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Duke combines immunotherapy, tumor-roasting nanotech to vaccinate mice against cancer – Durham Herald Sun


Durham Herald Sun
Duke combines immunotherapy, tumor-roasting nanotech to vaccinate mice against cancer
Durham Herald Sun
By combining an FDA-approved cancer immunotherapy with an emerging tumor-roasting nanotechnology, Duke University researchers improved the efficacy of both therapies in a proof-of-concept study using mice. The potent combination also attacked …

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Duke combines immunotherapy, tumor-roasting nanotech to vaccinate mice against cancer – Durham Herald Sun

Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

Nanotechnology (“nanotech”) is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology[1][2] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies” as well as “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size. Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Until 2012, through its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA has invested 3.7 billion dollars, the European Union has invested 1.2 billion and Japan 750 million dollars.[3]

Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, molecular engineering, etc.[4] The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.

Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials,[5] and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term “nano-technology” was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known.

Inspired by Feynman’s concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term “nanotechnology” in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale “assembler” which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute (with which he is no longer affiliated) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.

Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler’s theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era.

First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. The microscope’s developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.[6][7] Binnig, Quate and Gerber also invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year.

Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, and Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[8][9] C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology; the term was used regarding subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices.

In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society’s report on nanotechnology.[10] Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003.[11]

Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.[12][13]

Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale, and in Europe via the European Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.

By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps[14][15] which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.

Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 109, of a meter. By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.120.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200nm in length. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm diameter) since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size below which phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device.[16] These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger scale and come under the description of microtechnology.[17]

To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth.[18] Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man’s beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face.[18]

Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.[19] In the “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.[20]

Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, nanophotonics and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology.

Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, the so-called quantum realm. Additionally, a number of physical (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics. Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials.

Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances can become transparent (copper); stable materials can turn combustible (aluminium); insoluble materials may become soluble (gold). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale.[21]

Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.

These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. The WatsonCrick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole.

Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology, most notably WatsonCrick basepairing and enzyme-substrate interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones.

Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles.

When the term “nanotechnology” was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced.

It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers[22] have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification.[23] The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler’s book Nanosystems.

In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as one has to position atoms on other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno,[24] is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Richard Smalley argued that mechanosynthesis are impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules.

This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003.[25] Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley.[1] They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor, a molecular actuator,[26] and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator.[27] See nanotube nanomotor for more examples.

An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage.

The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.[30]

These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.

These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.

These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled.

These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.

Nanomaterials can be classified in 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D nanomaterials. The dimensionality play a major role in determining the characteristic of nanomaterials including physical, chemical and biological characteristics. With the decrease in dimensionality, an increase in surface-to-volume ratio is observed. This indicate that smaller dimensional nanomaterials have higher surface area compared to 3D nanomaterials. Recently, two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are extensively investigated for electronic, biomedical, drug delivery and biosensor applications.

There are several important modern developments. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy. Although conceptually similar to the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s, newer scanning probe microscopes have much higher resolution, since they are not limited by the wavelength of sound or light.

The tip of a scanning probe can also be used to manipulate nanostructures (a process called positional assembly). Feature-oriented scanning methodology may be a promising way to implement these nanomanipulations in automatic mode.[45][46] However, this is still a slow process because of low scanning velocity of the microscope.

Various techniques of nanolithography such as optical lithography, X-ray lithography dip pen nanolithography, electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography were also developed. Lithography is a top-down fabrication technique where a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern.

Another group of nanotechnological techniques include those used for fabrication of nanotubes and nanowires, those used in semiconductor fabrication such as deep ultraviolet lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam machining, nanoimprint lithography, atomic layer deposition, and molecular vapor deposition, and further including molecular self-assembly techniques such as those employing di-block copolymers. The precursors of these techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research.[47]

The top-down approach anticipates nanodevices that must be built piece by piece in stages, much as manufactured items are made. Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. By designing different tips for these microscopes, they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. By using, for example, feature-oriented scanning approach, atoms or molecules can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques.[45][46] At present, it is expensive and time-consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation.

In contrast, bottom-up techniques build or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. These techniques include chemical synthesis, self-assembly and positional assembly. Dual polarisation interferometry is one tool suitable for characterisation of self assembled thin films. Another variation of the bottom-up approach is molecular beam epitaxy or MBE. Researchers at Bell Telephone Laboratories like John R. Arthur. Alfred Y. Cho, and Art C. Gossard developed and implemented MBE as a research tool in the late 1960s and 1970s. Samples made by MBE were key to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect for which the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. MBE allows scientists to lay down atomically precise layers of atoms and, in the process, build up complex structures. Important for research on semiconductors, MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics.

However, new therapeutic products, based on responsive nanomaterials, such as the ultradeformable, stress-sensitive Transfersome vesicles, are under development and already approved for human use in some countries.[48]

As of August 21, 2008, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies estimates that over 800 manufacturer-identified nanotech products are publicly available, with new ones hitting the market at a pace of 34 per week.[13] The project lists all of the products in a publicly accessible online database. Most applications are limited to the use of “first generation” passive nanomaterials which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics, surface coatings,[49] and some food products; Carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape; silver in food packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens and cosmetics, surface coatings, paints and outdoor furniture varnishes; and cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst.[12]

Further applications allow tennis balls to last longer, golf balls to fly straighter, and even bowling balls to become more durable and have a harder surface. Trousers and socks have been infused with nanotechnology so that they will last longer and keep people cool in the summer. Bandages are being infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster.[50]Video game consoles and personal computers may become cheaper, faster, and contain more memory thanks to nanotechnology.[51] Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner’s office and at home.[52] Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterials so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future.[53]

Scientists are now turning to nanotechnology in an attempt to develop diesel engines with cleaner exhaust fumes. Platinum is currently used as the diesel engine catalyst in these engines. The catalyst is what cleans the exhaust fume particles. First a reduction catalyst is employed to take nitrogen atoms from NOx molecules in order to free oxygen. Next the oxidation catalyst oxidizes the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and water.[54] Platinum is used in both the reduction and the oxidation catalysts.[55] Using platinum though, is inefficient in that it is expensive and unsustainable. Danish company InnovationsFonden invested DKK 15 million in a search for new catalyst substitutes using nanotechnology. The goal of the project, launched in the autumn of 2014, is to maximize surface area and minimize the amount of material required. Objects tend to minimize their surface energy; two drops of water, for example, will join to form one drop and decrease surface area. If the catalyst’s surface area that is exposed to the exhaust fumes is maximized, efficiency of the catalyst is maximized. The team working on this project aims to create nanoparticles that will not merge. Every time the surface is optimized, material is saved. Thus, creating these nanoparticles will increase the effectiveness of the resulting diesel engine catalystin turn leading to cleaner exhaust fumesand will decrease cost. If successful, the team hopes to reduce platinum use by 25%.[56]

Nanotechnology also has a prominent role in the fast developing field of Tissue Engineering. When designing scaffolds, researchers attempt to the mimic the nanoscale features of a Cell’s microenvironment to direct its differentiation down a suitable lineage.[57] For example, when creating scaffolds to support the growth of bone, researchers may mimic osteoclast resorption pits.[58]

Researchers have successfully used DNA origami-based nanobots capable of carrying out logic functions to achieve targeted drug delivery in cockroaches. It is said that the computational power of these nanobots can be scaled up to that of a Commodore 64.[59]

An area of concern is the effect that industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have on human health and the environment, as suggested by nanotoxicology research. For these reasons, some groups advocate that nanotechnology be regulated by governments. Others counter that overregulation would stifle scientific research and the development of beneficial innovations. Public health research agencies, such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are actively conducting research on potential health effects stemming from exposures to nanoparticles.[60][61]

Some nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. Researchers have discovered that bacteriostatic silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odor are being released in the wash.[62] These particles are then flushed into the waste water stream and may destroy bacteria which are critical components of natural ecosystems, farms, and waste treatment processes.[63]

Public deliberations on risk perception in the US and UK carried out by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society found that participants were more positive about nanotechnologies for energy applications than for health applications, with health applications raising moral and ethical dilemmas such as cost and availability.[64]

Experts, including director of the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski, have testified[65] that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight, risk research strategy, and public engagement. Berkeley, California is currently the only city in the United States to regulate nanotechnology;[66]Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2008 considered enacting a similar law,[67] but ultimately rejected it.[68] Relevant for both research on and application of nanotechnologies, the insurability of nanotechnology is contested.[69] Without state regulation of nanotechnology, the availability of private insurance for potential damages is seen as necessary to ensure that burdens are not socialised implicitly.

Nanofibers are used in several areas and in different products, in everything from aircraft wings to tennis rackets. Inhaling airborne nanoparticles and nanofibers may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases, e.g. fibrosis.[70] Researchers have found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles, the particles settled in the brain and lungs, which led to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response[71] and that nanoparticles induce skin aging through oxidative stress in hairless mice.[72][73]

A two-year study at UCLA’s School of Public Health found lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree “linked to all the big killers of man, namely cancer, heart disease, neurological disease and aging”.[74]

A major study published more recently in Nature Nanotechnology suggests some forms of carbon nanotubes a poster child for the “nanotechnology revolution” could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. Anthony Seaton of the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland, who contributed to the article on carbon nanotubes said “We know that some of them probably have the potential to cause mesothelioma. So those sorts of materials need to be handled very carefully.”[75] In the absence of specific regulation forthcoming from governments, Paull and Lyons (2008) have called for an exclusion of engineered nanoparticles in food.[76] A newspaper article reports that workers in a paint factory developed serious lung disease and nanoparticles were found in their lungs.[77][78][79][80]

Calls for tighter regulation of nanotechnology have occurred alongside a growing debate related to the human health and safety risks of nanotechnology.[81] There is significant debate about who is responsible for the regulation of nanotechnology. Some regulatory agencies currently cover some nanotechnology products and processes (to varying degrees) by “bolting on” nanotechnology to existing regulations there are clear gaps in these regimes.[82] Davies (2008) has proposed a regulatory road map describing steps to deal with these shortcomings.[83]

Stakeholders concerned by the lack of a regulatory framework to assess and control risks associated with the release of nanoparticles and nanotubes have drawn parallels with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow” disease), thalidomide, genetically modified food,[84] nuclear energy, reproductive technologies, biotechnology, and asbestosis. Dr. Andrew Maynard, chief science advisor to the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, concludes that there is insufficient funding for human health and safety research, and as a result there is currently limited understanding of the human health and safety risks associated with nanotechnology.[85] As a result, some academics have called for stricter application of the precautionary principle, with delayed marketing approval, enhanced labelling and additional safety data development requirements in relation to certain forms of nanotechnology.[86][87]

The Royal Society report[10] identified a risk of nanoparticles or nanotubes being released during disposal, destruction and recycling, and recommended that “manufacturers of products that fall under extended producer responsibility regimes such as end-of-life regulations publish procedures outlining how these materials will be managed to minimize possible human and environmental exposure” (p. xiii).

