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Category Archives: Quantum Physics

Quantum Physicist Invents Code to Achieve the Impossible – Interesting Engineering

Posted: May 24, 2020 at 3:26 pm

A physicist at the University of Sydney has achieved something that many researchers previously thought was impossible. He has developed a type of error-correcting code for quantum computers that will free up more hardware.

His solution also delivers an approach that will allow companies to build better quantum microchips. Dr. Benjamin Brown from the School of Physics achieved this impressive feat by applying a three-dimensional code to a two-dimensional framework.

"The trick is to use time as the third dimension. I'm using two physical dimensions and adding in time as the third dimension," Brown said in a statement. "This opens up possibilities we didn't have before."

"It's a bit like knitting," he added. "Each row is like a one-dimensional line. You knit row after row of wool and, over time, this produces a two-dimensional panel of material."

Quantum computing is rampant with errors. As such, one of the biggest obstacles scientists face before they can build machines large enough to solve problems is reducing these errors.

"Because quantum information is so fragile, it produces a lot of errors," said Brown.

Getting rid of these errors entirely is impossible. Instead, researchers are seeking to engineer a new error-tolerant system where useful processing operations outweigh error-correcting ones. This is exactly what Brown achieved.

"My approach to suppressing errors is to use a code that operates across the surface of the architecture in two dimensions. The effect of this is to free up a lot of the hardware from error correction and allow it to get on with the useful stuff," Brown explained.

The result is an approach that could change quantum computing forever.

"This result establishes a new option for performing fault-tolerant gates, which has the potential to greatly reduce overhead and bring practical quantum computing closer," saidDr. Naomi Nickerson, Director of Quantum Architecture at PsiQuantum in Palo Alto, California, who is not connected to the research.

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What does the Tenet title mean? Quantum mechanics and Einsteins theory – Explica

Posted: at 3:26 pm

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We recently saw the new trailer for Tenet by Christoper Nolan, but far from solving the doubts we have has caused us to have more questions. We also know that the plot is about a group of people trying to avoid the third world war. However, there is also something strange at stake here: an element that doubles time and quantum theory will be very important to it.

It is no secret that Christopher Nolan loves to play with time, like he does in his movies like Origin, which has caused that there are even fans who have theorized that Tenet may be a kind of sequel. The trailer makes it clear that it is about an agency that works to prevent the global catastrophe, and there is something called tenet, which seems to be a way to play over time. Kind of like manipulating what has happened instead of time travel.

But although Christopher Nolan sends us the message that we do not try to decipher the secrets ahead of time, we are very curious and want to know more. Like for example what the title of Tenet means.

Tenets literal translation is principle, dogma, or canon. And it has been shown that there is a fundamental limitation to our ability to measure time, combining quantum mechanics and Einsteins theory of general relativity. So it is something that the film will explore. Interestingly he played with something similar in Interstellar, since it showed that time passed differently depending on where they were. For this reason, a man stays in the ship and becomes very old while for the rest of them who travel to the aquatic planet hardly a few hours pass.

So to understand Tenet, either Christopher Nolan has made it very clear or you will have to know quantum physics and have Origin (2010) and Interstellar (2017) fresh in your memory.

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Covid 19 Pandemic: Quantum Computing Technologies Market 2020, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast To 2025 – 3rd Watch News

Posted: at 3:26 pm

Research report on global Quantum Computing Technologies market 2020 with industry primary research, secondary research, product research, size, trends and Forecast.

The report presents a highly comprehensive and accurate research study on the globalQuantum Computing Technologies market. It offers PESTLE analysis, qualitative and quantitative analysis, Porters Five Forces analysis, and absolute dollar opportunity analysis to help players improve their business strategies. It also sheds light on critical Quantum Computing Technologies Marketdynamics such as trends and opportunities, drivers, restraints, and challenges to help market participants stay informed and cement a strong position in the industry. With competitive landscape analysis, the authors of the report have made a brilliant attempt to help readers understand important business tactics that leading companies use to maintainQuantum Computing Technologies market sustainability.

