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Bitcoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Bitcoin (BTC) is once again nearing the all-important $4,000 threshold, a significant bounce-back compared to last week’s low point of $3,200 that came as a result of China’s crackdown on initial coin offerings (ICO).

Of course, the brightest cryptocurrency future has to include the Chinese market and its loads of cash, but for now, Bitcoin should be able to pull itself up steadily back to the $5,000 mark without China’s help.

Cryptocurrencies will need to find a way to reintegrate themselves into the Chinese market in the long term. BTC prices benefit from a surge in.

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Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

While most of the cryptocurrency market hit the snooze button on Monday, Litecoin traders were up and about. More than $408.0 million worth of LTC coins changed hands as the Litecoin to USD exchange rate jumped roughly 4.11%.

Litecoin also gained around 2.9% against Bitcoin, possibly balancing for the different speeds in their recoveries. Nevertheless, it’ll be a long time before the two currencies are disentangled.

To this day, investors perceive Litecoin as “the silver to Bitcoin’s gold.”

There were moments when the market started to value LTC based on Litecoin news alone (which led to all-time highs), but then China rained on everyone’s parade by shutting down.

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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Ripple prices took a break from the high drama of recent weeks, ending the last 24 hours a slight twitch up to around $0.185670. The stability of the Ripple to USD exchange rate is a constructive signal for investors that grew nervous after the Chinese crackdown.

After all, XRP fell by double digits only a few days ago, putting our annual Ripple price prediction in jeopardy. Cooler heads have prevailed since then, and Ripple is back above where it was a.

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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

For the first time in a week, cryptocurrencies stuck their heads above water. The Ripple-to-USD exchange rate jumped 7.13% to $0.188622, while simultaneously falling 4.22% against Bitcoin.

China’s ban on cryptocurrency exchanges was once again the biggest piece of Ripple news. This time, however, prices moved to the upside, because investors realized that last week’s reaction was a little excessive (if not downright apocalyptic).

What makes it worse is that Ripple didn’t deserve the beating it took last week.

For one thing, less than five percent of its.

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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

Despite China taking a bat to Litecoin’s knees, the Litecoin-to-USD exchange rate bounced up about 9.68% to roughly $51.89. “What explosive piece of Litecoin news caused this rally?” you ask.

Oddly, nothing in particular.

This was a see-saw moment for Litecoin prices. After tilting hard towards the bearish side last week, investors pushed off the bottom to bring LTC prices back above $50.00.

Perhaps they thought the reaction to China’s ban on cryptocurrency exchanges was a tad overblown. Or perhaps they thought LTC is a buy under $50.00.

In either case, the surge in prices is likely to continue now that the fog of uncertainty has lifted.

Last week, we knew nothing.

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Litecoin Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

Hallelujah! After a week of non-stop pain, investors finally moved past China’s ban on cryptocurrency exchanges. They bid up prices, bet on fundamentals, and were rewarded with flashing green numbers on their trading monitors.

For instance, the Ethereum-to-USD exchange rate jumped 17% to $280.69 on Sunday.

Considering that it slipped below $200.00 on Friday, the rebound was particularly steep. Who said there’s no resilience in cryptocurrencies? It took less than a week to shrug off China’s ban, which was definitely more than a flesh wound.

Ethereum gained.

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Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 18, 2017

This Cryptocurrency Could Be the Next Bitcoin

Bitcoin Turned $25 into $34 Million
Bitcoin, bitcoin, bitcoin, bitcoin, bitcoin, bitcoin…bitcoin. It’s all that anyone seems to be talking about, yet the volatility of Bitcoin is terrifying. Double-digit swings are a normal occurrence. And no one can explain what it does, at least not in plain English.

But there’s no denying that Bitcoin is a gold mine.

Investors who bought BTC coins in 2013 would have gained 2,411% by now. And those who “mined” the currency made even bigger returns..

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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 15, 2017

As with the rest of the cryptocurrency market, China takes center stage in our Ripple news update. It’s the only thing that matters at the moment, though one could argue that XRP is unfairly caught in the crossfire.

After all, less than five percent of Ripple’s trading volume comes from within China. Add that to the fact that the ban is on trading, and not “blockchain activities,” and it seems like Ripple’s eastward expansion is still on track.

What the regulators objected to was the “disorder” of cryptocurrency exchanges. They aren’t fond of chaos. But.

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Ripple Price Forecast and Analysis – September 15, 2017

Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 15, 2017

China is the only Ethereum news that matters today, as crypto markets continue to reel from a Chinese crackdown on local exchanges. The entire crypto market is under siege.

Ethereum to USD prices are down about 20.85% and Ethereum to Bitcoin prices dropped roughly 3.1%, suggesting that investors are coalescing around the market leader in times of uncertainty.

With ETH prices touching a two-month low at $201.62, many are wondering when the pain will stop. The truth is, there might be more pain to come.

Two of China’s largest cryptocurrency exchanges have not yet shut.

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Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

As the dust settles from China’s crackdown on cryptocurrencies, Ethereum looks poised for a rally that could send it across the $300.00 level. However, the situation remains tenuous.

The Chinese ban confirmed the worst fears of some investors—that central banks and other vested interests will regulate against cryptocurrencies to keep their hold on power.

It’s not an unreasonable fear, but I should add that regulators only banned yuan to crypto exchanges, not the existence of blockchain itself. That may sound like a difference without a distinction, but it could be.

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Ethereum Price Forecast and Analysis – September 19, 2017

Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

This article is about the medical therapy. For the cell type, see Stem cell.

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.

Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.

Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.

For over 30 years, bone marrow has been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukaemia and lymphoma; this is the only form of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced.[1][2][3] During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. It is this side effect of conventional chemotherapy strategies that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse; a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host’s body during treatment. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that helps to kill off the cancer cells; this process can go too far, however, leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment.[4]

The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and/or inflammatory diseases.[5] The stem cell secretome therefore is being researched and applied for medical use itself as a cell-free medicinal product.

Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids.[6] It is an allogenic stem therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.[7]

The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases.[8]

In 2014, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of Holoclar, a treatment involving stem cells, for use in the European Union. Holoclar is used for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.[9]

Stem cells are being studied for a number of reasons. The molecules and exosomes released from stem cells are also being studied in an effort to make medications.[10]

Research has been conducted on the effects of stem cells on animal models of brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.[11][12][13] There have been preliminary studies related to multiple sclerosis.[14][15]

Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder.[16][17][18]

Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. A small clinical trial was underway in Scotland in 2013, in which stem cells were injected into the brains of stroke patients.[19]

Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury.[20][21][22]

The pioneering work[23] by Bodo-Eckehard Strauer has now been discredited by the identification of hundreds of factual contradictions.[24] Among several clinical trials that have reported that adult stem-cell therapy is safe and effective, powerful effects have been reported from only a few laboratories, but this has covered old[25] and recent[26] infarcts as well as heart failure not arising from myocardial infarction.[27] While initial animal studies demonstrated remarkable therapeutic effects,[28][29] later clinical trials achieved only modest, though statistically significant, improvements.[30][31] Possible reasons for this discrepancy are patient age,[32] timing of treatment[33] and the recent occurrence of a myocardial infarction.[34] It appears that these obstacles may be overcome by additional treatments which increase the effectiveness of the treatment[35] or by optimizing the methodology although these too can be controversial. Current studies vary greatly in cell-procuring techniques, cell types, cell-administration timing and procedures, and studied parameters, making it very difficult to make comparisons. Comparative studies are therefore currently needed.

Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone-marrow stem cells (a specific type or all), however other types of adult stem cells may be used, such as adipose-derived stem cells.[36] Adult stem cell therapy for treating heart disease was commercially available in at least five continents as of 2007.[citation needed]

Possible mechanisms of recovery include:[11]

It may be possible to have adult bone-marrow cells differentiate into heart muscle cells.[11]

The first successful integration of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes in guinea pigs (mouse hearts beat too fast) was reported in August 2012. The contraction strength was measured four weeks after the guinea pigs underwent simulated heart attacks and cell treatment. The cells contracted synchronously with the existing cells, but it is unknown if the positive results were produced mainly from paracrine as opposed to direct electromechanical effects from the human cells. Future work will focus on how to get the cells to engraft more strongly around the scar tissue. Whether treatments from embryonic or adult bone marrow stem cells will prove more effective remains to be seen.[37]

In 2013 the pioneering reports of powerful beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow stem cells on ventricular function were found to contain “hundreds” of discrepancies.[38] Critics report that of 48 reports there seemed to be just five underlying trials, and that in many cases whether they were randomized or merely observational accepter-versus-rejecter, was contradictory between reports of the same trial. One pair of reports of identical baseline characteristics and final results, was presented in two publications as, respectively, a 578 patient randomized trial and as a 391 patient observational study. Other reports required (impossible) negative standard deviations in subsets of patients, or contained fractional patients, negative NYHA classes. Overall there were many more patients published as having receiving stem cells in trials, than the number of stem cells processed in the hospital’s laboratory during that time. A university investigation, closed in 2012 without reporting, was reopened in July 2013.[39]

One of the most promising benefits of stem cell therapy is the potential for cardiac tissue regeneration to reverse the tissue loss underlying the development of heart failure after cardiac injury.[40]

Initially, the observed improvements were attributed to a transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells.[28] Given the apparent inadequacy of unmodified stem cells for heart tissue regeneration, a more promising modern technique involves treating these cells to create cardiac progenitor cells before implantation to the injured area.[41]

The specificity of the human immune-cell repertoire is what allows the human body to defend itself from rapidly adapting antigens. However, the immune system is vulnerable to degradation upon the pathogenesis of disease, and because of the critical role that it plays in overall defense, its degradation is often fatal to the organism as a whole. Diseases of hematopoietic cells are diagnosed and classified via a subspecialty of pathology known as hematopathology. The specificity of the immune cells is what allows recognition of foreign antigens, causing further challenges in the treatment of immune disease. Identical matches between donor and recipient must be made for successful transplantation treatments, but matches are uncommon, even between first-degree relatives. Research using both hematopoietic adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells has provided insight into the possible mechanisms and methods of treatment for many of these ailments.[citation needed]

Fully mature human red blood cells may be generated ex vivo by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are precursors of red blood cells. In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow, the natural site of red-blood-cell growth. Erythropoietin, a growth factor, is added, coaxing the stem cells to complete terminal differentiation into red blood cells.[42] Further research into this technique should have potential benefits to gene therapy, blood transfusion, and topical medicine.

In 2004, scientists at King’s College London discovered a way to cultivate a complete tooth in mice[43] and were able to grow bioengineered teeth stand-alone in the laboratory. Researchers are confident that the tooth regeneration technology can be used to grow live teeth in human patients.

In theory, stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, and would be expected to be grown in a time over three weeks.[44] It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it. The process is similar to what happens when humans grow their original adult teeth. Many challenges remain, however, before stem cells could be a choice for the replacement of missing teeth in the future.[45][46]

Heller has reported success in re-growing cochlea hair cells with the use of embryonic stem cells.[47]

Since 2003, researchers have successfully transplanted corneal stem cells into damaged eyes to restore vision. “Sheets of retinal cells used by the team are harvested from aborted fetuses, which some people find objectionable.” When these sheets are transplanted over the damaged cornea, the stem cells stimulate renewed repair, eventually restore vision.[48] The latest such development was in June 2005, when researchers at the Queen Victoria Hospital of Sussex, England were able to restore the sight of forty patients using the same technique. The group, led by Sheraz Daya, was able to successfully use adult stem cells obtained from the patient, a relative, or even a cadaver. Further rounds of trials are ongoing.[49]

Diabetes patients lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas.[50] In recent experiments, scientists have been able to coax embryonic stem cell to turn into beta cells in the lab. In theory if the beta cell is transplanted successfully, they will be able to replace malfunctioning ones in a diabetic patient.[51]

Human embryonic stem cells may be grown in cell culture and stimulated to form insulin-producing cells that can be transplanted into the patient.

However, clinical success is highly dependent on the development of the following procedures:[11]

Clinical case reports in the treatment orthopaedic conditions have been reported. To date, the focus in the literature for musculoskeletal care appears to be on mesenchymal stem cells. Centeno et al. have published MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human subjects.[52][53] The results of trials that include a large number of subjects, are yet to be published. However, a published safety study conducted in a group of 227 patients over a 3-4-year period shows adequate safety and minimal complications associated with mesenchymal cell transplantation.[54]

Wakitani has also published a small case series of nine defects in five knees involving surgical transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells with coverage of the treated chondral defects.[55]

Stem cells can also be used to stimulate the growth of human tissues. In an adult, wounded tissue is most often replaced by scar tissue, which is characterized in the skin by disorganized collagen structure, loss of hair follicles and irregular vascular structure. In the case of wounded fetal tissue, however, wounded tissue is replaced with normal tissue through the activity of stem cells.[56] A possible method for tissue regeneration in adults is to place adult stem cell “seeds” inside a tissue bed “soil” in a wound bed and allow the stem cells to stimulate differentiation in the tissue bed cells. This method elicits a regenerative response more similar to fetal wound-healing than adult scar tissue formation.[56] Researchers are still investigating different aspects of the “soil” tissue that are conducive to regeneration.[56]

Culture of human embryonic stem cells in mitotically inactivated porcine ovarian fibroblasts (POF) causes differentiation into germ cells (precursor cells of oocytes and spermatozoa), as evidenced by gene expression analysis.[57]

Human embryonic stem cells have been stimulated to form Spermatozoon-like cells, yet still slightly damaged or malformed.[58] It could potentially treat azoospermia.

