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Category Archives: Moon Colonization

Gaze up tonight and remember the moon landing – Lynchburg News and Advance

Posted: July 21, 2020 at 12:08 pm

If all goes well, another Virginian will touch Mars indirectly first. On July 30, NASA is set to launch a robotic rover to Mars. Its name, Perseverance, was submitted by Alexander Mather, a 7th-grader at Lake Braddock Secondary School in Fairfax County. If it lands safely in February, Perseverance will search for signs of past microbial life on the red planet, something Cardman likely has a special interest in.

The real question about when humans return to the moon, and go onto Mars, isnt a technological one, but a political one. Are we willing to pay for it?

Our record for sustained funding science is spotty at best. Trump has been gung-ho about space, but Congress hasnt necessarily shared that enthusiasm. The 2024 goal seems driven entirely by politics. Of course, so was Kennedys goal to put a man on the moon by the end of the 60s, just a slightly different kind of politics. We know Trump is keen to meet that 2024 deadline; would a President Biden feel the same way? No clue, but since Kennedy, Democrats have been more interested in spending money on earth, not off it.

Its unclear whether that 2024 deadline can be met. The website Axios recently quoted one of the nations space policy experts, John Logsdon, of George Washington University, as saying: I think basically, making 2024 would be a miracle. Axios then proceeded to list all the reasons why basically delays in funding and testing.

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Gaze up tonight and remember the moon landing - Lynchburg News and Advance

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NASA ties up with JAXA to build a rover for astronauts on the moon – Blasting News United States

Posted: at 12:08 pm

The American Space Agency, NASA has decided to link up with Japan's Aerospace Exploration Agency JAXA to build a moon rover for the movement of astronauts on the alien planet. JAXA designed one such vehicle with Toyota in 2019 and it impressed NASA. The vehicle runs on Renewable Energy like solar power, which would be the most probable source of energy for missions to other planets. It has already proven its usefulness on Mars where Curiosity has been operating 24X7 for nearly five years. Another lander on Mars is InSight, which is a later addition. These robotic applications depend on solar power and JAXAs vehicle could join the inventory of NASA.

The Firstpost says NASA took a decision to join hands with JAXA to set the stage for a permanent human presence on the Moon. The two sides have formalized an agreement. It will ensure the involvement of JAXA to the Lunar Gateway, apart from exploration in orbit and on the lunar surface. Perhaps NASA will put its earlier plans on the backburner. Those related to inflatable tents and underground bases. JAXA could also be involved in other activities of the Artemis mission. This mission is for Americans to revisit the Moon by 2024 and land the first woman there.

America sent the first man to the Moon half a century back and it now wants to repeat the performance with a woman.

NASA has changed its strategy. Instead of going it alone, it wants to collaborate with commercial and international partners. The intention is to establish sustainable exploration by the end of the decade.

The first target of NASA is the Moon followed by Mars by 2033. It wanted to use pressurized surface vehicles for use by astronauts in the Artemis mission. However, Toyota was on course to develop a mobile home that could operate on the Moon in consultation with JAXA. That impressed NASA. The Japanese space agency announced last year that the vehicle was a two-seater but it could probably accommodate more after modifications.

There is no clarification on that aspect.

Firstpost quotes NASA engineer Mark Kirasich saying, "This thing is the coolest element Ive ever seen for people. It's like an RV for the Moon. We are going to try and develop this jointly with JAXA, as a Japanese contribution to our plan." He said this while laying out the plans the agency had for conducting activities on the lunar surface. Obviously, renewable energy and artificial intelligence would play vital roles. Any work related to outer space and colonization of distant planets is a cost-intensive affair.

Hence, a joint venture between NASA and JAXA would be economical. This is a plus point in its favor.

According to Republic World, the American space agency is fine-tuning its Artemis program. The agency NASA plans to land the first woman and a man to the moon by 2024. It needs a vehicle that will take care of the movements of astronauts on the alien surface. They will live and work inside while traveling across the moon. The six-wheeler vehicle will be self-driven and depend on solar power. NASA is relying on outsiders to chip in with their expertise on important cost-intensive projects. It has announced the names of three companies that could design and develop human landing systems (HLS) for its Artemis program.

NASA will select one of these for its lunar mission. Incidentally, SpaceX is one of the companies entrusted with the work and it is already providing its spacecraft for movement of astronauts to and from the International Space Station. The company, owned by Elon Musk, has established the concept of reusable rockets to introduce economy in space research.

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NASA ties up with JAXA to build a rover for astronauts on the moon - Blasting News United States

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More than 1,000 senior US police officers have visited Israel. Here’s what they learn from Israel’s police force and why it’s controversial. – JTA…

Posted: at 12:08 pm

(JTA) In June, as protests against aggressive and abusive policing in the United States took hold, so did a false accusation about a group of programs that sends American police chiefs to learn from their counterparts in Israel.

The tactics used by the police in America, kneeling on George Floyds neck, that was learnt from seminars with Israeli secret services, a British actress told a newspaperin one illustrative incident. A member of the British Parliament was demoted for sharing the story laudingly on social media.

Over the past couple of months, the accusation has popped up elsewhere. Its the latest version of a claim that has circulated in anti-Zionist circles for years that U.S. police delegations to Israel serve to import brutal and militarized policing to the U.S.

The organizations running the trips say that beyond being false the trips do not teach physical, on-the-ground tactics such as chokeholds the claim that Israel encourages American police brutality is an anti-Semitic canard.

These types of instances existed long before any of these professional leadership exchanges happened, and are part and parcel of the history of the U.S., said George Selim, senior vice president of programs at the Anti-Defamation League, which runs police delegations to Israel, regarding American police brutality. Seeking to link Israel as a state to U.S. police misconduct is a bizarre excuse for the centuries-long history of racism and injustice that has been part of American history, really since our founding.

The main organization opposing the delegations has been Jewish Voice for Peace, or JVP, an anti-Zionist group that published a 2018 report calling the trips a Deadly Exchange. The report says they normalize the violent repression of communities and movements the government defines as threatening.

Based on the report, JVP has campaigned for an end to police delegations to Israel, and has succeeded in banning them and other international police exchanges in Durham, North Carolina. It also has successfully pressured two New England police officials to withdraw from delegations.

Now JVP is seeking to temper the anti-Israel criticism tied to recent protests of police brutality. In a June update to its Deadly Exchange campaign, JVP said that Suggesting that Israel is the start or source of American police violence or racism shifts the blame from the United States to Israel and furthers an antisemitic ideology.

But JVP is still campaigning against the trips not, they say, as the driver of police abuse in the United States but because the group says such exchanges allow police forces from two countries with histories of racial discrimination and allegations of oppressive policing to swap strategies.

On these trips its about sharing and swapping ideas and tactics, but thats not to say that the mission from the United States officials wasnt there to begin with, said Stefanie Fox, JVPs executive director. Its like, oh great, then lets adapt this and adopt this to the practice were already trying to do of surveillance and of suppression of protest and of racial profiling.

