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Category Archives: High Seas

Alta Mar High Seas When Will Season 3 Release On Netflix? – NationEditions

Posted: July 27, 2020 at 4:23 am

High Seas is a series of puzzles that hit Netflix in May 2019. The show has 2 seasons that have been quite average and were dubbed into the English language by Netflix. Fans of the series will receive the third season of the show. The renewal was officially announced in November 2019 and filming for Season 3 began in the same month. The show is slated for a release in August 2020.

Great news for fans here! In November 2019, a Spanish journalist published that the creators had already started filming High Seas Season 3. In fact, it is said that he also started improving in season 4 in installments. The production team behind the series shared that they are set to produce 16 episodes.

Source: Trinikid

These will be divided into eight chapters into 2 chapters. As reported, the premiere of High Seas season 3 will take place on August 7, 2020, it has not yet been confirmed if it will be the last season or so, but much entertainment and drama is confirmed, which fans season 3 will be able to.

The second season of High Seas ended with Cruise arriving in Rio de Janeiro. In addition, some mysteries are open with the second season. Therefore, the next season will probably focus on them. In addition, Cruise dropped his anchor in Rio. It is unclear when the cruise will continue or fall in the center in the next season. The show has also brought in a pretty extraordinary way in the second season as well. So it will be exciting to see where the story goes in the third season of High Seas.

Season 2 of High Seas was released in its entirety on Netflix on November 22, 2019. The second season consists of eight episodes like its predecessor. The series, prior to its original release, was planned for the first two seasons. And so, it didnt seem like a surprise when the second installment came to a standstill of just six months.

Now, until the third season, Netflix has yet to appear with an announcement. Audience reviews are more or less favorable, no doubt. But a new season will depend on whether the creators need to create a multi-season story in the first place. For now, if Netflix stays to follow its regular broadcast schedule and chooses to resume the series, we can expect High Seas season 3 premiere to be sometime in late 2020.

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‘High Seas’/’Alta Mar’ Season 3: Release date, plot, cast and all you need to know about the show’s return – MEAWW

Posted: at 4:23 am

As one YouTube commenter put it, the "pretty people on a boat show" is set to return as Netflix's Spanish original, 'High Seas' aka 'Alta Mar', returns in August with its third season. The plots of the first two seasons were almost completely set on the ship, Brbara de Braganza, which was making its way from Spain in Europe to Brazil in South America in the 1940s after the end of the World War II. It seemed like 'High Seas' had everything: Nazis, ghosts, stolen gold, to name a few but the new season is set to take a different direction since the ship docked in Brazil. However, it will still involve the Brbara de Braganza as an important site, albeit with a new mystery and new characters.

Read on to know more details about the Spanish show's return.

The third season of 'High Seas' / 'Alta Mar' will be available to stream on Netflix on Friday, August 7, at 12 am PST.

After disembarking in Brazil, sisters Eva and Carolina Villanueva find themselves in the middle of a new mystery in Season 3. Viewers might remember that their maid, Francisca fell off the top deck of the boat after it was revealed that Francisca killed Rosa Marin so that Carolina could marry Fernando Fabregas. The final few minutes of the Season 2 finale revealed Francisca was taken in an ambulance to the hospital but we don't know yet whether she survived. Meanwhile, the season's end also brought heartbreak for Eva after Nicolas Vzquez was reunited with his long-lost wife whom he thought was killed by the Nazis during the war.

Perhaps there's new romance lying ahead for Eva. In the promo for the new season, we are introduced to a new character who works for the British government's intelligence service. Eva teams up with this new British spy to uncover someone who is holding a "deadly virus". To stop the man from killing millions, they must find him on the Brbara de Braganza before the ship docks at its destination. While it looks like there may be some romantic developments between Eva and this new character, we are still hoping that Nicolas and her patch up their relationship.

The official synopsis for the new season is as follows: "When the Brbara de Braganza sets sail from Argentina to Mexico, a new mystery emerges again. The Brbara de Braganza sails off Buenos Aires and it will be up to the Villanueva sisters to find and stop a scientist carrying a deadly secret on board."

Ivana Baquero

Ivana Baquero plays the character of Eva Villanueva. She is best known for her roles in Pans Labyrinth and The Shannara Chronicles. In 'High Seas', she plays the role of the inquisitive Eva who steals the heart of the officer, Nicolas, played by Jon Kortajarena. She is instrumental in solving the mysteries on the ship. As such, in Season 3, she is roped in to help solve yet another mystery by a handsome British spy.

Marco Pigossi

Marco Pigossi is a Brazilian actor best known for his work on 'Edge of Desire', 'Land of the Strong', and Netflix's 'Tidelands'. In 'High Seas', he plays the new character of a British spy who ropes in Eva to help uncover a dastardly scientist's plot to release a deadly virus in Mexico.

Alejandra Onieva

Alejandra Onieva is a Spanish actress best known for her roles in 'Ella es tu padre' and 'Presunto culpable'. She plays the role of Carolina in 'High Seas', Eva's older sister who gets married on the ship in the first season.

Jon Kortajarena

Jon Kortajarena is a Spanish actor and model best known for his roles in 'Eurovision Song Contest: The Story of Fire Saga', 'A Single Man', and 'Quantico'. He plays the role of Officer Nicols Vzquez, a suave officer aboard theBrbara de Braganza, who helps Eva with her investigations.

Created by Ramn Campos and Gema R Neira and written by Ramn Campos, Gema R Neira Daniel Martn Serrano, Curro Novallas and Jos Antonio Valverde, the series was directed by Carlos Sedes who also serves as executive producer with Teresa Fernndez Valds and Ramn Campos. The team previously developed Netflix's 'Las Chicas del Cable' aka 'Cable Girls'.

'Cable Girls'


'Grand Hotel'


'Toy Boy'

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'High Seas'/'Alta Mar' Season 3: Release date, plot, cast and all you need to know about the show's return - MEAWW

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Alta Mar High Seas season 3: Are We Getting It Soon Or We Have To Wait – The Digital Wise

Posted: at 4:23 am

High Seas is an amazing series on the streaming program Netflix in May 2019. The thriller series is from the creator by Ramon Campos and Gema R. Neera. The show has two amazing seasons that have been loved by many fans, and they all are now asking for the third season.

The thriller series will get the shows next season. The revival of the series was formally reported in November 2019, and shooting for the upcoming season started around the same time. The thriller series has been booked for August 2020.

It was reported that the creators have just begun recording for the third season. Indeed, it is said that they have additionally begun the improvement of the next season. The creation group behind the thriller series shared that they are set up to deliver 16 amazing episodes.

Source: The Justice

These will be additionally separated into two parts in eight exciting episodes each. As detailed, the third run of the series will arrive on August 7, 2020. So far it isnt affirmed will this be the last season or not, however, a great deal of amusement and drama is confirmed which the fans will be found in Season 3.