The Center for Nanotechnology in Society has found that people respond to nanotechnologies differently, depending on application with participants in public deliberations more positive about nanotechnologies for energy than health applications suggesting that any public calls for nano regulations may differ by technology sector.[64]

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Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

No Batteries Required: Energy-Harvesting Yarns Generate Electricity – University of Texas at Dallas (press release)

Text size: research

Aug. 25, 2017

An international research team led by scientists at The University of Texas at Dallas and Hanyang University in South Korea has developed high-tech yarns that generate electricity when they are stretched or twisted.

In a study published in the Aug. 25 issue of the journal Science, researchers describe twistron yarns and their possible applications, such as harvesting energy from the motion of ocean waves or from temperature fluctuations. When sewn into a shirt, these yarns served as a self-powered breathing monitor.

The easiest way to think of twistron harvesters is, you have a piece of yarn, you stretch it, and out comes electricity, said Dr. Carter Haines BS11, PhD15, associate research professor in the Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute at UT Dallas and co-lead author of thearticle. The article also includes researchers from South Korea, Virginia Tech, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and China.

Yarns Based on Nanotechnology

The yarns are constructed from carbon nanotubes, which are hollow cylinders of carbon 10,000 times smaller in diameter than a human hair. The researchers first twist-spun the nanotubes into high-strength, lightweight yarns. To make the yarns highly elastic, they introduced so much twist that the yarns coiled like an over-twisted rubber band.

In order to generate electricity, the yarns must be either submerged in or coated with an ionically conducting material, or electrolyte, which can be as simple as a mixture of ordinary table salt and water.

Fundamentally, these yarns are supercapacitors, said Dr. Na Li, a research scientist at the NanoTech Institute and co-lead author of the study. In a normal capacitor, you use energy like from a battery to add charges to the capacitor. But in our case, when you insert the carbon nanotube yarn into an electrolyte bath, the yarns are charged by the electrolyte itself. No external battery, or voltage, is needed.

When a harvester yarn is twisted or stretched, the volume of the carbon nanotube yarn decreases, bringing the electric charges on the yarn closer together and increasing their energy, Haines said. This increases the voltage associated with the charge stored in the yarn, enabling the harvesting of electricity.

Stretching the coiled twistron yarns 30 times a second generated 250 watts per kilogram of peak electrical power when normalized to the harvesters weight, said Dr. Ray Baughman, director of the NanoTech Institute and a corresponding author of the study.

Although numerous alternative harvesters have been investigated for many decades, no other reported harvester provides such high electrical power or energy output per cycle as ours for stretching rates between a few cycles per second and 600 cycles per second.

Lab Tests Show Potential Applications

In the lab, the researchers showed that a twistron yarn weighing less than a housefly could power a small LED, which lit up each time the yarn was stretched.

To show that twistrons can harvest waste thermal energy from the environment, Li connected a twistron yarn to a polymer artificial muscle that contracts and expands when heated and cooled. The twistron harvester converted the mechanical energy generated by the polymer muscle to electrical energy.

There is a lot of interest in using waste energy to power the Internet of Things, such as arrays of distributed sensors, Li said. Twistron technology might be exploited for such applications where changing batteries is impractical.

The researchers also sewed twistron harvesters into a shirt. Normal breathing stretched the yarn and generated an electrical signal, demonstrating its potential as a self-powered respiration sensor.

Electronic textiles are of major commercial interest, but how are you going to power them? Baughman said. Harvesting electrical energy from human motion is one strategy for eliminating the need for batteries. Our yarns produced over a hundred times higher electrical power per weight when stretched compared to other weavable fibers reported in the literature.

Electricity from Ocean Waves

In the lab we showed that our energy harvesters worked using a solution of table salt as the electrolyte, said Baughman, who holds the Robert A. Welch Distinguished Chair in Chemistry in the School of Natural Sciences and Mathematics. But we wanted to show that they would also work in ocean water, which is chemically more complex.

If our twistron harvesters could be made less expensively, they might ultimately be able to harvest the enormous amount of energy available from ocean waves.

Dr. Ray Baughman, director of the NanoTech Institute and a corresponding author of the study

In a proof-of-concept demonstration, co-lead author Dr. Shi Hyeong Kim, a postdoctoral researcher at the NanoTech Institute, waded into the frigid surf off the east coast of South Korea to deploy a coiled twistron in the sea. He attached a 10 centimeter-long yarn, weighing only 1 milligram (about the weight of a mosquito), between a balloon and a sinker that rested on the seabed.

Every time an ocean wave arrived, the balloon would rise, stretching the yarn up to 25 percent, thereby generating measured electricity.

Even though the investigators used very small amounts of twistron yarn in the current study, they have shown that harvester performance is scalable, both by increasing twistron diameter and by operating many yarns in parallel.

If our twistron harvesters could be made less expensively, they might ultimately be able to harvest the enormous amount of energy available from ocean waves, Baughman said. However, at present these harvesters are most suitable for powering sensors and sensor communications. Based on demonstrated average power output, just 31 milligrams of carbon nanotube yarn harvester could provide the electrical energy needed to transmit a 2-kilobyte packet of data over a 100-meter radius every 10 seconds for the Internet of Things.

Researchers from the UT Dallas Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science and Lintec of Americas Nano-Science & Technology Center also participated in the study.

The investigators have filed a patent on the technology.

In the U.S., the research was funded by the Air Force, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, NASA, the Office of Naval Research and the Robert A. Welch Foundation. In Korea, the research was supported by the Korea-U.S. Air Force Cooperation Program and the Creative Research Initiative Center for Self-powered Actuation of the National Research Foundation and the Ministry of Science.

Media Contact: Amanda Siegfried, UT Dallas, (972) 883-4335, [emailprotected] or the Office of Media Relations, UT Dallas, (972) 883-2155, [emailprotected]

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No Batteries Required: Energy-Harvesting Yarns Generate Electricity – University of Texas at Dallas (press release)

Immunotherapy, Nanotech Combine to Kill Cancer Cells More … – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Scientists at Duke University say they have combined a cancer immunotherapeutic with nanotechnology to improve the efficacy of both therapies in a mouse study. They published their work, “Synergistic Immuno Photothermal Nanotherapy (SYMPHONY) for the Treatment of Unresectable and Metastatic Cancers,” in Scientific Reports.

The new approach also attacked satellite tumors and distant cancerous cells, leading to two mice being cured of the disease and one being vaccinated against it.

Using a combination of immune-checkpoint inhibition and plasmonic gold nanostar (GNS)-mediated photothermal therapy, we were able to achieve complete eradication of primary treated tumors and distant untreated tumors in some mice implanted with the MB49 bladder cancer cells, wrote the investigators. Delayed rechallenge with MB49 cancer cells injection in mice that appeared cured by SYMPHONY did not lead to new tumor formation after 60 days observation, indicating that SYMPHONY treatment induced effective long-lasting immunity against MB49 cancer cells.

“The ideal cancer treatment is noninvasive, safe, and uses multiple approaches,” said Tuan Vo-Dinh, Ph.D., the R. Eugene and Susie E. Goodson Professor of Biomedical Engineering, professor of chemistry, and director of the Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics at Duke University. “We also aim at activating the patient’s own immune system to eradicate residual metastatic tumors. If we can create a long-term anticancer immunity, then we’d truly have a cure.”

The specific photothermal immunotherapy was developed by Duke researchers and uses lasers and gold nanostars to heat and kill tumors in combination with an immunotherapeutic drug. The technique works based on the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate preferentially within a tumor due to its leaky vasculature, according to the scientists, who add that gold nanostars have the advantage of geometry. With many sharp spikes, they can capture the laser’s energy more efficiently, thus permitting them to work with less exposure, making them more effective deeper within a tissue.

“The nanostar spikes work like lightning rods, concentrating the electromagnetic energy at their tips,” said Dr. Vo-Dinh. “We’ve experimented with these gold nanostars to treat tumors before, but we wanted to know if we could also treat tumors we didn’t even know were there or tumors that have spread throughout the body.”

Dr. Vo-Dinh explained that the body’s immune system protects against the growth of cancerous cells. Many tumors, however, overproduce the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) molecule, which disables T cells so they cannot attack the tumor. A number of drugs are being developed to block the action of PD-L1.

In the study, the Duke team injected bladder cancer cells into both hind legs of a group of mice. After waiting for the tumors to grow, the researchers explored a number of therapies, but only on one of the legs.

Those that received no treatments all quickly succumbed to the cancer, as did those receiving only the gold nanostar phototherapy, because the treatment did nothing to affect the tumor in the untreated leg. While a few mice responded well to the immunotherapy alone, with the drug stalling both tumors, none survived more than 49 days.

The group treated with both the anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy and the gold nanostar phototherapy fared much better, with two of the five mice surviving more than 55 days.

“When a tumor dies, it releases particles that trigger the immune system to attack the remnants,” said Dr. Vo-Dinh. “By destroying the primary tumor, we activated the immune system against the remaining cancerous cells, and the immunotherapy prevented them from hiding.”