In 2012, oogonial stem cells were isolated from adult mouse and human ovaries and demonstrated to be capable of forming mature oocytes.[59] These cells have the potential to treat infertility.

Destruction of the immune system by the HIV is driven by the loss of CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Viral entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the interaction with a cellular chemokine receptor, the most common of which are CCR5 and CXCR4. Because subsequent viral replication requires cellular gene expression processes, activated CD4+ cells are the primary targets of productive HIV infection.[60] Recently scientists have been investigating an alternative approach to treating HIV-1/AIDS, based on the creation of a disease-resistant immune system through transplantation of autologous, gene-modified (HIV-1-resistant) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (GM-HSPC).[61]

On 23 January 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration gave clearance to Geron Corporation for the initiation of the first clinical trial of an embryonic stem-cell-based therapy on humans. The trial aimed evaluate the drug GRNOPC1, embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, on patients with acute spinal cord injury. The trial was discontinued in November 2011 so that the company could focus on therapies in the “current environment of capital scarcity and uncertain economic conditions”.[62] In 2013 biotechnology and regenerative medicine company BioTime (NYSEMKT:BTX) acquired Geron’s stem cell assets in a stock transaction, with the aim of restarting the clinical trial.[63]

Scientists have reported that MSCs when transfused immediately within few hours post thawing may show reduced function or show decreased efficacy in treating diseases as compared to those MSCs which are in log phase of cell growth(fresh), so cryopreserved MSCs should be brought back into log phase of cell growth in invitro culture before these are administered for clinical trials or experimental therapies, re-culturing of MSCs will help in recovering from the shock the cells get during freezing and thawing. Various clinical trials on MSCs have failed which used cryopreserved product immediately post thaw as compared to those clinical trials which used fresh MSCs.[64]

Research currently conducted on horses, dogs, and cats can benefit the development of stem cell treatments in veterinary medicine and can target a wide range of injuries and diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, tendon and ligament damage, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis and muscular dystrophy both in large animals, as well as humans.[65][66][67][68] While investigation of cell-based therapeutics generally reflects human medical needs, the high degree of frequency and severity of certain injuries in racehorses has put veterinary medicine at the forefront of this novel regenerative approach.[69] Companion animals can serve as clinically relevant models that closely mimic human disease.[70][71]

There is widespread controversy over the use of human embryonic stem cells. This controversy primarily targets the techniques used to derive new embryonic stem cell lines, which often requires the destruction of the blastocyst. Opposition to the use of human embryonic stem cells in research is often based on philosophical, moral, or religious objections.[105] There is other stem cell research that does not involve the destruction of a human embryo, and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells.

Stem-cell research and treatment was practiced in the People’s Republic of China. The Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China has permitted the use of stem-cell therapy for conditions beyond those approved of in Western countries. The Western World has scrutinized China for its failed attempts to meet international documentation standards of these trials and procedures.[106]

Since 2008 many universities, centers and doctors tried a diversity of methods; in Lebanon proliferation for stem cell therapy, in-vivo and in-vitro techniques were used, Thus this country is considered the launching place of the Regentime[107] procedure. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/281712114_Treatment_of_Long_Standing_Multiple_Sclerosis_with_Regentime_Stem_Cell_Technique The regenerative medicine also took place in Jordan and Egypt.[citation needed]

Stem-cell treatment is currently being practiced at a clinical level in Mexico. An International Health Department Permit (COFEPRIS) is required. Authorized centers are found in Tijuana, Guadalajara and Cancun. Currently undergoing the approval process is Los Cabos. This permit allows the use of stem cell.[citation needed]

In 2005, South Korean scientists claimed to have generated stem cells that were tailored to match the recipient. Each of the 11 new stem cell lines was developed using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The resultant cells were thought to match the genetic material of the recipient, thus suggesting minimal to no cell rejection.[108]

As of 2013, Thailand still considers Hematopoietic stem cell transplants as experimental. Kampon Sriwatanakul began with a clinical trial in October 2013 with 20 patients. 10 are going to receive stem-cell therapy for Type-2 diabetes and the other 10 will receive stem-cell therapy for emphysema. Chotinantakul’s research is on Hematopoietic cells and their role for the hematopoietic system function in homeostasis and immune response.[109]

Today, Ukraine is permitted to perform clinical trials of stem-cell treatments (Order of the MH of Ukraine 630 “About carrying out clinical trials of stem cells”, 2008) for the treatment of these pathologies: pancreatic necrosis, cirrhosis, hepatitis, burn disease, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, critical lower limb ischemia. The first medical institution granted the right to conduct clinical trials became the “Institute of Cell Therapy”(Kiev).

Other countries where doctors did stem cells research, trials, manipulation, storage, therapy: Brazil, Cyprus, Germany, Italy, Israel, Japan, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, India, and many others.

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Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

Stem cell – Wikipedia

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cellsectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans:

Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one’s own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures.

Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.[1] Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s.[2][3]

The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties:

Two mechanisms exist to ensure that a stem cell population is maintained:

Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell.[4]

In practice, stem cells are identified by whether they can regenerate tissue. For example, the defining test for bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to transplant the cells and save an individual without HSCs. This demonstrates that the cells can produce new blood cells over a long term. It should also be possible to isolate stem cells from the transplanted individual, which can themselves be transplanted into another individual without HSCs, demonstrating that the stem cell was able to self-renew.

Properties of stem cells can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, in which single cells are assessed for their ability to differentiate and self-renew.[7][8] Stem cells can also be isolated by their possession of a distinctive set of cell surface markers. However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells shall behave in a similar manner in vivo. There is considerable debate as to whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells.[citation needed]

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are the cells of the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage embryo.[9] Human embryos reach the blastocyst stage 45 days post fertilization, at which time they consist of 50150 cells. ES cells are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta.

During embryonic development these inner cell mass cells continuously divide and become more specialized. For example, a portion of the ectoderm in the dorsal part of the embryo specializes as ‘neurectoderm’, which will become the future central nervous system.[10] Later in development, neurulation causes the neurectoderm to form the neural tube. At the neural tube stage, the anterior portion undergoes encephalization to generate or ‘pattern’ the basic form of the brain. At this stage of development, the principal cell type of the CNS is considered a neural stem cell. These neural stem cells are pluripotent, as they can generate a large diversity of many different neuron types, each with unique gene expression, morphological, and functional characteristics. The process of generating neurons from stem cells is called neurogenesis. One prominent example of a neural stem cell is the radial glial cell, so named because it has a distinctive bipolar morphology with highly elongated processes spanning the thickness of the neural tube wall, and because historically it shared some glial characteristics, most notably the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP).[11][12] The radial glial cell is the primary neural stem cell of the developing vertebrate CNS, and its cell body resides in the ventricular zone, adjacent to the developing ventricular system. Neural stem cells are committed to the neuronal lineages (neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes), and thus their potency is restricted.[10]

Nearly all research to date has made use of mouse embryonic stem cells (mES) or human embryonic stem cells (hES) derived from the early inner cell mass. Both have the essential stem cell characteristics, yet they require very different environments in order to maintain an undifferentiated state. Mouse ES cells are grown on a layer of gelatin as an extracellular matrix (for support) and require the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in serum media. A drug cocktail containing inhibitors to GSK3B and the MAPK/ERK pathway, called 2i, has also been shown to maintain pluripotency in stem cell culture.[13] Human ES cells are grown on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and require the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF-2).[14] Without optimal culture conditions or genetic manipulation,[15] embryonic stem cells will rapidly differentiate.