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Global Quantum Computing Technologies Market valued approximately USD 75.0 million in 2018 is anticipated to grow with a healthy growth rate of more than 24.0% over the forecast period 2019-2026. The Quantum Computing Technologies Market is continuously growing in the global scenario at significant pace. As it is recognized as a computer technology based on the principles of quantum theory, which explains the nature and behavior of energy and matter on the quantum level. A Quantum computer follows the laws of quantum physics through which it can gain enormous power, have the ability to be in multiple states and perform tasks using all possible permutations simultaneously. Surging implementation of machine learning by quantum computer, escalating application in cryptography and capability in simulating intricate systems are the substantial driving factors of the market during the forecast period. Moreover, rising adoption & utility in cyber security is the factors that likely to create numerous opportunity in the near future. However, lack of skilled professionals is one of the major factors that restraining the growth of the market during the forecast period.

The regional analysis of Global Quantum Computing Technologies Market is considered for the key regions such as Asia Pacific, North America, Europe, Latin America and Rest of the World. North America is the leading/significant region across the world in terms of market share due to increasing usage of quantum computers by government agencies and aerospace & defense for machine learning in the region. Europe is estimated to grow at second largest region in the global Quantum Computing Technologies market over the upcoming years. Further, Asia-Pacific is anticipated to exhibit higher growth rate / CAGR over the forecast period 2019-2026 due to rising adoption of quantum computers by BFSI sectors in the region.

The major market player included in this report are:

D-Wave Systems Inc.

IBM Corporation

Lockheed Martin Corporation

Intel Corporation

Anyon Systems Inc.

Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited

The objective of the study is to define market sizes of different segments & countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming eight years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors & challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and product offerings of key players. The detailed segments and sub-segment of the market are explained below:

By Application:

Optimization

Machine Learning

Simulation

By Vertical:

BFSI

IT and Telecommunication

Healthcare

Transportation

Government

Aerospace & Defense

Others

By Regions:

North America

U.S.

Canada

Europe

UK

Germany

Asia Pacific

China

India

Japan

Latin America

Brazil

Mexico

Rest of the World

Furthermore, years considered for the study are as follows:

Historical year 2016, 2017

Base year 2018

Forecast period 2019 to 2026

Target Audience of the Global Quantum Computing Technologies Market in Market Study:

Key Consulting Companies & Advisors

Large, medium-sized, and small enterprises

Venture capitalists

Value-Added Resellers (VARs)

Third-party knowledge providers

Investment bankers

Investors

Have Any Query Or Specific Requirement?Ask Our Industry Experts!

Table of Contents:

Study Coverage:It includes study objectives, years considered for the research study, growth rate and Quantum Computing Technologies market size of type and application segments, key manufacturers covered, product scope, and highlights of segmental analysis.

Executive Summary:In this section, the report focuses on analysis of macroscopic indicators, market issues, drivers, and trends, competitive landscape, CAGR of the global Quantum Computing Technologies market, and global production. Under the global production chapter, the authors of the report have included market pricing and trends, global capacity, global production, and global revenue forecasts.

Quantum Computing Technologies Market Size by Manufacturer: Here, the report concentrates on revenue and production shares of manufacturers for all the years of the forecast period. It also focuses on price by manufacturer and expansion plans and mergers and acquisitions of companies.

Production by Region:It shows how the revenue and production in the global market are distributed among different regions. Each regional market is extensively studied here on the basis of import and export, key players, revenue, and production.

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Scientists Create a Cluster of 15 Trillion Entangled Atoms for the First Time Ever – Dual Dove

Posted: at 3:26 pm

A team of quantum researchers has carried out an experiment in which they managed to produce a cluster of entangled atomswith the help of quantum physics.

They got about 15 trillion atomsto share the space in a chamber of gas set at untypical temperatures, which sets a new record. Entangled states are incredibly fragile as in most cases, even a tiny commotion can undo the entanglement.

For those unfamiliar with the theory, quantum entanglement is the phenomenon at the core of quantum physics, where two particles can affect each other, irrelevant to the distance between them. Therefore, measuring one of them offers scientists the measurement of the other right away.

Although researchers do not completely understand why this event takes place, it does happen. However, demonstrating quantum entanglement is still a sensitive and challenging process. Entangled conditions require very specific settings in order to exist and survive, with the majority of the experiments in this field of research being performed at temperatures reaching absolute zero.

And this is why the new study is such a successful attempt. The physicists were able to design a hot, chaotic gas of atoms heated to approximately 450 Kelvin (177 degrees Celsius or 350 degrees Fahrenheit), filled with around 15 trillion entangled atoms, which is about 100 times more than have ever been analyzed before.