According to Dr. Vo-Dinh, one mouse is still alive almost a year out with zero recurrence of the cancer. When more cancerous cells were injected, the mouse’s immune system attacked and destroyed them, demonstrating a vaccine effect in the cured mouse.

The Duke team has plans to follow up with larger cohorts of mice and to work with other clinical researchers to test the treatment on mouse models of brain, breast, and lung cancers.

Read the rest here:

Immunotherapy, Nanotech Combine to Kill Cancer Cells More … – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Nanotech Security Retires $3.0 Million Note | Investing News Network – Investing News Network (registration)

Nanotech Security (TSXV:NTS) has announced the early retirement of a $3 million secured note.

As quoted in the press release:

The note was previously issued to finance real estate assets acquired in the Fortress Optical Features Ltd. acquisition in September 2014. It bore a 4% annual interest rate and was due in September 2017.

The Company used funds originally earmarked to redeem its $4.2 million convertible debentures. As many debenture holders elected to convert their debentures into common shares of the Company, only $1.4 million was required to be repaid. With the recent retirement of the convertible debentures and now with the payment of the $3.0 million secured note, the Company is debt free.

Given our recent $13.3 million financing, the cash from operations generated in the third quarter, and the visibility into our pipeline, we decided to repay the debt early, instead of refinancing, to reduce our interest expense, said Nanotech CEO Doug Blakeway. Doing so saves the Company $120,000 per yearin interest and the Company is now debt free with a strong cash balance to execute on our growth opportunities.

Click here to read the full press release.

Link:

Nanotech Security Retires $3.0 Million Note | Investing News Network – Investing News Network (registration)

Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

Nanotechnology (“nanotech”) is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology[1][2] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology. A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers. This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter which occur below the given size threshold. It is therefore common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies” as well as “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the broad range of research and applications whose common trait is size. Because of the variety of potential applications (including industrial and military), governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research. Until 2012, through its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA has invested 3.7 billion dollars, the European Union has invested 1.2 billion and Japan 750 million dollars.[3]

Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, molecular engineering, etc.[4] The associated research and applications are equally diverse, ranging from extensions of conventional device physics to completely new approaches based upon molecular self-assembly, from developing new materials with dimensions on the nanoscale to direct control of matter on the atomic scale.

Scientists currently debate the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology may be able to create many new materials and devices with a vast range of applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, and consumer products. On the other hand, nanotechnology raises many of the same issues as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials,[5] and their potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation about various doomsday scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate among advocacy groups and governments on whether special regulation of nanotechnology is warranted.

The concepts that seeded nanotechnology were first discussed in 1959 by renowned physicist Richard Feynman in his talk There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom, in which he described the possibility of synthesis via direct manipulation of atoms. The term “nano-technology” was first used by Norio Taniguchi in 1974, though it was not widely known.

Inspired by Feynman’s concepts, K. Eric Drexler used the term “nanotechnology” in his 1986 book Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, which proposed the idea of a nanoscale “assembler” which would be able to build a copy of itself and of other items of arbitrary complexity with atomic control. Also in 1986, Drexler co-founded The Foresight Institute (with which he is no longer affiliated) to help increase public awareness and understanding of nanotechnology concepts and implications.

Thus, emergence of nanotechnology as a field in the 1980s occurred through convergence of Drexler’s theoretical and public work, which developed and popularized a conceptual framework for nanotechnology, and high-visibility experimental advances that drew additional wide-scale attention to the prospects of atomic control of matter. In the 1980s, two major breakthroughs sparked the growth of nanotechnology in modern era.

First, the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope in 1981 which provided unprecedented visualization of individual atoms and bonds, and was successfully used to manipulate individual atoms in 1989. The microscope’s developers Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer at IBM Zurich Research Laboratory received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1986.[6][7] Binnig, Quate and Gerber also invented the analogous atomic force microscope that year.

Second, Fullerenes were discovered in 1985 by Harry Kroto, Richard Smalley, and Robert Curl, who together won the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[8][9] C60 was not initially described as nanotechnology; the term was used regarding subsequent work with related graphene tubes (called carbon nanotubes and sometimes called Bucky tubes) which suggested potential applications for nanoscale electronics and devices.

In the early 2000s, the field garnered increased scientific, political, and commercial attention that led to both controversy and progress. Controversies emerged regarding the definitions and potential implications of nanotechnologies, exemplified by the Royal Society’s report on nanotechnology.[10] Challenges were raised regarding the feasibility of applications envisioned by advocates of molecular nanotechnology, which culminated in a public debate between Drexler and Smalley in 2001 and 2003.[11]

Meanwhile, commercialization of products based on advancements in nanoscale technologies began emerging. These products are limited to bulk applications of nanomaterials and do not involve atomic control of matter. Some examples include the Silver Nano platform for using silver nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent, nanoparticle-based transparent sunscreens, carbon fiber strengthening using silica nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes for stain-resistant textiles.[12][13]

Governments moved to promote and fund research into nanotechnology, such as in the U.S. with the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which formalized a size-based definition of nanotechnology and established funding for research on the nanoscale, and in Europe via the European Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development.

By the mid-2000s new and serious scientific attention began to flourish. Projects emerged to produce nanotechnology roadmaps[14][15] which center on atomically precise manipulation of matter and discuss existing and projected capabilities, goals, and applications.

Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.

One nanometer (nm) is one billionth, or 109, of a meter. By comparison, typical carbon-carbon bond lengths, or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule, are in the range 0.120.15 nm, and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2nm. On the other hand, the smallest cellular life-forms, the bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma, are around 200nm in length. By convention, nanotechnology is taken as the scale range 1 to 100 nm following the definition used by the National Nanotechnology Initiative in the US. The lower limit is set by the size of atoms (hydrogen has the smallest atoms, which are approximately a quarter of a nm diameter) since nanotechnology must build its devices from atoms and molecules. The upper limit is more or less arbitrary but is around the size below which phenomena not observed in larger structures start to become apparent and can be made use of in the nano device.[16] These new phenomena make nanotechnology distinct from devices which are merely miniaturised versions of an equivalent macroscopic device; such devices are on a larger scale and come under the description of microtechnology.[17]

To put that scale in another context, the comparative size of a nanometer to a meter is the same as that of a marble to the size of the earth.[18] Or another way of putting it: a nanometer is the amount an average man’s beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face.[18]

Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the “bottom-up” approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.[19] In the “top-down” approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.[20]

Areas of physics such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics, nanophotonics and nanoionics have evolved during the last few decades to provide a basic scientific foundation of nanotechnology.

Several phenomena become pronounced as the size of the system decreases. These include statistical mechanical effects, as well as quantum mechanical effects, for example the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. This effect does not come into play by going from macro to micro dimensions. However, quantum effects can become significant when the nanometer size range is reached, typically at distances of 100 nanometers or less, the so-called quantum realm. Additionally, a number of physical (mechanical, electrical, optical, etc.) properties change when compared to macroscopic systems. One example is the increase in surface area to volume ratio altering mechanical, thermal and catalytic properties of materials. Diffusion and reactions at nanoscale, nanostructures materials and nanodevices with fast ion transport are generally referred to nanoionics. Mechanical properties of nanosystems are of interest in the nanomechanics research. The catalytic activity of nanomaterials also opens potential risks in their interaction with biomaterials.

Materials reduced to the nanoscale can show different properties compared to what they exhibit on a macroscale, enabling unique applications. For instance, opaque substances can become transparent (copper); stable materials can turn combustible (aluminium); insoluble materials may become soluble (gold). A material such as gold, which is chemically inert at normal scales, can serve as a potent chemical catalyst at nanoscales. Much of the fascination with nanotechnology stems from these quantum and surface phenomena that matter exhibits at the nanoscale.[21]

Modern synthetic chemistry has reached the point where it is possible to prepare small molecules to almost any structure. These methods are used today to manufacture a wide variety of useful chemicals such as pharmaceuticals or commercial polymers. This ability raises the question of extending this kind of control to the next-larger level, seeking methods to assemble these single molecules into supramolecular assemblies consisting of many molecules arranged in a well defined manner.

These approaches utilize the concepts of molecular self-assembly and/or supramolecular chemistry to automatically arrange themselves into some useful conformation through a bottom-up approach. The concept of molecular recognition is especially important: molecules can be designed so that a specific configuration or arrangement is favored due to non-covalent intermolecular forces. The WatsonCrick basepairing rules are a direct result of this, as is the specificity of an enzyme being targeted to a single substrate, or the specific folding of the protein itself. Thus, two or more components can be designed to be complementary and mutually attractive so that they make a more complex and useful whole.

Such bottom-up approaches should be capable of producing devices in parallel and be much cheaper than top-down methods, but could potentially be overwhelmed as the size and complexity of the desired assembly increases. Most useful structures require complex and thermodynamically unlikely arrangements of atoms. Nevertheless, there are many examples of self-assembly based on molecular recognition in biology, most notably WatsonCrick basepairing and enzyme-substrate interactions. The challenge for nanotechnology is whether these principles can be used to engineer new constructs in addition to natural ones.

Molecular nanotechnology, sometimes called molecular manufacturing, describes engineered nanosystems (nanoscale machines) operating on the molecular scale. Molecular nanotechnology is especially associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can produce a desired structure or device atom-by-atom using the principles of mechanosynthesis. Manufacturing in the context of productive nanosystems is not related to, and should be clearly distinguished from, the conventional technologies used to manufacture nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles.

When the term “nanotechnology” was independently coined and popularized by Eric Drexler (who at the time was unaware of an earlier usage by Norio Taniguchi) it referred to a future manufacturing technology based on molecular machine systems. The premise was that molecular scale biological analogies of traditional machine components demonstrated molecular machines were possible: by the countless examples found in biology, it is known that sophisticated, stochastically optimised biological machines can be produced.

