Manhattan [island], U.S. is home to over 1.6 million people.
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines.
An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands. Conversely, when a piece of land is separated from the mainland by a man-made canal, for example the Peloponnese by the Corinth Canal or Marble Hill in northern Manhattan during the time between the building of the United States Ship Canal and the filling-in of the Harlem River which surrounded the area, it is generally not considered an island.
There are two main types of islands in the sea: continental and oceanic. There are also artificial islands.
The word island derives from Middle English iland, from Old English igland (from ig or ieg, similarly meaning 'island' when used independently, and -land carrying its contemporary meaning; cf. Dutch eiland ("island"), German Eiland ("small island")). However, the spelling of the word was modified in the 15th century because of a false etymology caused by an incorrect association with the etymologically unrelated Old French loanword isle, which itself comes from the Latin word insula. Old English ieg is actually a cognate of Swedish and German Aue, and related to Latin aqua (water).
Greenland is the world's largest island, with an area of over 2.1 million km2, while Australia, the world's smallest continent, has an area of 7.6 million km2, but there is no standard of size that distinguishes islands from continents, or from islets.
There is a difference between islands and continents in terms of geology.Continents are the largest landmass of a particular continental plate; this holds true for Australia, which sits on its own continental lithosphere and tectonic plate (the Australian plate).By contrast, islands are either extensions of the oceanic crust (e.g. volcanic islands), or belong to a continental plate containing a larger landmass; the latter is the case of Greenland, which sits on the North American plate.
Continental islands are bodies of land that lie on the continental shelf of a continent. Examples are Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Sakhalin, Taiwan and Hainan off Asia; New Guinea, Tasmania, and Kangaroo Island off Australia; Great Britain, Ireland, and Sicily off Europe; Greenland, Newfoundland, Long Island, and Sable Island off North America; and Barbados, the Falkland Islands, and Trinidad off South America.
A special type of continental island is the microcontinental island, which is created when a continent is rifted. Examples are Madagascar and Socotra off Africa, New Caledonia, New Zealand, and some of the Seychelles.
Another subtype is an island or bar formed by deposition of tiny rocks where water current loses some of its carrying capacity. This includes:
Islets are very small islands.
Oceanic islands are islands that do not sit on continental shelves. The vast majority are volcanic in origin, such as Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean. The few oceanic islands that are not volcanic are tectonic in origin and arise where plate movements have lifted up the ocean floor above the surface. Examples are Saint Peter and Paul Rocks in the Atlantic Ocean and Macquarie Island in the Pacific.
One type of volcanic oceanic island is found in a volcanic island arc. These islands arise from volcanoes where the subduction of one plate under another is occurring. Examples are the Aleutian Islands, the Mariana Islands, and most of Tonga in the Pacific Ocean. The only examples in the Atlantic Ocean are some of the Lesser Antilles and the South Sandwich Islands.
Another type of volcanic oceanic island occurs where an oceanic rift reaches the surface. There are two examples: Iceland, which is the world's second largest volcanic island, and Jan Mayen. Both are in the Atlantic.
A third type of volcanic oceanic island is formed over volcanic hotspots. A hotspot is more or less stationary relative to the moving tectonic plate above it, so a chain of islands results as the plate drifts. Over long periods of time, this type of island is eventually "drowned" by isostatic adjustment and eroded, becoming a seamount. Plate movement across a hot-spot produces a line of islands oriented in the direction of the plate movement. An example is the Hawaiian Islands, from Hawaii to Kure, which continue beneath the sea surface in a more northerly direction as the Emperor Seamounts. Another chain with similar orientation is the Tuamotu Archipelago; its older, northerly trend is the Line Islands. The southernmost chain is the Austral Islands, with its northerly trending part the atolls in the nation of Tuvalu. Tristan da Cunha is an example of a hotspot volcano in the Atlantic Ocean. Another hotspot in the Atlantic is the island of Surtsey, which was formed in 1963.
An atoll is an island formed from a coral reef that has grown on an eroded and submerged volcanic island. The reef rises to the surface of the water and forms a new island. Atolls are typically ring-shaped with a central lagoon. Examples are the Line Islands in the Pacific and the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.
Approximately 45,000 tropical islands with an area of at least 5 hectares (12 acres) exist. Examples formed from coral reefs include Maldives, Tonga, Samoa, Nauru, and Polynesia. Granite islands include Seychelles and Tioman and volcanic islands such as Saint Helena.
The socio-economic diversity of tropical islands ranges from the Stone Age societies in the interior of Madagascar, Borneo, and Papua New Guinea to the high-tech lifestyles of the city-islands of Singapore and Hong Kong.
International tourism is a significant factor in the economy of many tropical islands including Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, Runion, Hawaii, and the Maldives.