Artistic illustration of the atom cloud [Image: ICFO]These atoms were not isolated as calculations made by lasers depicted them crashing into each other, and there were, at times, thousands of other atoms between entangled couples. The analysis also showed the state of entanglement might be more powerful than earlier thought.

If we stop the measurement, the entanglement remains for about one millisecond, which means that 1,000 times per second, a new batch of 15 trillion atoms is being entangled,says quantum physicist Jia Kongfrom the Institute of Photonic Sciences in Spain (ICFO).

You must think that 1 ms is a very long time for the atoms, long enough for about 50 random collisions to occur. This clearly shows that the entanglement is not destroyed by these random events. This is maybe the most surprising result of the work.

Although most quantum entanglement experiments utilize ultra-low temperatures to maintain the interference like these clashes to a minimum, this research that used rubidium metal and nitrogen gas, shows that entanglement can thrive in much hotter conditions.

If this event would be usable in the next-generation of communication systems and quantum computers, we have to get it functioning in warmer, noisier settings, and that is something this new study paves the way towards.

One of the ways these discoveries could be helpful in the future is inmagnetoencephalographyor magnetic brain imaging, a technique that employs similar hot, high-density atomic gases to identify magnetic fields generated by brain activity. Entanglement could then make the method more delicate. However, for now, physicists have understood more about the laws of quantum entanglement, and what it can and cannot resist.

This result is surprising, a real departure from what everyone expects of entanglement,says ICFO quantum physicist Morgan Mitchell. We hope that this kind of giant entangled state will lead to better sensor performance in applications ranging from brain imaging to self-driving cars, to searches for dark matter.

The research has been published in the journalNature Communications.

Known for her passion for writing, Paula contributes to both Science and Health niches here at Dual Dove.

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Teaching the next generation of quantum scientists | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences – Harvard School of…

Posted: May 23, 2020 at 4:42 am

The Harvard University Center for Integrated Quantum Materials (CIQM), in partnership with The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), hosted a virtual workshop in March to discuss curriculum and educator activities that will help K-12 students engage with quantum information science.

The workshop resulted in alist of key conceptsfor future quantum information science (QIS) learners. The document provides a concise list of nine basic concepts, including quantum entanglement, communication, and sensing. The list is first step towards the development of quantum education curricula and empowering educators to teach quantum concepts in K-12 classrooms.

Quantum information science and technology aims to create systems for quantum sensing, quantum communication using interconnected networks, and quantum computation, said Robert M. Westervelt, the Mallinckrodt Professor of Applied Physics and of Physics at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) and Director of CIQM.Our most important role is to engage young students in the field, because they will develop quantum technology in the future.

The document was the product of over three weeks of intensive deliberations among a group of university and industry researchers, secondary school and college educators, and representatives from educational and professional organizations. The participants represented a set of convergent disciplines that contribute to QIS today: physics, computer sciences, materials sciences, engineering, chemistry, and mathematics. Document development efforts were led by experts from the Illinois Quantum Information Science and Technology Center (IQUIST), theUniversity of Chicago,Georgetown Universityand theMuseum of Science, Boston.

"American leadership in quantum information science depends on a strong quantum workforce, said Jake Taylor, a Harvard alumnus who serves as OSTPs Assistant Director for Quantum Information Science. We're thrilled to begin this important work helping prepare the next generation of quantum learners."

"The future of fundamental research and education is in our hands. This impactful effort will empower the broad society to be included, and to actively participate in both efforts and benefits of the quantum era, said Sean Jones, Acting Assistant Director at the NSF's Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

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Nasa discovers parallel universe where time runs backwards? Know the truth – Business Standard

Posted: at 4:42 am

Twitter and other social media platforms are abuzz with the so-called 'parallel universe' that Nasa has discovered. According to the claims, Nasa has detected a parallel universe in Antarctica, where time runs backwards. While this has certainly made a whole lot of people excited, in reality this is far from the truth.

What is a parallel universe?

In quantum mechanics, parallel universe is theorised as existing alongside our own, although undetectable.

How did the claims on Nasa's discovery of parallel universe come about?

