It also proposed global legal framework for mining on the moon, called the Artemis Accords, encouraging citizens to mine the Earths natural satellite and other celestial bodies with commercial purposes.
The directive classified outer space as a legally and physically unique domain of human activity instead of a global commons,paving the way for mining the moon withoutany sort of international treaty.
Spearheaded by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Artemis Accords were signed in October by Australia, Canada, England, Japan, Luxembourg, Italy and the United Emirates.
Unfortunately, the Trump Administration exacerbated a national security threat and risked the economic opportunityit hoped to secure in outer spaceby failing to engage Russia or China as potential partners, says Elya Taichman, former legislative director for then-Republican Michelle Lujan Grisham.
Instead, the Artemis Accords have driven China and Russia towardincreased cooperationin space out of fear and necessity, he writes.
Russias space agency Roscosmos was the first to speak up, likening the policy to colonialism.
There have already been examples in history when one country decided to start seizing territories in its interest everyone remembers what came of it, Roscosmos deputy general director for international cooperation, Sergey Saveliev, said at the time.
China, which made history in 2019 by becoming thefirst countryto land a probe on the far side of the Moon, chose a different approach. Since the Artemis Accords were first announced, Beijing has approached Russia to jointly build a lunar research base.
President Xi Jinping has also he made sure China planted its flag on the Moon, which happened in December 2020, more than 50 years after the US reached the lunar surface.
China has historically been excluded from the US-led international order in space. It is not a partner in the International Space Station (ISS) program, and a US legislative provision has limited NASAs ability to cooperate with it in space since 2011.
America and China should cooperate in space, say policy experts Anne-Marie Slaughter and Emily Lawrence. If the US managed to coordinate with the Soviet Union on space policy during the Cold War, it can find a way to cooperate with China now, they note.
Slaughter, a former director of policy planning in the US State Department from 2009 to 2011, believes that President Joe Bidens team should distance from Trumps accords and instead pursue a new course within the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space.
Biden can restore some of Americas global legitimacy by working to establish a multilateral framework, negotiated with all relevant parties that protects areas of common interest while granting internationally accepted commercial opportunities, Slaughter and Lawrence wrote.
It will not be an easy task, they say, but a necessary one. Without an international framework that includes all major spacefaring countries, the moon could become the next Wild West.
The race is on. It has been for a while. So much so that NASA has laid out a $28 billion plan to launch an unmanned mission around the moon in 2021, followed by a crewed moon flyby in 2023, then a lunar landing in 2024.
NASA plans to build a permanent moon-orbiting base called the Gateway, similar to the ISS. From there, the agency hopes to build a base on the lunar surface, where it can mine the resources required to fly the first astronauts to Mars.
Russia has been pursuing plans in recent yearsto return to the moon, potentially travelling further into outer space.
Roscosmosrevealed in 2018plans to establish a long-term base on the moon over the next two decades, while President Vladimir Putin hasvowedto launch a mission to Mars very soon.
The US, Russia and China are not the first nor the only nations to jump on board the lunar mining train.
Luxembourg,one of the first countriesto set its eyes on the possibility of mining celestial bodies,created in 2018 a Space Agency (LSA)to boost exploration and commercial utilization of resources from Near Earth Objects.
Unlike NASA, LSA does not carry out research or launches. Its purpose is to accelerate collaborations between economic project leaders of the space sector, investors and other partners.
The tiny European nation announced in November plans to create a European Space Resources Innovation Centre (ESRIC), in charge of laying the foundations for exploiting extra-terrestrial resources.
Luxembourg is also supporting a program to begin extracting resources from the Moonby 2025.
The mission, in charge of the European Space Agency in partnership with ArianeGroup, plans to extract waste-free nuclear energy thought to be worth trillions of dollars.
Both China and India have also floated ideas about extracting Helium-3 from the Earths natural satellite. Beijing has already landed on the moon twice in the 21stcentury, with more missions to follow.
In Canada, most initiatives have come from the private sector. One of the most touted was Northern Ontario-basedDeltion Innovations partnership with Moon Express, the first American private space exploration firm to have beengranted government permissionto travel beyond Earths orbit.
Space ventures in the works includeplans to mine asteroids, track space debris, build thefirst human settlement on Mars, and billionaire Elon Musks own plan for an unmanned mission to the red planet.
Geologists, as well as emerging companies, such asUS-based Planetary Resources, a firm pioneering the space mining industry, believe asteroids are packed with iron ore, nickel and precious metals at much higher concentrations than those found on Earth, making up a market valuedin the trillions.
On December 5, 2020, a metallic asteroid 140 miles wide and worth an estimated $10,000 quadrillion made its closest approach to our planet.
With NASA and other companies investing in and developing nuclear power for use in space travel and colonization, the reality of mining asteroids is closer than ever before, says Bob Goldstein, CEO of US Nuclear Corp.
