finding orthopedic distributors throughout the country. Surg.io is the ultimate distributor toolkit that offers distributors the tools necessary to build the foundation of a scalable and highly functioning sales organization. OSP is an end-to-end solution that helps companies approach the Global Market in a cost efficient way. Our team has hundreds of years of experience and can help you navigate the many challenges present in bringing new technologies to the market.

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RBC Capital Markets Boosts Stryker Co. (SYK) Price Target to $135.00 – Chaffey Breeze

Posted: at 1:28 pm

RBC Capital Markets Boosts Stryker Co. (SYK) Price Target to $135.00
Chaffey Breeze
The Company offers a range of medical technologies, including orthopedic, medical and surgical, and neurotechnology and spine products. The Company's segments include Orthopaedics; MedSurg; Neurotechnology and Spine, and Corporate and Other.

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Paralysis patients achieve fastest typing yet with new brain-computer interface – The Brown Daily Herald

Posted: March 7, 2017 at 10:26 pm

Even simple communication is a constant struggle for paralyzed patients, but a collaborative project from BrainGate neurotechnology researchers, which included scientists from Brown, recently found a way for these patients to type at the fastest speeds achieved yet.

Imagined actions, such as moving a cursor across an on-screen keyboard and selecting a letter, have become a reality for paralyzed patients with the help of a brain-computer interface.

Researchers implanted a tiny array of 100 electrodes in the brain so only the top of a silver plug was visible outside the patients skull. These electrodes recorded the firing of certain cells inside the brain and sent the information through a series of wires and connectors to reach a decoder a computer system that interprets the information, said Leigh Hochberg 90, professor of engineering.

The most recent data from the ongoing research shows that typing assisted by brain-computer interfaces is approaching speeds that would be useful for the public, Hochberg said. For patients who cannot move or speak, even the ability to say yes or no is meaningful communication, he added.

The three subjects were able to type at 1.4 to 4.2 times the speeds previously achieved by paralysis patients using similar systems, according to the study. With the interface, one subject reached a typing speed of nearly eight words per minute. All three typed at rates above 3.5 words per minute, which would satisfy the majority of paralysis patients, wrote Chethan Pandarinath, postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University and lead author of the study, in an email to The Herald.

Though these typing speeds are the fastest yet, they remain painfully slow, said Elizabeth Tyler-Kabara, director of the Neural Enhancement Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh. Predictive typing systems, like those that complete your words and phrases as you text, might increase those speeds dramatically, she added.

Advances in machine learning and artificial intelligence could also enhance the interfaces, allowing for more natural control, Pandarinath wrote.

The interface is not yet a marketable device, said Paul Nuyujukian, director of the Brain Interfacing Laboratory at Stanford and co-author of the study. The interface needs to be able to work anywhere, without wires or a trained technician, he added.

Still, this increase in typing speed is a hugely significant increase, said Michael Boninger, vice chair for research at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Theres no doubt that this brain-computer interface work has the ability to be transformative.

Researchers in multiple locations across the country have engaged in human research with this implanted chip since around 2004, Hochberg said. More recently, the team developed algorithms for the decoder that allowed subjects to point and click on a screen, he added.

BrainGate researchers and other experts not involved with the project noted the studys reliance on the research participants. Through their generous feedback about the device, they allow scientists to help more people with paralysis in the future, Hochberg said.

The subjects are heroic, Nuyujukian said. All of medicine owes them a huge debt of gratitude.

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