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The Evolutionary Perspective
Category Archives: Micronations
Posted: August 14, 2017 at 12:34 pm
A micronation is an attempt to start a new nation from scratch. This often takes novel forms, such as plans to create new artificial islands in international waters, occupying an existing abandoned structure in international waters, establishing a colony on Antarctica, declaring that one’s personal ranch or property has seceded from its parent nation and is now an independent country, and “virtual” micronations which exist over the Internet.
Micronations are not to be confused with genuine small countries which have real residents and international recognition as nations, such as Andorra, Monaco, Liechtenstein, San Marino, Vanuatu, Singapore, the Vatican City, the Pitcairn Islands, Mauritius, etc. these countries are properly referred to as “microstates.” They are also not to be confused with publicity stunts such as the “Conch Republic,” a tongue-in-cheek “secession” of Key West, Florida from the United States in 1982 declared by the Key West city council to drum up tourism and protest U.S. Border Patrol activity in the Florida Keys. (“If you’re going to treat us like a banana republic, by golly we’ll become one!”)
Micronations exist for a bunch of reasons, quite a few of them overlapping:
Most micronations have no more actual residents than you can count on one hand. None of them has ever gained legitimate international recognition as a sovereign nation, although a British court ruled in 1968 that the Principality of Sealand was outside of British jurisdiction.
An abandoned British anti-aircraft platform located in international waters near the U.K., and occupied and claimed as an independent nation since 1967. Has the dubious distinction of having undergone a forcible attempted coup.
A long-running Internet community, created in 1979 by a 14-year-old, that is often credited as the origin of the micronation fad. Its motivation appears to be mostly for lighthearted and humorous purposes, but its residents take it seriously enough to synthesize an entire culture, complete with its own conlang which has a claimed vocabulary of 35,000 words and even its own ISO 639 code, “tzl”.
A farm in Australia whose owner declared it an independent nation in 1970 after a dispute over wheat quotas with the Australian government. Hutt River is unique among micronations in that it actually does function as a de facto independent state instead of merely claiming to be one; although it lacks a standing army and depends on Australia for military protection, it is otherwise self-sufficient. It lacks international recognition and has few residents, but the fact that none of the residents pay taxes to Australia and the insanely low 0.5% income tax rate in the principality itself have caused it to gain popularity as a tax haven.
A long-running virtual micronation considered by law enforcement to be a mail-order passport and banking fraud scheme. It was founded by an American, Mark Pedley (aka Branch Vinedresser), in 1990, and named after a priest from the Book of Genesis. Through the 1990s it sold fake licences for people wishing to establish companies, including banks; Pedley was changed with parole violations over his actions, while other people have been jailed for using fake checks on banks in Melchizedek; Roger Rosemont set up a Ponzi scheme with a Melchizedek business licence which conned 1400 people into investing a total of $4m.
Also known as The Embassy of the Kingdom of Heaven, an exceptionally odd example in Oregon, which claims to be independent of the United States, but does not claim sovereignty, instead claiming to be an enclave of God’s Kingdom of Heaven on Earth. Because they do not recognize any “worldly governments” and proclaim themselves to be literal citizens of the Kingdom of Heaven, they issue their own identity documents and license plates. They used to have a compound outside of Stayton, Oregon, but it was seized in 1997 for non-payment of property taxes, despite their claims that it was exempt because it was a “foreign embassy.”
Located in Copenhagen, this is a rare example of an urban micronation. This hippie commune was founded by squatters and anarchists in a disused army barracks in 1971, and declared itself an independent free town. This legal status is not formally recognised by the Danish government, but the commune’s existence has largely been tolerated, and the government has turned a blind eye to the open cultivation and trade of marijuana within its boundaries, until a crackdown in recent years. The closest it has had to any recognition was from the local bus service that added a stop near the old barracks gates, and a listing on the official Copenhagen tourist website.