It is hoped that developments in nanotechnology will make possible their construction by some other means, perhaps using biomimetic principles. However, Drexler and other researchers[22] have proposed that advanced nanotechnology, although perhaps initially implemented by biomimetic means, ultimately could be based on mechanical engineering principles, namely, a manufacturing technology based on the mechanical functionality of these components (such as gears, bearings, motors, and structural members) that would enable programmable, positional assembly to atomic specification.[23] The physics and engineering performance of exemplar designs were analyzed in Drexler’s book Nanosystems.

In general it is very difficult to assemble devices on the atomic scale, as one has to position atoms on other atoms of comparable size and stickiness. Another view, put forth by Carlo Montemagno,[24] is that future nanosystems will be hybrids of silicon technology and biological molecular machines. Richard Smalley argued that mechanosynthesis are impossible due to the difficulties in mechanically manipulating individual molecules.

This led to an exchange of letters in the ACS publication Chemical & Engineering News in 2003.[25] Though biology clearly demonstrates that molecular machine systems are possible, non-biological molecular machines are today only in their infancy. Leaders in research on non-biological molecular machines are Dr. Alex Zettl and his colleagues at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories and UC Berkeley.[1] They have constructed at least three distinct molecular devices whose motion is controlled from the desktop with changing voltage: a nanotube nanomotor, a molecular actuator,[26] and a nanoelectromechanical relaxation oscillator.[27] See nanotube nanomotor for more examples.

An experiment indicating that positional molecular assembly is possible was performed by Ho and Lee at Cornell University in 1999. They used a scanning tunneling microscope to move an individual carbon monoxide molecule (CO) to an individual iron atom (Fe) sitting on a flat silver crystal, and chemically bound the CO to the Fe by applying a voltage.

The nanomaterials field includes subfields which develop or study materials having unique properties arising from their nanoscale dimensions.[30]

These seek to arrange smaller components into more complex assemblies.

These seek to create smaller devices by using larger ones to direct their assembly.

These seek to develop components of a desired functionality without regard to how they might be assembled.

These subfields seek to anticipate what inventions nanotechnology might yield, or attempt to propose an agenda along which inquiry might progress. These often take a big-picture view of nanotechnology, with more emphasis on its societal implications than the details of how such inventions could actually be created.

Nanomaterials can be classified in 0D, 1D, 2D and 3D nanomaterials. The dimensionality play a major role in determining the characteristic of nanomaterials including physical, chemical and biological characteristics. With the decrease in dimensionality, an increase in surface-to-volume ratio is observed. This indicate that smaller dimensional nanomaterials have higher surface area compared to 3D nanomaterials. Recently, two dimensional (2D) nanomaterials are extensively investigated for electronic, biomedical, drug delivery and biosensor applications.

There are several important modern developments. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy. Although conceptually similar to the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s, newer scanning probe microscopes have much higher resolution, since they are not limited by the wavelength of sound or light.

The tip of a scanning probe can also be used to manipulate nanostructures (a process called positional assembly). Feature-oriented scanning methodology may be a promising way to implement these nanomanipulations in automatic mode.[45][46] However, this is still a slow process because of low scanning velocity of the microscope.

Various techniques of nanolithography such as optical lithography, X-ray lithography dip pen nanolithography, electron beam lithography or nanoimprint lithography were also developed. Lithography is a top-down fabrication technique where a bulk material is reduced in size to nanoscale pattern.

Another group of nanotechnological techniques include those used for fabrication of nanotubes and nanowires, those used in semiconductor fabrication such as deep ultraviolet lithography, electron beam lithography, focused ion beam machining, nanoimprint lithography, atomic layer deposition, and molecular vapor deposition, and further including molecular self-assembly techniques such as those employing di-block copolymers. The precursors of these techniques preceded the nanotech era, and are extensions in the development of scientific advancements rather than techniques which were devised with the sole purpose of creating nanotechnology and which were results of nanotechnology research.[47]

The top-down approach anticipates nanodevices that must be built piece by piece in stages, much as manufactured items are made. Scanning probe microscopy is an important technique both for characterization and synthesis of nanomaterials. Atomic force microscopes and scanning tunneling microscopes can be used to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. By designing different tips for these microscopes, they can be used for carving out structures on surfaces and to help guide self-assembling structures. By using, for example, feature-oriented scanning approach, atoms or molecules can be moved around on a surface with scanning probe microscopy techniques.[45][46] At present, it is expensive and time-consuming for mass production but very suitable for laboratory experimentation.

In contrast, bottom-up techniques build or grow larger structures atom by atom or molecule by molecule. These techniques include chemical synthesis, self-assembly and positional assembly. Dual polarisation interferometry is one tool suitable for characterisation of self assembled thin films. Another variation of the bottom-up approach is molecular beam epitaxy or MBE. Researchers at Bell Telephone Laboratories like John R. Arthur. Alfred Y. Cho, and Art C. Gossard developed and implemented MBE as a research tool in the late 1960s and 1970s. Samples made by MBE were key to the discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect for which the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded. MBE allows scientists to lay down atomically precise layers of atoms and, in the process, build up complex structures. Important for research on semiconductors, MBE is also widely used to make samples and devices for the newly emerging field of spintronics.

However, new therapeutic products, based on responsive nanomaterials, such as the ultradeformable, stress-sensitive Transfersome vesicles, are under development and already approved for human use in some countries.[48]

As of August 21, 2008, the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies estimates that over 800 manufacturer-identified nanotech products are publicly available, with new ones hitting the market at a pace of 34 per week.[13] The project lists all of the products in a publicly accessible online database. Most applications are limited to the use of “first generation” passive nanomaterials which includes titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics, surface coatings,[49] and some food products; Carbon allotropes used to produce gecko tape; silver in food packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens and cosmetics, surface coatings, paints and outdoor furniture varnishes; and cerium oxide as a fuel catalyst.[12]

Further applications allow tennis balls to last longer, golf balls to fly straighter, and even bowling balls to become more durable and have a harder surface. Trousers and socks have been infused with nanotechnology so that they will last longer and keep people cool in the summer. Bandages are being infused with silver nanoparticles to heal cuts faster.[50]Video game consoles and personal computers may become cheaper, faster, and contain more memory thanks to nanotechnology.[51] Nanotechnology may have the ability to make existing medical applications cheaper and easier to use in places like the general practitioner’s office and at home.[52] Cars are being manufactured with nanomaterials so they may need fewer metals and less fuel to operate in the future.[53]

Scientists are now turning to nanotechnology in an attempt to develop diesel engines with cleaner exhaust fumes. Platinum is currently used as the diesel engine catalyst in these engines. The catalyst is what cleans the exhaust fume particles. First a reduction catalyst is employed to take nitrogen atoms from NOx molecules in order to free oxygen. Next the oxidation catalyst oxidizes the hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide to form carbon dioxide and water.[54] Platinum is used in both the reduction and the oxidation catalysts.[55] Using platinum though, is inefficient in that it is expensive and unsustainable. Danish company InnovationsFonden invested DKK 15 million in a search for new catalyst substitutes using nanotechnology. The goal of the project, launched in the autumn of 2014, is to maximize surface area and minimize the amount of material required. Objects tend to minimize their surface energy; two drops of water, for example, will join to form one drop and decrease surface area. If the catalyst’s surface area that is exposed to the exhaust fumes is maximized, efficiency of the catalyst is maximized. The team working on this project aims to create nanoparticles that will not merge. Every time the surface is optimized, material is saved. Thus, creating these nanoparticles will increase the effectiveness of the resulting diesel engine catalystin turn leading to cleaner exhaust fumesand will decrease cost. If successful, the team hopes to reduce platinum use by 25%.[56]

Nanotechnology also has a prominent role in the fast developing field of Tissue Engineering. When designing scaffolds, researchers attempt to the mimic the nanoscale features of a Cell’s microenvironment to direct its differentiation down a suitable lineage.[57] For example, when creating scaffolds to support the growth of bone, researchers may mimic osteoclast resorption pits.[58]

Researchers have successfully used DNA origami-based nanobots capable of carrying out logic functions to achieve targeted drug delivery in cockroaches. It is said that the computational power of these nanobots can be scaled up to that of a Commodore 64.[59]

An area of concern is the effect that industrial-scale manufacturing and use of nanomaterials would have on human health and the environment, as suggested by nanotoxicology research. For these reasons, some groups advocate that nanotechnology be regulated by governments. Others counter that overregulation would stifle scientific research and the development of beneficial innovations. Public health research agencies, such as the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health are actively conducting research on potential health effects stemming from exposures to nanoparticles.[60][61]

Some nanoparticle products may have unintended consequences. Researchers have discovered that bacteriostatic silver nanoparticles used in socks to reduce foot odor are being released in the wash.[62] These particles are then flushed into the waste water stream and may destroy bacteria which are critical components of natural ecosystems, farms, and waste treatment processes.[63]

Public deliberations on risk perception in the US and UK carried out by the Center for Nanotechnology in Society found that participants were more positive about nanotechnologies for energy applications than for health applications, with health applications raising moral and ethical dilemmas such as cost and availability.[64]

Experts, including director of the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies David Rejeski, have testified[65] that successful commercialization depends on adequate oversight, risk research strategy, and public engagement. Berkeley, California is currently the only city in the United States to regulate nanotechnology;[66]Cambridge, Massachusetts in 2008 considered enacting a similar law,[67] but ultimately rejected it.[68] Relevant for both research on and application of nanotechnologies, the insurability of nanotechnology is contested.[69] Without state regulation of nanotechnology, the availability of private insurance for potential damages is seen as necessary to ensure that burdens are not socialised implicitly.