The followers of the series are trusting that the cast individuals from the previous season could be found in the next season.

The occasions of High Seas, as the name insights, occur onboard an extravagance journey transport, visiting from Spain to Brazil all through the 1940s. Two sisters are likewise part of this excursion, yet things take an insidious turn when an unavoidable passing opens up a pandora box of perilous, filthy insider facts

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How we recruited albatrosses to patrol the high seas for illegal fishers – MENAFN.COM

Posted: at 4:23 am

(MENAFN - The Conversation) Wandering albatrosses have long been considered exceptional creatures. They can fly 8.5 million kilometres during their lifetimes the equivalent of flying to the Moon and back more than ten times. Their three-and-a-half-metre wing span is the same length as a small car and they can weigh as much as 24 puffins. Their body shape means they can effortlessly glide over the ocean waves, flying in some of the strongest winds on Earth. Now research led by the Centre d''tudes biologiques de Chiz in France has found that these seabirds may have promising careers in the fight against overfishing.

Accidental bycatch in fishing lines and nets when fishers unintentionally snare animals they weren''t trying to catch, like albatrosses kills hundreds of thousands of birds and mammals each year .

In the past few decades, countries have worked together to implement cross-border policies to directly address the causes of bycatch, particularly for albatrosses and petrels which have been severely affected . With onboard human observers or electronic devices tracking activity, albatross bycatch rates have fallen dramatically on monitored vessels. But what about illegal fishing boats? Military vessels and aeroplanes patrol the Southern Ocean looking for criminal fishers, but there are no observers or monitoring to ensure these boats are using methods to protect albatrosses, and without these, we know that bycatch rates are very high.

Read more: Small-scale fisheries have unintended consequences on tropical marine ecosystems

Boats that are legally fishing are generally registered and licensed, and so must adhere to laws regarding where and when they fish, and what and how much they can catch. Monitoring fishery activity around land masses is one thing, but beyond these limits, the open ocean is deemed international waters and doesn''t come under the jurisdiction of a single nation. Patrolling this enormous area by ship or air is rarely effective.

But what if there were 100 officers that could cover 10,000 kilometres each in a 30-day stretch? Meet the albatross ocean sentinels who patrol the seas for illegal fishers.

Wandering albatrosses breed on remote islands around Antarctica. These are usually only accessible by boat, and researchers must brave the '' furious 50s '' of the Southern Ocean to get there, across some of the roughest seas in the world.

So many birds were dying as a result of getting caught in fishing lines that researchers started studying the overlap between albatrosses and fishing boats. Understanding where the birds came into contact with fisheries, and which birds followed boats the most, helped explain which parts of the population were most at risk of bycatch.

Researchers mapped the distribution of boats using data transmitted from onboard monitoring systems, but these records are often only available around land and rarely in real time. Given the amount of time the birds spend in the open ocean, this meant that researchers had little idea of how many birds overlapped with fishing boats and for how long.

To address this problem, researchers developed loggers that could be attached to an albatross . The logger detects the radar of boats, collecting information on where boats are in real time. The loggers took years to perfect and I can still remember the excitement of getting the first one back that had successfully detected a boat''s radar.

The data showed how the sex, age or personality of each bird affected how likely the bird was to come into contact with fishing boats. For example, males tend to forage to the south, closer to Antarctica where fishing boats are rarer, while females forage further north, bringing them closer to the tropics and into contact with hotspots of fishing activity. Understanding this variation was the primary aim of the research, to help ecologists understand how deaths in subsections of the population can have dramatic effects on the population as a whole. But the loggers also provided bonus data that could transform fishery management and conservation in the open oceans.

Originally this work began to differentiate between fishing boats and other vessels, to test whether birds were more likely to be attracted to fishing boats. But when we combined the data collected by the loggers with a global map, we could see the location of all boats with an active Automatic Identification System (AIS). This radar allows vessels to detect each other, preventing collisions. But our study found that over 20% of boats within French waters didn''t have their AIS on, rising to 35% in international waters. Since the AIS is intended to keep vessels safe, it''s likely that these vessels operating without it in international waters were doing so to avoid detection, and so could be fishing illegally.

The albatross data had unintentionally revealed the potential extent and scale of illegal fishing in the Southern Ocean.

It''s difficult to imagine a human patrol boat being able to cover enough area to efficiently track illegal fisheries. But each wandering albatross could potentially cover the same area of ocean as a boat, and when its logger detects a fishing boat with its AIS turned off, it can relay that information to the authorities, who can alert nearby vessels to investigate.

Data collection on this scale would not only improve our ability to detect and manage illegal fisheries, but also to identify high risk areas for conservation. This would help conserve fish stocks, protect albatrosses and other seabirds, and manage the marine ecosystem as a whole. As ocean sentinels, albatrosses have a unique ability to collect the data needed for their own conservation. Their pioneering role in animal-led data collection paves the way for other species to track the human activities that risk their persistence in the wild.


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10 Movies To Watch If You Liked Greyhound | ScreenRant – Screen Rant

Posted: at 4:23 am

Starring and written by Tom Hanks, Greyhound is a VOD war drama. For those looking to binge movies of this genre, check out these recommendations.

Amidst all the films forgoing the theater reason in favor of VOD, Greyhoundis one of the larger-scale projects. The film stars Tom Hanks, who also wrote the script forthisWorld War II drama. Hanks plays the commanding officer of a military convoy of ships crossing the Atlantic without air support.

RELATED:Top 10 Tom Hanks Movies, According To IMDb

Though it is a fairly contained film,it serves as a tense and exciting war story with non-stop threats and effective naval battle sequences. It is a worthy inclusion in the genre of war movies and there are plenty of exciting films from that genre worth checking out if you were a fan of Greyhound.

When seeing Tom Hanks as a commanding officer in World War II, it's hard not to be reminded of Saving Private Ryan. The Steven Spielberg film followed a group of soldiers who go on a dangerous mission to find one soldier who is being sent home.

Once again, Hanks proves to be a completely believable leader and military man who also brings a level of everyman to the role. The battle sequencesare brutal and intense, making Saving Private Ryanone of the most harrowing war movies ever made.

While war is dangerous for all soldiers involved, there is something extra terrifying about being atwar on the high seas, especially inside a submarine. U-571 is a WWII thriller about a group of American soldiers attempting to steal an encryption machine from a damaged German sub. When their own ship is attacked, they must survive onboard the damaged enemy boat.

RELATED:5 War Films From The 00s That Are Way Underrated (& 5 That Are Overrated)

While it plays loose with history, the movie effectively captures the claustrophobic feel of being trapped inside a sub underwater with the enemy above.