With proven successful fusion energy experiments under their belt, US Nuclear and Magneto-Inertial Fusion Technologies (MIFTI) believe they are only a few years away from building the worlds first fusion power generator.
Fusion power releases up to four times as much energy as fission, and uses fuel that is lightweight, low-cost, safe, and sustainable.
A spacecraft with fusion-powered propulsion systems could reach the asteroid belt in as little as seven months. According to Goldstein, it could be powerful enough to transport the asteroid to an earth orbit where it would be much more efficient to mine and transport these valuable resources to earth.
- End Times Update 5/15/2021: SNL, the Gas Crisis, and Courtney Stodden - Popdust - May 16th, 2021
- Elon Musk's 'SNL' appearance shows he's the face of EVs beyond Tesla - Mashable SE Asia - May 16th, 2021
- Time for Infosec Professionals' Imaginations to Stretch to Outer Space - Infosecurity Magazine - May 9th, 2021
- Elon Musk's first name shows up in 1953 book about colonizing Mars - CNET - May 9th, 2021
- The Final Fate of Elon Musk in Seven Secrets #8? [Preview] - Bleeding Cool News - May 9th, 2021
- Scientists claim to have seen fungi on Mars - Mediarun Search - May 9th, 2021
- How much is the space race worth? - Three fold Online - May 9th, 2021
- SpaceX's Elon Musk hosting 'Saturday Night Live' this weekend - Space.com - May 7th, 2021
- SpaceX completes another Starship prototype flight, this time with no explosion on landing - Anchorage Daily News - May 7th, 2021
- "The idea of inhabiting Mars is merely fanciful fiction" says commenter - Dezeen - April 15th, 2021
- Musician Grimes Is Ready for Space Travel With Full Back Alien Scar Tattoo - autoevolution - April 15th, 2021
- The Final Frontier Will Be a Profitable Frontier - InvestorPlace - April 15th, 2021
- Elon Musk is an alien who tries to escape from earth, bizarre theory goes viral on internet - IBTimes India - April 13th, 2021
- Epic NASAs Ingenuity Helicopter Poised to Forever Change the Way We Explore Other Planets - The Daily Galaxy --Great Discoveries Channel - April 11th, 2021
- Did it Come From Outer Space? Debris washes ashore in Lincoln County - St. Helens Chronicle - April 11th, 2021
- To the moon: Greetings and a message from young Iroquois earthlings - GoErie.com - April 11th, 2021
- Director Neil Burger's 'Voyagers' launches a colony ship to the stars - Space.com - April 11th, 2021
- Meet the new director of ASU's Institute for Humanities Research - ASU Now - April 11th, 2021
- Boeing v SpaceX: the rivalry shaping the future of space exploration - The National - April 11th, 2021
- Moon Exploration: Why China and Russia are Teaming Up for a Lunar Base - Science Times - April 11th, 2021
- The race for space colonisation and limitless wealth is already here - TRT World - March 31st, 2021
- "The Expanse" offers a realistic depiction of space colonization - Axios - March 31st, 2021
- We Shouldn't Invoke Colonialist Language To Justify Missions To the Cosmos - The Wire Science - March 31st, 2021
- What happened to water on Mars? - Brantford Expositor - March 31st, 2021
- Elon Musk says the SpaceX Starship will get to Mars 'well before' 2030 - Daily Express - March 31st, 2021
- Elon Musk shows off SpaceX's 1st Starship Super Heavy booster - Space.com - March 21st, 2021
- The Green Space | Elon Musk and Ecomasculinity - University of Pittsburgh The Pitt News - March 21st, 2021
- Where did the waters of Mars go? Underground. Maybe Martian life did, too. - SYFY WIRE - March 21st, 2021
- NASA Perseverance Rover Officially Shares the Sounds of Driving on Mars - Science Times - March 21st, 2021
- NASA: Unknown bacteria found on the ISS - and it could help with the move to Mars - Daily Express - March 21st, 2021
- Inside The First-Ever Luxury Space Hotel Thats Set to Open in 2027 - The Manual - March 21st, 2021
- 'In space, you know the physics of how you're going to die': Kate Greene - E&T Magazine - March 21st, 2021
- Humans on Mars by 2050? We Might Have Liftoff - Architecture and Design - March 21st, 2021
- The Expanse Team Unpacks Its Abuse Storylines in Season 5 - Observer - March 21st, 2021
- If Elon Musk makes it to Mars, then what? These are the hurdles for humans who wish to live on the Red Planet - MarketWatch - March 16th, 2021
- Elon Musk Is the Ultimate Villain in the Korean Sci-Fi Film Space Sweepers - TheStranger.com - March 16th, 2021
- Hopes and Dreams of Mars - Splice Today - March 5th, 2021
- Elon Musk Is Creating a City in Texas. It Will Be Called Starbase and It Will Be Ruled by 'The Doge' - Entrepreneur - March 5th, 2021