A human embryonic stem cell is also defined by the expression of several transcription factors and cell surface proteins. The transcription factors Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 form the core regulatory network that ensures the suppression of genes that lead to differentiation and the maintenance of pluripotency.[16] The cell surface antigens most commonly used to identify hES cells are the glycolipids stage specific embryonic antigen 3 and 4 and the keratan sulfate antigens Tra-1-60 and Tra-1-81. By using human embryonic stem cells to produce specialized cells like nerve cells or heart cells in the lab, scientists can gain access to adult human cells without taking tissue from patients. They can then study these specialized adult cells in detail to try and catch complications of diseases, or to study cells reactions to potentially new drugs. The molecular definition of a stem cell includes many more proteins and continues to be a topic of research.[17]

There are currently no approved treatments using embryonic stem cells. The first human trial was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009.[18] However, the human trial was not initiated until October 13, 2010 in Atlanta for spinal cord injury research. On November 14, 2011 the company conducting the trial (Geron Corporation) announced that it will discontinue further development of its stem cell programs.[19] ES cells, being pluripotent cells, require specific signals for correct differentiationif injected directly into another body, ES cells will differentiate into many different types of cells, causing a teratoma. Differentiating ES cells into usable cells while avoiding transplant rejection are just a few of the hurdles that embryonic stem cell researchers still face.[20] Due to ethical considerations, many nations currently have moratoria or limitations on either human ES cell research or the production of new human ES cell lines. Because of their combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells remain a theoretically potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease.

Human embryonic stem cell colony on mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layer

The primitive stem cells located in the organs of fetuses are referred to as fetal stem cells.[21] There are two types of fetal stem cells:

Adult stem cells, also called somatic (from Greek , “of the body”) stem cells, are stem cells which maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.[23] They can be found in children, as well as adults.[24]

Pluripotent adult stem cells are rare and generally small in number, but they can be found in umbilical cord blood and other tissues.[25] Bone marrow is a rich source of adult stem cells,[26] which have been used in treating several conditions including liver cirrhosis,[27] chronic limb ischemia [28] and endstage heart failure.[29] The quantity of bone marrow stem cells declines with age and is greater in males than females during reproductive years.[30] Much adult stem cell research to date has aimed to characterize their potency and self-renewal capabilities.[31] DNA damage accumulates with age in both stem cells and the cells that comprise the stem cell environment. This accumulation is considered to be responsible, at least in part, for increasing stem cell dysfunction with aging (see DNA damage theory of aging).[32]

Most adult stem cells are lineage-restricted (multipotent) and are generally referred to by their tissue origin (mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).[33][34]Muse cells (multi-lineage differentiating stress enduring cells) are a recently discovered pluripotent stem cell type found in multiple adult tissues, including adipose, dermal fibroblasts, and bone marrow. While rare, muse cells are identifiable by their expression of SSEA-3, a marker for undifferentiated stem cells, and general mesenchymal stem cells markers such as CD105. When subjected to single cell suspension culture, the cells will generate clusters that are similar to embryoid bodies in morphology as well as gene expression, including canonical pluripotency markers Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog.[35]

Adult stem cell treatments have been successfully used for many years to treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers through bone marrow transplants.[36] Adult stem cells are also used in veterinary medicine to treat tendon and ligament injuries in horses.[37]

The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Additionally, in instances where adult stem cells are obtained from the intended recipient (an autograft), the risk of rejection is essentially non-existent. Consequently, more US government funding is being provided for adult stem cell research.[38]

Multipotent stem cells are also found in amniotic fluid. These stem cells are very active, expand extensively without feeders and are not tumorigenic. Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and can differentiate in cells of adipogenic, osteogenic, myogenic, endothelial, hepatic and also neuronal lines.[39] Amniotic stem cells are a topic of active research.

Use of stem cells from amniotic fluid overcomes the ethical objections to using human embryos as a source of cells. Roman Catholic teaching forbids the use of embryonic stem cells in experimentation; accordingly, the Vatican newspaper “Osservatore Romano” called amniotic stem cells “the future of medicine”.[40]

It is possible to collect amniotic stem cells for donors or for autologuous use: the first US amniotic stem cells bank [41][42] was opened in 2009 in Medford, MA, by Biocell Center Corporation[43][44][45] and collaborates with various hospitals and universities all over the world.[46]

Adult stem cells have limitations with their potency; unlike ESCs, they are not able to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers. As such, they are deemed multipotent.

However, reprogramming allows for the creation of pluripotent cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, from adult cells. It is important to note that these are not adult stem cells, but adult cells (e.g. epithelial cells) reprogrammed to give rise to cells with pluripotent capabilities. Using genetic reprogramming with protein transcription factors, pluripotent stem cells with ESC-like capabilities have been derived.[47][48][49] The first demonstration of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells was conducted by Shinya Yamanaka and his colleagues at Kyoto University.[50] They used the transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4 to reprogram mouse fibroblast cells into pluripotent cells.[47][51] Subsequent work used these factors to induce pluripotency in human fibroblast cells.[52]Junying Yu, James Thomson, and their colleagues at the University of WisconsinMadison used a different set of factors, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and Lin28, and carried out their experiments using cells from human foreskin.[47][53] However, they were able to replicate Yamanaka’s finding that inducing pluripotency in human cells was possible.

It is important to note that iPSCs and ESCs are not equivalent. They have many similar properties, such as pluripotency and differentiation potential, the expression of pluripotency genes, epigenetic patterns, embryoid body and teratoma formation, and viable chimera formation.[50][51] However, similar does not mean they are the same. In fact, there are many differences within these properties. Importantly, the chromatin of iPSCs appears to be more “closed” or methylated than that of ESCs.[50][51] Similarly, the gene expression pattern between ESCs and iPSCs, or even iPSCs sourced from different origins.[50] There are thus questions about the “completeness” of reprogramming and the somatic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells. Despite this, inducing adult cells to be pluripotent appears to be viable.