It is not just WWII films that share the same intense depiction of naval warfare. Crimson Tide is a modern take on that kind of story, which also deals with the idea of leadership in highly tense situations.

Denzel Washington plays the second-in-command onboard a nuclear sub while the world is on the verge of nuclear war. Cut off from the outside world, Washington begins to question the commands of the captain, played by Gene Hackman.

Most of theactioninGreyhound is seen within the battleship Hanks' officer commands. While the world is at war, it is fascinating to see a war movie that has such a specific focus.

Furyis another WWII film that tells a small-scale story of a tank team in the dying days of the war. Brad Pitt plays the commanding officer, a man very different from Hanks' character yet one with a similar sense of battle. It makes for a unique look at war in a way audiences have rarely seen.

A big aspect of Greyhound, and one of the most interesting aspects of the film, is its look at Hanks' character as a leader of men. This is his first big assignment in the military and he is put in charge of an entire convoy of ships.

RELATED:5 War Films From The 90s That Are Way Underrated (& 5 That Are Overrated)

This focus of the film is reminiscent of the classic war film Patton. George C. Scott plays the titular real-life American general in this glimpse at his campaign in WWII. The film is a fun exploration of his brilliant commanding style and his many flaws.

Since Greyhound deals with the early days of America's involvement in WWII, a great film to watch along with it would be Tora! Tora! Tora!, which deals with the attack on Pearl Harbor that prompted America's involvement.

The film is a spectacular epic, depicting both the American and Japanese side of the story. It makes for a thrilling look into military tactics and one of the most significant military moments in history.

Another film that expertly depicts the many threats and feelings of paranoia involved in naval warfare is the stunning German film Das Boot. The film centers around the crew of a German U-boat, who are battling the stress and anxiety of their position while beginning to question their fight in this war.

Das Bootis a harrowing film that gives rare insight into the other side of the battle. Like Greyhound, it is a film that focuses on the senselessness of war even as the soldiers fight with all their strength.

For a movie that is basically set in one location, Greyhound makes it a pulse-pounding adventure. It is also a unique war film in that much emphasis is put on the importance of survival rather than fighting.

RELATED:10 Great Anti-War Films To Watch If You Like Da 5 Bloods

Christopher Nolan's Dunkirk delivers a similar message. The film depicts the rescue mission of British troops from the beaches of France. There arefew heroic battle sequences, with the film focusing on people trying desperately to survive so they can live to fight another day.

There is a non-stop excitement to Greyhound that few movies can pull off. Asviewers follow Hanks' commander during the several days at sea, he bounces from one threat to another. As one catastrophe is averted, another arises just as fast. It makes for an edge-of-your-seat experience.

Sam Mendes' 1917 pulled off a similar feat. The World War I film follows two soldiers carrying a message across a battlefield. The one-shot look of the filmadds to the suspense and will leave audiences holding their breath until the credits roll.

Naval battles are not often depicted in Hollywood movies. Greyhound manages to make them realistic and exciting throughout the entire film. Another film that achieves this, albeit from a much earlier era, is Master and Commander.

Russell Crowe plays the commander of a British ship during the Napoleonic War as he and his crew do battle with the French on the high seas. Crowe makes for a stirring lead and the battle sequences are spectacular.

NEXT:5 Best & 5 Worst World War II Movies, According To Rotten Tomatoes

Next 10 Of The Best Sci-Fi/Fantasy Films Made In The 2000s, Ranked By Rotten Tomatoes

A writer and film fan. I always enjoy keeping up with the latest films in theaters as well as discovering some hidden gems I may have overlooked. Glad to be a part of Screen Rant's positive and fun community and have the opportunity to share my thoughts with you.

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Revaluing the Oceans – Architecture – e-flux – E-Flux

Posted: at 4:23 am

The oceans throughout history provided seemingly inexhaustible fish for people brave and skillful enough to exploit them. Whenever fish catches declined, fishers would sail farther and farther from home to meet their needs.1 Nowadays the entire global ocean is accessible. Large factory ships and the magic of refrigeration have allowed fishers to venture out for months or years, and more efficient and diverse ways of fishing have increased catches with little care or understanding about the incremental reduction of fish stocks.2 Before the middle of the twentieth century, no one but a few scientists worried about how long the bounty could last, until suddenly, everything began to collapse. Mini wars over fishing rights between Iceland and the United Kingdom in the 1960s and 1970s, along with increasingly protective measures by other nations, led to the unilateral establishment of exclusive economic zones (EEZs) to keep foreign fishers away, the legitimacy of which were formally recognized in 1982 under the auspices of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. Yet even still, as in Newfoundland, fisheries kept collapsing, with tragic consequences for entire communities.

The great majority of fisheries data come from coastal ecosystems including estuaries, marsh and mangrove wetlands, seagrass meadows, kelp forests, and coral reefs. In spite of great differences in their inhabitants, the dominant predators in each of these environments were historically large animals, including some combination of killer whales, sharks, seals, crocodiles, predatory fishes like tunas and sharks, and seabirds.3 Nowadays, however, most of these animals are so severely depleted as to be ecologically extinct. Humans have taken their place as the dominant predators at almost all trophic levels above the zooplankton.4 There is even a major fishery for krill in Antarctica, which are critically important for the survival of whales, without the necessary ecological data for an adequate stock assessment to know what is sustainable.5

Biomass of groundfish and sharks has been diminished by an order of magnitude in the northwest Atlantic.6 Similar depredations have affected coral reefs, kelp forests, estuaries and coastal seas, and the high seas.7 Many fisheries biologists originally claimed that the depletions of fish stocks were overstated, but a detailed assessment by the US National Research Council strongly supported the original claims.8 It is now generally accepted that two-thirds of global fisheries are overfished and getting worse, while many of the remaining, better-managed fisheries are not yet sufficiently recovered to be economically viable.9

Global fish catches are declining in spite of increased capacity supported by misguided government subsidies that only accentuate the problem.10 The greatest losses are for large-scale industrial fisheries, whereas artisanal catches appear to be more sustainable. Risks of biological extinction are also increasing for large animals.11 Caribbean Monk seals have already been lost, and their Hawaiian and Mediterranean counterparts are gravely threatened.12 Killer whales are rapidly diminishing globally, especially those species that depend on highly specific overfished prey like salmon.13 Caribbean sea turtles have declined in abundance 100-fold, and Caribbean crocodiles are threatened to endangered throughout most of their range.14 Sharks are globally threatened with losses of numerous species exceeding 90% or more.15

The oceans have long been the terminal point for our garbage, excrement, and chemicals. Coastal pollution most obviously began in the stench of estuaries like New York Harbor, which by the nineteenth century had become serious hazards to human health.16 Soon afterwards, entire semi-enclosed seas like the Baltic and Adriatic seas, Chesapeake Bay, and embayments of the Mississippi Delta were so polluted by excess nutrients and organic matter that oxygen levels declined, and fish kills were commonplace.17 More recently, the industrial pollution of toxic chemicals and greenhouse gases from burning fossil fuels have extended to the farthest reaches of the oceans and the atmosphere, poisoning tuna and swordfish with mercury and littering the oceans with plastic.18

There are currently more than 500 coastal hypoxic dead zones worldwide that are largely due to massive increases in nutrient runoff from intensive agriculture made possible by cheap nitrogen fertilizer manufactured from petroleum.19 Excess nitrogen runoff fuels population explosions of phytoplankton far beyond the capacity of zooplankton and other suspension feeders to consume them. As a result, the excess phytoplankton die and sink to the seafloor where they are metabolized by microbes, a process that consumes most or all of the oxygen in bottom waters. Animals including fisheries species that cannot swim away die from asphyxia, except for a very few species that can survive in extremely low oxygen conditions.