Located in the Czech Republic, this was a resort for submissive male and dominant female BDSM practitioners which opened to visitors in 1997. It was styled as an absolute matriarchal monarchy, with a currency, national anthem and a queen in the form of the resort’s owner, Patricia, but of course neither the Czech Republic nor any other entity recognized its sovereignty. As of recent years, the resort has closed and the land put up for sale in 2008. There seems to be a rumor circulating around that the owner was somehow entangled with the Russian mafia.
Founded in 1949 by James Thomas Mangan, also known as Celestia, claiming all of outer space to ensure no nation established political hegemony there, and banned all atmospheric nuclear tests. Largely ignored by the superpowers, the project’s surviving legacy are a number of gold and silver coins that fetch high prices on the collector’s market.
Built by Italian engineer Georgio Rosa in 1967, also known as Insulo de la Rozoj, it was an off-shore platform 7 miles (11 km) from Italy’s Rimini province, established partly as an engineering experiment and partly as a tax-free drinking den. Complete with several businesses (a bar, restaurant, night club, post office, and souvenir shop), its own currency (but no coinage or notes), and the official language Esperanto, Rosa declared independence in 1968. It was raided by Italian authorities that same year, dynamited by military engineers, and the remains sunk into the Adriatic Sea during a storm.
Created in 2015 as the brainchild of libertarian Vt Jedlika, who has appointed several ministers of it, it’s a small (around 3 square miles of surface) territory in dispute between Croatia and Serbia. The Croatian police have threatened to arrest anyone who lands on it, although Croatia doesn’t actually claim the area because accepting it would also require accepting other aspects of the disputed border with Serbia. Its currency is inevitably Bitcoins. Substantially subsidised by Bitcoin advocate Roger Ver.
Established in the terra nullius of Bir Tawil between Egypt and Sudan (similar to the situation of Liberland, neither Egypt or Sudan accept the border settlement between the two, and both fear that claiming the territory will be viewed as implicit acceptance of the entire border). It was declared in 2014 by American man Jeremiah Heaton who wanted to create his own country so his daughter could be a princess. Its status as an independent country has been questioned by experts on international law, and although Heaton travelled there in June 2014 to stake his claim, he does not appear to have been back since.
Also known as Enen Kio, it claims sovereignty over Wake Island, part of the Marshall Islands in the Pacific. It sells citizenship for sums from $500 to $10,000, and is judged to be a fraud by anti-fraud website Quatloos.com.
Founded in 1984 as a conceptual art project by the Slovenian industrial rock band Laibach, also known as New Slovene Art, since 1991 this organisation has functioned as a virtual online state, with its own passports, currency, and flag. The NSK state is described by NSK itself as “an abstract organism, a suprematist body, installed in a real social and political space as a sculpture comprising the concrete body warmth, spirit and work of its members”. “Passports” are available online for a fee of 24 Euro.
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Posted: August 4, 2017 at 1:31 pm
Apple has indicated it plans to launch Apple Pay in a number of new territories before the start of 2018, a feat that would see it catch up to and overtake current digital wallet frontrunner Samsung.
Speaking at the companys earnings call yesterday, Apple CFO Luca Maestri says that the reach, usage, and functionality of Apple Pay continued to grow.
He claims that Apple Pay is by far the number one NFC payment service on mobile devices, with nearly 90 percent of all transactions globally. Momentum is strongest in international markets, where the infrastructure for mobile payments has developed faster than in the US.
In fact, three out of four Apple Pay transactions happen outside of the US. With the launch of iOS 11 in the fall, our users in the US will be able to make and receive person-to-person payments quickly, easily, and securely.
Maestri also confirmed that the company plans to have Apple Pay live in the UAE, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden before the end of this calendar year.
If Apple can follow through on this promise, itll see them retake the top spot from Samsung Pay when it comes to the amount of regions supporting the service.
As of now, Apple Pay is available in 16 countries (depending on whether or not you count micronations like Vatican City and the Isle of Mann).
In comparison, Samsung Pay operates in 19 countries and Googles Android Pay boasts only 14 regions.