Trip organizers and participants, however, say thats a fundamental mischaracterization of the trips. They say the trips, which are far from unique among international police exchanges, expose participants to a variety of policing practices in Israel, from surveillance systems to models for community policing in minority communities. The itineraries, they add, mostly consist of lectures, meetings and tours.

What we do is focus on management and policy issues, not training, not specific tactical training, said Steven Pomerantz, director of the Homeland Security Program at the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, or JINSA, a conservative think tank that runs some of the delegations. Theres no shooting, theres no wrestling, theres no chokeholds. Thats just not what this is about. Its about the constituent parts of successful law enforcement [and] counterterrorism responsibilities in local policing.

Tammy Gillies, the Anti-Defamation Leagues San Diego regional director, meets with Palestinian police officials in Jericho during a 2019 delegation. (Courtesy of the ADL)

A focus on counterterrorism in a post-9/11 world

The delegations to Israel began in the 1990s and ramped up after the Sept. 11 attacks in 2001. The sponsoring organizations and their Israeli partners frame the trips as an opportunity for American police to learn from a country and police force with many decades of experience protecting civilian populations from attack.

There was a lot of interest, and still is, in understanding the Israeli approach to terrorism and counterterrorism, said Robbie Friedmann, who runs the Georgia International Law Enforcement Exchange, a program at Georgia State University that takes senior police officers on delegations to Israel and elsewhere. Delegations learn about the need to provide balance between fighting terror and providing services, so that if someone gets their apartment burglarized, they know thats something the Israel Police will take care of.

More than 1,000 participants, mostly senior law enforcement officials, have gone on the trips, which are primarily provided by Friedmanns program, the ADL and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs. Each organization has taken several hundred police officials to Israel, a small fraction of the leaders of the approximately 18,000 police departments in the United States. The trips are generally privately funded and are free for participants, though none of the organizations would share the exact sources of the funding or the costs of the trip.

Israel is far from the only country to host a delegation of police officials from abroad. Foreign police officers come to the United States to see how police forces here operate, and countries across the world also host delegations. Friedmanns group has run tours in countries throughout Europe and South America, as well as in China, Australia and elsewhere.

And the trips are just one example of a whole industry of delegations to Israel. Jewish organizations regularly offer Israel trips to politicians, community activists, celebrities, students, business executives and an array of others. As with those trips, part of the goal of the police delegations is to acquaint the participants with Israel and give them a favorable view of the country.

The main goal of the trips, across the groups that organize them, is to share Israeli expertise in counterterrorism. Organizers say the trips are about observation, policy and systems, not about doing active-duty training or teaching American officers physical maneuvers.

In Israel in general, confronted with the kind of threats they are, theyre still very resilient, said Lou Dekmar, the chief of police of LaGrange, Georgia, and the past president of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, who has been on several delegations to Israel. How important it is, when there is a crime or an attack, to quickly address it, process it and reintroduce a state of normalcy.

But American officials do get to see their Israeli counterparts in action. The field of counterterrorism in Israel covers a range of topics, from responding to a terror attack in real time to gathering intelligence to policing mass protests. In addition to the Israel Police, some of the trips meet with the Border Police, which patrols the border with the West Bank, as well as the Israel Security Service, or Shin Bet, and the army.

Some trips take officers on a tour of Israels surveillance system in eastern Jerusalem, as well as study how to clear the scene of a terror attack so that normal life can resume. The excursions emphasize efficient sharing of intelligence between the Israeli military and police, as well as the importance of having defined procedures in place at West Bank border crossings for Palestinians who enter Israel. Delegations also visit Israels National Police Academy, where they view training in action.

A 2019 itinerary from the ADL, for example, had the delegation observe security procedures at Ben Gurion Airport, a West Bank checkpoint and eastern Jerusalem, in addition to visiting the Gaza border and the Palestinian police. The delegation also visited Israels Police Academy and other Israeli police institutions, the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum, and Christian and Jewish religious sites.

Chief Janet Moon of the Peachtree City, Georgia, Police Department, who visited Israel with Friedmanns institute in 2015, remembers watching training on how police officers shoot at a moving vehicle.

No matter where you go in the world, law enforcement is law enforcement, she said. They have the same challenges with budgeting, resource allocation, community policing. And theyve been dealing with terrorism a lot longer than we have.

The Deadly Exchange campaign: Expos or anti-Semitism?

An interest in counterterrorism is not the only thing that Israeli and American police have in common. As in the United States, minorities in Israel have long complained of mistreatment from law enforcement, though in the case of Israels Arab minority, one recent protest movement called for more policing in Arab cities.

Israel Police officers also have been accused of profiling both Arab and Ethiopian Israelis, and recent years have seen large protests by the Ethiopian community against police brutality.

For participants in these programs, the extensive itineraries and opportunities for observation are seen as a benefit because Israeli and U.S. police face similar challenges regarding crowd control, detection of terror threats, airport security and patrolling diverse populations. But to critics of the trips, who already oppose much of how Israel and America practice policing, the combination of the two is damning.

Militarized, racist, violent policing in this country, rooted in centuries of colonization and slavery and warmaking here in the U.S., alongside Israeli occupation and the brutality enacted against Palestinians there theres no good sense in which those governments should be trading and cross training and developing relationships with one another, the JVPs Fox said.

Her groups Deadly Exchange report claims that the trips goals include justifying racial profiling and suppressing public protests through use of force.

The report cites some examples of American policing practices that came from Israel. It notes that the Atlanta Police Departments camera surveillance system is modeled after Jerusalems, following a 2008 police delegation to Israel, for example, and cites testimony by the administrator of the Department of Homeland Securitys Transportation Security Administration in 2016 that said Israeli training and Israels airport security practices have informed those of his agency.

But more often, the report notes general links between American and Israeli policing practices without showing that controversial practices in the United States were learned in Israel or created with Israeli participation. In one section, discussions of Israeli crowd control are portrayed as technical know-how based in disregard for the right of Palestinians to oppose the Israeli occupation. The report also suggests that a Jewish lawmaker in New York who lobbied for racial profiling was influenced by Israels example, when in fact he did not link his support for Israel to that proposal and had not participated in police exchanges.

Trip organizers say that the Deadly Exchange reports claims amount to bigotry.

To me this is a libel, following a long string of libels in Jewish history, JINSAs Pomerantz said. This is kind of the same thing, that the Jews are responsible for whats happening in minority communities in America at the hands of the police. Its just another one of those libels.

Palestinian activists and their allies point back to accusations of Israeli police misconduct as the core reason that they say the trips shouldnt be happening. Yousef Munayyer, a Palestinian-American scholar, says he is routinely profiled when he returns to Israel, where his extended family still lives and where he was born.

Yes, our police need to get better here in the United States, said Munayyer, a nonresident fellow at the Arab Center in Washington, D.C. But do they really need to be training in a place and with forces where racial profiling is a value, where racial profiling is actually central to the ethos of the security system?

