Historically, Caribbean railways existed to carry cane to factories, or raw sugar and molasses to ports. Later, they were used to transport other agricultural crops, minerals, and as urban populations grew, provided passenger services.
However, the demise of sugar, high operating and maintenance costs, and improvements in road transport have seen railways all but disappear in most of the region.
Nevertheless, there is again interest in the newer role a modern railway system might play in the Caribbean, with both Jamaica and Cuba, in very different ways, seeing relevance in the renewal of part or all of their all of their existing networks.
In Jamaicas case, the approach is relatively limited.
In February, in the throne speech, Governor-General Sir Patrick Allen said that improved transportation was critical to meet the demands of the countrys growing population, particularly in urban areas. He then went on to announce that government hopes to rehabilitate the countrys railway network on a phased basis in partnership with the U.S. railroad contractor, Herzog International.
The announcement followed the signing in December 2016 by the Jamaican government of a non-binding memorandum that will see $250 million invested in the resuscitation of the countrys freight and passenger rail service. This is expected to involve construction in three stages: from Montego Bay to Appleton; from Spanish Town to Ewarton; and from Spanish Town to Clarendon.
As with all such railway projects financing is challenging, but it appears likely that the first phase from Montego Bay to Appleton will move forward because it can be related to tourism.
Speaking about this recently, Adam Stewart, the chief executive officer of Sandals Resorts International, told the Jamaica Gleaner that Chukka Caribbean Adventures which he controls, had put a proposal to the Jamaica Railway Corporation (JRC), which owns the countrys rail network. This, he said, could see the JRC monetize and obtain significant cash flows from the Montego Bay to Appleton portion of the line by enabling its use by visitors from cruise ships, hotels and tour companies. It would, he suggested, also bring economic benefit to rural areas that at present tourists do not visit.
Elsewhere in the region, a similar approach has helped resuscitate another rail system that was on the verge of extinction. Following the demise of St. Kitts cane sugar industry in 2005, the islands narrow-gauge cane railway was taken over by the St. Kitts Scenic Railway, which now carries visitors on 18 miles of track that pass though cane fields, rainforest and alongside the ocean.
There are also two rapid transit metro systems in the region. The Tren Urbano in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and the Metro Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic, which with its two lines and 30 stations now accommodates around 74 million journeys annually.
In contrast, Cubas plans are significantly more ambitious.
At present, the Cuban railway system consists of an east-west spine route between Havana and Santiago de Cuba with numerous branch lines and services, many of which are in a poor state of repair. However, later this year a $2.1 billion Russian-supported project is expected to be signed off that will create an efficient, higher-speed rail system that will become a central element in the countrys national transport infrastructure.
According to Cuban Television, the country is to upgrade almost all of its railway system in segments. This will involve all tracks being re-signalled and rebuilt to accommodate faster running times, and the addition of a higher speed line linking Havana to Varadero, one of the countrys main tourism resorts.
Speaking on the sidelines of the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum a few weeks ago, Russias First Vice President Alexander Misharin confirmed to journalists that final contracts are expected to be signed by the years end, after which work will begin.
The initial objective, according to the Russian News Agency TASS, is to completely overhaul more than 1,100 kilometers of track by 2030 in a project that will involve Russian finance, and will be managed by the Russian state-owned railway company RZD International. Russian Railways, which owns RZD, are considering operating the Cuban system.
Separately, a new line from Havana to the countrys international port and special development zone at Mariel was opened in 2014, along with other new lines aimed at improving capacity and journey times to Mariel and its adjoining rail container terminal. In addition, work is under way on acquiring new locomotives and rolling stock, and rebuilding major stations including in Havana, Santa Clara and Camagey.
Beyond this, however, the future prospect for Caribbean railways remains uncertain.
The downside is that the capital investment they require and the long periods needed to achieve a commercial return, place railways beyond the ability of governments to finance, requiring instead an economic model that is difficult to structure if it is to satisfy both the interests of operators and governments.
On the plus side, railways are environmentally friendly, can open areas away from the coast to tourism in ways that spread wealth and create growth, and can facilitate development and economic integration by linking cities.
For most Caribbean nations, building or resuscitating long-gone railways is not a viable economic proposition, particularly as in most cases tracks have been torn up and the land sold or built over.
David C. Robinsons Railways of the Caribbean provides fascinating details on this and the rise and fall of railways that once operated in almost every country in the region.
However, some industry experts suggest that niche opportunities exist in some parts of the Caribbean. These involve new-build light railways for tourism, and the development of rail-based freight systems that can open and link the interior of countries with substantial hinterlands to cities and the sea.
As the 2015 paper, Caribbean Rail Transport: Not Lost and Not Forgotten, published by the Association of Caribbean States, suggests there is a potentially significant future role for railways in larger countries to link rural areas to gateway ports, to supply agricultural and manufactured items to the region and internationally.
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