Posted: at 1:31 pm
Molossia. Slobovia. The Aerican Empire. If you dont remember any of these countries from geography class, youre not alone. They are all micronations, self-declared sovereign states not formally recognized by any official authority (other than each other). This summer, representatives from 27 of these would-be fiefdoms gathered for a summit in Dunwoody, Georgia. While several of these micronations claim that they are their own autonomous countries, many are created as a political protest, for artistic reasons or as a social experiment.
MicroCon 2017 was hosted by Veronica Boritz, who also identifies as Queen Anastasia von Elphberg of Ruritania. The event, which lasted four days, included multiple outings for the micronational leaders, a symposium with speeches on subjectslike Micronational post system and Women in micronations: Starting your own or supporting your dictator husband.
This segment originally aired August 2, 2017, on VICE News Tonight on HBO.
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Posted: July 29, 2017 at 7:30 pm
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As the founder and Executive Director of Social Evolution, Max Borders is relentlessly seeking to liberate people and resolve social problems through innovation. Much of what drives him has been informed by his work as co-founder of the Voice & Exit event and as the former editor at the libertarian non-profit Foundation for Economic Education (FEE). Max is a futurist, a theorist, a published author and an entrepreneur.
Through his work with Social Evolution, Max is championing the following beliefs:
Here at BTCManager, we had a chance to interview Max about his aims and visions around todays emerging world of decentralization.
I started Social Evolution for two basic reasons.
First, I was frustrated with politics; how acrimonious it makes people, as well as the fact that most people think elections, legislatures and bureaucracies are the only means of making social change. I know there is a community out there that agrees that politics is a big, destructive illusion.
Second, and relatedly, I know there is a group of people out there already building new protocols for peaceful human interaction; systems that are decidedly less centralized and hierarchical. Social Evolution: the digital hub (forthcoming publication) will be an intellectual and spiritual home for this group. I want to unite and galvanize them.
I had been editor of FEE.org for years, and it was probably the best job I ever had. But I knew at some point I needed to create something different. I needed not to get too comfortable. I decided to build a media organization, a digital hub, that lies at the intersection of innovation and culture. I am in the process of building that hub; Social Evolution.
Sure. Decentralization has a certain inevitability to it. Just as I believe the technological singularity is coming, I also believe the social singularity will emerge as well. Thats not to say there wont be conflict. There will be convulsive wars between the old and new structures. Hostile state actors will be saboteurs, where possible, and there will be a lot of fallout. But decentralization is going to continue.
The blockchain is not just about decentralization. Its about disintermediation. And that means removing middlemen. And by middlemen, I dont just mean bankers. I mean all the great hierarchical mediating structures operating today; in media, government, corporations, and education. These structures are already showing their cracks.
But as they collapse there will be a great displacement. The middlemen will kick and scream on their way out because these obsolete structures butter their bread. They will have to transition. But first, they will try to reinsert themselves through various means, including attempts to ban or regulate the very technologies supplanting them.
Great question! A lot of people hear legal technologies and think there is some kind of app for dispute resolution or contracts. Im sure those are in development. But the law itself is a kind of technology because it involves a set of protocols or rulesets. And some of these rulesets are better than other when it comes to creating incentives to be productive. In countries with corrupt legal systems, the incentives are predatory. In countries with less corrupt legal systems, the incentives are to be productive. We can see this when you look at the difference between Venezuela and Hong Kong, for example. And put more cheekily, the US itself runs on DOS (Democratic Operating System). Isnt it time for a better social operating system?
So one of the more interesting developments in recent history are special economic zones (SEZs). These can be ports or territorial carve-outs, like Dubai or Shenzhen. A decade from now, it might be more speculative micronations, such as seasteads. As new SEZs come online, they can adopt new legal technologies, which is simply to say novel forms of law, which might be implemented with the help of bits and bytes. But given the corruptibility of people, one can imagine that the most competitive SEZs will use the blockchain for as much as they can because the most competitive and attractive SEZs for investment will be the least corrupt.