Hundreds of demonstrators in Haifa protest the recent Israeli police killing of an unarmed autistic Palestinian man, June 2, 2020. Protesters in Israel and the United States have sought to link police violence in both countries. (Mati Milstein/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

What the trip participants bring home

The delegations do broach uncomfortable topics, organizers say. When it comes to racial profiling, for example, the Georgia State programs Friedmann said, We receive briefings based on the policies, and that participants learn about the process for filing complaints.

Whats important is not to suggest that Israel is a perfect society, he said. But it is a society based on the rule of law, and if an officer is behaving egregiously, it will be handled.

Similarly, Selim said, the ADL trips naturally discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including on its visits to Palestinian police in the West Bank and to an Israeli border crossing. He said those portions of the trip are especially valuable for participants from border cities in the United States.

Its impossible to talk about policing and security in Israel without talking about the conflict, he said. When there are police executives from Southern California or from Texas or from Arizona, New Mexico, that have joined the delegation in the past two decades, these are in many instances border cities and border towns on the Mexican border.

He added, Issues of cross-border dialogue, engagement, holistic community policing in those cities is very real for them. So to see that in an international context is very helpful for a comparative sense of what works, what doesnt.

In addition to discussing counterterrorism, the trips also show Israels efforts at community policing in Arab-Israeli cities. Micky Rosenfeld, the spokesperson for the Israel Police, said the police have opened new police stations in Arab-Israeli areas and increased their efforts to recruit Arab police officers.

The situation in America is complicated in the same way that the situation [in Israel] is also complicated, he said. Building an ongoing relationship with the community is something that takes time, and it has to come both from the community and law enforcement.

Both Moon and Dekmar say they have been influenced by Israels approach to community policing. Dekmar noticed that the Israel Police has started recruiting Arab-Israeli cadets as early as high school to increase the chances that theyll become officers. He says he began identifying and engaging minority high-schoolers as candidates to serve in his Georgia department as well.

That was a direct result of the experience I saw in Israel, Dekmar said. A recognition that if youre going to recruit from minority populations, you need to start developing relationships younger.

The police chiefs have also implemented procedures or technologies they saw in Israel in their home departments. Moon installed a geo-location system in her 911 call center similar to one she saw in Israel. Dekmar said he adopted an Israeli mentality of conducting training more improvisationally, with less complex equipment.

[I] recognize that this is a very complicated situation that doesnt necessarily lend itself to good guys and bad guys, Dekmar said. It lends itself to an understanding of different cultures placed in a position that potentially could clash at any time.

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More than 1,000 senior US police officers have visited Israel. Here's what they learn from Israel's police force and why it's controversial. - JTA...

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1,000 US police officers learned from Israel visit, why its controversial – The Jerusalem Post

Posted: at 12:08 pm

In June, as protests against aggressive and abusive policing in the United States took hold, so did a false accusation about a group of programs that sends American police chiefs to learn from their counterparts in Israel.

The organizations running the trips say that beyond being false the trips do not teach physical, on-the-ground tactics such as chokeholds the claim that Israel encourages American police brutality is an antisemitic canard.

These types of instances existed long before any of these professional leadership exchanges happened, and are part and parcel of the history of the US, said George Selim, senior vice president of programs at the Anti-Defamation League, which runs police delegations to Israel, regarding American police brutality. Seeking to link Israel as a state to US police misconduct is a bizarre excuse for the centuries-long history of racism and injustice that has been part of American history, really since our founding.

The main organization opposing the delegations has been Jewish Voice for Peace, or JVP, an anti-Zionist group that published a 2018 report calling the trips a Deadly Exchange. The report says they normalize the violent repression of communities and movements the government defines as threatening.

Based on the report, JVP has campaigned for an end to police delegations to Israel, and has succeeded in banning them and other international police exchanges in Durham, North Carolina. It also has successfully pressured two New England police officials to withdraw from delegations.

Now JVP is seeking to temper the anti-Israel criticism tied to recent protests of police brutality. In a June update to its Deadly Exchange campaign, JVP said that Suggesting that Israel is the start or source of American police violence or racism shifts the blame from the United States to Israel and furthers an antisemitic ideology.

But JVP is still campaigning against the trips not, they say, as the driver of police abuse in the United States but because the group says such exchanges allow police forces from two countries with histories of racial discrimination and allegations of oppressive policing to swap strategies.

On these trips its about sharing and swapping ideas and tactics, but thats not to say that the mission from the United States officials wasnt there to begin with, said Stefanie Fox, JVPs executive director. Its like, oh great, then lets adapt this and adopt this to the practice were already trying to do of surveillance and of suppression of protest and of racial profiling.

Trip organizers and participants, however, say thats a fundamental mischaracterization of the trips. They say the trips, which are far from unique among international police exchanges, expose participants to a variety of policing practices in Israel, from surveillance systems to models for community policing in minority communities. The itineraries, they add, mostly consist of lectures, meetings and tours.

What we do is focus on management and policy issues, not training, not specific tactical training, said Steven Pomerantz, director of the Homeland Security Program at the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs, or JINSA, a conservative think tank that runs some of the delegations. Theres no shooting, theres no wrestling, theres no chokeholds. Thats just not what this is about. Its about the constituent parts of successful law enforcement [and] counterterrorism responsibilities in local policing.

A focus on counterterrorism in a post-9/11 world

The delegations to Israel began in the 1990s and ramped up after the Sept. 11 attacks in 2001. The sponsoring organizations and their Israeli partners frame the trips as an opportunity for American police to learn from a country and police force with many decades of experience protecting civilian populations from attack.

There was a lot of interest, and still is, in understanding the Israeli approach to terrorism and counterterrorism, said Robbie Friedmann, who runs the Georgia International Law Enforcement Exchange, a program at Georgia State University that takes senior police officers on delegations to Israel and elsewhere. Delegations learn about the need to provide balance between fighting terror and providing services, so that if someone gets their apartment burglarized, they know thats something the Israel Police will take care of.

More than 1,000 participants, mostly senior law enforcement officials, have gone on the trips, which are primarily provided by Friedmanns program, the ADL and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs. Each organization has taken several hundred police officials to Israel, a small fraction of the leaders of the approximately 18,000 police departments in the United States. The trips are generally privately funded and are free for participants, though none of the organizations would share the exact sources of the funding or the costs of the trip.

Israel is far from the only country to host a delegation of police officials from abroad. Foreign police officers come to the United States to see how police forces here operate, and countries across the world also host delegations. Friedmanns group has run tours in countries throughout Europe and South America, as well as in China, Australia and elsewhere.

And the trips are just one example of a whole industry of delegations to Israel. Jewish organizations regularly offer Israel trips to politicians, community activists, celebrities, students, business executives and an array of others. As with those trips, part of the goal of the police delegations is to acquaint the participants with Israel and give them a favorable view of the country.