The structural integrity of coastal marine habitats, from the tropics to the temperate zone, is dependent on the abundance of a small number of structurally dominant species of mangroves, saltmarshes, seagrasses, kelps, and reef corals that stabilize sediments and provide critical shoreline protection from storms.20 They are also important sites of carbon deposition and sequestration, and are important nursery habitats for fisheries.21 Coastal development and climate change effectively kills the environment, reducing biological structural stability and complexity. Global losses have been alarming, reaching 50% for mangroves and 30% for seagrasses.22 Global declines in living coral cover on reefs is also highly variable but commonly exceeds 50% throughout the Caribbean and Indo-Pacific.23

Other increasingly widespread forms of anthropogenic habitat change are more immediately destructive in reducing habitat complexity and biodiversity.24 The most damaging include dynamite fishing on coral reefs to harvest the fish that float to the surface; seabed trawling for shrimp, scallops, and groundfish that transforms biodiverse underwater forests into depauperate level bottoms of mud; and deep seafloor mining that, if it is allowed to proceed, will inevitably destroy seafloor ecosystems for decades and possibly centuries.25 Container ship traffic is also increasing almost exponentially and carries the double risk of fatal collisions with endangered whales and sound pollution that is dangerous for all cetaceans.26 Seismic oil and gas exploration causes even more severe sound pollution that can cause mass mortalities of whales and dolphins.27

Introductions of exotic species are also increasing due to expanding ship traffic, which discharge ever-increasing volumes of ballast water that contain larval stages of invertebrates, fishes, plankton, and pathogens.28 While the data are mostly circumstantial, the first mass mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum occurred next to the Caribbean entrance of the Panama Canal, and the first widespread outbreaks of coral diseases in the Caribbean were recorded from nearby Colombia and adjacent Netherlands Antilles.29 Coral diseases are exacerbated by global warming, but these first Caribbean disease outbreaks occurred two decades before the first reports of coral bleaching due to extreme warming events.30 Introductions also occur due to deliberate or accidental release from aquaria, as with the Indo-Pacific lionfish that has devasted native fish populations of the Caribbean.31

Farmed salmon bones preserved in a laboratory in collaboration with palaeontologists at the University of Bergen, Norway. Michelle-Marie Letelier,Outline for The Bonding (Still #3), 2017. 16mm film transferred to HD. Image courtesy of the artist.

Impacts of climate change due to the burning of fossil fuels are also both direct and indirect, including rising average temperatures, extreme heating events, declining oxygen, ocean acidification, disease outbreaks, and intensification of extreme storms.32 Sea surface temperatures are rising globally, but disproportionately, with the greatest increases in polar seas and semi-enclosed basins in the temperate zones, such as the Gulf of Maine. The latitudinal limits of myriad species are rapidly increasing in response, as in the case of the Humboldt squid, whose northern limit shifted from southern California to the Gulf of Alaska in just a few decades due to a combination of climate change and overfishing that reduced the abundance of predators.33 Most species range shifts are more gradual but pervasive, with great implications for fisheries.34 For example, optimal conditions for Atlantic and Barents Sea cod are moving northward out of traditional fishing grounds and into different international jurisdictions, further exacerbating the consequences of historical overfishing.35 Tropical reef corals are also migrating towards higher latitudes, most strikingly along the southwest coast of Australia, where kelp forests are dying off and being replaced by subtropical species including reef corals.36

As oceans continue to warm, species characteristic of colder polar conditions have nowhere else to migrate and are at risk of extinction. Arctic species and entire ecosystems are increasingly threated by the loss of summer sea ice.37 Populations of polar bears, which historically fed on seals captured at breathing holes, are plummeting, and starving bears are showing up around human settlements where they forage on garbage and potentially whatever else.38 Other effects on polar food webs are still poorly understood, but the collapse of Antarctic krill, for example, would have grave impacts on the baleen whales that feed upon them.39

Global warming is also causing increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme heating events wherein sea surface temperatures may rise 2 to 3C above normal maxima in just a few months.40 Consequences for reef corals can be catastrophic.41 Healthy reef corals exist in symbiosis with the dinoflagellates within their tissues that are critical to coral nutrition and calcification.42 Extreme heat breaks down this symbiosis, whereby corals evict the symbiont (which leaves them ghostly white, hence bleached). This is commonly fatal to the corals unless symbiosis is reestablished within a matter of weeks. Mass bleaching events are increasingly frequent and severe, raising questions about the very survival of coral reefs. The most recent extreme example was in 20152016 when most corals along the northern Great Barrier Reef bleached and died, and similar mass bleaching and mortality occurred across the Pacific.43 Another example is the enormous blob of hot water that appeared in the northeast Pacific in 2014 that was associated with collapses in species abundance and outbreaks of diseases.44

Climate change also sets off a cascading series of indirect effects that magnify its impact. The impact of coral diseases has greatly increased, especially in connection with mass bleaching events.45 Outbreaks of coral diseases are especially impactful on polluted reefs and those where overfishing has resulted in population explosions of fleshy algae, which have been shown experimentally to increase the vulnerability of corals to disease.46 In contrast, disease outbreaks are comparatively rare on unpolluted reefs in marine protected areas with abundant grazing fishes. Lobsters along the northeast coast of North America are also more vulnerable to shell wasting disease as waters warm, effectively wiping out the fishery in Long Island Sound.47

Oxygen concentrations are declining in the open ocean because warming surface waters makes them lighter, which in turn slows down the vertical mixing of the oceans; a runaway process that decreases the rate of oxygen transport to the deep sea and upwelling of nutrients to the sea surface.48 The process is especially striking in the equatorial Pacific, and in the Arctic ocean where the cover of summer sea ice is rapidly decreasing.49 Sea ice is highly reflective, dispersing heat back into the atmosphere, whereas seawater absorbs heat and sets up a positive feedback that is effectively irreversible. Reduced nutrient upwelling and declining oxygen are strongly associated with decreases in open ocean productivity, which is the basis for high seas fisheries.50

