space station | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica

Posted: May 8, 2020 at 10:52 am

Salyut 1U.S.S.R.April 19, 1971October 11, 197123 (1)first space station, equipped for scientific studies; abandoned after its first crew died returning to EarthSalyut 2U.S.S.R.April 3, 1973May 28, 19730military reconnaissance platform; suffered explosion after achieving orbit and was never occupiedCosmos 557U.S.S.R.May 11, 1973May 22, 19730scientific station; crippled after achieving orbit and was never occupiedSkylabU.S.May 14, 1973July 11, 1979171 (3)first U.S. space station; successfully supported solar studies and biomedical experiments on the effects of weightlessnessSalyut 3U.S.S.R.June 25, 1974January 24, 197516 (1)military reconnaissance platformSalyut 4U.S.S.R.December 26, 1974February 3, 197793 (2)scientific station; operated until its systems were exhaustedSalyut 5U.S.S.R.June 22, 1976August 8, 197767 (2)military reconnaissance platformSalyut 6U.S.S.R.September 29, 1977July 29, 1982684 (6)first second-generation Salyut, operated as highly successful scientific station; resident crews hosted a series of international visitorsSalyut 7U.S.S.R.April 19, 1982February 2, 1991815 (5)problem-plagued follow-up to Salyut 6 that had to be repeatedly rescuedMir (modular)U.S.S.R./RussiaMarch 23, 2001occupied March 14, 1986, to June 15, 2000 (continuously from September 7, 1989, to August 28, 1999)first space station assembled in orbit using individually launched, specialized modules; successfully applied lessons learned from Salyut programMir base blockFebruary 20, 1986habitat moduleKvant 1March 31, 1987astrophysics observatory with X-ray telescopesKvant 2November 26, 1989supplementary life-support systems and large air lockKristallMay 31, 1990microgravity materials-processing laboratorySpektrMay 20, 1995module with apparatus for NASA researchPrirodaApril 23, 1996module with NASA apparatus and Earth-sciences sensorsInternational Space Station (modular)international consortium, primarily U.S. and Russiapermanently occupied since November 2, 2000modular, expandable station intended to serve world's space agencies for first quarter of 21st centuryZaryaRussiaNovember 20, 1998U.S.-funded, Russian-built module supplying initial solar power and attitude-control systemUnityU.S.December 4, 1998U.S.-built connecting nodeZvezdaRussiaJuly 2, 2000Russian-built habitat module and control centreDestinyU.S.February 7, 2001U.S.-built NASA microgravity laboratoryQuestU.S.July 12, 2001U.S.-built air lock, allowing station-based space walks for U.S. and Russian astronautsPirsRussiaSeptember 14, 2001Russian-built docking compartment, providing Soyuz docking port and additional air lock for Russian space walksHarmonyU.S.October 23, 2007U.S.-built connecting nodeColumbusU.S.February 7, 2008European Space Agency-built microgravity laboratoryKiboU.S.March 11, 2008; May 31, 2008Japanese-built microgravity laboratoryDextreU.S.March 11, 2008Canadian-built robotMini-Research Module-2RussiaNovember 10, 2009Russian-built docking compartment, providing Soyuz docking port and additional air lock for Russian space walksTranquilityU.S.February 8, 2010U.S.-built connecting nodeMini-Research Module-1U.S.May 14, 2010Russian-built docking compartmentPermanent Multipurpose Module LeonardoU.S.February 24, 2011Italian-built moduleBigelow Expandable Activity ModuleU.S.April 8, 2016Module built by Bigelow Aerospace to test expandable module technologyTiangong 1ChinaSeptember 29, 2011April 2, 201821 (2)first Chinese space stationTiangong 2ChinaSeptember 15, 201629 (1)second Chinese space station

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space station | Definition, History, & Facts | Britannica

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