The recent reports claiming that there is evidence of a parallel universe appear to be based on ANITA findings that are at least a couple of years old.

A science magazine had published a feature, discussing some anomalous results coming from neutrino detection experiments in Antarctica, and what these could mean for a speculative cosmological model that posits there's an antimatter universe extending backwards from the BigBang.

The featured article was then 'curated' by some online media outlets, and the whole issue snowballed and became the talk of the town for the Twitterati.

What were the anomalous detections in Antarctica?

Four years ago, the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) experiment a high-altitude helium balloon with an array of radio antennas, partially funded by Nasa had spotted a handful of instances of what seemed to be highly energetic neutrinos coming through the Earth. The telescope could spot these neutrinos coming from the space and hitting the ice sheet in Antarctica. ANITA detected these particles, but instead of coming from the space, the neutrinos were found to be coming from the Earth's surface without any source. These detections happened in 2016, then again in 2018, but there was no credible explanation.

Physicists have been working to figure out if these results can be explained with our current models of physics or have something to do with the experimental set-up itself, or if something like parallel universe does exist.

Scientists not ready to call parallel universe a discovery yet

Going by what the scientists have actually said, it's clear that these are exciting times for the astrophysicists trying to find an explanation and future experiments with more exposure and sensitivity will be required to get a clear understanding of the anomaly.

However, people wishing for a parallel universe will have to wait because the evidence is lacking and the scientists are not yet ready to call it a discovery.

What is a neutrino?

A neutrino is a subatomic particle very similar to an electron. But it has no electrical charge and a very small mass, which might even be zero. Neutrinos are one of the most abundant particles in the universe. Because they have very little interaction with matter, they are incredibly difficult to detect.

Here are some Twitter reactions to the claims of parallel universe

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Company Hopes to Have Carbon Nanotube COVID-19 Detector Available in June – SciTechDaily

Posted: at 4:42 am

Artistic illustration of a carbon nanotube COVID-19 detector. Credit: Zettl Research Group/Berkeley Lab

How an atomically thin device could become a biotech breakthrough.

A technology spun from carbon nanotube sensors discovered 20 years ago by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) scientists could one day help health care providers test patients for COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

When Alex Zettl, Marvin Cohen, and their research teams at Berkeley Lab first demonstrated ultrasensitive oxygen sensors devised from carbon nanotubes hollow carbon wires with walls no thicker than an atom they envisioned a broad spectrum of applications, such as gas-leak detectors or air- and water-pollution detectors.

Subsequent studies out of Zettls lab revealed that carbon nanotubes or CNTs could also be used to detect proteins or carbohydrates at the level of single cells for biological and medical applications. CNTs exquisite chemical sensitivity had dramatic life-science implications that could benefit society, Zettl said.

But since Zettl normally investigates atomically thin materials known as nanomaterials for the Department of Energys Novel sp2-Bonded Materials and Related Nanostructures program, his lab is set up for launching exciting new experiments in quantum physics, not new applications for entrepreneurial startups.

So in 2000, Zettl and Cohen, who are both senior faculty scientists in Berkeley Labs Materials Sciences Division and physics professors at UC Berkeley, branched out into the world of commercial spinoffs by co-founding the Emeryville-based biotech company Nanomix Inc. They currently sit on the companys board of directors Zettl participates as an adviser, and Cohen as a member.

Today, the company is one of many U.S. companies vying for FDA Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) to deploy new diagnostic tests for COVID-19.

Last month, the company was awarded approximately $570,000 in funding from the Department of Health and Human Services Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) to develop disposable cartridges that test for protein traces of the coronavirus known as antigens in nasal swab samples, and for antibodies to the coronavirus in blood samples.

Patient samples loaded onto the cartridges are analyzed by the Nanomix eLab, a handheld testing device the company first developed more than five years ago in response to the Ebola virus epidemic.

The cartridges rely on tiny carbon biosensors modeled after the Zettl and Cohen labs groundbreaking carbon nanotube technology to detect coronavirus antigens during the early stages of a current infection. In addition, the cartridges can test for antibodies the immune system builds up as part of our bodys natural defense mechanism against a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The company says the eLab system can produce test results in about 15 minutes.

If granted FDA Emergency Use Authorization, the company hopes to have COVID-19-ready eLab products available for health care providers in June, and to scale up its supply and production capacity to provide hundreds of thousands of test kits, said Nanomix President and CEO David Ludvigson.