The main goal of the trips, across the groups that organize them, is to share Israeli expertise in counterterrorism. Organizers say the trips are about observation, policy and systems, not about doing active-duty training or teaching American officers physical maneuvers.

In Israel in general, confronted with the kind of threats they are, theyre still very resilient, said Lou Dekmar, the chief of police of LaGrange, Georgia, and the past president of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, who has been on several delegations to Israel. How important it is, when there is a crime or an attack, to quickly address it, process it and reintroduce a state of normalcy.

But American officials do get to see their Israeli counterparts in action. The field of counterterrorism in Israel covers a range of topics, from responding to a terror attack in real time to gathering intelligence to policing mass protests. In addition to the Israel Police, some of the trips meet with the Border Police, which patrols the border with the West Bank, as well as the Israel Security Service, or Shin Bet, and the army.

Some trips take officers on a tour of Israels surveillance system in eastern Jerusalem, as well as study how to clear the scene of a terror attack so that normal life can resume. The excursions emphasize efficient sharing of intelligence between the Israeli military and police, as well as the importance of having defined procedures in place at West Bank border crossings for Palestinians who enter Israel. Delegations also visit Israels National Police Academy, where they view training in action.

A 2019 itinerary from the ADL, for example, had the delegation observe security procedures at Ben Gurion Airport, a West Bank checkpoint and eastern Jerusalem, in addition to visiting the Gaza border and the Palestinian police. The delegation also visited Israels Police Academy and other Israeli police institutions, the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum, and Christian and Jewish religious sites.

Chief Janet Moon of the Peachtree City, Georgia, Police Department, who visited Israel with Friedmanns institute in 2015, remembers watching training on how police officers shoot at a moving vehicle.

No matter where you go in the world, law enforcement is law enforcement, she said. They have the same challenges with budgeting, resource allocation, community policing. And theyve been dealing with terrorism a lot longer than we have.

The Deadly Exchange campaign: Expos or antisemitism?

An interest in counterterrorism is not the only thing that Israeli and American police have in common. As in the United States, minorities in Israel have long complained of mistreatment from law enforcement, though in the case of Israels Arab minority, one recent protest movement called for more policing in Arab cities.

Israel Police officers also have been accused of profiling both Arab and Ethiopian Israelis, and recent years have seen large protests by the Ethiopian community against police brutality.

For participants in these programs, the extensive itineraries and opportunities for observation are seen as a benefit because Israeli and US police face similar challenges regarding crowd control, detection of terror threats, airport security and patrolling diverse populations. But to critics of the trips, who already oppose much of how Israel and America practice policing, the combination of the two is damning.

Militarized, racist, violent policing in this country, rooted in centuries of colonization and slavery and warmaking here in the US, alongside Israeli occupation and the brutality enacted against Palestinians there theres no good sense in which those governments should be trading and cross training and developing relationships with one another, the JVPs Fox said.

Her groups Deadly Exchange report claims that the trips goals include justifying racial profiling and suppressing public protests through use of force.

The report cites some examples of American policing practices that came from Israel. It notes that the Atlanta Police Departments camera surveillance system is modeled after Jerusalems, following a 2008 police delegation to Israel, for example, and cites testimony by the administrator of the Department of Homeland Securitys Transportation Security Administration in 2016 that said Israeli training and Israels airport security practices have informed those of his agency.

But more often, the report notes general links between American and Israeli policing practices without showing that controversial practices in the United States were learned in Israel or created with Israeli participation. In one section, discussions of Israeli crowd control are portrayed as technical know-how based in disregard for the right of Palestinians to oppose the Israeli occupation. The report also suggests that a Jewish lawmaker in New York who lobbied for racial profiling was influenced by Israels example, when in fact he did not link his support for Israel to that proposal and had not participated in police exchanges.

Trip organizers say that the Deadly Exchange reports claims amount to bigotry.

To me this is a libel, following a long string of libels in Jewish history, JINSAs Pomerantz said. This is kind of the same thing, that the Jews are responsible for whats happening in minority communities in America at the hands of the police. Its just another one of those libels.

Palestinian activists and their allies point back to accusations of Israeli police misconduct as the core reason that they say the trips shouldnt be happening. Yousef Munayyer, a Palestinian-American scholar, says he is routinely profiled when he returns to Israel, where his extended family still lives and where he was born.

Yes, our police need to get better here in the United States, said Munayyer, a nonresident fellow at the Arab Center in Washington, D.C. But do they really need to be training in a place and with forces where racial profiling is a value, where racial profiling is actually central to the ethos of the security system?

What the trip participants bring home

The delegations do broach uncomfortable topics, organizers say. When it comes to racial profiling, for example, the Georgia State programs Friedmann said, We receive briefings based on the policies, and that participants learn about the process for filing complaints.

Whats important is not to suggest that Israel is a perfect society, he said. But it is a society based on the rule of law, and if an officer is behaving egregiously, it will be handled.

Similarly, Selim said, the ADL trips naturally discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, including on its visits to Palestinian police in the West Bank and to an Israeli border crossing. He said those portions of the trip are especially valuable for participants from border cities in the United States.

Its impossible to talk about policing and security in Israel without talking about the conflict, he said. When there are police executives from Southern California or from Texas or from Arizona, New Mexico, that have joined the delegation in the past two decades, these are in many instances border cities and border towns on the Mexican border.

He added, Issues of cross-border dialogue, engagement, holistic community policing in those cities is very real for them. So to see that in an international context is very helpful for a comparative sense of what works, what doesnt.

In addition to discussing counterterrorism, the trips also show Israels efforts at community policing in Arab-Israeli cities. Micky Rosenfeld, the spokesperson for the Israel Police, said the police have opened new police stations in Arab-Israeli areas and increased their efforts to recruit Arab police officers.

The situation in America is complicated in the same way that the situation [in Israel] is also complicated, he said. Building an ongoing relationship with the community is something that takes time, and it has to come both from the community and law enforcement.

Both Moon and Dekmar say they have been influenced by Israels approach to community policing. Dekmar noticed that the Israel Police has started recruiting Arab-Israeli cadets as early as high school to increase the chances that theyll become officers. He says he began identifying and engaging minority high-schoolers as candidates to serve in his Georgia department as well.

That was a direct result of the experience I saw in Israel, Dekmar said. A recognition that if youre going to recruit from minority populations, you need to start developing relationships younger.

The police chiefs have also implemented procedures or technologies they saw in Israel in their home departments. Moon installed a geo-location system in her 911 call center similar to one she saw in Israel. Dekmar said he adopted an Israeli mentality of conducting training more improvisationally, with less complex equipment.

[I] recognize that this is a very complicated situation that doesnt necessarily lend itself to good guys and bad guys, Dekmar said. It lends itself to an understanding of different cultures placed in a position that potentially could clash at any time.