I believe well see five things. They are:
Social Evolution is for subversive innovators, those prepared to create systems of human interaction that have never before been possible. Our culture will coevolve with those systems. Social Evolution can be a standard bearer for a movement dedicated to liberating people and solving social problems through innovation (not politics).
My great hope is that we can be a major catalyst for peaceful social change. One day I want to get an email every day that reads: Because I read article X on Social Evolution, I started working on project Y that has revolutionized Z. Without the inspiration you provided, wed still be doing things the old way.
The geeks will inherit the earth.
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Posted: July 20, 2017 at 3:31 am
Hoagland is a Territory of the Empire of Austenasia located south of the American city of Cleveland, Ohio, comprised of an area of uninhabited grassland. Although it has no inhabitants, Austenasian law is enforced by its Governor, Pope Euclid I.
The name Hoagland is an alternate version of the land’s former name, Hoogland, which in turn is from the Afrikaans word meaning “highland”.
This region was most likely inhabbited by the Erie people before the mid-seventeenth century, and became part of Ohio in 1803. As much of what is now Hoagland is under wires from an electrical grid, land was cleared in 1998 by the electrical company to access the wires on the grids. Many people took advantage of this opportunity and cleared land for fields. In 2006 a housing development was proposed, but was quickly rejected for a number of reasons. Historical satellite images reveal that a road gave direct access to the field in 1952, but had been overgrown by 1967. The field was used for practicing sports until 2014, when it became New Normandy.
New Normandy was founded as a colony of West Germania by Grant Hawkins on 17 January 2014, declaring independence from the United States of America. However, in September later that year, Hawkins declared independence from West Germania due to a lack of communication from its leader, renaming New Normandy the Empire of Nova Atlantis. On 11 January 2015, the now independent land joined Adammia as the colony of Adammic Columbia.
After a year and a half in Adammia, Hawkins renamed the land Hoogland and declared allegiance to the Holy Roman Empire. However, on 14 November 2016 this decision was reversed, and the territory returned to Adammia as Adammic Columbia until 10 June 2017.
After several weeks as a terra nullius which had de facto returned to the United States of America, the territory – now renamed Hoagland – was annexed by the Empire of Austenasia by the request of Hawkins, who as Pontifex Maximus is known as Pope Euclid I in the Empire. Euclid was appointed Governor and Baron of the land, which was received as an Austenasian Territory due to having no permanent population.
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Posted: July 5, 2017 at 11:31 pm
There are small nations, and then there are micronations. The Republic of Molossia, which is in Nevada, US, is one such micronation.
Molossia has a paltry 33 citizens and not even all of them are people some are cats and dogs. It has its own border control, rules, currency and traditions.
The self-declared sovereign entity is not officially recognized by legitimate governments around the world. however, it has its own president, His Excellency Kevin Baugh, whom his wife Adrianne describes as a “benevolent dictator.”
Self-declared President of Molossia Kevin Baugh. Photo: Daily Mail/Jamie Kingham
The welcome message. Photo: Daily Mail/Jamie Kingham
President Baugh stamps passports of visitors. Photo: Daily Mail/Jamie Kingham
READ ALSO: These brave Somali women attend college despite poverty and culture
Besides President Baugh, who has ruled for 40 years over the 5-acre territory, and First Lady Adrienne, other citizens include their seven children, two grandchildren and other relatives.
President Baugh, 54, dresses in a ceremonial outfit complete with medals during special occasions, including raising his nation’s flag. He stamps the passports of visitors and says Molossia pays taxes, which he calls “foreign aid,” to the US government.
In an interview, President Baugh, 54, said: “I love being dictator; it is fantastic but it is also intentional. When I remodelled Molossia, I chose to be a dictator.”
He also conducts regular tours of his nation. Photo: Daily Mail/Jamie Kingham
He has ruled the 5-acre country for 40 years. Photo: Daily Mail/Jamie Kingham
The President with his wife, First Lady Adrienne, and their daughter. Photo: Daily Mail/Jamie Kingham
READ ALSO: Research reveals African countries with the best English speakers
Watch more about the micronation below.