The fact that my research could help so many people is very rewarding. Im happy that I was able to contribute in that way, Zettl said.

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The world is not as real as we think. – Patheos

Posted: at 4:42 am

I offer here a potpourri of quotations from the very early pages of Bruce Rosenblum and Fred Kuttner, Quantum Enigma: Physics Encounters Consciousness, 2d ed. (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), quotations that Im extracting for my notes:

Classical physics explains the world quite well; its just the details it cant handle. Quantum physics handles the details perfectly; its just the world it cant explain. You can see why Einstein was troubled. (7)

When the late Bruce Rosenblum (one of the authors of this book) first proposed a course for liberal arts majors at the University of California at Santa Cruz, where he and his co-author taught, a faculty member objected:

[P]resenting this material to nonscientists is the intellectual equivalent of allowing children to play with loaded guns. (8)

Rosenblum and Kuttner themselves say of their book Quantum Enigma that

it is necessarily a controversial book. However, absolutely nothing we say about quantum mechanics itself is controversial. It is the mystery these results imply beyond the physics that is controversial. For many physicists, this baffling weirdness is best not talked about. Physicists (including ourselves) can be uncomfortable with their discipline encountering something as unphysical as consciousness. Though the quantum facts are not in dispute, the meaning behind those facts, what quantum mechanics tells us about our world, is hotly debated. (8)

An Einstein biographer tells that back in the 1950s a non-tenured faculty member in a physics department would endanger a career by showing any interest in the strange implications of quantum theory. Times are changing. (9)

Among the charms of Quantum Enigma are the anecdotes that it shares:

At a physics conference attended by several hundred physicists (including the two of us), an argument broke out in the discussion period after a talk. (The heated across-the-auditorium debate was reported in the New York Times in December 2005.) One participant argued that because of its weirdness, quantum theory had a problem. Another vigorously denied there was a problem, accusing the first of having missed the point. A third broke in to say, Were just too young. We should wait until 2200 when quantum mechanics is taught in kindergarten. A fourth summarized the argument by saying, The world is not as real as we think. Three of these arguers have Nobel Prizes in Physics, and the fourth is a good candidate for one. (9)

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Physicists Just Built The First Working Prototype Of A ‘Quantum Radar’ – ScienceAlert

Posted: May 19, 2020 at 5:43 pm

Quantum entanglement that strange but potentially hugely useful quantum phenomenon where two particles are inextricably linked across space and time could play a major role in future radar technology.

In 2008, an engineer from MIT devised a way to use the features of entanglement to illuminate objects while using barely any photons. In certain scenarios, such technology promises to outperform conventional radar, according to its makers, particularly in noisy thermal environments.

Now, researchers have taken the idea much further, demonstrating its potential with a working prototype.

The technology might eventually find a variety of applications in security and biomedical fields: building better MRI scanners, for example, or giving doctors an alternative way of looking for particular types of cancer.

"What we have demonstrated is a proof of concept for microwave quantum radar," says quantum physicist Shabir Barzanjeh, who conducted the work at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria.

"Using entanglement generated at a few thousandths of a degree above absolute zero, we have been able to detect low reflectivity objects at room temperature."

The device works along the same principles as a normal radar, except instead of sending out radio waves to scan an area, it uses pairs of entangled photons.

Entangled particles are distinguished by having properties that correlate with one another more than you'd expect by chance. In the case of the radar, one photon from each entangled pair, described as a signal photon, is sent towards an object. The remaining photon, described as an idler, is kept in isolation, waiting for a report back.

If the signal photon reflects from an object and is caught, it can be combined with the idler to create a signature pattern of interference, setting the signal apart from other random noise.

As the signal photons reflect from an object, this actually breaks the quantum entanglement in the truest sense. This latest research verifies that even when entanglement is broken, enough information can survive to identify it as a reflected signal.

It doesn't use much power, and the radar itself is difficult to detect, which has benefits for security applications. The biggest advantage this has over conventional radar, however, is that it's less troubled by background radiation noise, which affects the sensitivity and the accuracy of standard radar hardware.

"The main message behind our research is that quantum radar or quantum microwave illumination is not only possible in theory but also in practice," says Barzanjeh.