Nanofibers are used in several areas and in different products, in everything from aircraft wings to tennis rackets. Inhaling airborne nanoparticles and nanofibers may lead to a number of pulmonary diseases, e.g. fibrosis.[70] Researchers have found that when rats breathed in nanoparticles, the particles settled in the brain and lungs, which led to significant increases in biomarkers for inflammation and stress response[71] and that nanoparticles induce skin aging through oxidative stress in hairless mice.[72][73]

A two-year study at UCLA’s School of Public Health found lab mice consuming nano-titanium dioxide showed DNA and chromosome damage to a degree “linked to all the big killers of man, namely cancer, heart disease, neurological disease and aging”.[74]

A major study published more recently in Nature Nanotechnology suggests some forms of carbon nanotubes a poster child for the “nanotechnology revolution” could be as harmful as asbestos if inhaled in sufficient quantities. Anthony Seaton of the Institute of Occupational Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland, who contributed to the article on carbon nanotubes said “We know that some of them probably have the potential to cause mesothelioma. So those sorts of materials need to be handled very carefully.”[75] In the absence of specific regulation forthcoming from governments, Paull and Lyons (2008) have called for an exclusion of engineered nanoparticles in food.[76] A newspaper article reports that workers in a paint factory developed serious lung disease and nanoparticles were found in their lungs.[77][78][79][80]

Calls for tighter regulation of nanotechnology have occurred alongside a growing debate related to the human health and safety risks of nanotechnology.[81] There is significant debate about who is responsible for the regulation of nanotechnology. Some regulatory agencies currently cover some nanotechnology products and processes (to varying degrees) by “bolting on” nanotechnology to existing regulations there are clear gaps in these regimes.[82] Davies (2008) has proposed a regulatory road map describing steps to deal with these shortcomings.[83]

Stakeholders concerned by the lack of a regulatory framework to assess and control risks associated with the release of nanoparticles and nanotubes have drawn parallels with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow” disease), thalidomide, genetically modified food,[84] nuclear energy, reproductive technologies, biotechnology, and asbestosis. Dr. Andrew Maynard, chief science advisor to the Woodrow Wilson Center’s Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies, concludes that there is insufficient funding for human health and safety research, and as a result there is currently limited understanding of the human health and safety risks associated with nanotechnology.[85] As a result, some academics have called for stricter application of the precautionary principle, with delayed marketing approval, enhanced labelling and additional safety data development requirements in relation to certain forms of nanotechnology.[86][87]

The Royal Society report[10] identified a risk of nanoparticles or nanotubes being released during disposal, destruction and recycling, and recommended that “manufacturers of products that fall under extended producer responsibility regimes such as end-of-life regulations publish procedures outlining how these materials will be managed to minimize possible human and environmental exposure” (p. xiii).

The Center for Nanotechnology in Society has found that people respond to nanotechnologies differently, depending on application with participants in public deliberations more positive about nanotechnologies for energy than health applications suggesting that any public calls for nano regulations may differ by technology sector.[64]

See the article here:

Nanotechnology – Wikipedia

Duke combines immunotherapy, tumor-roasting nanotech to vaccinate mice against cancer – Durham Herald Sun


Durham Herald Sun
Duke combines immunotherapy, tumor-roasting nanotech to vaccinate mice against cancer
Durham Herald Sun
By combining an FDA-approved cancer immunotherapy with an emerging tumor-roasting nanotechnology, Duke University researchers improved the efficacy of both therapies in a proof-of-concept study using mice. The potent combination also attacked …

Excerpt from:

Duke combines immunotherapy, tumor-roasting nanotech to vaccinate mice against cancer – Durham Herald Sun

Placing the Money Flow Index Under Scrutiny For Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) – Union Trade Journal

The Money Flow Indicator for Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) has touched above 60 and has found a place on investors radar as it potentially nears the key 70 mark. The MFI indicator is an oscillator which ranges between fixed values of 0 and 100 and as with most oscillators divergences form a major part of trading with the MFI indicator. Traders look for divergence between the indicator and the price action. If the price trends higher and the MFI trends lower (or vice versa), a reversal may be imminent. Market tops tend to occur when the MFI is above 70 or 80. Market bottoms tend to occur when the MFI is below 20.

Investors should however be wary of trading these levels blindly. As the warning goes, an overbought market can remain overbought for an extended period. Strong trends can present a problem for these classic overbought and oversold levels. The MFI can become overbought, and prices can simply continue higher when the uptrend is strong. Conversely, the MFI can become oversold, and prices can simply continue lower when the downtrend persists. Like the RSI, this indicator is best used in conjunction with another indicator as confirmation.

Taking a deeper look into the technicals, Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) currently has a 50-day Moving Average of 1.30, the 200-day Moving Average is 1.31, and the 7-day is noted at 1.37. Following moving averages with different time frames may help offer a wide variety of stock information. A longer average like the 200-day may serve as a smoothing tool when striving to evaluate longer term trends. On the flip side, a shorter MA like the 50-day may help with identifying shorter term trading signals. Moving averages may also function well as a tool for determining support and resistance levels.

Traders may be relying in part on technical stock analysis. Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) currently has a 14-day Commodity Channel Index (CCI) of 37.88. Despite the name, CCI can be used on other investment tools such as stocks. The CCI was designed to typically stay within the reading of -100 to +100. Traders may use the indicator to determine stock trends or to identify overbought/oversold conditions. A CCI reading above +100 would imply that the stock is overbought and possibly ready for a correction. On the other hand, a reading of -100 would imply that the stock is oversold and possibly set for a rally.

At the time of writing, the 14-day ADX for Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) is 25.53. Many technical chart analysts believe that an ADX value over 25 would suggest a strong trend. A reading under 20 would indicate no trend, and a reading from 20-25 would suggest that there is no clear trend signal. The ADX is typically plotted along with two other directional movement indicator lines, the Plus Directional Indicator (+DI) and Minus Directional Indicator (-DI). Some analysts believe that the ADX is one of the best trend strength indicators available.

The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is one of multiple popular technical indicators created by J. Welles Wilder. Wilder introduced RSI in his book New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems which was published in 1978. RSI measures the magnitude and velocity of directional price movements. The data is represented graphically by fluctuating between a value of 0 and 100. The indicator is computed by using the average losses and gains of a stock over a certain time period. RSI can be used to help spot overbought or oversold conditions. An RSI reading over 70 would be considered overbought, and a reading under 30 would indicate oversold conditions. A level of 50 would indicate neutral market momentum. The 14-day RSI is currently sitting at 57.53, the 7-day is at 56.83, and the 3-day is spotted at 53.78.

By Journal Contributor

Original post:

Placing the Money Flow Index Under Scrutiny For Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) – Union Trade Journal

Africa-Canada scheme funds nanotech to purify water – SciDev.Net

[NAIROBI] A five-year project focusing on the use of nanotechnology to address environmental pollution in Africa has received support under a funding scheme between Canada and South Africa.

The research project, which aims to develop systems capable of reducing the cost of water purification methods, will be implemented through a collaboration between Rhodes University in South Africa, the University of Ottawa in Canada, and the United States International University-Africa (USIU-Africa) in Kenya.

Contaminated water and poor sanitation aid transmission of diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery and schistosomiasis, which contribute to mortality in children under five years.

According to the WHO, in 2015 nearly half the 663 million people globally who did not have clean water lived in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Edith Amuhaya, an assistant professor of organic chemistry at USIU-Africa, who is also one of the scientists leading implementation of the project, tells SciDev.Net that the initiative aims to look at an alternative and hopefully better method of water purification. The advantage that [nanotech] has is that it reduces likelihood of microbes developing antimicrobial resistance, she points out.

According to Amuhaya, the immediate beneficiaries will be university students set to receive training in applications of nanotechnology. For the Kenyan students, they will get a chance to travel to South Africa and Canada to carry out part of their research work, she says.

Amuhaya adds that the project could help students get much-needed hands-on training that is not readily available locally. Outputs such as publications and patents could also increase Africas contributions to the field of nanotechnology.

But Ngila cautions on affordability. Nanotechnology is expensive, she says, and to succeed, it will require researchers working together with policymakers to fund and create regulations that guide its use on the continent.

She also calls for the establishment of equipped laboratories necessary for characterising nanoparticles, as Africa currently largely lacks the capacity. This piece was produced by SciDev.Nets Sub-Saharan Africa English desk.

The rest is here:

Africa-Canada scheme funds nanotech to purify water – SciDev.Net

Stock Overview: Technical Check on NanoTech Gaming Inc (NTGL) – Danville Daily

The RSI, or Relative Strength Index is a popular oscillating indicator among traders and investors. The RSI operates in a range-bound area with values between 0 and 100. When the RSI line moves up, the stock may be experiencing strength. The opposite is the case when the RSI line is heading lower. Different time periods may be used when using the RSI indicator. The RSI may be more volatile using a shorter period of time. Many traders keep an eye on the 30 and 70 marks on the RSI scale. A move above 70 is widely considered to show the stock as overbought, and a move below 30 would indicate that the stock may be oversold. NanoTech Gaming Inc (NTGL) has a 14-day RSI of 45.70, the 7-day is at 43.28, and the 3-day is resting at 45.32.

NanoTech Gaming Inc (NTGL) currently has a 14-day Commodity Channel Index (CCI) of -45.02. Active investors may choose to use this technical indicator as a stock evaluation tool. Used as a coincident indicator, the CCI reading above +100 would reflect strong price action which may signal an uptrend. On the flip side, a reading below -100 may signal a downtrend reflecting weak price action. Using the CCI as a leading indicator, technical analysts may use a +100 reading as an overbought signal and a -100 reading as an oversold indicator, suggesting a trend reversal.

Shares of NanoTech Gaming Inc (NTGL) have a 200-day moving average of 0.01. The 50-day is 0.01, and the 7-day is sitting at 0.00. Using a bigger time frame to assess the moving average such as the 200-day, may help block out the noise and chaos that is often caused by daily price fluctuations. In some cases, MAs may be used as strong reference points for spotting support and resistance levels.

The Average Directional Index or ADX is technical analysis indicator used to describe if a market is trending or not trending. The ADX alone measures trend strength but not direction. Using the ADX with the Plus Directional Indicator (+DI) and Minus Directional Indicator (-DI) may help determine the direction of the trend as well as the overall momentum. Many traders will use the ADX alongside other indicators in order to help spot proper trading entry/exit points. Currently, the 14-day ADX for NanoTech Gaming Inc (NTGL) is 31.46. Generally speaking, an ADX value from 0-25 would indicate an absent or weak trend. A value of 25-50 would indicate a strong trend. A value of 50-75 would signal a very strong trend, and a value of 75-100 would indicate an extremely strong trend. The Williams Percent Range or Williams %R is another technical indicator that may be useful for traders and investors.