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1,000 US police officers learned from Israel visit, why its controversial - The Jerusalem Post

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Elon Musks Top Priority Now Is Going to Mars and the Moon – Observer

Posted: June 13, 2020 at 3:07 pm

Now that SpaceX has successfully launched two NASA astronauts to the International Space Station and Tesla has opened after a pandemic shutdown, Elon Musk is now literally aiming beyond Earths orbit and prioritizing his ultimate space dream: colonizing Mars.

In a letter to SpaceX employees over the weekend, the ambitious entrepreneur said his rocket companys focus now is Starship, the prototype-phase spacecraft thats supposed to fly up to 100 humans at a time to Mars when paired with the SpaceXs upcoming Super Heavy rocket booster.

We need to accelerate Starship progressdramatically and immediately, Musk wrote in the email, obtained by CNBC. Please consider the top SpaceX priority (apart from anything that could reduce Dragon return risk) to be Starship.

Starship is one of SpaceXs three main pillars of business; the other two are the Crew Dragon vessel, used in NASAs ISS mission, and the Starlink satellite broadband project. The reusable interplanetary spacecraft has been under development since late 2019 at SpaceXs testing site in Boca Chica, Texas.

So far, SpaceX has built five prototypes of Starship and suffered multiple setbacks. The first two prototypes, Mk1 and SN1, were destroyed during pressure tests in November 2019 and February 2020, respectively. The subsequent version, SN2, passed a pressure test in March. But the next one, SN3, collapsed during testing a month later. The latest prototype, SN4, blew up during a test in Boca Chica on May 29.

SpaceX is already working on an SN5, which is expected to be used in the next test, with plans for SN6 and SN7.

Besides Mars colonization, the Starship system (the spacecraft and the Super Heavy booster) is also intended to be used for delivering satellites to Earths orbit, long-duration spaceflight and sending humans back to the Moon, either for government scientific projects or SpaceXs own commercial lunar program.

The latter, which Musk has said could materialize as early as 2023, has secured only one customer to date: Japanese retail billionaireYusaku Maezawa, who reportedly paid a hefty deposit for the faraway vacation.

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Elon Musks Top Priority Now Is Going to Mars and the Moon - Observer

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Space Exploration Is Back, And Asteroid Mining Is The Next Gold Rush – The Federalist

Posted: at 3:07 pm

Were going to the moon. Were going to Mars. And, before you know it, well be going to the asteroid belt.

Space is back, baby. Its back in the news, back in our thoughts, and back in the culture. America, and the world, are better for it.

Over the past few years, space exploration has returned to public consciousness in ways not since the first shuttle mission in 1981, or even since Americans landed men on the moon then brought them safely back to earth in the summer of 1969.

The launch of the joint SpaceXNASA rocket on May 30 is only the latest proof of our renewed interest, and it revealed much about the future of humans in space. Te key is private industry: What used to cost the government $54,500 per kilogram of payload lifted to orbit now costs SpaceX $2,720, saving 95 percent.

Reducing cost, of course, is one of the things private industry is supposed to be good at. The most recent launch of the SpaceX Dragon module atop a Falcon rocket cost an estimated $55 million, and SpaceX founder Elon Musk claims the future cost of his reusable rockets could fall to a shockingly low $2 million per launch.

As Jonah Gottschalk noted in his reporting for The Federalist, its fair to question why the government should continue dedicating tens of billions to space when the private industry can achieve so much at astoundingly low costs.

The other thing about private industry, however, is that it eventually has to make money. Prior to colonizationwhich we are still likely decades away from achievingthe options are limited. Satellite launching and repair might provide some income. Carrying out paid experiments for scientists? Perhaps. Tourism? Highly likely. But the most probable long-term source of income from space is asteroid mining.

The 1967 Outer Space Treaty prohibits nations from claiming territory beyond Earth. The moon and other celestial bodies, it notes, are not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means. But its easy for lawyers to argue about what these terms mean. National appropriation isnt necessarily the same as private property rights.

Space law used to be entirely academic, but now its a rising field. NASA is funding asteroid-mining research. The Colorado School of Mines now has an asteroid-mining program of study. Sen. Ted Cruz has predicted that Earths first trillionaire will be made in space.

The growing commercial space-sector helped guide the 2015 SPACE Act through Congress, which included a finders, keepers rule that allows American companies to claim the bounty they extract from celestial bodies. As a result, private equity funding for space-related start-ups massively increased. The first quarter of 2019 alone saw $1.7 billion in equity capital for space companies.

People used to see asteroid mining as a bit of a joke, says Peter Ward, author of The Consequential Frontier, a new book about space privatization. But now, Ward believes the commercial space industry is maturing to the point where its more serious.

Private industry seeks two things in asteroid mining: water and metals. The water isnt exactly a money-maker; its needed to make hydrogen fuel for return to Earth at a cost lower than lifting fuel into space. The metals, however, will prove to be the real sources of profit.

Asteroids are defined as rocky, airless remnants left over from the early formation of the solar system, and already 958,628 are identified and plotted. By far the largest collection is found in the asteroid belt, the ring of space rubble between Mars and Jupiter. The belt may contain as many as 1.9 million asteroids larger than a kilometer in diameter and many millions of smaller ones.

Still, although fewer in number, the near-Earth asteroids are the likeliest first targets for mining. More than 10,000 near-Earth asteroids are known, with 861 measuring more than a kilometer in diameter (and 1,409 classified as potentially hazardous, posing a threat to Earth).

The material potential is astounding. Asteroid 1986 DA, for example, is a metallic near-Earth asteroid of iron, nickel, gold, and platinum, and estimates of its value range from 6 to 7 trillion dollarsthe gross national product of a nation. Of course, at three kilometers in diameter, Asteroid 1986 DA is too large to be retrieved anytime soon. But the potential figures give some idea of just how much wealth is out there in the black of space.

Such big asteroids as Ceres and Vesta are too big to move, and regardless, they would probably count as celestial bodies under the Outer Space Treaty. But a smaller asteroid can certainly be moved. Its not real estate; its just a rock, law professor Glenn Reynolds observed in Popular Mechanics.

A 25-meter-wide metallic-type asteroid might hold 33,000 tons of extractable metal, including $50 million in platinum alone. A seven-meter carbonaceous-type asteroid can hold 24,000 gallons of water for generating fuel and oxygen.

John Shaw, a major general in the U.S. Space Command, insists that the United States is not going to be sending humans into space for national security purposes anytime soon. That leaves policing and trading in the hands of private industry.

No legal barriers currently stop anyone who wants to stake out and mine an asteroid with magnetic rakes, low-gravity sifters, asteroid anchors, and all the other fantastic technologies suddenly becoming feasible.Yes, its going to be the Wild West out there, a modern gold rush, just as science fiction has often imagined. But thats a good thing.

Private industry will have to operate more cheaply than the government. It will be forced, by the need for profits, to push faster out into the solar system. By harnessing the inherent positive competition of the free enterprise system with the kind of dangerous trial and error experiments that governments loathe, further private space exploration is poised to create incredible new technologies beyond our imagination.