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Australia’s hidden micronations: It’s not the size of the country but how you rule it – 9news.com.au
Posted: July 2, 2017 at 9:37 am
Prince Paul created his principality after a stoush with Mosman council in 2004. (principalityofwy.com)
The self-proclaimed leader of a micronation on Sydney’s North Shore says he has a plan to ease hostility between the US and North Korea.
Prince Paul Delprat of the Principality of Wy told nine.com.au the tiny kingdom could act as negotiator between Trump and Kim Jong un through the power of art.
“If only humour could govern international relationships and if only art prizes could be the way that people solved their problems. If only Mr Trump and Mr Putin and the leader in North Korea all painted,” Prince Paul said.
“And every year the Principality of Wy could hold an exhibition of all the country’s leaders and they would all abide by the decision, there would be no more wars.”
There was a healthy amount of jest in the “royal’s” comments, reflecting his light-hearted outlook on life and the way he governs.
His tiny kingdom unofficially seceded from Mosman in 2004 after a bitter stoush with local council over a driveway.
“When we did create our little principality out of a true sense of injustice, people were prepared to say ‘hey, listen to them and give them a go’. We had support from the most extraordinary corners and it’s ongoing,” he said.
Prince Paul’s micronation is one of many that exist in Australia. Micronations claim independence, but are not officially recognised by the state.
The self-appointed royal leads with his wife, Princess Susan, and their children.
He believes it is not the size of the kingdom that counts, but how you rule it.
“There is an old saying, ‘an Englishman’s house is his castle’. Well, I just took it that extra step,” he said.
“Deep in the psyche of Australians is a little bit of Ned Kelly. We all look at Ned in his armour and his defiance of authority and let’s face it, there’s a little bit of him in all of us.”
When the Prince attends events and ceremonies he often wears his formal regalia of a crown, robe and sceptre.
“We do dress up when we go out on occasion and people like us coming in formal regalia to various functions,” he said.
“They see it adding a little bit of colour to the occasion and we are very happy to oblige with that.”
Prince Paul says despite the number of micronations scattered across the country, he has little contact with his fellow pioneers.
There were thought to be 12 micronations in Australia at the peak of the movement, but over the years those numbers have dwindled.
One of Australia’s other notable micronations is the Empire of Atlantium.
It started as a bit of fun between three Sydney cousins as a way to break away from society in 1981.
His Imperial Majesty George II (George Francis Cruickshank) told nine.com.au he may have taken his parent’s advice to “change the world” further than anticipated.
“My parents raised me with the idea that in Australia, with the right amount of luck and right amount of application anyone could really achieve anything,” he said.
“I think what they meant was that they wanted me to go off and join a political party to change the world, but what I did was paint a black and white border line in the backyard and create Atlantium.”
For many years Atlantium was simply an affectation shared amongst family members and a few of George’s university friends until the launch of the internet.
“People suddenly discovered us. We were suddenly everywhere from Peru to Azerbaijan and we discovered that there were all these people who thought Atlantium was a great idea and wanted to be a part of it,” he said.
“Our population exploded from about 10 to well over 1000 in the space of a few months.”
In 2006 Emperor George acquired part ownership of a property 300km south-west of Sydney and he dubbed it the Province of Aurora.
“We now have a territory that is about twice the size of the Vatican and about half the size of Monaco, so one of the world’s smaller countries. We have a government house, a post office and a number of monuments.”
Emperor George has used his status as leader of a growing empire – which now has more than 3000 citizens – to push for social change including marriage equality, assisted suicide, abortion rights and unrestricted international movements.
The tiny nation has its own anthem, the Auroran Hymn and its own currency with coins and banknotes.
Emperor George said his neighbours seem to enjoy living next door to the town’s “local eccentric”.
“My neighbours are perhaps bemused and slightly confused by the fact I’m running my own country across the road from their properties and that I have Australia’s only pyramid monument in my backyard,” he said.