As a result of the success of these experiments, Ian Wilmut, who helped create the first cloned animal Dolly the Sheep, has announced that he will abandon somatic cell nuclear transfer as an avenue of research.[54]

Furthermore, induced pluripotent stem cells provide several therapeutic advantages. Like ESCs, they are pluripotent. They thus have great differentiation potential; theoretically, they could produce any cell within the human body (if reprogramming to pluripotency was “complete”).[50] Moreover, unlike ESCs, they potentially could allow doctors to create a pluripotent stem cell line for each individual patient.[55] In fact, frozen blood samples can be used as a source of induced pluripotent stem cells, opening a new avenue for obtaining the valued cells.[56] Patient specific stem cells allow for the screening for side effects before drug treatment, as well as the reduced risk of transplantation rejection.[55] Despite their current limited use therapeutically, iPSCs hold create potential for future use in medical treatment and research.

To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties. Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before terminally differentiating into a mature cell. It is possible that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells.[57]

An alternative theory is that stem cells remain undifferentiated due to environmental cues in their particular niche. Stem cells differentiate when they leave that niche or no longer receive those signals. Studies in Drosophila germarium have identified the signals decapentaplegic and adherens junctions that prevent germarium stem cells from differentiating.[58][59]

Stem cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is a form of stem cell therapy that has been used for many years without controversy. No stem cell therapies other than bone marrow transplant are widely used.[60][61]

Stem cell treatments may require immunosuppression because of a requirement for radiation before the transplant to remove the person’s previous cells, or because the patient’s immune system may target the stem cells. One approach to avoid the second possibility is to use stem cells from the same patient who is being treated.

Pluripotency in certain stem cells could also make it difficult to obtain a specific cell type. It is also difficult to obtain the exact cell type needed, because not all cells in a population differentiate uniformly. Undifferentiated cells can create tissues other than desired types.[62]

Some stem cells form tumors after transplantation;[63] pluripotency is linked to tumor formation especially in embryonic stem cells, fetal proper stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells. Fetal proper stem cells form tumors despite multipotency.[citation needed]

Some of the fundamental patents covering human embryonic stem cells are owned by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) they are patents 5,843,780, 6,200,806, and 7,029,913 invented by James A. Thomson. WARF does not enforce these patents against academic scientists, but does enforce them against companies.[64]

In 2006, a request for the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to re-examine the three patents was filed by the Public Patent Foundation on behalf of its client, the non-profit patent-watchdog group Consumer Watchdog (formerly the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights).[64] In the re-examination process, which involves several rounds of discussion between the USTPO and the parties, the USPTO initially agreed with Consumer Watchdog and rejected all the claims in all three patents,[65] however in response, WARF amended the claims of all three patents to make them more narrow, and in 2008 the USPTO found the amended claims in all three patents to be patentable. The decision on one of the patents (7,029,913) was appealable, while the decisions on the other two were not.[66][67] Consumer Watchdog appealed the granting of the ‘913 patent to the USTPO’s Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences (BPAI) which granted the appeal, and in 2010 the BPAI decided that the amended claims of the ‘913 patent were not patentable.[68] However, WARF was able to re-open prosecution of the case and did so, amending the claims of the ‘913 patent again to make them more narrow, and in January 2013 the amended claims were allowed.[69]

In July 2013, Consumer Watchdog announced that it would appeal the decision to allow the claims of the ‘913 patent to the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (CAFC), the federal appeals court that hears patent cases.[70] At a hearing in December 2013, the CAFC raised the question of whether Consumer Watchdog had legal standing to appeal; the case could not proceed until that issue was resolved.[71]

Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is being investigated include:

Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions, diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.[87] Research is also underway in generating organoids using stem cells, which would allow for further understanding of human development, organogenesis, and modeling of human diseases.[88]

In more recent years, with the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, and with scientists’ growing ability to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells, controversy has crept in, both related to abortion politics and to human cloning.

Hepatotoxicity and drug-induced liver injury account for a substantial number of failures of new drugs in development and market withdrawal, highlighting the need for screening assays such as stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells, that are capable of detecting toxicity early in the drug development process.[89]

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Stem cell – Wikipedia

Dr Lox – Florida Tampa Stem Cell Therapy | PRP | Knee

FEATURED IN THE NEWS ACROSS THE NATION. THE WORLD RENOWNED STEM CELL PIONEER DENNIS M. LOX, M.D. AN EXPERT IN SPORTS & REGENERATIVE MEDICINE TREATS PATIENTS FROM AROUND THE WORLD.

07/31/2017 at 10am with Ian Beckles former NFL Player.

Next Show will air 08/07/2017 at 10am with Soccer Player Natasha Merangoli and her successful recovery with Stem Cells.

Third show will air 8/14/2017 at 10am. Morning Blend Dr. Lox

Helping the body heal itself.

UPDATE: 09/20/2016 Since Natasha Merangoli Stem Cell Treatment on her Ankle, she isgraduating from High School and now has a College Soccer Scholarship.

Ronnie Dean Coleman treated with Stem Cells by Dr. Lox is a retired American professional bodybuilder and the winner of the Mr. Olympia bodybuilding title 8 years in a row and is regarded as the greatest bodybuilders.

Derrick Dewan Brooks is an American former football linebacker who played in the National Football League for fourteen seasons. Twice recognized as a consensus All-American.He alsochose Dr. Lox for Stem Cell Treatment.

Nick DeFrancesco

Nick DeFrancesco a 14 year old Wrestler from New Jersey suffered from Hip Avascular Necrosis and had to usecrutches for months due to his pain. His Orthopedic Physicians recommended a total hip replacement surgery, due to his pain and loss of activity level.

Nick decided to try Stem Cell Treatment instead with Dr. Lox and after two years wanted to show the world how well his Stem Cell Treatment worked and sent us this AMAZING VIDEO to showhow impressivehisresults were. Click Here to see the full story and watch his impressive video.

Dennis M. Lox, M.D. has applied his personal interest in sports medicine. As a World Renowned Stem Cell Pioneer. Dr. Lox helps elite athletes improve their functional level so they may return to sports.

Many patients are turning to stem cell therapy as a means of nonsurgical joint pain relief when their mobility and quality of life are severely affected by conditions like osteoarthritis, torn tendons, and injured ligaments. Dennis M. Lox, M.D. specializes in this progressive, innovative treatment that may be able to help you return to an active, fulfilling life.

Each week, Dr. Dennis Lox receives inquiries from aroundthe worldregarding stem cell therapy.