Younger generations will be filled with purpose and inspired to join an innovative and exciting new field.In other words: Buckle up, everybody. Space is back.

Faith Bottum is an undergraduate engineering student at the South Dakota School of Mines.

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Earths first o-world colonies will be built on soil – Engadget

Posted: June 1, 2020 at 3:24 am

As the clock wound down on NASAs 3D-Printed Habitat Challenge last May, the fate ofAI SpaceFactory, a leading firm for multi-planetary architecture, fell in the hands of a lanky industrial robot. After four years and a few elimination rounds, the New York-based team was head-to-head with researchers from Pennsylvania State University, vying for a top prize of $500,000 and a chance to inspire future Martian settlements.

Nearly ten hours into the last day of competition, hundreds watched as AI Spacefactory's robotic arm dangled a circular skylight over a mud-colored, vase-like structure, lowering it slowly as if placing the roof on a house of cards. For a few seconds, the skylight seemed secure. Observers began to cheer. Then, with little warning, the skylight slipped and fell through an opening in the roof, crashing to the floor with a hollow thud.

Such a mishap would be devastating for a mission on Mars. But AI SpaceFactorys 3D-printed structure, Marsha, still impressed the NASA judges enough to earn the top prize. The firm now hopes Marsha will serve as a prototype for the first human habitats on the Red Planet.

Designed like an egg, Marshas form is both aesthetically svelte and extraterrestrially efficient. On Mars the exterior air is very thin, just one percent of the Earths atmosphere, explains David Malott, CEO and co-founder of AI SpaceFactory, who oversaw the building's design. As a result, Marsha would have to be pressurized on the inside to match Earths atmosphere; this pressure difference would cause the structure to want to pop like a balloon. The egg shape, says Malott, is meant to help keep the building from exploding.

Inside, Marsha's amenities wouldnt be much different from those inside a small townhouse, with a few sciencey exceptions. The habitat features four floors, including a kitchen, exercise room, sleep pods and a garden where astronauts might grow herbs and leafy greens. A wet and dry lab offers space for experimentation, while a docking port on the ground floor provides easy access to a rover. The structures outer layer of basalt fiber, to be sourced from Martian regolith or bioplastic recycled from astronaut trash, would be designed to protect inhabitants from cosmic rays and micrometeoroids. Save a rusty dust storm, astronauts may actually forget theyre on the Red Planet.

But not all proposed Martian habitats share Marshas sleek design. Some resemble ant hills more than eggs and employ cruder methods than 3D printing to make use of Martian materials.

Many of the concepts Ive seen look like mounds of regolith piled on top of habitats, says Metzger, our planetary science expert from before. For example, inflatable modules would be used as the habitats inner core, connected by a series of tubes that would serve as tunnels between main chambers. From above, the product would look like curvy structures, says Metzger, like something out of The Hobbit.

Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Guelph

Each design method printing and piling has its own list of merits and setbacks. While piling regolith may be quicker and less prone to printer error, it would still require humans to ship the inflatable inner habitats, which would come at a cost. Piled regolith would also have to be secured in some way, perhaps through microwaving, compacting, or the addition of polymers. For Edmundson, piling is a temporary solution. Once we get into the sustainability portion of exploration, were going to need to start building our own habitats, she says.

3D printing offers more of thein-situexperience, but it can be resource intensive. What's more, 3D printing requires a precise mixture of specific elements, which will have to be as close as possible in composition to the simulated regolith used in experiments on Earth. Theres little margin for error when youre millions of miles away, and regolith minerality varies depending on its source.

Research with regolith simulants is vital for the safety of future missions, says Edmundson. That's part of the reason why I think I have job security. People are going to have to know what the differences are between the planets surface itself and the simulants they're using [on Earth]. Today there are about 10 Martian regolith simulants and a few dozen simulants for the Moon. But that number is probably going to change pretty quickly, she adds, now that we're planning to go back.

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The Navajo gift to the Irish: A personal account of my visit to the reservation – Navajo-Hopi Observer

Posted: at 3:24 am

Kevin McCann, Irish writer and flimmaker

Originally Published: May 26, 2020 1:30 p.m.

Editor's note: Kevin McCann is a writer and filmmaker from Ireland. His company Maccana Teoranta produce drama and documentary films. He is currently developing a documentary celebrating the links between Ireland and Native America featuring the story of the Choctaw Irish Famine Gift.

This month, tens of thousands of Irish people are donating to a $5 million fund-raising campaign to help the Navajo and Hopi tribes battling the Coronavirus. Irish donors see this as a long overdue payback for the gift of $170 sent by the Choctaw Tribe to Ireland during the famine. My own reason for donating was more recent. A personal experience of receiving the generosity of the Navajo people.

As an Irish writer and filmmaker interested in telling a story about Native America, I was aware of their similar history to Ireland in terms of colonization and cultural oppression but knew very little about who they are today. And so to find out more, I went on a camping adventure last October to Navajo Nation, a land reservation the same size as the Irish Republic just east of the Grand Canyon.

Before our trip, my partner Mn and I met with a Navajo filmmaker in Los Angeles named Pamela Peters. She kindly suggested people to interview and spoke of Native Americas struggle for recognition. Pamela warned us about the apprehension towards white people making films about them because of misrepresentations and skewed narratives similar to objectionable Irish stereotypes and revisionist agendas.

Our trip would coincide with the Western Navajo Fair, the last tribal festival of the year. We packed our rented car with camping gear and enough snacks for a week. We left LA at daybreak and drove east for 10 hours. At Flagstaff, Arizona (on Route 66), we filled up with gas before heading north-east. The sun set behind us as we crossed the border into the reservation at a dusty plain called Wolf Crossing. We pitched our tent at the remote Hopi Cultural Center under Octobers harvest moon.

The next day after visiting a Hopi Tribal museum and nearby crumbling villages, I discovered that I had lost our wallet. We were in a very remote area with poor phone coverage and $20 in cash. Rather than return to LA, we had faith and decided to plough on. The full tank of gas took us to Tuba City population 8,611. Our eyes lit up when we saw Hogan in majestic bright letters over the door of a hotel. As Irish people, we thought we were home and dry with that name. However, in the Navajo language, hogan means house. But all was not lost. The Western Navajo Fair hadnt started yet and they had a couple of tent spaces to rent and we had just enough to pay for a night.

The lobby computer at Hogans Hotel became a part-time office as we figured out a solution. Pamela, the Navajo filmmaker back in LA was now our only point of contact and helped to arrange interviews. Hearing our predicament, she paid for a meal for us along with a second night at the campsite. That evening, the Hogan Restaurant served a beautiful meal with traditional blue corn bread (highly recommended) before the arrival of the Navajo Council Delegate and medicine man. Mention of the name Otto Tso was greeted with smiles and nods of respect. Soon after our meal, Otto came in and sat down opposite us in the booth. He wore traditional regalia and a turquoise necklace. We ordered some tea.