The Williams %R is designed to provide a general sense of when the equity might have reached an extreme and be primed for a reversal. As a general observance, the more overbought or oversold the reading displays, the more likely a reversal may take place. The 14 day Williams %R for NanoTech Gaming Inc (NTGL) is noted at -62.22. Many consider the equity oversold if the reading is below -80 and overbought if the indicator is between 0 and -20.

Investors may be trying to find stocks that are building momentum. Finding these stocks may help bolster the portfolio going into the second half of the year. Investors often look to pounce on any opportunity in the stock market. Without properly being prepared, these opportunities may disappear quickly. Staying on top of fundamentals, technicals, and earnings, may help investors stay prepared.

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Stock Overview: Technical Check on NanoTech Gaming Inc (NTGL) – Danville Daily

Immunotherapy, Nanotech Combine to Kill Cancer Cells More … – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Scientists at Duke University say they have combined a cancer immunotherapeutic with nanotechnology to improve the efficacy of both therapies in a mouse study. They published their work, “Synergistic Immuno Photothermal Nanotherapy (SYMPHONY) for the Treatment of Unresectable and Metastatic Cancers,” in Scientific Reports.

The new approach also attacked satellite tumors and distant cancerous cells, leading to two mice being cured of the disease and one being vaccinated against it.

Using a combination of immune-checkpoint inhibition and plasmonic gold nanostar (GNS)-mediated photothermal therapy, we were able to achieve complete eradication of primary treated tumors and distant untreated tumors in some mice implanted with the MB49 bladder cancer cells, wrote the investigators. Delayed rechallenge with MB49 cancer cells injection in mice that appeared cured by SYMPHONY did not lead to new tumor formation after 60 days observation, indicating that SYMPHONY treatment induced effective long-lasting immunity against MB49 cancer cells.

“The ideal cancer treatment is noninvasive, safe, and uses multiple approaches,” said Tuan Vo-Dinh, Ph.D., the R. Eugene and Susie E. Goodson Professor of Biomedical Engineering, professor of chemistry, and director of the Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics at Duke University. “We also aim at activating the patient’s own immune system to eradicate residual metastatic tumors. If we can create a long-term anticancer immunity, then we’d truly have a cure.”

The specific photothermal immunotherapy was developed by Duke researchers and uses lasers and gold nanostars to heat and kill tumors in combination with an immunotherapeutic drug. The technique works based on the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate preferentially within a tumor due to its leaky vasculature, according to the scientists, who add that gold nanostars have the advantage of geometry. With many sharp spikes, they can capture the laser’s energy more efficiently, thus permitting them to work with less exposure, making them more effective deeper within a tissue.

“The nanostar spikes work like lightning rods, concentrating the electromagnetic energy at their tips,” said Dr. Vo-Dinh. “We’ve experimented with these gold nanostars to treat tumors before, but we wanted to know if we could also treat tumors we didn’t even know were there or tumors that have spread throughout the body.”

Dr. Vo-Dinh explained that the body’s immune system protects against the growth of cancerous cells. Many tumors, however, overproduce the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) molecule, which disables T cells so they cannot attack the tumor. A number of drugs are being developed to block the action of PD-L1.

In the study, the Duke team injected bladder cancer cells into both hind legs of a group of mice. After waiting for the tumors to grow, the researchers explored a number of therapies, but only on one of the legs.

Those that received no treatments all quickly succumbed to the cancer, as did those receiving only the gold nanostar phototherapy, because the treatment did nothing to affect the tumor in the untreated leg. While a few mice responded well to the immunotherapy alone, with the drug stalling both tumors, none survived more than 49 days.

The group treated with both the anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy and the gold nanostar phototherapy fared much better, with two of the five mice surviving more than 55 days.

“When a tumor dies, it releases particles that trigger the immune system to attack the remnants,” said Dr. Vo-Dinh. “By destroying the primary tumor, we activated the immune system against the remaining cancerous cells, and the immunotherapy prevented them from hiding.”

According to Dr. Vo-Dinh, one mouse is still alive almost a year out with zero recurrence of the cancer. When more cancerous cells were injected, the mouse’s immune system attacked and destroyed them, demonstrating a vaccine effect in the cured mouse.

The Duke team has plans to follow up with larger cohorts of mice and to work with other clinical researchers to test the treatment on mouse models of brain, breast, and lung cancers.

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Immunotherapy, Nanotech Combine to Kill Cancer Cells More … – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Nanotechnology | Future of Everything With Jason Silva (Part 5) – Singularity Hub

In the latest installment ofSingularity Universitys newweb series, Future of Everything With Jason Silva, Silva discusses how nanotechnology will transform the world in ways we can hardly fathom.

Nanotech allows us to pattern atoms, allowing us to manipulate the building blocks of the physical world. We can move beyond scarcity because everything is made of atoms, moving us into a future of abundance.

It essentially makes the physical world a programmable medium.

Image Credit: Singularity University via YouTube

The rest is here:

Nanotechnology | Future of Everything With Jason Silva (Part 5) – Singularity Hub

Industrial Nanotech Inc (INTK) Shares Climb Higher For the Week – Union Trade Journal

Shares of Industrial Nanotech Inc (INTK) have been trending up over the past five bars, revealing solid bullish momentum for the shares, as they ran 7.69% for the week. Looking further out we note that the shares have moved -15.15% over the past 4-weeks, 12.00% over the past half year and -58.82% over the past full year.

Industrial Nanotech Inc (INTK) currently has a 14 day Williams %R of -18.18. In general, if the level goes above -20, the stock may be considered to be overbought. Alternately, if the indicator goes under -80, this may signal that the stock is oversold. The Williams Percent Range or Williams %R is a technical indicator that was developed to measure overbought and oversold market conditions. The Williams %R indicator helps show the relative situation of the current price close to the period being observed.

We can also take a look at the Average Directional Index or ADX of Industrial Nanotech Inc (INTK). The ADX is used to measure trend strength. ADX calculations are made based on the moving average price range expansion over a specified amount of time. ADX is charted as a line with values ranging from 0 to 100. The indicator is non-directional meaning that it gauges trend strength whether the stock price is trending higher or lower. The 14-day ADX presently sits at 23.04. In general, and ADX value from 0-25 would represent an absent or weak trend. A value of 25-50 would indicate a strong trend. A value of 50-75 would indicate a very strong trend, and a value of 75-100 would signify an extremely strong trend. At the time of writing, Industrial Nanotech Inc (INTK) has a 14-day Commodity Channel Index (CCI) of 160.61. Developed by Donald Lambert, the CCI is a versatile tool that may be used to help spot an emerging trend or provide warning of extreme conditions. CCI generally measures the current price relative to the average price level over a specific time period. CCI is relatively high when prices are much higher than average, and relatively low when prices are much lower than the average.

A commonly used tool among technical stock analysts is the moving average. Moving averages are considered to be lagging indicators that simply take the average price of a stock over a certain period of time. Moving averages can be very helpful for identifying peaks and troughs. They may also be used to assist the trader figure out proper support and resistance levels for the stock. Currently, the 200-day MA for Industrial Nanotech Inc (INTK) is sitting at 0.00. The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is a momentum oscillator that measures the speed and change of stock price movements. The RSI was developed by J. Welles Wilder, and it oscillates between 0 and 100. Generally, the RSI is considered to be oversold when it falls below 30 and overbought when it heads above 70. RSI can be used to detect general trends as well as finding divergences and failure swings. The 14-day RSI is presently standing at 50.64, the 7-day is 56.67, and the 3-day is resting at 71.33.

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Industrial Nanotech Inc (INTK) Shares Climb Higher For the Week – Union Trade Journal

Immunotherapy, Nanotech Combine to Kill Cancer Cells More … – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Scientists at Duke University say they have combined a cancer immunotherapeutic with nanotechnology to improve the efficacy of both therapies in a mouse study. They published their work, “Synergistic Immuno Photothermal Nanotherapy (SYMPHONY) for the Treatment of Unresectable and Metastatic Cancers,” in Scientific Reports.

The new approach also attacked satellite tumors and distant cancerous cells, leading to two mice being cured of the disease and one being vaccinated against it.

Using a combination of immune-checkpoint inhibition and plasmonic gold nanostar (GNS)-mediated photothermal therapy, we were able to achieve complete eradication of primary treated tumors and distant untreated tumors in some mice implanted with the MB49 bladder cancer cells, wrote the investigators. Delayed rechallenge with MB49 cancer cells injection in mice that appeared cured by SYMPHONY did not lead to new tumor formation after 60 days observation, indicating that SYMPHONY treatment induced effective long-lasting immunity against MB49 cancer cells.

“The ideal cancer treatment is noninvasive, safe, and uses multiple approaches,” said Tuan Vo-Dinh, Ph.D., the R. Eugene and Susie E. Goodson Professor of Biomedical Engineering, professor of chemistry, and director of the Fitzpatrick Institute for Photonics at Duke University. “We also aim at activating the patient’s own immune system to eradicate residual metastatic tumors. If we can create a long-term anticancer immunity, then we’d truly have a cure.”

The specific photothermal immunotherapy was developed by Duke researchers and uses lasers and gold nanostars to heat and kill tumors in combination with an immunotherapeutic drug. The technique works based on the ability of nanoparticles to accumulate preferentially within a tumor due to its leaky vasculature, according to the scientists, who add that gold nanostars have the advantage of geometry. With many sharp spikes, they can capture the laser’s energy more efficiently, thus permitting them to work with less exposure, making them more effective deeper within a tissue.

“The nanostar spikes work like lightning rods, concentrating the electromagnetic energy at their tips,” said Dr. Vo-Dinh. “We’ve experimented with these gold nanostars to treat tumors before, but we wanted to know if we could also treat tumors we didn’t even know were there or tumors that have spread throughout the body.”