TRAVEL ARRANGEMENTS CAN BE MADE FOR YOU LOCAL OR INTERNATIONAL

Visit our Press Room

Stem cell therapy for joint injuries and osteoarthritis is suited for many individuals, fromprofessional athletes to active seniors. Adult mesenchymal stem cells, not embryonic stem cells, are used in this procedure, which is performed right in the comfort of Dr. Loxs state-of-the-art clinic. The cells are simply extracted from the patients own body (typically from bone marrow or adipose/ fat tissue), processed in our office, and injected directly into the site of injury. Conditions that can be addressed with stem cell treatment include osteoarthritis, degenerative disc disease, knee joint issues (such as meniscus tears), shoulder damage (such as rotator cuff injuries), hip problems (such as labral tears), and tendonitis, among others. For many patients, a stem cell procedure in the knee, hip, shoulder, or another area of the body relieves pain, increases mobility, and may be able to delay or eliminate the need for more aggressive treatments like joint replacement surgery.

If you have questions about adult stem cell therapy for joint injuries and arthritis, how the procedure is performed, and how the stem cells work to repair injured joints and tissues, Dr. Lox would be happy to educate you about the entire process.

Dr. Lox | Dr Dennis Lox

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Dr Lox – Florida Tampa Stem Cell Therapy | PRP | Knee

Stem Cell Therapy for Infections by Resilient Bacteria – Financial Tribune

According to data released by the Food and Waterborne Diseases Office of the Health Ministry, an average of 15% of hospital patients suffer from nosocomial infections. A nosocomial infection is an infection acquired in hospital by a patient who was admitted for a reason other than the infection. The severity of hospital-acquired infections depends on the location and type of infection, said Abbasali Imani Fouladi, the scientific secretary of the 18th International Congress of Microbiology, which will be held on Aug. 29-31 at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, ISNA reported. The use of stem cells and their significant role in treatment of the infectionsin particular, antibiotic-resistant infectionsis a key topic that will be discussed by domestic and foreign specialists at the conference. Sometimes ulcers which are resistant to conventional treatment, respond positively and swiftly to stem cell treatments, he explained, adding that officials from Council for Stem Cell Sciences and Technologies (affiliated to Vice-Presidency for Science and Technology) have been invited to the event that will be attended by scientists from Spain, Italy, UK, and France. Four workshops will be held on the sidelines of the meeting. Stating that with resistance to antibiotics becoming more common, there is greater need for alternative treatments, he said, Currently there are 12 strains of bacteria in need of new antibiotics or alternative treatments. The event is co-sponsored by the Health Ministry, TUMS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, and Ilam University of Medical Sciences, according to the congress website (ismcongress.ir). Nosocomial infections occur worldwide and affect both developed and resource-poor countries. Healthcare-associated infections are among the major causes of death and increased morbidity among hospitalized patients. They are a significant burden both for the patient and public health. According to the World Health Organization, HAIs add to functional disability and emotional stress of the patient and may in some cases, lead to disabling conditions that reduce the quality of life. Nosocomial infections are also one of the leading causes of death. The economic costs are considerable. The increased length of hospital stay for infected patients is the greatest contributor to cost. While the prevalence rate of HAIs is 30% in lower-income countries, the average rate is around 6-11% in developed countries, according to Dr. Hossein Masumi-Asl, head of the Food and Waterborne Diseases Office. The most frequent nosocomial infections are infections of surgical wounds, urinary tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections, he said. According to the official, the highest prevalence of nosocomial infections occurs in intensive care units and in acute surgical and orthopedic wards. Infection rates are higher among patients with increased susceptibility because of old age, underlying disease, or chemotherapy.

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Stem Cell Therapy for Infections by Resilient Bacteria – Financial Tribune

Trial of Lung Disease Stem Cell Therapy Could Come by Year’s End – Lung Disease News

University of North Carolina Health Careresearchers have made strides toward a stem cell treatment for lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, and cystic fibrosis.

In fact, they are discussing the start of clinical trials with regulatory authorities.

The team discussed its work in two recent studies. One provedthat it is possible to isolate lung stem cells with a relatively non-invasive procedure. The other showed that stem cells reduce fibrosis in rats with pulmonary fibrosis.

The first study, in the journal Respiratory Research, was titledDerivation of therapeutic lung spheroid cells from minimally invasive transbronchial pulmonary biopsies.The second, inStem Cells Translational Medicine, was Safety and Efficacy of Allogeneic Lung Spheroid Cells in a Mismatched Rat Model of Pulmonary Fibrosis.

This is the first time anyone has generated potentially therapeutic lung stem cells from minimally invasive biopsy specimens, Dr. Jason Lobo, director of the universitys lung transplant and interstitial lung disease program,said in a press release. Hewas co-senior author of both studies.

We think the properties of these cells make them potentially therapeutic for a wide range of lung fibrosis diseases, added Dr. Ke Cheng, who led the studies with Lobo. He is anassociate professor in North Carolina State Universitys Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences.

The research team had previously homed in on stem and support cells they could isolate from a lung tissue sample and grow in a lab. The tissue formed sphere-like structures in a lab dish, prompting the scientists to call them lung spheroid cells.

In 2015, the team showed that these cells had potent regenerative properties in animals with lung diseases. In fact, the stem cells they cultivated outperformed another type called mesenchymal stem cells.

Their latest project involved gathering lung spheroid cells from patients with various lung diseases. They used a procedure calleda transbronchial biopsy thatcan be done in a doctors office.

We snip tiny, seed-sized samples of airway tissue using a bronchoscope, Lobo said. This method involves far less risk to the patient than does a standard, chest-penetrating surgical biopsy of lung tissue.

From this tiny piece of airway, researchers gathered stem cells, then allowed them to multiply because stem cell treatments require infusions of millions of such cells.

When they injected the cells intravenously into mice, the discovered that most found their way into the animals lungs.

These cells are from the lung, and so in a sense theyre happiest, so to speak, living and working in the lung, Cheng said.

The team then tested the treatment in rats exposed to a chemical that triggers lung fibrosis. The lung spheroid cells gave rise to healthy lung cells, reducing both inflammation and fibrosis in the animals lungs.

Also, the treatment was safe and effective whether the lung spheroid cells were derived from the recipients own lungs or from the lungs of an unrelated strain of rats, Lobo said. In other words, even if the donated stem cells were foreign, they did not provoke a harmful immune reaction in the recipient animals, as transplanted tissue normally does.

The researchers said that in humans their goal would be to use patients own stem cells to minimize the risk of immune reactions. But because large quantities of cells are needed, it might be necessary to gather cells from healthy volunteers or organ donation networks as well.

Our vision is that we will eventually set up a universal cell donor bank, Cheng said.

The team is in discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration aimed at starting the first human study by years end. The first trial would include a small group of pulmonary fibrosis patients. The team also hopes their spheroid stem cell therapy will help patients with other lung diseases.

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Trial of Lung Disease Stem Cell Therapy Could Come by Year’s End – Lung Disease News

Former Hollywood Stuntman Raising $10000 For His Stem Cell Therapy – DNAinfo

Len Richard (left) and actor Terrance Howard on the set of “Empire” in 2015. View Full Caption

Provided by Len Richard

CHICAGO Len Richard used to fight in movie scenes as a stuntman, but now hes fighting for his life.