Almost all of the Earth's islands are natural and have been formed by tectonic forces or volcanic eruptions. However, artificial (man-made) islands also exist, such as the island in Osaka Bay off the Japanese island of Honshu, on which Kansai International Airport is located. Artificial islands can be built using natural materials (e.g., earth, rock, or sand) or artificial ones (e.g., concrete slabs or recycled waste). Sometimes natural islands are artificially enlarged, such as Vasilyevsky Island in the Russian city of St. Petersburg, which had its western shore extended westward by some 0.5km in the construction of the Passenger Port of St. Petersburg.
Artificial islands are sometimes built on pre-existing "low-tide elevation," a naturally formed area of land which is surrounded by and above water at low tide but submerged at high tide. Legally these are not islands and have no territorial sea of their own.
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- Move over, islands, kitchen tables are making a comeback - The Philadelphia Inquirer - November 13th, 2019
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- Love Island star and pro boxer Tommy Fury eyes fight with KSI - CNN - November 13th, 2019
- Family seeks information after woman's body discovered in Merritt Island - Florida Today - November 13th, 2019
- Love Island's Lucie Donlan almost spills out of her dress as she joins beau Joe at ITV Palooza - Mirror Online - November 13th, 2019
- Lorraine cackles tension between Love Island Amy Hart and Curtis Pritchard - Metro.co.uk - November 13th, 2019
- Mother of 4 killed in head-on collision on Hawaii Island - KHON2 - November 13th, 2019
- You can buy this tiny island near Mackinac for $850K - MLive.com - November 13th, 2019
- 'The Curse of Oak Island': This Theory About the Buried Treasure Makes So Much Sense - Showbiz Cheat Sheet - November 13th, 2019
- Watch: Rock Island holds panel discussion on what recreational marijuana will look like for the city - WQAD Moline - November 13th, 2019
- Vancouver Island teacher suspended for inappropriate comments - Vancouver Sun - November 13th, 2019
- Walter Hood to design new park in the middle of the bay. - Curbed SF - November 13th, 2019
- How Greece is tackling overtourism, the migrant crisis and the fallout from Thomas Cook's failure - The Telegraph - November 13th, 2019
- Man killed in crash on snow-covered Washington Island road - WBAY - November 13th, 2019
- Love Island and Rugby World Cup boosts ITV - The Guardian - November 13th, 2019
- Two arrests after probe into tobacco smuggling from Cook Islands - RNZ - November 13th, 2019
- Mobile Police arrest suspect for shooting on Dauphin Island Parkway - AL.com - November 13th, 2019
- Five destinations to watch from the Faroe Islands to Pakistan - Financial Times - November 13th, 2019
- Volcanic eruption creates new island in Tongan archipelago - The Guardian - November 13th, 2019
- The Cynthia Taylu Conversation We All Missed On Love Island Australia - HuffPost Australia - November 13th, 2019
- SE Neighborhood Meeting Talking Beaver Islands, Talahi Woods - WJON News - November 1st, 2019
- Want an island? Here are six you can choose from, including five off the B.C. coast - National Post - November 1st, 2019
- Wild swimming, art walks and islands: five car-free day trips from Sydney - The Guardian - November 1st, 2019
- High wind advisory issued for Staten Island - SILive.com - November 1st, 2019
- Insurance fraud investigation leads to Rock Island womans guilty plea - WQAD Moline - November 1st, 2019
- HAUNTED: Fainting Goat Island Inn - WBNG-TV - November 1st, 2019
- Antelope Island's annual bison roundup ensures the health of the herd - Salt Lake Tribune - November 1st, 2019
- Black Travel Vibes: Relax On The Colorful Shores Of Komodo Island - Essence - November 1st, 2019
- Grand Island woman not interested in $4.5 million lottery win - Grand Island Independent - November 1st, 2019
- Love Island's X Factor stars needed therapy to work through their trust issues - Mirror Online - November 1st, 2019
- On a Greek Island, a Bookstore With Some Mythology of Its Own - The New York Times - November 1st, 2019
- Final Bannerman Island Tour Set For This Weekend - wpdh.com - November 1st, 2019
- Rioli to make footy return at Tiwi Islands this weekend - The Age - November 1st, 2019
- Turks and Caicos Private Island Ambergris Cay Unveils Villas With Upgraded All-Inclusive Perks - Robb Report - November 1st, 2019
- Lord Howe Island rodent eradication program on track for success as last bait traps laid - ABC News - November 1st, 2019
- Trick or treat! Its already Christmas at the Staten Island Mall - SILive.com - November 1st, 2019
- Prince Charles set for emotional Solomon Islands trip in bid to tackle climate change - Express - November 1st, 2019