The ocean is also becoming more acidic. Solution in seawater of increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide has resulted in a global reduction in ocean pH of 0.1 units over the past century.51 The biologic consequences of acidification are still poorly understood and controversial, but could affect the reproduction, physiology, growth, and development of a wide variety of plants and animals. The most obvious impacts are on organisms that form their skeletons of calcium carbonate, which is more easily dissolved under more acidic conditions. This is already affecting shellfish aquaculture industries in the state of Washington, where pH has been steadily declining.52 Aquaculturists have been forced to raise vulnerable juvenile clams and oysters under less acidic conditions in aquaria on land before placing them in the ocean.53 Reef corals are also vulnerable to increasing acidity. Corals grown under present-day more acidic conditions grew 15% more slowly than corals where pH was maintained at historically less acidic conditions.54

Bird watchers were pioneers in the early rise of the conservation movement, with organizations such as the Audubon Society fighting to stop the slaughter of herons and egrets for womens hats.55 Similarly, its not just important for tourism that increasing numbers of people pay good money to see whales up close in the wild and increasingly to SCUBA dive with sharks.56 Besides the thrill of witnessing their power and grace, whale and shark watchers learn about the lives and behavior of these animals and how they fit into ocean ecosystems which, in turn, leads to increased support for their protection.

Horror at the slaughter of whales was a major factor in the establishment of the International Whaling Commission in 1946 which, despite persistent opposition from a few countries, has resulted in dramatic recoveries of most whale species.57 In addition to the ethical issues inherent in the mass slaughter of such animals, we now know that the great whales were once (and increasingly are now again) vitally important ecosystem engineers, as predators of massive amounts of fish and invertebrates, prey for other large predators, highly mobile reservoirs of carbon and nutrients, and as carcasses, sources of energy and habitat in the deep sea.58

Similar public concerns about the loss of other marine mammals were a driving factor in the enactment of the United States Marine Mammal Protection Act in 1972, which prohibits the killing, harm, harassment, or collection of any marine mammal in US territorial waters or by US citizens anywhere else. It also forbids the importation of any marine mammal products or parts. Populations of most marine mammals have varyingly recovered, although their comparative success is strongly associated with their life histories, habitat requirements, and geographic range.59 The depletion of essential forage fish due to overfishing also inhibits their recovery.60 One obvious manifestation of success is the greatly increased abundance of seals along the east and west coasts of the US, where their activities and real or perceived impacts on fisheries are not always welcome. Their rebound has also led to increases in great white sharks near shore, restoring a degree of balance to marine food webs while generating new questions about perceived risks to humans and potential impacts on endangered species.61

Increased tourist revenues have also led to the banning of shark fishing on coral reefs by entire nations because the sharks are vastly more lucrative alive than dead. Economic analysis for the government of Palau demonstrated that diver tourism provides 39% of the countrys total GDP, and that 21% of divers come principally to dive with sharks. The approximately 100 sharks in prime shark dive sites are each worth about US$180,000 per year in tourist revenue, or US$1.9 million during their lifetimes, versus about $110 for their fins and meat.62 Shark diving is a burgeoning global industry that is not without its environmental concerns, although if it is done responsibly, the net conservation value appears to be generally positive.63

New studies of the remarkable behavior and migrations of ocean species are also increasing public support for increased protections.64 The electronic tagging of thousands of individuals of different species of Pacific whales, seabirds, seaturtles, tunas and other large fish, and sharks has revealed striking transoceanic migrations of some species versus others that move much smaller distances.65 Bluefin tuna, for example, move back and forth across the Atlantic and Pacific, hanging out for up to a year or more in the same general location before moving on.66 In contrast, eastern Pacific great white sharks move back and forth between the California coast where they feed on burgeoning seal populations and an area of deep ocean halfway between Baja California and Hawaii dubbed the White Shark Caf, where they feed on vertically migrating fishes and invertebrates.67 Over 200 of these sharks have been tagged and followed for up to twenty years.68

Wild salmon eggs at Arna Sport Fishermens Association, Norway. Michelle-Marie Letelier,Outline for The Bonding (Still #5), 2017. 16mm film transferred to HD. Image courtesy of the artist.

Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an increasingly popular and effective conservation strategy for biodiversity and habitat protection when effectively financed, administered, and enforced.69 Unprotected paper parks, however, can do more harm than good by lulling people into thinking everything is fine when it is not.70 MPAs are also controversial from the perspective of fisheries management, with some arguing that MPAs are the most effective tool available versus those who believe that other management tools such as catch shares and gear restrictions are more effective in most cases than simple area closures.71

Cabo Pulmo in the southern Sea of Cortez is one of the most spectacular success stories of an effectively enforced MPA.72 Although it was severely overfished at the time, Cabo Pulmo was designated as a Mexican marine national park in 1995 on the basis of its coral populations. Protections did not become effective until local villagers self-organized to enforce the entire park as a no-take area in the late 1990s. Fish biomass was less than one metric ton per hectare in 1999, comparable to other unprotected areas or paper parks throughout the Gulf of California. Subsequent to the villagers protection, biomass increased over the following ten protected years to about 4.5 metric tons, while all other areas failed to increase. Biomass and diversity have fluctuated since 2009, in large part due to the community evolving towards a more natural composition that includes greater populations of schooling fishes as well as more abundant corals. The greatest potential threat to Cabo Pulmo is its notorious success, which attracts burgeoning numbers of tourists and development.

A network of nine well enforced no-take MPAs and two partial-take MPAs was established around four of the northern Channel Islands off the coast of California in 2003 and revisited ten years later.73 The biomass of preferred fisheries species approximately doubled within MPAs at three of the four islands, but non-targeted species showed little response. The biomass of targeted species outside the reserves also increased by about one quarter, possibly because of a spillover effect. Similar results were obtained the Cowcod Conservation Areas established in the southern Channel Islands in 2001, where abundances of six of eight targeted species and four of seven non-targeted rockfish species increased regionally from 1998 to 2013.74 Rising temperatures during the study are a complicating factor. Nevertheless, 75% of targeted species but none of the non-targeted species increased inside compared to outside of the MPAs while controlling for environmental factors.

The establishment of very large marine protected areas within exclusive economic zones has increased the area of ocean within MPAs to only 3.5%, about half of which are under strong protection.75 Meanwhile, most ocean ecosystems are hemorrhaging, as major fishing fleets continue to expand their global operations.76 This may be changing, however, as the international community finally begins to seriously consider international governance of the high seas defined as areas beyond national jurisdictions. The first major achievement in this was the agreement to establish the worlds largest marine protected area by the twenty-five-national-member Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources.77 The agreement protects all wildlife and bans fishing for overfished krill and Patagonian and Antarctic Toothfish in 600,000 square miles in the Ross Sea for thirty-five years. Much more will have to be done, however, to preserve populations around Antarctica where these species are threatened by overfishing and rapid climate change and have ripple effects on the marine mammals and penguins that depend upon them.