Diagnosed with liver disease in 2009, hes been placed on the liver and kidney transplant list to replace his rapidly failing organs. Hes opted to have stem cell replacement therapy in place of the transplant, but his insurance wont cover it, so hes raising $10,000 through YouCaring.

The 44-year-old Englewood native said hes desperate to live a healthy life and doesnt want to risk trying the transplant. Theres the fear that the new organs wont work for long and hell constantly get sick from the anti-rejection medications hell have to take, he said.

Once I understood how stem cell works and how it cures people, it was a no-brainer, Richard said. I rather do that than have someone’s organs.

More than 5,000 liver transplants in the United States take place each year, according to the “Stem Cell Therapy for Liver Diseases,” a review article published in the Journal of Stem Cell Research and Therapy. About 20,000 people are waiting for a transplant, but only 7,000 procedures are performed each year, and up to 1,500 patients die each year waiting.

Use of stem cells to cure liver diseases has been proved beneficial in most of the conditions, according to the article. Scientific literature reveals the role of stem cells in treatment and cure of various diseases like liver cirrhosis, end stage liver failure, genetic liver disease and also the liver cancer. The stem cells possess the ability to renew and multiply by them or stem cells possess special characteristics of regenerating themselves.

Besides being hospitalized twice in eighth grade for a high fever and an enlarged liver and spleen, Richard has lived a fairly healthy life, he said. He had no major health problems in high school or college.

As an adult, he worked behind the scenes in the control room at Channel 50, before moving to Los Angeles in 1998 for a similar television job. Thats when his life changed.

He was at a gym working out and got invited to train with a group who worked as stuntmen, he said.

A stunt coordinator saw me and said that I looked like Omar and Cuba Gooding, Richard said. He hired me for ‘Baby Boy.’ Thats how I got into doing stunts.

That job led to other jobs in major films, including “Barbershop” and “Transformers.”

Everything was going well for Richard, he said, until 2008 when he tore his rotator cuff during filming for the movie “First Sunday,” starring Ice Cube and Katt Williams.

I had surgery, and the person I was seeing at the time noticed that I started losing weight and was going to the bathroom a lot, Richard said.

When he went to the doctor for a routine checkup, he learned that he was diabetic. The doctor reviewed his medical history and asked if he has ever been evaluated for a liver transplant.

In 1987, when he was 13, he mysteriously became ill, he said. He was in the hospital for a high fever and the doctors noticed that his liver and spleen were enlarged, but didnt know why. He was sent home only to return a few days later.

I spent the whole summer in the hospital, Richard said. They did exploratory abdominal surgery and took a sample of all of my organs. They sent it to the CDC and other labs and came back with nothing.

Now that hes on the transplant list, Richard is hoping that hes able to raise enough money to travel to see a doctor in Mexico who was recommended by another patient and have the alternative procedure instead.

I want to avoid the transplant and keep my organs, Richard said.

He said he misses his old life, although he did more recently work on the show “Empire.” Hes on disability now, but wants to return to work and the gym.

I was always in the gym, used to go hiking a lot, but now I work out when I feel like it, he said. I have low energy, and its kind of hard right now. I’ll ride a bike and try to do air squats, but I was doing crossfit before it became too much for me.

Nobody wants to be sick. Id like to be back in California, moving around. I just get tired of going to doctor, getting poked and having having them tell me I need a transplant. Its mentally draining, and it’s scary.

Continued here:

Former Hollywood Stuntman Raising $10000 For His Stem Cell Therapy – DNAinfo

Forever Labs preserves young stem cells to prevent your older self … – TechCrunch

Forever Labs, a startup in Y Combinators latest batch, is preserving adult stem cells with the aim to help you live longer and healthier.

Stem cells have the potential to become any type of cell needed in the body. Its very helpful to have younger stem cells from your own body on hand should you ever need some type of medical intervention, like a bone marrow transplant as the risk of rejection is greatly reduced when the cells are yours.

Mark Katakowski spent the last 15 years studying stem cells. What he found is that not only do we have less of them the older we get, but they also lose their function as we age.So, he and his co-founders Edward Cibor and Steve Clausnitzer started looking at how to bank them while they were young.

Clausnitzer banked his cells two years ago at the age of 38. So, while he is biologically now age 40, his cells remain the age in which they were harvested or as he calls it, stem cell time travel.

Steven Clausnitzer with his 38-year-old banked stem cells.

Stem cell banking isnt new. In fact, a lot of parents are now opting to store their babys stem cells through cord blood banking. But thats for newborns. For adults, its not so common, and theres a lot of snake oil out there, Clausnitzer cautions.

There are places offering stem cell therapy and Botox, he said.

Forever Labs is backed by a team of Ivy League-trained scientists with decades of experience between them. Jason Camm, chief medical officer for Thiel Capital, is also one of the companys medical advisors however, the startup is quick to point out it is not associated with Thiel Capital.

The process involves using a patented device to collect the cells. Forever Labs can then grow and bank your cells for $2,500, plus another $250 for storage per year (or a flat fee of $7,000 for life).

The startup is FDA-approved to bank these cells and is offering the service in seven states. What it does not have FDA approval for is the modification of those cells for rejuvenation therapy.

Katakowski refers to what the company is doing as longevity as a service, with the goal being to eventually take your banked cells and modify them to reverse the biological clock.

But that may take a few years. There are hundreds of clinical trials looking at stem cell uses right now. Forever Labs has also proposed its own clinical trial to take your stem cells and give them to your older cells.

Youll essentially young-blood effect yourself, Katakowski joked of course, in this case, youd be using your own blood made from your own stem cells, not the blood of random teens.

More:

Forever Labs preserves young stem cells to prevent your older self … – TechCrunch

Trial of Lung Disease Stem Cell Therapy Could Come by Year’s End – Lung Disease News

University of North Carolina Health Careresearchers have made strides toward a stem cell treatment for lung diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, and cystic fibrosis.

In fact, they are discussing the start of clinical trials with regulatory authorities.

The team discussed its work in two recent studies. One provedthat it is possible to isolate lung stem cells with a relatively non-invasive procedure. The other showed that stem cells reduce fibrosis in rats with pulmonary fibrosis.

The first study, in the journal Respiratory Research, was titledDerivation of therapeutic lung spheroid cells from minimally invasive transbronchial pulmonary biopsies.The second, inStem Cells Translational Medicine, was Safety and Efficacy of Allogeneic Lung Spheroid Cells in a Mismatched Rat Model of Pulmonary Fibrosis.

This is the first time anyone has generated potentially therapeutic lung stem cells from minimally invasive biopsy specimens, Dr. Jason Lobo, director of the universitys lung transplant and interstitial lung disease program,said in a press release. Hewas co-senior author of both studies.