"When benchmarked against classical low-power detectors in the same conditions we already see, at very low-signal photon numbers, that quantum-enhanced detection can be superior."

There's plenty of exciting potential here, though we shouldn't get ahead of ourselves just yet. Quantum entanglement remains an incredibly delicate process to manage, and entangling the photons initially requires a very precise and ultra-cold environment.

Barzanjeh and his colleagues are continuing their development of the quantum radar idea, yet another sign of how quantum physics is likely to transform our technologies in the near future in everything from communications to supercomputing.

"Throughout history, proof of concepts such as the one we have demonstrated here have often served as prominent milestones towards future technological advancements," says Barzanjeh.

"It will be interesting to see the future implications of this research, particularly for short-range microwave sensors."

The research has been published in Science Advances.

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Quantum Brakes to Learn About the Forces Within Molecules – SciTechDaily

Posted: at 5:43 pm

An ultrashort x-ray laser pulse (in violet) removes an inner-shell electron from the iodine atom in ethyl iodide. The experiment times the propagation of the electron with attosecond precision, and measures how much the released electron is decelerated or accelerated by intramolecular forces. Credit: Philipp Rosenberger / LMU

Physicists have measured the flight times of electrons emitted from a specific atom in a molecule upon excitation with laser light. This has enabled them to measure the influence of the molecule itself on the kinetics of emission.

Photoemission the release of electrons in response to excitation by light is one of the most fundamental processes in the microcosm. The kinetic energy of the emitted electron is characteristic for the atom concerned, and depends on the wavelength of the light employed. But how long does the process take? And does it always take the same amount of time, irrespective of whether the electron is emitted from an individual atom or from an atom that is part of a molecule? An international team of researchers led by laser physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (LAP) at LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) in Garching has now probed the influence of the molecule on photoemission time.

The theoretical description of photoemission in 1905 by Albert Einstein marked a breakthrough in quantum physics, and the details of the process are of continuing interest in the world of science and beyond. How the motions of an elementary quantum particle such as the electron are affected within a molecular environment has a significant bearing on our understanding of the process of photoemission and the forces that hold molecules together.

In close collaboration with researchers from the King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), and additional international partners, the team at LAP has now determined how long it takes electrons to be photo-emitted from a specific atom within a molecule (in this case, the iodine in ethyl iodide). The measured times were in the range of tens of attoseconds. One attosecond is a billionth of a billionth of a second.

The researchers used a range of pulses in the x-ray region to excite the targeted electron. The use of machine learning helped to improve the precision of the analysis of the experimental data, and resulted in more accurate comparisons with theoretical predictions. The comparison of the experimental data with theoretical simulations finally revealed the influence of the molecule on the time that electrons need for the photoemission process, explains Professor Matthias Kling, who heads the Ultrafast Imaging and Nanophotonics group within the LAP team. The researchers found that the delay attributable to the molecular environment became larger as the energy of the light pulses and hence the initial kinetic energy imparted to the electrons was reduced.

The observations may be compared with exploring a landscape. When flying over it, many details on the ground remain unnoticed. At ground level, every single bump makes itself felt. The same is true for excited electrons. If the initial impulse is just enough to enable them to leave the molecule, the retarding effect of the forces that hold the molecule together is greater than when the kick is sufficiently energetic to eject them more promptly.

Our observations indicate that experiments tracing photoemission time permit us to learn about the forces within molecules, explains Professor Abdallah Azzeer, Head of the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics at KSU in Riyadh. These studies could improve our understanding of quantum effects in molecules and chemical reactions, adds Prof. Alexandra Landsman from Ohio State University in the US, who leads the group that conducted the majority of the theoretical work.

Reference: Probing molecular environment through photoemission delays by Shubhadeep Biswas, Benjamin Frg, Lisa Ortmann, Johannes Schtz, Wolfgang Schweinberger, Tom Zimmermann, Liangwen Pi, Denitsa Baykusheva, Hafiz A. Masood, Ioannis Liontos, Amgad M. Kamal, Nora G. Kling, Abdullah F. Alharbi, Meshaal Alharbi, Abdallah M. Azzeer, Gregor Hartmann, Hans J. Wrner, Alexandra S. Landsman and Matthias F. Kling, 11 May 2020, Nature Physics.DOI: 10.1038/s41567-020-0887-8

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