The scientific case for closing the high seas to fisheries is strong. Nearly 98% of global seafood production comes from the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of individual nations and aquaculture. What does come from the high seas is mostly luxury species such as tuna and billfishes, yet their commercial value is even less.78 Moreover, most high seas fisheries are heavily dependent on government subsidies by a small number of wealthy countries that can afford the enormous costs.79 Closure of the high seas to fishing would therefore have great economic and social benefits in addition to environmental protections of fish stocks and the long-distance migration routes of marine megafauna.80 Most compellingly, the overwhelming majority of high seas fishery species are also major components of fisheries within national EEZs, which means that closure of the high seas to fishing would produce a vast MPA where commercially important species could prosper, reproduce, and spill over into EEZs whose potential catches would increase.81 Further advantages would include simplification of policing the rampant problem of pirate fishing and transfers at sea.82

While commonly overshadowed by bad news, concerted actions to reduce pollution and protect keystone species have resulted in many recoveries of marine populations and ecosystems.83 The installation of modern sewage systems and the reduction in nutrient runoff have varyingly improved water quality, reduced excess planktonic productivity and toxic algal blooms, and restored seagrass meadows, salt marshes, and fisheries in estuaries around the world.84 These efforts demonstrate that even greater progress could be achieved in stabilizing coastal ecosystems if adequate measures are taken to eliminate or greatly reduce pollutant runoff, and most importantly agricultural nutrients.85 Serious efforts to do so have not yet materialized, however, because farmers dont have to pay for what they pollute. There is also a problem of scale in semi-enclosed seas like the Baltic because nutrient buildups in sediments are already so great that simply reducing nutrient runoff may not suffice.

Banning the use of fish pots around Bermuda in 1990, where fish populations had collapsed due to overfishing, resulted in rapid rebounding of fish populations dominated by schools of large parrotfish.86 Since then, abundances have remained high except for the large predatory fish that remain overfished. Coral populations also have steadily increased due to the control of algal populations by the abundant parrotfish. Caribbean coral reefs are generally extremely overfished, but the few places where both fishing and pollution are effectively controlled uniquely support high coral abundance.

Detail of farmed salmon scales, Norway. Michelle-Marie Letelier,Outline for The Bonding (Still #2), 2017. 16mm film transferred to HD. Image courtesy of the artist.

Despite important accomplishments, comprehensive policies are lacking to address the unsustainability of the modern economy that is driving ecosystem collapses and threatening human wellbeing.87 Nature is a complex system, and much of that system as we knew it is irreversibly breaking down.88 Environmental perturbations in one place almost inevitably have repercussions down the line, be it agricultural pollution in the US cornbelt causing the dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico or the effects of runoff and overfishing on outbreaks of disease affecting reef corals. Huge energy and investment in projects to restore populations of corals in Florida and on the Great Barrier Reef are making much progress in terms of the technical details of raising, breeding, and growing corals, but they are also absurdly expensive and small scale, not to mention that putting the corals back into the same nutrient polluted environments and expecting them to somehow survive is folly. More fundamentally, they are bandaids to address the symptoms of ocean decline rather than addressing the fundamental root causes of the ocean crisis: global warming, overfishing, and land-based pollution.89

The most encouraging development towards adapting to and managing these realities is that large scale efforts to decarbonize the global economy are beginning to gain traction despite political intransigence, not least because, in addition to its obvious advantages for human health and the environment, green energy is financially a better option than heavily subsidized fossil fuels.90 California, the fifth largest global economy, is committed to be carbon neutral by 2045 and is well on track, and electric cars are becoming a more practical alternative to gasoline and diesel. The outstanding question is how rapidly opposition can be overcome to speed things up and take actions on the appropriate scales.

This paper is adapted from a presentation at the University of Utah submitted to Island Press. The author is grateful to Jennifer Jacquet for her helpful review of the manuscript.

Oceans in Transformation is a collaboration between TBA21Academy and e-flux Architecture within the context of the eponymous exhibition at Ocean Space in Venice by Territorial Agency and its manifestation on Ocean Archive.

Jeremy Jackson is Senior Scientist Emeritus at the Smithsonian Institution and Professor of Oceanography Emeritus at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography.

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How to stop China completing its takeover of the South China Sea – The Strategist

Posted: at 4:23 am

China appears to be accelerating its campaign to control the South China Sea and the Senkaku Islands in the East China Sea. Beijing does itself no favours with the highly ambiguous nature of its claims in the region. Its internationally condemned nine-dash line sometimes appears to be delineating its claims to the island features within it. More ominously, Beijing sometimes insinuates the line as a maritime delineation, carving out sovereign control of the sea itself as well as the airspace above it.

Chinas ongoing militarisation of many artificial features in disputed waters is well known. A less well known, but highly consequential implication of this militarisation is the vastly increased capacity it gives China to project power not only to control the reefs and rocks of the South China Sea, but, in the future, to assert control over the high seas and airspace above it. Beijing is vocal about its opposition to innocent passage and other military activities within its 200-nautical mile exclusive economic zones.

Beijing has tried hard to keep its dispute resolution efforts focused on bilateral negotiations between itself and the various claimants, effectively fracturing a united response by ASEAN. Pushback in the region is only now beginning. Chinas sweeping claims also impact many countries that lie far beyond the shores of the South China Sea. The US, Japan, Australia, India and many others around the world have critical interests in using the sea directly for economic, scientific and military purposes. More urgently, maintaining an open and free system of movement through the high seasand in the future, in outer spaceis of critical importance.

The decisive rejection of Chinas claims in the South China Sea by an arbitral tribunal under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea in 2016 only accelerated Beijings continued bad-faith efforts to construct features, militarise them, and extend administrative control over others presence and activities to the furthest reaches of the nine-dash line. In fact, the ruling decisively rejects both Chinas claims to many rocks and maritime features and the idea that these islands can generate territorial seas and exclusive economic zones.

This studied strategic ambiguity by China (on display on other fronts as well) should encourage the international community to confront an alternative and altogether darker explanation for Beijings behaviourthat it is building forces and positions in the region so that over the long term it can assert sovereign authority over the South China Sea.

This interpretation of Chinas actions, though difficult to accept, should be considered as a possibility in military and strategic planning efforts around the world with an eye towards avoiding this worst-case outcome. It is important to remember that the scope and scale of Chinas claims are unprecedented in international law and have no real analogue anywhere else on earth. An unwillingness to confront this scenario risks ceding Beijing permanent control over economic and military activities over a large and critical section of the worlds oceansand beyond.