Dr. Vo-Dinh explained that the body’s immune system protects against the growth of cancerous cells. Many tumors, however, overproduce the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) molecule, which disables T cells so they cannot attack the tumor. A number of drugs are being developed to block the action of PD-L1.

In the study, the Duke team injected bladder cancer cells into both hind legs of a group of mice. After waiting for the tumors to grow, the researchers explored a number of therapies, but only on one of the legs.

Those that received no treatments all quickly succumbed to the cancer, as did those receiving only the gold nanostar phototherapy, because the treatment did nothing to affect the tumor in the untreated leg. While a few mice responded well to the immunotherapy alone, with the drug stalling both tumors, none survived more than 49 days.

The group treated with both the anti-PD-L1 immunotherapy and the gold nanostar phototherapy fared much better, with two of the five mice surviving more than 55 days.

“When a tumor dies, it releases particles that trigger the immune system to attack the remnants,” said Dr. Vo-Dinh. “By destroying the primary tumor, we activated the immune system against the remaining cancerous cells, and the immunotherapy prevented them from hiding.”

According to Dr. Vo-Dinh, one mouse is still alive almost a year out with zero recurrence of the cancer. When more cancerous cells were injected, the mouse’s immune system attacked and destroyed them, demonstrating a vaccine effect in the cured mouse.

The Duke team has plans to follow up with larger cohorts of mice and to work with other clinical researchers to test the treatment on mouse models of brain, breast, and lung cancers.

Continue reading here:

Immunotherapy, Nanotech Combine to Kill Cancer Cells More … – Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

Share Performance Update on Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) – Morgan Research

Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) has ended the week in the red, yielding negativeresults for the shares at they ticked -0.72%.In taking a look at recent performance, we can see that shares have moved 8.66% over the past 4-weeks, 16.95% over the past half year and 26.61% over the past full year.

Traders are keeping a keen eye on shares of Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V). The Average Directional Index or ADX may prove to be an important tool for trading and investing. The ADX is a technical indicator developed by J. Welles Wilder used to determine the strength of a trend. The ADX is often used along with the Plus Directional Indicator (+DI) and Minus Directional Indicator (-DI) to identify the direction of the trend. Presently, the 14-day ADX is resting at 25.53. Generally speaking, an ADX value from 0-25 would indicate an absent or weak trend. A value of 25-50 would indicate a strong trend. A value of 50-75 would signal a very strong trend, and a value of 75-100 would indicate an extremely strong trend.

Some investors may find the Williams Percent Range or Williams %R as a helpful technical indicator. Presently, Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V)s Williams Percent Range or 14 day Williams %R is resting at -42.11. Values can range from 0 to -100. A reading between -80 to -100 may be typically viewed as strong oversold territory. A value between 0 to -20 would represent a strong overbought condition. As a momentum indicator, the Williams R% may be used with other technicals to help define a specific trend.

When performing stock analysis, investors and traders may opt to view technical levels. Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) presently has a 14-day Commodity Channel Index (CCI) of 37.88. Investors and traders may use this indicator to help spot price reversals, price extremes, and the strength of a trend. Many investors will use the CCI in conjunction with other indicators when evaluating a trade. The CCI may be used to spot if a stock is entering overbought (+100) and oversold (-100) territory.

Checking in on moving averages, the 200-day is at 1.31, the 50-day is 1.30, and the 7-day is sitting at 1.37. Moving averages may be used by investors and traders to shed some light on trading patterns for a specific stock. Moving averages can be used to help smooth information in order to provide a clearer picture of what is going on with the stock. Technical stock analysts may use a combination of different time periods in order to figure out the history of the equity and where it may be headed in the future. MAs can be calculated for any time period, but two very popular time frames are the 50-day and 200-day moving averages.

Shifting gears to the Relative Strength Index, the 14-day RSI is currently sitting at 57.53, the 7-day is 56.83, and the 3-day is currently at 53.78 for Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V). The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is a highly popular momentum indicator used for technical analysis. The RSI can help display whether the bulls or the bears are currently strongest in the market. The RSI may be used to help spot points of reversals more accurately. The RSI was developed by J. Welles Wilder. As a general rule, an RSI reading over 70 would signal overbought conditions. A reading under 30 would indicate oversold conditions. As always, the values may need to be adjusted based on the specific stock and market. RSI can also be a valuable tool for trying to spot larger market turns.

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Share Performance Update on Nanotech Security Corp (NTS.V) – Morgan Research

Global Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market to Grow … – Markets Insider

DUBLIN, August 17, 2017 /PRNewswire/ —

The “Global Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market 2017-2021” report has been added to Research and Markets’ offering.

The global nanotech-enabled aircraft power solutions market to grow at a CAGR of 8.89% during the period 2017-2021.

The report, Global Nanotech-Enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market 2017-2021, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape and its growth prospects over the coming years. The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market.

The latest trend gaining momentum in the market is the emergence of zero-fuel aircraft. Zero-fuel aircraft use photovoltaic panels that absorb energy from the sun and convert them into energy to thrust the engines. Of late, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial and civil sectors for using such aircraft in applications, including agriculture, aerial photography, 3D mapping, wildlife protection, and provision of internet access in remote places. With the growing need for reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, government agencies, in collaboration with private entities, are significantly developing new approaches, such as the use of solar technologies and maximizing the absorption of solar power.

According to the report, one of the major drivers for this market is demand for lightweight and fuel-efficient aircraft. To address the challenges arising from global warming and climatic changes, aerospace stakeholders are actively promoting carbon-reducing measures and energy savings. These initiatives are expected to bring down greenhouse gas emissions that have adverse environmental impacts. Since the late 90s, a number of initiatives have been directed toward substantially reducing the fuel consumptions during flight, landing, and taxiing of aircraft.

Further, the report states that one of the major factors hindering the growth of this market is constrained durability and instability of nanoparticles. The robustness of fuel cell systems is lower compared with the internal combustion engines, particularly in the specific temperature and humidity ranges in which an aircraft driven by a fuel cell would operate. The durability of a commonplace fuel cell stack is half the optimum durability required for its use in commercial aviation.

Key vendors

Other prominent vendors

Key Topics Covered:

Part 01: Executive Summary

Part 02: Scope Of The Report

Part 03: Research Methodology

Part 04: Introduction

Part 05: Market Landscape

Part 06: Market Segmentation By Application

Part 07: Geographical Segmentation

Part 08: Decision Framework

Part 09: Drivers And Challenges

Part 10: Market Trends

Part 11: Vendor Landscape

Part 12: Appendix

For more information about this report visit https://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/n63cgn/global

Media Contact:

Laura Wood, Senior Manager rel=”nofollow”>press@researchandmarkets.com

For E.S.T Office Hours Call +1-917-300-0470 For U.S./CAN Toll Free Call +1-800-526-8630 For GMT Office Hours Call +353-1-416-8900

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Global Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market to Grow … – Markets Insider

Positive Ichimoku Levels For Nanotech Security Corp (NTSFF) Indicate Upward Momentum – Concord Register

Nanotech Security Corp (NTSFF) shares opened the last session at $1.1000, touching a high of $1.1100 and a low of $1.0900 , yielding a change of-0.01. The latest reading places the stock above the Ichimoku cloud which indicates positive momentum and a potential buy signal.The Ichimoku Cloud was originally called the Ichimoku Kinko Hyo. Where Ichimoku means one glance,Kinko balance and Hyo chart. Thus the full translation could best be described as one glance balanced chart. Originally developed by Goichi Hosada pre WWII, a newspaper journalist (published in 1969) who wanted to develop an Uber-indicator that could provide the trader with various levels of support/resistance, entry/exit points, direction of the trend, and strength of the signal.

The most basic theory of this indicator is that if the price is above the cloud, the overall trend is bullish while below the cloud is bearish, and in the cloud is non-biased or unclear. Lastly, when the price is above the cloud, then the top of the cloud will act as a general support level, and when price is below, the cloud base will act as resistance. But remember the cloud has thickness, and thus resistance does as well, which by making these thicker reduces the risk of a false breakout.

Many investors enter the stock market without a plan in place. Investment goals may be a highly important part of coming out on top. Investors may need to set realistic and measureable goals in order to build a baseline for success. Defining investment goals clearly can help keep individual investors from making common mistakes and losing their shirts. Creating a plan for entering the equity market may start by setting up goals and outlining the objectives of the individual. These goals can differ depending on the person and situation. Many investors will opt to follow strategies put in place by others. This may work fine for some, but not as well for others. Keeping a close eye on particular stocks in the portfolio may help the investor when the time comes to adjust the holdings. Being able to adapt to rapidly changing market environments may turn out to be immensely important when the winds of uncertainty blow in.

Another popular tool among technical stock analysts is the moving average. Moving averages are considered to be lagging indicators that simply take the average price of a stock over a specific period of time. Moving averages can be very useful for identifying peaks and troughs. They may also be used to help the trader figure out proper support and resistance levels for the stock. Currently, the 200-day MA is sitting at 0.95, and the 50-day is 1.00.

The 14-day ADX for Nanotech Security Corp (NTSFF) is currently at 30.59. In general, and ADX value from 0-25 would represent an absent or weak trend. A value of 25-50 would support a strong trend. A value of 50-75 would signify a very strong trend, and a value of 75-100 would point to an extremely strong trend. Checking in on some other technical levels, the 14-day RSI is currently at 57.19, the 7-day stands at 55.77, and the 3-day is sitting at 57.70. The Relative Strength Index (RSI) is a momentum oscillator that measures the speed and change of stock price movements. The RSI was developed by J. Welles Wilder, and it oscillates between 0 and 100. Generally, the RSI is considered to be oversold when it falls below 30 and overbought when it heads above 70. RSI can be used to detect general trends as well as finding divergences and failure swings.