- One New Thing to Check Out on Every Hawaiian Island From new stargazing opportunities to exclusive - msnNOW - November 1st, 2019
- Love Island star Amber Gills reaction to exes Greg and Michael hanging out is all of us - cosmopolitan.com - November 1st, 2019
- Walt Disney World: Pleasure Island added nightclubs to Mickey's mix 30 years ago - Orlando Sentinel - November 1st, 2019
- United efforts to tackle falling population in Scottish Highlands and Islands - The National - October 29th, 2019
- Coral cover around popular Great Barrier Reef islands has almost halved - The Guardian - October 29th, 2019
- A New Way to Vacation in the British Virgin Islands - Caribbean Journal - October 29th, 2019
- Will There Be a Season 7 of 'The Curse of Oak Island'? Details! - Distractify - October 29th, 2019
- Prince Charles set for emotional Solomon Islands trip in bid to tackle climate change - Express - October 29th, 2019
- Love Island Australia looks like trash squared and we are in - Entertainment Weekly News - October 29th, 2019
- On a Greek Island, a Bookstore With Some Mythology of Its Own - The New York Times - October 29th, 2019
- Love Island's Jourdan Riane and Danny Williams have reportedly split - cosmopolitan.com - October 29th, 2019
- Love Island's Olivia Buckland and Alex Bowen named the show's richest contestants ever - Irish Mirror - October 29th, 2019
- Love Island's Curtis Pritchard says Strictly may not be the right move for him - Mirror Online - October 29th, 2019
- Pollock will preserve island's quality of life | Letter to the editor - Bainbridge Island Review - October 29th, 2019
- City of Davenport removing some flood measures, re-opening Credit Island - KWQC-TV6 - October 29th, 2019
- DHEC public hearing for private docks receive opposition from James Island residents - Live 5 News WCSC - October 29th, 2019
- A Bright-Green Island Stars in this Seriously Bold Forest Hills Kitchen - Washingtonian - October 29th, 2019
- Revealed: The law that means Argentina can never take Falkland Islands by force again - Express.co.uk - October 29th, 2019
- GoFundMe started for West Ashley High student killed in reported Johns Island hit-and-run - ABC NEWS 4 - October 29th, 2019
- Seal of approval: Farne Islands population boom gathers pace - The Guardian - October 29th, 2019
- An ancient island at the centre of the world - BBC News - October 29th, 2019
- City breaks ground on new $77M Staten Island school - SILive.com - October 29th, 2019
- Roosevelt Island Restaurant Granny Annies Bar and Kitchen to Open in Spring 2020 - Eater NY - October 29th, 2019
- Portion of ceiling collapses at Thruway's welcome center on Grand Island - Buffalo News - October 16th, 2019
- Traffic slowed to a crawl on all QC bridges while Rock Island police searched the water - WQAD Moline - October 16th, 2019
- 'Camano will feel a lot more like an island' as of this week - The Daily Herald - October 16th, 2019
- Staten Island teen transforms her first car into a work of art using 10 permanent markers - SILive.com - October 16th, 2019
- Cheap meals on Hawaii Island for less than $20 - Los Angeles Times - October 16th, 2019
- Endangered bandicoots released to new island home in bid to hold off extinction - The Guardian - October 16th, 2019
- A rare voyage to Pitcairn, the lonely island with a dark history - Telegraph.co.uk - October 16th, 2019
- Are 'Survivor 39' Contestants Banned From Telling Other Competitors About the Island of the Idols? - Showbiz Cheat Sheet - October 16th, 2019
- UK fisheries agreement signed with the Faroe Islands - GOV.UK - October 16th, 2019
- Possible cougar sighting on Mercer Island turns out to be house cat - KING5.com - October 16th, 2019
- Royal Caribbean just announced a dreamy new private island in the South Pacific - INSIDER - October 16th, 2019
- Love Island's Molly-Mae can't control her laughter as mum rages about trolls - Mirror Online - October 16th, 2019
- Royal Caribbean Announces Private Island in the South Pacific - Cruise Critic - October 16th, 2019
- The Ordinary Hosts an Oyster Extravaganza at Bowens Island in November - Eater Charleston - October 16th, 2019
- Rock of Ages features Staten Island guitarist in off-Broadway run - SILive.com - October 16th, 2019
- Sex offender with violent history moved from McNeill Island to Spokane - KREM.com - October 16th, 2019
- Parents invited to learn more about possible changes to Johns Island schools - Live 5 News WCSC - October 16th, 2019
- Opponents Worried About Spaceport Camden's Impact On Cumberland Island - WJCT NEWS - October 16th, 2019
- Sicily Island man accused of setting fire to neighbor's home - Knoe.com - October 16th, 2019
- Staten Island Railway delayed because of slippery tracks; wind advisory issued - SILive.com - October 16th, 2019