The South China Sea is a third larger than the Mediterranean Sea and more than twice as large as the Gulf of Mexico. Acknowledging Chinas sweeping claims to sovereignty over this massive space would increase the possibility of a future international environment in which ever larger portions of the global commons are cut off and controlled by individual nations.

Either the international community believes in maintaining a free and open global commons and protects international law or it doesnt. If it doesnt, then Chinas potential annexation of this vast space will guarantee similar claims over the worlds oceans. To foreclose on this future will require an active and aggressive response by the widest grouping of states possible. Regardless of how individual claims over the various land features in the South China Sea are resolved, the entire globe has a stake in free and open access to the region.

For this reason, the US, along with all major allies and partners, should explicitly link Chinas own access to the global commons with its behaviour in the South China Sea. Washingtons announcement of its rejection of Beijings maritime claims, underscored by the US Navy dual aircraft carrier strike group exercises in the region, is a good beginning. However, operations in the South China Sea play to Chinas strengths. The US and the widest range of allies and partners in the international community should begin to articulate and apply escalating administrative and technical restrictions globally on Chinese shipping, air travel and transport in and through exclusive economic zones around the world by participating countries.

Restrictions on economic and military transit and scientific exploration should be pre-planned and scalable so that they are similar to Chinese moves in the South China Sea. These allied grey zone competitive activities could be problematic for Beijing; they would drastically increase the cost and complication of accessing the Indo-Pacific region and beyond. For example, contiguous US, Japanese and Philippine zones restrict direct Chinese access to the Western Pacific. This possibility should be communicated to Beijing should it attempt to assert sovereign control in the South China Sea through force.

Securing the highest degree of freedom and access throughout the global commons should be the ultimate goal of this international effort. Focused and reciprocal restrictions on China throughout the exclusive economic zones of the world should be coupled with strong assurances that they remain open for participating nations. Moreover, these restrictions on China should be easily and quickly reversible. When Beijing comes to its senses on the use of the South China Sea, its access to the global maritime commons should be both restored and encouraged.

Although this strategic approach to countering Beijings most aggressive designs in the South China Sea appears to be rather drastic, like-minded nations around the world should be prepared to deliver a decisive shock to Beijings calculations about any gains it may achieve by limiting access to the South China Sea and rejecting the free use of the global commons more generally. Even hinting that a global response on this scale is possible should concentrate minds in Beijing on their strong and growing dependence on the global commons to reach their much vaunted centenary goals. Together, allied nations should encourage China to support an open and free global commons today in the South China Sea.

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Fisheries Subsidies Reform Could Reduce Overfishing and Illegal Fishing, Case Studies Find – The Pew Charitable Trusts

Posted: at 4:22 am

Overfishing is one of the greatest threatsto ocean health, yet for decades many governments have paid subsidies to their fishing fleets, helping them fish beyond levels that are biologically sustainable. Its time to end these harmful subsidies, some of which even support illegal fishing activities. Now, new case studies show that World Trade Organization (WTO) measures to end those harmful payments could help local fishers while increasing global catch.

Not all fisheries subsidies are harmful. Some, for example, might help artisanal fishers survive a lean season, and those payments should be maintained. But studies show that governments are spending $22.2 billion per year on payments that encourage overfishing. These subsidies, paid to help offset the costs of vessel fuel, upgrades, port renovations, and other expenses, enable primarily industrial fleets to fish farther from shore and longer than they otherwise would. A June 2018 study found that without government subsidies, as much as 54% of the present high-seas fishing grounds would be unprofitable.

Fortunately, the global community has recognized this problem and the need to address it: The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 14 Target 6, which U.N. member governments agreed to in 2015, tasks the WTO with crafting an agreement to end harmful fisheries subsidies. WTO members were on track to finalize this deal at a June meeting but have postponed that conference due to COVID-19.

The new case studies provide the first practical evidence of how curbing subsidy-driven overfishing would improve fishery sustainability and benefit local fishers, their families, and their communities.

To produce the studies, the International Institute for Sustainable Development commissioned researchers to examine fish stock exploitation levels, governance regimes, revenue from landings, income from subsidies, and operating costs in three fisheries: shrimp in Latin America, sardinella in West Africa, and southern longline tuna in the Pacific. The researchers were then asked to examine the economic impacts of possible WTO disciplines, and options for managing these impacts.

Broadly, the studies found that reforming harmful fisheries subsidies could lead to higher yields for local fishers, which in turn could help provide more stable jobs, raise fishers incomes, reduce poverty, and improve food security in local communities.

Incomplete or inadequate reporting often allows governments to obscure the nature of their subsidy programs, creating challenges in evaluating their true impacts. But if governments commit to increased transparency and more complete notifications to the WTO of their subsidy programs, analysts and observers will gain a far better understanding of the potential effects of any new policy.

Here are some of the specific findings from the case studies.

In the Latin American shrimp fisheries:

Key takeaway: WTO disciplines could help artisanal fisheries compete with industrial vessels that may not be profitable without subsidies. Fuel and vessel maintenance subsidies represented 20% to 50% of income for industrial vessels in Mexico and Nicaragua, for example.

In the West African sardinella fishery:

Key takeaway: WTO disciplines could limit the harmful subsidies contributing to the overcapacity and overfishing of sardinella for both sectors. These subsidies cover the costs of fuel, certain capital costs, and access to other countries waters, as well as contribute to allowing illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing, mostly by foreign vessels. Previous studies have estimated that West African fishers are losing up to $2.3 billion in revenue each year due to IUU fishing in the region.

In the western and central Pacific longline tuna fishery:

Key takeaway: Though the impact of WTO disciplines would likely vary in different parts of the fishery, ending subsidies that contribute to overfishing and overcapacity could reduce the overall fishing effort and allow for Pacific island countries to better develop their domestic fishing industries.

WTO members still have a chance to reach a trade deal that could realize unprecedented benefits for the ocean. While new WTO measures might require transition periods to help vulnerable fishers mitigate potential short-term impacts of subsidy removal, meaningful subsidy prohibitions, coupled with improved fisheries management at the national level, could improve economic and environmental conditions in fisheries around the world.

The new case studies show that subsidy reform would improve ocean health and help fishing fleets operate sustainably far into the future.

Isabel Jarrettis a manager and Reyna Gilbert is a senior associate with The Pew Charitable Trusts project to reduce harmful fisheries subsidies.

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India-China conflict: A move from the Himalayas to the high seas? – The Interpreter

Posted: July 15, 2020 at 9:50 pm

Last months clash between Indian and Chinese troops in Ladakh was the most significant conflict between the two countries since 1967. Despite signs of a partial tactical pullback in some places, there is considerable risk of further confrontations and even escalation along the disputed border. Some have been urging the Indian government to respond to Chinas moves in the Himalayas by placing pressure on Beijing in the Indian Ocean. What are Indias options and how likely is it to take such actions?