At the time of writing, Nanotech Security Corp (NTSFF) has a 14-day Commodity Channel Index (CCI) of 12.48. Developed by Donald Lambert, the CCI is a versatile tool that may be used to help spot an emerging trend or provide warning of extreme conditions. CCI generally measures the current price relative to the average price level over a specific time period. CCI is relatively high when prices are much higher than average, and relatively low when prices are much lower than the average. Investors may be watching other technical indicators such as the Williams Percent Range or Williams %R. The Williams %R is a momentum indicator that helps measure oversold and overbought levels. This indicator compares the closing price of a stock in relation to the highs and lows over a certain time period. A common look back period is 14 days. Nanotech Security Corp (NTSFF)s Williams %R presently stands at -55.56. The Williams %R oscillates in a range from 0 to -100. A reading between 0 and -20 would indicate an overbought situation. A reading from -80 to -100 would indicate an oversold situation.

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Positive Ichimoku Levels For Nanotech Security Corp (NTSFF) Indicate Upward Momentum – Concord Register

Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market – Trends and … – Business Wire (press release)

LONDON–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Technavios latest report on the global nanotech-enabled aircraft power solutions market provides an analysis of the most important trends expected to impact the market outlook from 2017-2021. Technavio defines an emerging trend as a factor that has the potential to significantly impact the market and contribute to its growth or decline.

The growing demand for lightweight aircraft, aircraft performance optimization, and reduction in operating costs have led to increased dispatch of reliable aircraft and rapid technological advances in engine parts and batteries. Over the last two decades, nanotechnology components have emerged as a practical alternative to conventionally manufactured parts.

Avimanyu Basu, a lead analyst from Technavio, specializing in research on aerospace components sector, says, Growing efforts to improve the sustainability of the existing combat aircraft designs, along with the growing procurements of advanced next-generation combat aircraft, has propelled the market. These projects have influenced original equipment manufacturers and component manufacturing stakeholders to invest significantly in the development of facilities that can support the nanotechnology-based manufacturing process.

This report is available at a USD 1,000 discount for a limited time only: View market snapshot before purchasing

Buy 1 Technavio report and get the second for 50% off. Buy 2 Technavio reports and get the third for free.

The top three emerging trends driving the global nanotech-enabled aircraft power solutions market according to Technavio research analysts are:

Looking for more information on this market? Request a free sample report

Technavios sample reports are free of charge and contain multiple sections of the report including the market size and forecast, drivers, challenges, trends, and more.

Emergence of zero-fuel aircraft

Zero-fuel aircraft use photovoltaic panels that absorb energy from the sun and convert them into energy to thrust the engines. Of late, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial and civil sectors for using such aircraft in applications, including agriculture, aerial photography, 3D mapping, wildlife protection, and provision of internet access in remote places.

The Solar Impulse 2 completed its first trip of 16 hours in May 2016. The primary objective of the project is to generate awareness and raise support from the governments to promote renewable technologies that can help in diminishing harmful effects of using fossils fuels, according to Avimanyu.

Adoption of ULM batteries

A team of researchers from the University of Michigan developed a new battery technology that features an innovative barrier between the electrodes in a Li-ion battery. This barrier has been fabricated out of nanofibers extracted from Kevlar. This barrier has been found to prevent the growth of metal tendrils, which bridges the gap between two electrodes resulting in short circuits.

Apart from the nanotechnology-enabled membrane, the safety feature can be further enhanced with the aid of Kevlars heat resistance property. With this, the membrane can withstand higher temperatures and project a better chance of surviving a fire.

Evolution of MEA

The growing demand for MEA is having a positive impact on the changing overall military airborne platform market. The changing industry dynamics toward fuel-efficient aircraft is one of the major factors driving the need for MEA. The first phase of this trend is expected to extend till 2023 and will focus on leveraging the current technologies and their enhancements in both engines and systems in aircraft.

This will be followed by the second phase that will continue till 2030 and will be directed toward the implementation of disruptive technologies in engines and systems. Though a significant number of MEA programs are expected to take place during this period, there will be a considerable amount of reservations and restrictions, which will necessitate carefully tailored strategies.

The key vendors are as follows:

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About Technavio

Technavio is a leading global technology research and advisory company. Their research and analysis focuses on emerging market trends and provides actionable insights to help businesses identify market opportunities and develop effective strategies to optimize their market positions.

With over 500 specialized analysts, Technavios report library consists of more than 10,000 reports and counting, covering 800 technologies, spanning across 50 countries. Their client base consists of enterprises of all sizes, including more than 100 Fortune 500 companies. This growing client base relies on Technavios comprehensive coverage, extensive research, and actionable market insights to identify opportunities in existing and potential markets and assess their competitive positions within changing market scenarios.

If you are interested in more information, please contact our media team at media@technavio.com.

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Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market – Trends and … – Business Wire (press release)

Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market to grow at a … – E News Access (press release)

Global Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market Research Report 2017 to 2021 provides a unique tool for evaluating the market, highlighting opportunities, and supporting strategic and tactical decision-making. This report recognizes that in this rapidly-evolving and competitive environment, up-to-date marketing information is essential to monitor performance and make critical decisions for growth and profitability. It provides information on trends and developments, and focuses on markets and materials, capacities and technologies, and on the changing structure of the Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market.

Companies Mentioned are Airbus, NASA, Sila Nanotechnologies, and Cella Energy.

The global Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions market consists of different international, regional, and local vendors. The market competition is foreseen to grow higher with the rise in technological innovation and M&A activities in the future. Moreover, many local and regional vendors are offering specific application products for varied end-users. The new vendor entrants in the market are finding it hard to compete with the international vendors based on quality, reliability, and innovations in technology.

Major points covered in Global Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market 2017 Research are:-

This independent 64 page report guarantees you will remain better informed than your competition. With over 160 tables and figures examining the Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions market, the report gives you a visual, one-stop breakdown of the leading products, submarkets and market leaders market revenue forecasts as well as analysis to 2021.

Inquire for Sample copy at: https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/08112295/global-nanotech-enabled-aircraft-power-solutions-market-2017-to-2021/inquiry

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), and market share and growth rate of Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions in these regions, from 2012 to 2021 (forecast), covering Americas, APAC and EMEA.

The report provides a basic overview of the Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. And development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures.

Then, the report focuses on global major leading industry players with information such as company profiles, product picture and specifications, sales, market share and contact information. Whats more, the Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed.

MIR Announces the Publication of its Research Report Global Nanotech-Enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market 2017-2021

MIR recognizes the following companies as the key players in the global nanotech-enabled aircraft power solutions market: Airbus, NASA, Sila Nanotechnologies, and Cella Energy.

Commenting on the report, an analyst from MIRs team said: The latest trend gaining momentum in the market is Emergence of zero-fuel aircraft. Zero-fuel aircraft use photovoltaic panels that absorb energy from the sun and convert them into energy to thrust the engines. Of late, there has been an increasing interest in the commercial and civil sectors for using such aircraft in applications, including agriculture, aerial photography, 3D mapping, wildlife protection, and provision of internet access in remote places. With the growing need for reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, government agencies, in collaboration with private entities, are significantly developing new approaches, such as the use of solar technologies and maximizing the absorption of solar power.

According to the report, one of the major drivers for this market is Demand for lightweight and fuel-efficient aircraft. To address the challenges arising from global warming and climatic changes, aerospace stakeholders are actively promoting carbon-reducing measures and energy savings. These initiatives are expected to bring down greenhouse gas emissions that have adverse environmental impacts. Since the late 90s, a number of initiatives have been directed toward substantially reducing the fuel consumptions during flight, landing, and taxiing of aircraft.

Further, the report states that one of the major factors hindering the growth of this market is Constrained durability and instability of nanoparticles. The robustness of fuel cell systems is lower compared with the internal combustion engines, particularly in the specific temperature and humidity ranges in which an aircraft driven by a fuel cell would operate. The durability of a commonplace fuel cell stack is half the optimum durability required for its use in commercial aviation.

The study was conducted using an objective combination of primary and secondary information including inputs from key participants in the industry. The report contains a comprehensive market and vendor landscape in addition to a SWOT analysis of the key vendors.

The research includes historic data from 2012 to 2016 and forecasts until 2021 which makes the reports an invaluable resource for industry executives, marketing, sales and product managers, consultants, analysts, and other people looking for key industry data in readily accessible documents with clearly presented tables and graphs. The report will make detailed analysis mainly on above questions and in-depth research on the development environment, market size, development trend, operation situation and future development trend of Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions on the basis of stating current situation of the industry in 2017 so as to make comprehensive organization and judgment on the competition situation and development trend of Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market and assist manufacturers and investment organization to better grasp the development course of Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market.

Browse full Report at: https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/08112295/global-nanotech-enabled-aircraft-power-solutions-market-2017-to-2021

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Nanotech-enabled Aircraft Power Solutions Market to grow at a … – E News Access (press release)

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On August 20th, the 2013 class of NanoExplorers will presenting their research that they conducted along the researchers of the NanoTech Institute. See this flyer for more information. See the schedule here.

An article covering Ali Aliev’s and his collegues work on carbon nanotube thermoacustic transducers has been put online. You can read the whole article here.

The faculty, staff, and students of the Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute at The University of Texas at Dallas welcome the 2013 class of NanoExplorers. We had over 200 highly qualified applicants this year. (see more)

The talk is devoted to recent achievements made by our Russian (NUST MISiS, Moscow) and French (G2Elab, Grenoble) groups in application of original shape memory composites for both microactuation and thermal energy harvesting. Novel prestrained scheme of shape memory composite allows creating actuators able to giant reversible bending deformation. (see more)

The faculty, staff, and students of the Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute at The University of Texas at Dallas welcome the 2012 class of NanoExplorers. We had over 200 highly qualified applicants this year. (see more)

Read about former NanoExplorer Amy Chyao and her work at UT Dallas

Experience the collaboration of the NanoTech Institute with the University of Guanajuato (Guanajuato, Mexico) through the eyes of Raquel Ovalle Robles.

Discover the NanoTech Institute’s work through its library of publications.

Use the NanoTech Institute’s facilities to conduct cutting-edge research.

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NanoTech Institute – The University of Texas at Dallas


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