Half-way through our interview, the hotel porter came over and handed the key of Room 207 to Otto. He passed it over to us. He had kindly arranged for Mn and I to stay that night in the hotel. We were happy camping and were initially reluctant to accept, but October nights in Arizona are chilly enough. We didnt take much convincing. As the interview went on, I glanced at the key and was struck by this act of kindness. This man didnt know us. He was just helping strangers in trouble.

Otto told us that he lost his mother when he was 7-years-old. A month before she died, she sat her only child down and instructed the young Otto to follow a meaningful path in life. As an adult, he joined the tribal council to serve his people.

There are 572 Native American tribes recognized by the Federal Government and Navajo is the largest, he told us, In my first term, we built a $19 million sewerage scheme on the reservation. This year, its infrastructure - building roads and fixing potholes.

Ottos eyes welled with tears when telling the Navajo story. We had seen those same tears when speaking with Pamela. In their eyes, was the hurt of the Native people. A hurt from an unhealed wound. A hurt that still allowed for compassion to strangers.

The sun is our father and the earth is our mother, Otto told us, and with a smile added I like to tell people that our backyard is the Grand Canyon.

Before leaving, I took a photo of Otto and Mn beneath a picture of a Navajo herdswoman. The next day, Otto did us a wonderful favour. I used the computer in the hotel lobby to transfer money to his bank account and he met me at the hotel to give me cash. After our comfortable night in the hotel, we had enough money to enjoy our trip and get home. We were saved.

Over the next few days, we enjoyed the Western Navajo Fair - rodeos and rollercoasters mixed with pre-dawn ritual dances and tribal gatherings. Otto invited us to his home to meet the tribal council after the parade through Tuba City. We saw no other white people while we were there.

The Choctaw tribe whose ancestors gave Ireland the gift during the famine live in Oklahoma, another 1,000 miles to the east. The love of community and wisdom in generosity seen in 1847 lives on to this day.

Right now, Navajo Nation has one of the highest rates of COVID-19 infection. I am proud to honor the kindness of Otto Tso and Pamela Peters in joining the tens of thousands of Irish donating to their fund-raising campaign.

More information about McCann and current projects can be found through his company Maccana Teoranta at http://www.maccana.ie. Supported by Screen Ireland, Kevin is producing the first movie on the 1916 Irish Rebellion. (www.therising.ie) He is also developing a documentary celebrating the links between Ireland and Native America.

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Civilians’ R&D In Process: DROWN MY BOOK – Extended Play

Posted: May 4, 2020 at 3:48 am

I once asked an acting teacher, after a few months of Shakespeare, Chekhov, Durang, Shepard, and Kushner, whether it might be possible to introduce some works by writers who werent white men. She furrowed her brow in confusion, frowned, cocked her head, and, placing both hands palm down on her desk, responded: But Mattyoure not black.

And anyway, the class wasnt about all that, it was aboutgetting better at acting and engaging with text, and these writers were masterplaywrights. Their work was universal.

Ever since then I knew what all artists of color come toknow eventually: that our white counterparts are rarely required or expected tobe familiar with work by great artists of color who came before them (with afew exceptions), but developing artists of color must know all the same work astheir white counterparts even while taking it upon themselves to stretch beyondthat.

Though I wound up performing a Nilo Cruz monologue as theculminating project in that class tomake a point, I was nevertheless over the moon for Shakespeare.

Besides a short stint as a stegosaurus in a daycamp betweenfirst and second grade, my first real experience acting was in a Shakespeareplay. In my sophomore year of high school, I was cast in the schoolsproduction of As You Like It, where Iwas cast as Charles the wrestler and Corin the old shepherd, which set me offon the long theatrical path to eventually winding up part of the CiviliansR&D group. I worked at a Shakespeare theater two summers in a row, playedparts in Midsummer and Macbeth in college (and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, forgood measure). I loved understanding Elizabethan English or, where I didnt,researching it. I loved breaking apart towering sentences for their imagery,their antithesis, their double meanings. I loved scanning lines and beating outrhythms on the table or my thigh, each irregularity a treasure, a clue, amessage from Shakespeare himself.

I had read a bunch of the plays and sonnets in various Englishclasses, too, which always produced the weird feeling Im sure is common indiaspora kids of being in two camps at once: both ownership over the text assomething youre native to (The greatest writer in the English language!) anda simultaneous foreignness. I bristled every time a teacher assertedShakespeares universality, noting that a major reason everyone getsShakespeare is that the culture that produced him and that he in turn helpedproduced was imposed on people around the world at gunpoint. Its no wonder Iwas drawn to Shakespeares own outsiders, his rare depictions of racial or religiousminorities providing a weird window into Elizabethan conceptions of race andthe other. Othello and Shylock were particularly compelling (and continue tobe, as borne out by my play TheVenetians), as characters who are often monstrous racial stereotypes on theone hand while still rendered with surprisingly human moments on the other.Human enough that it made me want to salvage pieces of them. As activist andUniversity of Arizona professor Curtis Acosta said when we spoke, thosethings were really attractive to me as someone who was just figuring out whatit really meant to be a man of color I think I was just attracted to it because of all these things Irecognized in it.

Drown My Book began in 2012 when Id readthat the Tucson Unified School District had begun removing Mexican AmericanStudies texts from classrooms and boxing them up in storage facilities incompliance with a ruling that accused ethnic studies programs of, among otherthings, advocating for the overthrow of the US government. As horrible as allthis was, I wasnt expecting Shakespeare to be part of all of this, andcertainly not on the opposite side of the law. In a news release dated January17th, 2011, TUSD Director of Communications Cara Rene lists sevenremoved books (Critical Race Theory,by Richard Delgado; 500 Years of ChicanoHistory in Pictures, edited by Elizabeth Martinez; Message to AZTLAN, by Rodolfo Corky Gonzales; Chicano! The History of the Mexican Civil Rights Movement, byArturo Rosales; Occupied America: AHistory of Chicanos by Rodolfo Acuna; Pedagogyof the Oppressed by Paulo Freire; and RethinkingColumbus: The Next 500 Years by Bill Bigelow) and goes on to say:

Other books have also been falsely reported as being banned by TUSD. It has been incorrectly reported that William Shakespeares The Tempest is not allowed for instruction. Teachers may continue to use materials in their classrooms as appropriate for the course curriculum. The Tempest and other books approved for curriculum are still viable options for instructors.