The Indian Ocean holds a particular place in the India-China strategic relationship. In almost every dimension, whether it be economic, nuclear or the conventional strategic balance along the Line of Actual Control in the Himalayas, India is probably at a considerable strategic disadvantage to China. Only in the Indian Ocean, which includes Chinas vital energy routes from the Persian Gulf and Africa, does India have the upper hand.

This has important implications for the strategy dynamic. Decades ago, prominent US Sinologist John Garver argued that in the event of a conflict between the two countries, India might be tempted to escalate from the land dimension, where it may suffer reverses, to the maritime dimension, where it enjoys substantial advantages, and employ those advantages to restrict Chinas vital Indian Ocean trade.

In strategic jargon, the Indian Ocean represents interior lines for India where the Indian Navy is close to its own bases and logistics and exterior lines for China, where its navy is operating with limited logistical support, away from home. Strategists tell us that you should meet your adversary in your own interior lines and their exterior lines. (That is the reason the Indian Navy is far from keen to get into any confrontation with China in the South China Sea.)

Short of all-out war, or perhaps an Indian Ocean equivalent of the Cuban Missile crisis, any attempt to interfere with trade would be subject to massive pushback from countries around the world.

This vulnerability gives the maritime dimension of the relationship a special significance. For example, the 2012 Non-Alignment 2.0 report by leading Indian strategic thinkers advocates that India should leverage potential opportunities that flow from peninsular Indias location in the Indian Ocean as part of an asymmetric strategy towards China.

These considerations have driven the Indian Navy to adopt a strategy of building its naval capabilities near the Indian Ocean chokepoints, particularly around the Malacca Strait, to create an implicit threat of interdiction of Chinas sea lines of communication. The navy considers that its previous threats of blockade made against Pakistan in several previous conflicts had a significant impact.

Indeed, in the aftermath of the Ladakh clashes in June, the Indian Navy was placed in a heightened state of alert and reportedly deployed additional ships to sea, although it is not clear precisely where. In recent weeks, Indian naval commentators have suggested that while India would have a difficult time imposing a blockade on Chinese shipping, it should nevertheless consider interdicting Chinese tankers as they pass near Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands, or otherwise deter, delay or divert shipping traffic to and from China.

Others have also noted the potential for Washington to move its carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt into the Malacca Straits/Bay of Bengal area to deter any serious escalation of conflict in the Himalayas. (Which, incidentally, would be an interesting replay of President John F. Kennedys decision to send the carrier USS Kitty Hawk to support India during the 1962 Sino-Indian war.)

This has not gone unnoticed in Beijing. According to Chinas Global Times, the PLA Navys Southern Theatre Command (which has responsibility for Chinas operations in the Indian Ocean) responded with naval drills in the South China Sea on 18 June.

Putting aside all this sabre-rattling, what are the realistic options for India (or others) to pressure Chinas trading routes in the Indian Ocean?

In fact, some naval analysts are deeply sceptical of the ability of any navy to impose a distant blockade of China in the Indian Ocean. Short of inspecting every ship which would be a huge task how could a blockade identify those that are actually headed to Chinese ports? What is to stop ships being rerouted in transit, a common event even in normal times? Even if a blockade could be successfully imposed, could China obtain sufficient energy supplies from other sources (which currently includes an epic 73 million barrels of oil reserves floating off the coast of China)? Just as importantly, what is to stop China retaliating with its own blockade or interdictions?

Even more important than these practical considerations, the political and diplomatic costs to India would be enormous. Short of all-out war, or perhaps an Indian Ocean equivalent of the Cuban Missile crisis, any attempt to interfere with trade would be subject to massive pushback from countries around the world including from Indias most important strategic partners.

In short, the Indian Navy might (or might not) have the capability to block Chinese trade through the Indian Ocean, but would Beijing take the threat seriously?

This article is part of a two-year project being undertaken by the National Security College on the Indian Ocean, with the support of the Department of Defence.

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Royal Caribbean Cruise Ship Hosting World’s Only Biker Cruise in 2021 – Cruise Fever

Posted: at 9:50 pm

The worlds only biker rally cruise, High Seas Rally, will now take place on a Royal Caribbean cruise ship October 22-29, 2021.

Riding with all the excitement and camaraderie of motorcycle rallies, the High Seas Rally will sail on Royal Caribbeans Mariner of the Seas from Port Canaveral to Nassau, Bahamas; Perfect Day at Coco Cay, Bahamas; Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic and Labadee, Haiti.

2021 will mark the 21st High Seas Rally sailing, each powered by legions of bike enthusiasts who come together for a first-class vacation that celebrates love of motorcycles and the freedom of the high seas. Rally cruisers also share a passion for helping others, which is the engine behind the High Seas Rally Dialysis Program and its rich history of giving back to the community.

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Plans for the 2021 High Seas Rally include:

Entertainment: The Slow Ride at sea will be headlined by Foghat, plus Molly Hatchet and more bands to be announced in the coming months. On the High Seas Rally, the musicians dont just perform, they sail and party with guests all week.

Cruising for a Cause: The High Seas Rally sails with the proud legacy of supporting dialysis patients by providing them with an incredible all-expenses paid vacation on the high seas. In 21, the cruise will expand the cause to honor and support Military Veterans and First Responders.

Host Xavier Muriel: Their first-time host is Cycle Source Magazines 2019 Readers Poll Builder of the Year and builder of Easyriders Magazines 2019 Bike of the Year. Xavier, former drummer for the rock band Buckcherry, is currently building a custom HSR motorcycle at his garage (Providence Cycle Worx in Austin, Texas) which will be awarded to a lucky guest to take home after the 21 cruise.

Host Dave Nichols: Daves motorcycle credentials include rides as editor-in-chief of Easyriders and V-Twin motorcycle magazines, host of V-Twin TV (26-episode series on SPEED Channel) and a new TV series called Chrome Chronicles featuring host Richard Karn. He has written and produced over 1,200 TV commercials, wrote and produced a series of specials for HBO and was head writer and producer of American Top 40 for ABC. He also has produced live TV events and developed ad campaigns for radio, TV and feature films.

Comedian Roy Riley: For more than 43 years, Roy has entertained crowds from coast to coast as a stand-up comic. Guests have been hooked on Roy ever since he joined the first High Seas Rally in 2003. Roy keeps the fun and frivolity rolling during onboard shows, events and gatherings.

Newly Remodeled Cruise Ship: Royal Caribbeans Mariner of the Seas recently completed a $120 million renovation that saw many new features added to the vessel.

Cabin rates for the High Seas Rally begin at $900 per person, and include meals, tickets to all concerts, activities, parties and other events. Further information can be found at or by calling 844-279-8460.

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