The emperor dispelled a common misconception that micronations were somehow except from paying taxes based on arcane interpretations of the Magna Carta and ancient laws.
“There is no way that one country can secede legally from the Commonwealth of Australia. The way most micronations disguise this is by declaring their tax payments as ‘tribute payments,'” he said.
“Australian maintains sovereignty. We dont believe we are independent of Australia, we say that our territory is sort of like the status or an embassy.”
Nine Digital Pty Ltd 2017
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Posted: June 29, 2017 at 11:36 am
The first Liberbeer was produced at the end of last year in the Kruohor brewery by a brewer who was recognised in 2016 as the most perspective brewer
The Liberbeer party took place recently in Osijek, hosted by the Fabrique bar&grill, conveniently located in Freedom Square, a logical venue for a beer that celebrates freedom. Liber beer is the official beer of Liberland a self-proclaimed state on the Danube River, in between Croatia and Serbia. It is interesting that Croatia claims Liberland is not part of her territory, and Serbia wants nothing to do with it.
The owner of this beer brand is Czech Jaroslav Falta, also owner of the beer e-shop Pivogrando, craft beer store and bar Galerija Piva and craft beer bar Ale!
Liberland is a controversial topic and some in it see a threat and a factor of permanent instability on this unpredictable geopolitical area, a security danger to the constitutional order, but others see in it an opportunity for tourism development and revitalisation of a demographically and economically devastated area. Micronations are not new, and have coexisted in western, democratic societies for decades, some generating significant economic benefit to the local community. Liberland has become known around the world and gathers hundreds of people at its conferences. Tourism connected with Liberland could generate thousands of overnight stays annually in Osijek and Baranja.
The first Liberbeer was produced at the end of last year in the Kruohor brewery by a brewer who was recognised in 2016 as the most perspective brewer. Jaroslav has the ambition to establish a global network of small breweries with local distribution. Besides the Czech Republic, he is also interested in finding partners in Croatia, Serbia and other countries.
The beer is of excellent quality and made from selected flower cones of hops, and water from Rudna Gora on the Czech-German border. Liberbeer is unfiltered, unpasteurised and contains no artificial additives. Jaroslav says of his beer that it seeks to blend the best traditions of Czech brewers with the global trend of craft beer.
They currently offer two beer styles_ Liberbeer Indian Pale Ale with 6.5% alcohol, and a bitterness of 57 IBU. It contains three types of hops Nelson Sauvin, Summit and Sorachi Ace, and two types of malt Marris Otter and T 50. Liberbeer lager has 5% alcohols and a bitterness of 25 IBU, contains hops Saazar, Sladek and Perle, and malts Pilsner and Munich. Liberbeer is sold in glass bottles of 0.5 and 0.75 litres, plastic bottles of 20 litres and kegs of 30 litres.
The Liberbeer party was visited by large numbers of free-thinking individuals, as well as many beer lovers. The promotion also attracted beer influencers such as Danijel Bouri, co-founder of the first Osijek craft brewery Black Hat and one of the foremost homebrewers in the region.
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Posted: June 25, 2017 at 2:29 pm
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Principality of Sealand – Peter Kirkland
Aim for it! Sealand will enter the G8!
Sealand: (holding up a fist) My punches are really strong! Do you wanna see?
Ladonia: (panicked) No, don’t!
Sealand: Sometimes I ride the goat while swabbing the deck, and that is not a euphemism for anything.
Principality of Seborga
So you must be little Wy! Hmmm, maybe I’ll hit on you after a couple hundred years go by.
Principality of Wy
Did you think we’re buddies? But I’m different from you… I’ve been re-cog-ni-zed!
Republic of Kugelmugel
Declaring my independence is…ART!!!!
Republic of Molossia
Sunnovabitch! You formally entered the country?!
Principality of Hutt River
Paying your respects to me, your senior, is simple etiquette, yes?