- Opinion: The Perseverance rover landing on Mars is a giant leap toward human colonization of space - The San Diego Union-Tribune - March 3rd, 2021
- NASA Mars mission: Perseverance to begin search for life on Red Planet - Daily Express - March 3rd, 2021
- Why are humans so obsessed with Mars? - Livemint - March 3rd, 2021
- Perseverance - The Mars Rover - Fiorella Beausang-Hunter - Latymer Upper School - This is Local London - March 3rd, 2021
- The Avid Reader: A trip into the universe - Monadnock Ledger Transcript - March 3rd, 2021
- The Expanse season five kicks off slowly - The Prospector - March 3rd, 2021
- Mission to Mars: New rover to aid in human colonization (Part 1) - Yahoo News - February 22nd, 2021
- Colonize and live on Mars thanks to cyanobacteria? - Innovation Origins - February 22nd, 2021
- Why the red planet captures our imagination in movies and books - WTOP - February 22nd, 2021
- Think tank: City life on Mars? Creating human centred communities in space and beyond - SmartCitiesWorld - February 22nd, 2021
- New app brings Mars exploration closer to life on Earth - The First News - February 22nd, 2021
- A six-wheeled, Mini-sized rover is currently parked on Mars - Top Gear - February 22nd, 2021
- Greta Thunberg's ironic video of the colonization of Mars within hours of the arrival of NASA's Perseverance rover - Explica - February 22nd, 2021
- Elon Musk faces rejection by French villagers as they deny permission to install antennas - Republic TV - February 22nd, 2021
- NASA lands Perseverance rover: Why going to Mars ought to matter to you - The Shepherd of the Hills Gazette - February 22nd, 2021
- The UAE Probe 'Hope' Has Successfully Reached Mars - ExtremeTech - February 10th, 2021
- Elon Musk's Mars plan rocked as SpaceX CEO fears humans will 'self-extinguish' before 2050 - Daily Express - February 10th, 2021
- Hilltown internet coverage is expanding, but affordability is still a concern - The Altamont Enterprise - February 10th, 2021
- Cybernauts Called to PLANETXXI to Save Planet Earth - Send2Press Newswire - February 10th, 2021
- Meet the team behind the brains: LoyolaMARS students talk all things aerospace - Los Angeles Loyolan - February 6th, 2021
- Someone Tell Elon Musk That Bandanas Aren't Face Masks - Highsnobiety - February 6th, 2021
- Is Our Whole World Just a Simulation? Enter A Glitch in the Matrix - Vanity Fair - February 6th, 2021
- Andre Drummond backs Elon Musk, campaigning Dogecoin to pump to the moon - Cavaliers Nation - February 6th, 2021
- If You Loved Greedfall, Try These 3 Games Like It - KeenGamer News - February 6th, 2021
- Robinhood Screwed Its Users But Is More Popular Than Ever - VICE - February 6th, 2021
- Elon Musk reveals ambitious plans to get humans to Mars seven years ahead of NASA - Republic World - February 2nd, 2021
- Is there life on Mars? Not if we destroy it with poor space hygiene - The Guardian - February 2nd, 2021
- How Elon Musk and a Mission to Mars Might Boost Internet Speeds in Rural Kansas - kansaspublicradio.org - February 2nd, 2021
- Elon Musk Thinks Memes are 'Complex' Form of Communication. He Even Has a 'Dealer' for Regular Supply - News18 - February 2nd, 2021
- Josh app expands its musical library with 1.3 lakh songs from Saregama in 25 different languages - Business Insider India - February 2nd, 2021
- 10 Old Sci-Fi Movies That Take Place In The Present Time Period - Screen Rant - February 2nd, 2021
- SpaceX Is Launching Its Giant Starship SN9 Prototype, The Next Step To Visiting Mars - Observer - January 27th, 2021
- Axiom names first private crew paying $55 million for a trip to the ISS - The Verge - January 27th, 2021
- This Is Why You Must Never Try And Colonize A Super-Earth Planet - Forbes - January 27th, 2021
- Redout: Space Assault brings the nostalgic joys of Starfox to Xbox One, Series X|S, PS4, PS5, Switch and PC - TheXboxHub - January 27th, 2021
- Global foreign investment falls by 42% | Govit-19 - haveeruonline - January 27th, 2021
- Big Ben-sized space rock among FIVE headed this way, as scientist proposes humans COLONIZE asteroid belt itself - RT - January 27th, 2021
- Top Executives Like Elon Musk And Steve Jobs Are 64% More Likely To Set This Type Of Goal - Forbes - January 27th, 2021
- The Expanse Drummer Actor On The Show's Respectful Polyamory Representation - Screen Rant - January 27th, 2021
- Elon Musk Will Fund Mars Colonization By Selling His Possessions - WebProNews - January 17th, 2021
- ISS astronauts ate space-grown radishes for the first time - The Burn-In - January 5th, 2021
- Learning what it takes to grow a space garden - MSUToday - December 30th, 2020