When I spoke to Acosta, however, hetold me a different story. The Tempest isa difficult text to teach and discuss without touching on colonialism, slavery,and the genocide of indigenous peoples in the Americas. In fact, as RonaldTakaki points out in his essay, The Tempest in the Wilderness: TheRacialization of Savagery, The Tempest invitesus to view English expansion not only as imperialism but as a defining momentin the making of an English-American identity based on race. The characterCaliban the wizard Prosperos powerful, surly, supernatural, half-humanslave, born to rule the island but usurped when the Wizard arrived has beenrefigured by creators such as Aim Csaire and Jimmie Durham as a victim ofcolonization, struggling under the yoke of a foreign oppressor. In Acostashands, the inevitability of discussing these topics became a tool forillustrating certain failures of the law:

I found all my notes from all these horrible administrative meetings I had. We were trying to figure out what was legal and illegal, and I knew right away that the day of it was January 10th, I know all these dates now because I was just writing about it January 10th [] was the board meeting, and that night when we were suspended I leaned over to a colleague and said, Tomorrow Im getting Shakespeare banned. And so I went into that meeting with an agenda but also I knew that there was no other way it was gonna go because the law was so poorly written, and so obviously racist, discriminatory that if I just made the argument they would have to. Now this is the thing that changed: In the moment, the day after, there was still a shred of humanity in the administration I was dealing with at my site, and then after, they tried to cover their tracks and didnt know that we were going to release the audio. They went on full scale the district administration went on this full scale attack after I told reporter friends of mine, Yeah, I cant teach it. They told me I cant teach The Tempest. And so they went on this full scale attack all but calling me personally a liar. [] But we ended up being able to prove it because I did record it. That was the last meeting they allowed me to record. It wasnt the last meeting recorded, but it was the last meeting they allowed me to record. But thank God I did!

Caliban, like Othello and Shylock, has come tooccupy a special place in my relationship to Shakespeare, but what gripped meso much about what was happening in Tucson is that this play, part of a reveredWestern canon, found itself on the side of the marginalized, an emblem used topoint out the weaknesses in the structures and impulses it once served to helpprop up.

Theresa line in Star Trek IV: The Undiscovered Country (the title itself areference to Hamlet), where a Klingon character insists, Youve notexperienced Shakespeare until youve read him in the original Klingon. Its ajoke, and yet

I became taken (and still am taken, and so knewimmediately which project to propose to The Civilians) with the idea of a groupof Latin students grappling directly with these contradictions, takingShakespeares words and turning them on the authorities, using the schoolscurriculum against it.

InThe Tempest, Prosperos books of arcane knowledge are his most prizedpossession, which he guards jealously and devotes himself to entirely; inTucson, books had been torn from classrooms because of the ideas they held andhoarded away in warehouses. The title, Drown My Book, came to meimmediately, and Ive stuck with it. Its from Prosperos last speech, where hethrows away his magic staff and library, pledging never to use them again: Anddeeper than did ever plummet sound / Ill drown my book.

In her play UneTempte, Csaire turned Caliban into arevolutionary; the students in my play would use The Tempest as arevolutionary tool.

DurhamsCaliban Codex shows us a Calibanobsessed with trying to figure out what his own fact looks like, having neverseen a reflection and only knowing what Prospero tells him about himself; mycharacters, accustomed to not seeing themselves reflected in other parts of thesyllabus, would use a canonical text to fight to keep the one mirror theydbeen given.

Ratherthan bend and compartmentalize themselves, as so many young people are forcedto (as I was forced to in that acting class) the characters in my play wouldbend Shakespeare to serve them.

Maybethats what we should mean when we say that Shakespeare is universal: not anappeal to bland relatability, but instead that the sheer reach of Shakespearesinfluence over how we understand stories and the written word now means that hecan be enlisted by anyone to serve new purposes.

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WHY WE EXPLORE SPACE – The Advocate

Posted: April 11, 2020 at 7:36 pm

Many ask, what is the point of space exploration? It costs a lot of time and resources, to do just what? Look at stars? Why venture up there, when we have so many problems down here? Why dedicate such a monumental amount of money that could be spent on the poor? It just doesnt make sense.

But space exploration represents so much: the future of the species. We human have spent our history toiling, warring, and innovating to make life on our planet better. But we often forget the immense size and scale of the actual universe and that even on the scale of our solar system, we are living on an insignificant speck of dust.

Morbidly enough, it would not take very much to wipe us out erasing everything we worked so hard to build. Take a meteor, for instance: In one fell swoop, one wiped out the dinosaurs just one of many cosmic bullets that could eliminate life on Earth. The age-old saying, Dont put all of your eggs in one basket applies here. Moving on to other planets branches us out and plants humanitys literal footprint in the infinite. We can prevail, if our home planet suffers a major extinction event.

SHARED DESTINY

The future often envisions human colonization of other planets, because sci-fi writers and scientists alike realize that space is, indeed, our future. There is a unique desire in the hearts of all of us, to go out and explore. In the endearing words of President John F. Kennedy, Why climb the highest mountain? Why, 50 years ago, fly the Atlantic? Simply, because we are a remarkably ambitious species, in that our desire to explore takes us far from home. We are destined to depart in pursuit of knowledge, to advance our story and establish our legacy in the cosmos.

Also, space is a remarkable unifying force. The need to explore is not limited to any one nationality, religion, or ideology. Its a constant in our shared history. When Columbus set sail to the new world, curiosity drove him. When Edmund Hillary and Tensing Norgay became the first to summit Everest, the spirit of adventure soared. Just as when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first humans to leave boot marks on the moon. When Apollo 11 landed on the moon (amidst the U.S.-U.S.S.R. cold war) the world did not say an American or Neil and Buzz landed on the moon, it said WE landed on the moon! A collective human triumph had occurred.

Further travel to the stars is vastly expensive; our pursuit of Mars requires help from all quarters. For instance, the life support for those future astronauts is provided by the ESA (European Space Agency), not NASA. The current International Space Station is was a herculean effort with help from many nations, and as a result, all countries are welcome.

COUNTLESS BENEFITS

Spaceflight takes place far above where borders are recognizable, mostly to conduct research that benefits everyone. One orbiting Earth satellite uses reflected light to accurately measure soil around the world and predict droughts, to prevent food shortages. The data is open to use, in order to benefit humanity. Likewise, Hubble, Kepler, Gaia, Voyager and countless other probes provide knowledge for all citizens, not just Americans.

Dont forget the spillover technologies. Do you need glasses? Well, NASA developed the material for modern lenses, for use in the Space Shuttles windows. Have you ever used a handheld (cordless) drill? NASA created the first one for use on the lunar surface. The list goes on and on.

If doubting exploration in light of so many earthly problems, realize these same questions have been asked throughout history. Those who sailed the seas invented the compass; the sextant was created in 1731 to navigate the vast ocean separating Europe and the new world. Without exploration, the United States wouldnt even exist. Nobody truly knows what untold fortunes, nations, technologies and histories may lie ahead for us, in space.

Finally, when we feel inspired, we look up up to our future, our possibilities not down to the ground. Our future is not where we have been, it is where we are going. Its as if some force is trying to show us the way. The stars are not mere specks of light in the sky, but invitations to come see what they have to offer. For the sake of all who have come before us, and all who will come after, it is time to unify, collaborate, innovate and establish our permanent footprint in the sky for the benefit of all.Were on the brink of something truly magnificent, where humanity dances among the stars we have gazed upon, in awe, for so many centuries.

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