Republic of Nikko Nikko
A Halloween Party? I certainly would like to go, but I’ve already withdraw from nation status, so…
Voiced by: Dallas Reid (EN)
Nikko Nikko: If you believe and try your best, your dreams will come true, won’t they, Japan?
Japan: What on Earth did you try your best at?!
The only one with the power to gather all the micronations is a true blue like me!
Posted: June 9, 2017 at 1:34 pm
(Photo by Andrew Burton/Getty Images)
It started with a tweet about President Trumps decision to pull us out of the Paris Climate Agreement. Professor Chaplin who is the Chair of American Studies Department at Harvard and the James Duncan Phillips Professor, tweeted this:
That tweet somehow got picked up by Senator Ted Cruz, who, in the spirit of curiosity and intellectual inquiry, sought to clarify what Professor Chaplin meant. He asked, Dear Professor Chaplin, your tweet struck me as odd, given that we all usually think of July 4, 1776, as the birth of our nation. Can you clarify what you mean?
Just kidding! He completely dismissed her, and then in the right-wing press, was described as having owned her.
That led to Professor Chaplins clapback:
I jumped in because it was clear that Senator Cruz wasnt looking for intellectual debate, or he wouldnt have started out with the ad hominem and condescension. As one of my colleagues wrote, What did Senator Cruz say that was wrong? My reply was:
And then discussion degenerated. I dont have time to do a thorough statistical analysis, but the vast of majority of replies (at least to me) were insults. There were a few who came to Professor Chaplins defense, seeking to elaborate on her points (if they went to her twitter feed, they would have seen some more discussion). Many came to Senator Cruzs defense. But, at this point, the discussion became partisan, and all hope for any understanding was lost.
So, let me try to sum up the two positions, not doing justice to either side.
A country requires international recognition to exist. I could declare myself the great state of LawProfBlawg, but no one is going to acknowledge my country. I wont be a player on any international arena, and I might very well get invaded. Throughout history there were many nations that lacked international recognition, such as the Republic of Lakotah, the Principality of the Hutt River, or other micronations. Some countries have varying degrees of international recognition, which makes the notion murkier, but it is still a necessary condition for statehood. Professor Chaplin takes a more eloquent position here.
A country begins at conception. Perhaps Orin Kerr said it best in his tweet:
In other words, the Declaration of Independence created the United Colonies, which then undertook a name change on September 9, 1776, to the United States of America. The only trouble here is that the founders spoke of free and independent states, so perhaps then we should be talking about multiple countries. Regardless, by the time of the Articles of Confederation and later the Constitution, it was very clear they were a single country, the good ol US of A.
Blog length makes my summary of both arguments incomplete, with many unanswered questions. For example, was the Confederate States of America a country? It did declare independence, and under the second standard, would have to be historically recognized as a country. Under the first standard, the Confederacy was not a country because it received no international recognition. But there are countries that exist without full international recognition. In short, its murky.
While the answer may be murky a few things about the great debate are clear:
I wondered about the gender implications of the debate. I wondered if this is what it is like to be a female faculty member at a University.
I wonder why Im even calling it a debate. Professor Chaplin was doing what most of us do on Twitter. She wasnt expecting a Cruzian call-out. She was expressing outrage at the United States, a member of the international community since birth, pulling out of that community. Even as other tweeters got involved, it was never a debate. It had all the trappings of the famous Monty Python Argument Clinic.
Thats not the fault of Twitter. Those with differing viewpoints refuse to seek common understanding, as traditional debate becomes an increasingly lost art. The loss will eventually destroy us, if it hasnt already.
UPDATE (2:45 p.m.): After hearing from Senator Cruzs staff members, I must add that I was remiss in not pointing out that Senator Cruz did lay out his argument in two subsequent tweets:
I would characterize this more along the lines of the conception argument, but might eliminate the problem of what to call the Confederacy (because they lost). Ill incorporate my previous assertions to apply to these tweets as well.
LawProfBlawg is an anonymous professor at a top 100 law school. You can see more of his musingshereand onTwitter. Email him firstname.lastname@example.org.