We think the properties of these cells make them potentially therapeutic for a wide range of lung fibrosis diseases, added Dr. Ke Cheng, who led the studies with Lobo. He is anassociate professor in North Carolina State Universitys Department of Molecular Biomedical Sciences.

The research team had previously homed in on stem and support cells they could isolate from a lung tissue sample and grow in a lab. The tissue formed sphere-like structures in a lab dish, prompting the scientists to call them lung spheroid cells.

In 2015, the team showed that these cells had potent regenerative properties in animals with lung diseases. In fact, the stem cells they cultivated outperformed another type called mesenchymal stem cells.

Their latest project involved gathering lung spheroid cells from patients with various lung diseases. They used a procedure calleda transbronchial biopsy thatcan be done in a doctors office.

We snip tiny, seed-sized samples of airway tissue using a bronchoscope, Lobo said. This method involves far less risk to the patient than does a standard, chest-penetrating surgical biopsy of lung tissue.

From this tiny piece of airway, researchers gathered stem cells, then allowed them to multiply because stem cell treatments require infusions of millions of such cells.

When they injected the cells intravenously into mice, the discovered that most found their way into the animals lungs.

These cells are from the lung, and so in a sense theyre happiest, so to speak, living and working in the lung, Cheng said.

The team then tested the treatment in rats exposed to a chemical that triggers lung fibrosis. The lung spheroid cells gave rise to healthy lung cells, reducing both inflammation and fibrosis in the animals lungs.

Also, the treatment was safe and effective whether the lung spheroid cells were derived from the recipients own lungs or from the lungs of an unrelated strain of rats, Lobo said. In other words, even if the donated stem cells were foreign, they did not provoke a harmful immune reaction in the recipient animals, as transplanted tissue normally does.

The researchers said that in humans their goal would be to use patients own stem cells to minimize the risk of immune reactions. But because large quantities of cells are needed, it might be necessary to gather cells from healthy volunteers or organ donation networks as well.

Our vision is that we will eventually set up a universal cell donor bank, Cheng said.

The team is in discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration aimed at starting the first human study by years end. The first trial would include a small group of pulmonary fibrosis patients. The team also hopes their spheroid stem cell therapy will help patients with other lung diseases.

Originally posted here:

Trial of Lung Disease Stem Cell Therapy Could Come by Year’s End – Lung Disease News

Home – Stem Cell Therapy in Orlando, Florida

A Breakthrough Technology

Stem Cell Therapy is a procedure in which new cells are introduced directly into an injurious area or joint, promoting healing and growth. The multitude of administered cells allows the body to proceed with the healing process at an accelerated rate. This treatment has been recognized by the medical industry worldwide as the biggest medical breakthrough in natural healing. Athletes such as Kobe Bryant, Alex Rodriguez and Peyton Manning have traveled abroad for this unique treatment. And now, SCI brings this same solution to you right here in Florida.

See the article here:

Home – Stem Cell Therapy in Orlando, Florida

Former Hollywood Stuntman Raising $10000 For His Stem Cell Therapy – DNAinfo

Len Richard (left) and actor Terrance Howard on the set of “Empire” in 2015. View Full Caption

Provided by Len Richard

CHICAGO Len Richard used to fight in movie scenes as a stuntman, but now hes fighting for his life.

Diagnosed with liver disease in 2009, hes been placed on the liver and kidney transplant list to replace his rapidly failing organs. Hes opted to have stem cell replacement therapy in place of the transplant, but his insurance wont cover it, so hes raising $10,000 through YouCaring.

The 44-year-old Englewood native said hes desperate to live a healthy life and doesnt want to risk trying the transplant. Theres the fear that the new organs wont work for long and hell constantly get sick from the anti-rejection medications hell have to take, he said.

Once I understood how stem cell works and how it cures people, it was a no-brainer, Richard said. I rather do that than have someone’s organs.

More than 5,000 liver transplants in the United States take place each year, according to the “Stem Cell Therapy for Liver Diseases,” a review article published in the Journal of Stem Cell Research and Therapy. About 20,000 people are waiting for a transplant, but only 7,000 procedures are performed each year, and up to 1,500 patients die each year waiting.

Use of stem cells to cure liver diseases has been proved beneficial in most of the conditions, according to the article. Scientific literature reveals the role of stem cells in treatment and cure of various diseases like liver cirrhosis, end stage liver failure, genetic liver disease and also the liver cancer. The stem cells possess the ability to renew and multiply by them or stem cells possess special characteristics of regenerating themselves.

Besides being hospitalized twice in eighth grade for a high fever and an enlarged liver and spleen, Richard has lived a fairly healthy life, he said. He had no major health problems in high school or college.

As an adult, he worked behind the scenes in the control room at Channel 50, before moving to Los Angeles in 1998 for a similar television job. Thats when his life changed.

He was at a gym working out and got invited to train with a group who worked as stuntmen, he said.

A stunt coordinator saw me and said that I looked like Omar and Cuba Gooding, Richard said. He hired me for ‘Baby Boy.’ Thats how I got into doing stunts.

That job led to other jobs in major films, including “Barbershop” and “Transformers.”

Everything was going well for Richard, he said, until 2008 when he tore his rotator cuff during filming for the movie “First Sunday,” starring Ice Cube and Katt Williams.

I had surgery, and the person I was seeing at the time noticed that I started losing weight and was going to the bathroom a lot, Richard said.

When he went to the doctor for a routine checkup, he learned that he was diabetic. The doctor reviewed his medical history and asked if he has ever been evaluated for a liver transplant.

In 1987, when he was 13, he mysteriously became ill, he said. He was in the hospital for a high fever and the doctors noticed that his liver and spleen were enlarged, but didnt know why. He was sent home only to return a few days later.

I spent the whole summer in the hospital, Richard said. They did exploratory abdominal surgery and took a sample of all of my organs. They sent it to the CDC and other labs and came back with nothing.

Now that hes on the transplant list, Richard is hoping that hes able to raise enough money to travel to see a doctor in Mexico who was recommended by another patient and have the alternative procedure instead.

I want to avoid the transplant and keep my organs, Richard said.

He said he misses his old life, although he did more recently work on the show “Empire.” Hes on disability now, but wants to return to work and the gym.

I was always in the gym, used to go hiking a lot, but now I work out when I feel like it, he said. I have low energy, and its kind of hard right now. I’ll ride a bike and try to do air squats, but I was doing crossfit before it became too much for me.

Nobody wants to be sick. Id like to be back in California, moving around. I just get tired of going to doctor, getting poked and having having them tell me I need a transplant. Its mentally draining, and it’s scary.

See the original post here:

Former Hollywood Stuntman Raising $10000 For His Stem Cell Therapy – DNAinfo


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